WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 16 emission decay

  1. Sensitive search for the emission of a neutral particle in the decay of the first excited state in /sup 16/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, M.; Fazzini, T.; Giannatiempo, A.; Poggi, G.; Sona, P.; Taccetti, N.; Elsener, K.; Hansen, P.G.; Uggerhoej, E.

    1989-04-20

    A search by invariant-mass spectroscopy has been performed for a possible branch in the decay of the first excited state of /sup 16/O via the emission of a neutral particle decaying into e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs. Upper limits of 0.02-0.1% (90% confidence level) for this branching have been derived for a particle mass in the 1.5-3.1 MeV range.

  2. First Observation of Ground State Dineutron Decay: Be16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, A.; Kohley, Z.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Christian, G.; Deyoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Lunderberg, E.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.; Schiller, A.; Smith, J. K.; Snyder, J.; Strongman, M. J.; Thoennessen, M.; Volya, A.

    2012-03-01

    We report on the first observation of dineutron emission in the decay of Be16. A single-proton knockout reaction from a 53MeV/u B17 beam was used to populate the ground state of Be16. Be16 is bound with respect to the emission of one neutron and unbound to two-neutron emission. The dineutron character of the decay is evidenced by a small emission angle between the two neutrons. The two-neutron separation energy of Be16 was measured to be 1.35(10) MeV, in good agreement with shell model calculations, using standard interactions for this mass region.

  3. Two neutron decay of 16Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, A E; Thompson, I J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the first example of two-neutron decay from the ground state of an unbound nucleus, $^{16}$Be, was seen. Three-body methods are ideal for exactly treating the degrees of freedom important for these decays. Using a basis expansion over hyperspherical harmonics and the hyperspherical R-matrix method, we construct a realistic model of $^{16}$Be in order to investigate its decay mode and the role of the two-neutron interaction. The neutron-$^{14}$Be interaction is constrained using shell model predictions. We obtain a ground state for $^{16}$Be that is over-bound by approximately 1 MeV with a width of approximately 0.23 MeV. This suggests, that for such systems, the three-body force needs to be repulsive.

  4. Two neutron decay of 16Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovell A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the first example of two-neutron decay from the ground state of an unbound nucleus, 16Be, was seen (A. Spyrou, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 102501 (2012. Three-body methods are ideal for exactly treating the degrees of freedom important for these decays. Using a basis expansion over hyperspherical harmonics and the hyperspherical R-matrix method, we construct a realistic model of 16Be in order to investigate its decay mode and the role of the two-neutron interaction. The neutron-14Be interaction is constrained using shell model predictions. We obtain a ground state for 16Be that is under-bound by approximately 0.7 MeV with a width of approximately 0.17 MeV. For such a system, an attractive three-body force must be included to reproduce the experimental ground state energy.

  5. Carbon emissions Inventory Games

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Emadi, Eiman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions reduction has been the center of attention in many organizations during the past few decades. Many international entities developed rules and regulations to monitor and control carbon emissions especially under supply chain context. Furthermore, researchers investigated techniques and methods on how reduce carbon emissions under operational adjustment which can be done by cooperation or coordination. The main contribution of this thesis is to measure to what extend cooperatio...

  6. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  7. To decay or not to decay - or both ! quantum mechanics of spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Lodahl, Peter; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We discuss calculations of spontaneous emission from quantum dots in photonic crystals and show how the decay depends on the intrinsic properties of the emitter as well as the position. A number of fundamentally different types of spontaneous decay dynamics are shown to be possible, including...... counter intuitive situations in which the quantum dot decays only partially....

  8. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  9. Radioactive decay by the emission of heavy nuclear fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Roberto, L.A.M.; Medeiros, E.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: oaptavares@cbpf.br; emil@cbpf.br

    2007-07-01

    Radioactive decay of nuclei by the emission of heavy ions of C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and P isotopes (known as exotic decay or cluster radioactivity) is reinvestigated within the framework of a semiempirical, one-parameter model based on a quantum mechanical, tunnelling mechanism through a potential barrier, where both centrifugal and overlapping effects are considered to half-life evaluations. This treatment appeared to be very adequate at fitting all measured half-life values for the cluster emission cases observed to date. Predictions for new heavy-ion decay cases susceptible of being detected are also reported. (author)

  10. Decay of the 16.3 min Decay of the 16.3 min {sup 182}Ta Isomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejeberg, M. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1967-01-15

    Some transitions in the decay of the 16.3 min {sup 182}Ta isomer have been studied with a Ge(Li) detector and a double lens electron coincidence spectrometer. Gamma ray and conversion electron intensities were measured. From a delayed coincidence experiment it was concluded that both of the two lowest excited states in {sup 182}Ta had a half life less than 30 psec.

  11. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  12. Search for heavy-ion emission in 249Cf decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; Le Du, J. F.; Trubert, D.; Bonetti, R.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gupta, R. K.

    1999-09-01

    Using phosphate glass detectors PKS-50, we have searched for possible emission of heavy clusters in the decay of 249Cf with the aim of confirming the result obtained from a recent γ ray spectrometry experiment. After a 20-day exposure to a 7.4 MBq activity 249Cf source of 37.5 cm2 PKS-50 glasses covered with polymide foils to stop fission fragments, no ions with 17=7.4×1021 s. According to calculations performed on the basis of the preformed cluster model there seems to be very little chance that such an exotic decay might be detected, at least in the next few years.

  13. Three-body model for the two-neutron decay of $^{16}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, A E; Thompson, I J

    2016-01-01

    While diproton decay was first theorized in 1960 and first measured in 2002, it was first observed only in 2012. The measurement of $^{14}$Be in coincidence with two neutrons suggests that $^{16}$Be does decay through the simultaneous emission of two strongly correlated neutrons. In this work, we construct a full three-body model of $^{16}$Be (as $^{14}$Be + n + n) in order to investigate its configuration in the continuum and in particular the structure of its ground state. In order to describe the three-body system, effective n-$^{14}$Be potentials were constructed, constrained by the experimental information on $^{15}$Be. The hyperspherical R-matrix method was used to solve the three-body scattering problem, and the resonance energy of $^{16}$Be was extracted from a phase shift analysis. In order to reproduce the experimental resonance energy of $^{16}$Be within this three-body model, a three-body interaction was needed. For extracting the width of the ground state of $^{16}$Be, we use the full width at ha...

  14. Evaluation of the 1077keV gamma-ray emission probability from 68Ga decay

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X L; Chen, X J; Chen, G C

    2013-01-01

    68Ga decays to the excited states of 68Zn through the electron capture decay mode. New recommended values for the emission probability of 1077keV gamma-ray given by the ENSDF and DDEP databases all use data from absolute measurements. In 2011 Jiang Liyang deduced a new value for 1077keV gamma-ray emission probability by measuring the 69Ga(n,2n)68Ga reaction cross section. The new value is about 20% lower than values obtained from previous absolute measurements and evaluations. In this paper, the discrepancies among the measurements and evaluations are analyzed carefully and the new values are re-recommended. Our recommended value for the emission probability of 1077keV gamma-ray is 2.72+-0.16 %.

  15. The role of core excitations in the structure and decay of the 16+ spin-gap isomer in 96Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Davies

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The first evidence for β-delayed proton emission from the 16+ spin gap isomer in 96Cd is presented. The data were obtained from the Rare Isotope Beam Factory, at the RIKEN Nishina Center, using the BigRIPS spectrometer and the EURICA decay station. βp branching ratios for the ground state and 16+ isomer have been extracted along with more precise lifetimes for these states and the lifetime for the ground state decay of 95Cd. Large scale shell model (LSSM calculations have been performed and WKB estimates made for ℓ=0,2,4 proton emission from three resonance-like states in 96Ag, that are populated by the β decay of the isomer, and the results compared to the new data. The calculations suggest that ℓ=2 proton emission from the resonance states, which reside ∼5 MeV above the proton separation energy, dominates the proton decay. The results highlight the importance of core-excited wavefunction components for the 16+ state.

  16. Exotic decay in Ba isotopes via 12C emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2000-09-01

    Considering Coulomb and proximity potentials as barriers, we have calculated the half lives for 12C emission from various Ba isotopes using different mass tables. The half life for 112Ba isotope calculated by us is 6.020 × 103 s which is comparable with the experimental value 5.620 × 103 s. From our study it is found that 114Ba is the good parent for 12C emission whose emission rate is favorable for measurement. The half lives predicted by us lie very close to those reported by Shanmugam et al using their cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model. It is observed that inclusion of proximity potential does not produce significant deviation from the linear nature of the Geiger–Nuttall plots. Also it is found that the neutron excess in the parent nuclei slows down the exotic decay process.

  17. Cluster emission in the radioactive decay of 223Ac

    CERN Document Server

    Steyn, G F; Faccio, D; Bonetti, R; Tretyakova, S P; Shishkin, S V; Ogloblin, A A; Pik-Pichak, G A; Vermeulen, C; van der Meulen, N P; van der Walt, T N; McGee, D

    2010-01-01

    The branching ratio of 223Ac decay by spontaneous 14C emission was measured and a search for 15N clusters was performed. After exposure of a hemispherical array of solid-state nuclear track detectors, 347 14C events were identified and no 15N events. B(14C) = λ(14C)/λ(α) = (3.2 ± 1.0) x 10-11 is consistent with a favoured ground state to ground state transition. As no nitrogen tracks were found, only an upper limit could be inferred for 15N emission, B(15N) = λ(15N)/λ(α) ≤ 2.2 x 10-13 (confidence limit 90%), consistent with an unfavoured transition. Intense 227Pa sources were produced for this study, using the reaction 232Th(p,6n)227Pa. This offered an opportunity to compare the measured source strength with predictions based on published excitation function data.

  18. Decay study of 20Na and its beta-delayed 16O recoiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文学; 徐晓冀; 马瑞昌; 胡志强; 郭俊盛; 郭应祥; 刘洪业; 徐连联

    1997-01-01

    The decay of 20Na of astrophysical reactions has been studied deeply via 20Ne(p, n)20Na reaction. A new β-delayed α decay with α energy of 5 896 ± 6 keV and relative intensity of 0. 002 4 ± 0. 000 3 was discovered. At the same time the 16O recoiling in β+-delayed α decay of 20Na was observed in experiment for the first time. From these, it is inferred that a β-delayed low energy α decay of 20Na with energy of-780 keV and relative intensity of -1.4 was mixed in 16O recoiling. In 16O recoiling and the low energy α decay, the energy loss for low energy charged particles through matter was discussed in detail. At last, two methods for discriminating the β-delayed low energy α decay of 20Na were proposed.

  19. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, of twelve Chinese cities were developed using bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most of Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average per capita carbon emissions varied across sectors, including industrial energy consumption (64.3%, industrial processes (10.2%, transportation (10.6%, household energy consumption (8.0%, commercial energy consumption (4.3% and waste processing (2.5%. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of global cities. This is mainly due to the major contribution of industry sector encompassing industrial energy consumption and industrial processes to the total carbon emissions of Chinese cities.

  20. Decay of cacti and carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.

    2006-03-01

    Cacti contain large quantities of Ca-oxalate biominerals, with C derived from atmospheric CO2. Their death releases these biominerals into the environment, which subsequently transform to calcite via a monohydrocalcite intermediate. Here, the fate of Ca-oxalates released by plants in arid environments is investigated. This novel and widespread form of biomineralization has unexpected consequences on C cycling and calcite accumulation in areas with large numbers of cacti. The magnitude of this mineralization is revealed by studying the large columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britton and Rose in southwestern Arizona (locally called the saguaro). A large C. gigantea contains on the order of 1×105 g of the Ca-oxalate weddellite—CaC2O4·2H2O. In areas with high C. gigantea density, there is an estimated 40 g Catm m-2 sequestered in Ca-oxalates. Following the death of the plant, the weddellite transforms to calcite on the order to 10-20 years. In areas with high saguaro density, there is an estimated release of up to 2.4 g calcite m-2 year-1 onto the desert soil. Similar transformation mechanisms occur with the Ca-oxalates that are abundant in the majority of cacti. Thus, the total atmospheric C returned to the soil of areas with a high number density of cacti is large, suggesting that there may be a significant long-term accumulation of atmospheric C in these soils derived from Ca-oxalate biominerals. These findings demonstrate that plant decay in arid environments may have locally significant impacts on the Ca and inorganic C cycles.

  1. Calculations on decay rates of various proton emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yibin [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing (China); Ren, Zhongzhou [Nanjing University, Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Beijing (China); National Laboratory of Heavy-Ion Accelerator, Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, Lanzou (China)

    2016-03-15

    Proton radioactivity of neutron-deficient nuclei around the dripline has been systematically studied within the deformed density-dependent model. The crucial proton-nucleus potential is constructed via the single-folding integral of the density distribution of daughter nuclei and the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction or the proton-proton Coulomb interaction. After the decay width is obtained by the modified two-potential approach, the final decay half-lives can be achieved by involving the spectroscopic factors from the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method. Moreover, a simple formula along with only one adjusted parameter is tentatively proposed to evaluate the half-lives of proton emitters, where the introduction of nuclear deformation is somewhat discussed as well. It is found that the calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental values and consistent with other theoretical studies, indicating that the present approach can be applied to the case of proton emission. Predictions on half-lives are made for possible proton emitters, which may be useful for future experiments. (orig.)

  2. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

    2012-07-01

    As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

  3. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  4. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Sndulescu, A.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (/sup 208/Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 10/sup 10/--10/sup 30/ s: /sup 5/He, /sup 8en-dash10/Be, /sup 11,12/B, /sup 12en-dash16/C, /sup 13en-dash17/N, /sup 15en-dash22/O, /sup 18en-dash23/F, /sup 20en-dash26/Ne, /sup 23en-dash28/Na, /sup 23en-dash30/Mg, /sup 27en-dash32/Al, /sup 28en-dash36/Si, /sup 31en-dash39/P, /sup 32en-dash42/S, /sup 35en-dash45/Cl, /sup 37en-dash47/Ar, /sup 40en-dash49/ K, . .Ca, /sup 44en-dash53/ Sc, /sup 46en-dash53/Ti, /sup 48en-dash54/V, and /sup 49en-dash55/ Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

  5. Absolute measurement of the $\\beta\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{16}$N at ISOLDE with the aim of determining the branching ratio for $\\beta\\alpha$ decay on an absolute scale. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty. This limits the precision with which the S-factor of the astrophysically important $^{12}$C($\\alpha, \\gamma)^{16}$O reaction can be determined.

  6. Direct pion emission in D*+ → D+π decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing-Dao; Liu, Xue-Wen; Ke, Hong-Wei; Li, Xue-Qian

    2016-07-01

    The QCD multipole expansion (QCDME) is based on quantum field theory and has been extensively applied to study transitions among ϒ and ψ family members. As it refers to non-perturbative QCD, however, it has only a certain application range. Even though it successfully explains the transition data among members of the ϒ (ψ) family, as Eichten indicates, beyond the production threshold of mediate states it fails to match data by several orders of magnitude. In this work, by studying a simple decay mode D*→ D + π0, where a pion may be emitted before D* transitions into D, we analyze the contribution of QCD multipole expansion. As the Dπ portal is open, the dominant contribution is an OZI-allowed process where a light quark-pair is excited out from vacuum, and its contribution can be evaluated by the 3 P 0 model. Since direct pion emission is OZI-suppressed and violates isospin conservation, its contribution must be much smaller than the dominant one. By a careful calculation, we estimate that the QCDME contribution should be 3-4 orders smaller than the dominant contribution and this result can offer a quantitative interpretation for Eichten's statement. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375128)

  7. Black carbon and organic carbon emissions from wildfires in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    XÓCHITL CRUZ NÚÑEZ; LOURDES VILLERS RUIZ; CARLOS GAY GARCÍA

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, approximately 7650 wildfires occur annually, affecting 263 115 hectares of land. In addition to their impact on land degradation, wildfires cause deforestation, damage to ecosystems and promote land use change; apart from being the source of emissions of toxic substances to the environment (i.e., hydrogen cya - nide, black carbon and organic carbon). Black carbon is a short-lived greenhouse pollutant that also promotes snow and ice melting and decreased rainfall; it has an estimate...

  8. Proton-proton correlations observed in two-proton decay of $^{19}$Mg and $^{16}$Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Mukha, I; Sümmerer, K; Acosta, L; Alvarez, M A G; Casarejos, E; Chatillon, A; Cortina-Gil, D; Espino, J; Fomichev, A; García-Ramos, J E; Geissel, H; Gómez-Camacho, J; Hofmann, J; Kiselev, O; Korsheninnikov, A; Kurz, N; Litvinov, Yu; Martel, I; Nociforo, C; Ott, W; Pfützner, M; Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Roeckl, E; Stanoiu, M; Weick, H; Woods, P J

    2008-01-01

    Proton-proton correlations were observed for the two-proton decays of the ground states of $^{19}$Mg and $^{16}$Ne. The trajectories of the respective decay products, $^{17}$Ne+p+p and $^{14}$O+p+p, were measured by using a tracking technique with microstrip detectors. These data were used to reconstruct the angular correlations of fragments projected on planes transverse to the precursor momenta. The measured three-particle correlations reflect a genuine three-body decay mechanism and allowed us to obtain spectroscopic information on the precursors with valence protons in the $sd$ shell.

  9. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    together in hexagons and pentagons forming a sphere like a soccer ball. Fullerenes of all sizes are single molecules, which is uniquely different from the...10] Bhushan, B. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. Springer - Verlag. 2007 [11] Pierson, H. Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes

  11. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  12. Precise measurement of prompt photon emission for carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C

    2011-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the information provided by single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. This paper reports the measurements of the spectrum and rate of such photons produced from the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. The differential production rate for photons with energy E > 2 MeV and emitted at 90 degree is found to be $dN_{\\gamma}/(dN_C d\\Omega)=(2.92\\pm 0.19)\\times 10^{-2}$sr$^{-1}$.

  13. Emissions of carbon tetrachloride from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo; Furlani, Francesco; Giostra, Umberto; Manning, Alistair J.; McCulloch, Archie; O'Doherty, Simon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Maione, Michela

    2016-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a long-lived radiatively active compound with the ability to destroy stratospheric ozone. Due to its inclusion in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), the last two decades have seen a sharp decrease in its large-scale emissive use with a consequent decline in its atmospheric mole fractions. However, the MP restrictions do not apply to the use of carbon tetrachloride as feedstock for the production of other chemicals, implying the risk of fugitive emissions from the industry sector. The occurrence of such unintended emissions is suggested by a significant discrepancy between global emissions as derived from reported production and feedstock usage (bottom-up emissions), and those based on atmospheric observations (top-down emissions). In order to better constrain the atmospheric budget of carbon tetrachloride, several studies based on a combination of atmospheric observations and inverse modelling have been conducted in recent years in various regions of the world. This study is focused on the European scale and based on long-term high-frequency observations at three European sites, combined with a Bayesian inversion methodology. We estimated that average European emissions for 2006-2014 were 2.2 (± 0.8) Gg yr-1, with an average decreasing trend of 6.9 % per year. Our analysis identified France as the main source of emissions over the whole study period, with an average contribution to total European emissions of approximately 26 %. The inversion was also able to allow the localisation of emission "hot spots" in the domain, with major source areas in southern France, central England (UK) and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), where most industrial-scale production of basic organic chemicals is located. According to our results, European emissions correspond, on average, to 4.0 % of global emissions for 2006-2012. Together with other regional studies, our results allow a better constraint

  14. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; Yang, Clayton S.-C.; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6 μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10 μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5 μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  15. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; S-C Yang, Clayton; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-05

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  16. Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yun; ZHANG Jun-biao; HE Ya-ya

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil and livestock breeding, this paper ifrstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show:(1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39%of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions:the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84%from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into ifve types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy ifeld dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efifciency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively;while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.

  17. Enhanced Field Emission from Printed Carbon Nanotubes by Hard Hairbrush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ru-jia; ZHAN Ya-ge; LIU Yang; XUE Shao-lin

    2008-01-01

    A method, the morphology of screen printed carbon nanotube pastes is modified using a hard hairbrush, is presented.In this way, the organic matrix material is preferentially removed.Compared to those untreated films, the turn-on electric field of the treated film decreases from 2.2 V/um to 1.6 V/um, while the total emission current of the treated increases from 0.6 mA/cm2 to 3 mA/cm2, and uniform emission site density image has also been observed.

  18. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Ivaşcu, Marin; Săndulescu, Aurel; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead n...

  19. Multi-particle emission in the decay of $^{31}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Koldste, G T; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grann, B.D.; Johansen, J.G.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Kurturkian-Nieto, T.; Kusk, J.H.; Nilsson, T.; Perea, A.; Pesudo, V.; Picado, E.; Riisager, K.; Saastamoinen, A.; Tengblad, O.; Thomas, J.C.; Van de Walle, J.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-hit capacity setup was used to study the decay of the dripline nucleus 31Ar, produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. A spectroscopic analysis of the beta-delayed three-proton decay of 31Ar is presented for the first time together with a quantitative analysis of the beta-delayed two-proton-gamma-decay. A new method for determination of the spin of low-lying levels in the beta-proton-daughter 30S using proton-proton angular correlations is presented and used for the level at 5.2 MeV, which is found to be either a 3+ or 4+ level, with the data pointing towards the 3+. The half-life of 31Ar is found to be 15.1(3) ms. An improved analysis of the Fermi beta-strength gives a total measured branching for the beta-3p-decay of 3.60(44) %, which is lower than the theoretical value found to be 4.24(43) %. Finally the strongest gamma-transitions in the decay of 33Ar are shown including a line at 4734(3) keV associated to the decay of the IAS, which has not previously been identified.

  20. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  1. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  2. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  3. Grazing the Commons : Global Carbon Emissions Forever?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenberg, B.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Dijkgraaf, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results from our investigation of the per-capita, long- term relation between carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for the world, obtained with the use of a new, exible estimator. Consistent with simple economic growth models, we find that regional, popul

  4. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left unchecked

  5. Comprehensive decay law for emission of charged particles and exotic cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Sahu

    2014-04-01

    A general decay formula for the emission of charged particles from metastable nuclei is developed based on the basic phenomenon of resonances occurring in quantum scattering process under Coulomb-nuclear potential. It relates the half-lives of radioactive decays with the values of the outgoing elements with masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. The relation is found to be a generalization of the Geiger–Nuttall law in radioactivity and explains well all the known emissions of charged particles including clusters, alpha and proton.

  6. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun Sook; Park, Kyu-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock agriculture in 16 local administrative districts of Korea from 1990 to 2030. National Inventory Report used 3 yr averaged livestock population but this study used 1 yr livestock population to find yearly emission fluctuations. Extrapolation of the livestock population from 1990 to 2009 was used to forecast future livestock population from 2010 to 2030. Past (yr 1990 to 2009) and forecasted (yr 2010 to 2030) averaged enteric CH4 emissions and CH4 and N2O emissions from manure treatment were estimated. In the section of enteric fermentation, forecasted average CH4 emissions from 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 4%-114% compared to that of the past except for Daejeon (-63%), Seoul (-36%) and Gyeonggi (-7%). As for manure treatment, forecasted average CH4 emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 3%-124% compared to past average except for Daejeon (-77%), Busan (-60%), Gwangju (-48%) and Seoul (-8%). For manure treatment, forecasted average N2O emissions from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 10%-153% compared to past average CH4 emissions except for Daejeon (-60%), Seoul (-4.0%), and Gwangju (-0.2%). With the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (CO2-Eq), forecasted average CO2-Eq from the 16 local administrative districts were estimated to increase by 31%-120% compared to past average CH4 emissions except Daejeon (-65%), Seoul (-24%), Busan (-18%), Gwangju (-8%) and Gyeonggi (-1%). The decreased CO2-Eq from 5 local administrative districts was only 34 kt, which was insignificantly small compared to increase of 2,809 kt from other 11 local administrative districts. Annual growth rates of enteric CH4 emissions, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management in Korea from 1990 to 2009 were 1.7%, 2.6%, and 3.2%, respectively. The annual growth rate of total CO2-Eq was 2

  7. Electron Field Emission from Nanostructured Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju

    2005-03-01

    Fabricating small structures has almost become fashionable and the rationale is that reducing one or more dimensions below some critical length changes the systems' physical properties drastically, where nanocrystalline diamond (n-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the class of advanced carbon materials serve model examples. Emission of electrons at room temperature - cold electron emitters - are of vital importance for a variety of vacuum microelectronic devices - electron microscopes, photo multipliers, X-ray generators, lamps, and flat panel displays and microwave cathodes. Electron emitters may lead to otherwise difficult to obtain advantages in performance and/or design. This is the driving force to investigate the carbon-related materials as cold cathodes. In this talk, the performance of various forms of carbon in thin film form including diamond, n-D, and vertically aligned CNTs as cold cathodes for their potential use in field emission displays (FEDs) in terms of I-V characteristics and corresponding spatial imaging will be presented. Physics based models such as, NEA, surface modification, geometric enhancement, and microstructure alteration due to particle bombardment, and doping, will be described to support the experimental observations of electron field enhancement (low turn-on voltage, high current and emission site density) and its reliability from the abovementioned carbon-related materials. Other vacuum device applications such as thermionic power generators will be mentioned briefly.

  8. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: s.wakaiki@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  9. Evaluation of Kolubara lignite carbon emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The revised Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas (GHG inventories recommends that more comprehensive and thus more reliable characteristics of the local fossil fuels should be used for the national GHG inventory calculations. This paper deal with the carbon emission characteristics of low-calorific lignite recovered from the Kolubara open-pit mine. The samples of coal were carefully selected in order to cover the net calorific value, ash and water content of the broad spectrum of the quality of the raw lignite supplied to the Serbian thermal power plants. Correlation analysis of the laboratory analysis data gave a linear dependency of the net calorific value on the combustible content in the coal samples. Also, linear correlation between the carbon content and the net calorific value was found. The regression analysis of experimentally determined coal characteristics implies that the carbon emission factor is dependent on the net calorific value. For the subset of raw lignite samples with the net calorific value Qdr = 6 ÷ 10 MJ/kg, that is most representative for current and near future use for power generation in Serbian thermal power plants, the linear dependency CEFr (tC/TJ = 34.407 - 0.5891×Qdr (MJ/kg was proposed. Regarding the net calorific ranges of samples examined, the raw Kolubara lignite carbon emission factor is considerably higher than those recommended by IPCC Tier 1 method of 27.6 tC/TJ.

  10. Global civil aviation black carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-09-17

    Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions.

  11. Grazing the Commons. Global Carbon Emissions Forever?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melenberg, B. [CentER and Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Vollebergh, H.R.J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E. [SEOR-ECRi and Tinbergen Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results from our investigation of the per-capita, long-term relation between carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for the world, obtained with the use of a new, flexible estimator. Consistent with simple economic growth models, we find that regional, population-weighted per-capita emissions systematically increase with income (scale effect) and usually decline over time (composition and technology effect). Both our in-sample results and out-of-sample scenarios indicate that this negative time effect is unlikely to compensate for the upward-income effect at a global level, in the near future. In particular, even if China's specialization in carbon-intensive industrial sectors would come to a halt, recent trends outside China make a reversal of the overall global trend very unlikely.

  12. Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Prof.Fang Jingyun,member of the Chinese Academy of Science,of Peking University and colleagues published an online article on Science in July,2011 introducing the findings of an international research group about the global carbon emission and sequestration which will produce significant influence on researches on climate change as well as the international climate change policies.The research project was funded by NSFC and MOST.

  13. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  14. Oscillating pendulum decay by emission of vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Diogo; Hershberger, Robert E.; Donnelly, Russell J.

    2010-04-01

    We have studied oscillation of a pendulum in water using spherical bobs. By measuring the loss in potential energy, we estimate the drag coefficient on the sphere and compare to data from liquid-helium experiments. The drag coefficients compare very favorably illustrating the true scaling behavior of this phenomenon. We also studied the decay of amplitude of the pendulum over time. As observed previously, at small amplitudes, the drag on the bob is given by the linear Stokes drag and the decay is exponential. For larger amplitudes, the pendulum bob sheds vortex rings as it reverses direction. The momentum imparted to these vortex rings results in an additional discrete drag on the bob. We present experiments and a theoretical estimate of this vortex-ring-induced drag. We analytically derive an estimate for a critical amplitude beyond which vortex ring shedding will occur as well as an estimate of the radius of the ring as a function of amplitude.

  15. Isolated hard photon emission in hadronic Z 0 decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Akbari, H.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelov, T.; Antonov, L.; Abtreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Nattiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Beingessner, S.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocciolini, M.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Buisson, C.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Burq, J. P.; Busenitz, J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, F.; Cartacci, A. M.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J.; Chen, M.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Crijns, F.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Driever, T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Göttlicher, P.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Grinnell, C.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Herten, U.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lettry, J.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, P. J.; Li, X. G.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Linnhofer, D.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mao, D. N.; Mao, Y. F.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Matsuda, T.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Meinholz, Th.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Piere, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Produit, N.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rose, J.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Sajan, E.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmiemann, K.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schütte, J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Soderstrom, E.; Sopczak, A.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Summer, R. L.; Sun, L. Z.; Suter, H.; Sutton, R. L.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wahdwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, J. H.; Wang, Q. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, R. J.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, Y. G.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, Y. D.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, X. J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Yang, K. S.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, Z. Q.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    We report on a study of energetic, isolated photons in a sample of ∼ 320 000 Z 0 hadronic decays. Energetic isolated photons probe the short-distance structure of QCD. We compare our data with the prediction of several QCD-based calculations. A search for new processes with one or two photons in the hadronic final state is also presented. No evidence for physics beyond the standard model is found.

  16. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon=elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53-473Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality.

  17. Quantification of carbon emissions and savings in smart grids

    OpenAIRE

    Eng Tseng, Lau

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London In this research, carbon emissions and carbon savings in the smart grid are modelled and quantified. Carbon emissions are defined as the product of the activity (energy) and the corresponding carbon factor. The carbon savings are estimated as the difference between the conventional and improved energy usage multiplied by the corresponding carbon factor. An adaptive seasonal model bas...

  18. The TOPSIS Evaluation on Carbon Emission Economic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; XU; Chao; ZHANG; Juan; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on carbon emission data of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2005-2009,this paper analyzes carbon emission economic efficiency. It conducts weight distribution by the Ordered Weighted Averaging ( OWA) method,and takes systematic evaluation on carbon emission economic efficiency using TOPSIS method. In eastern coastal regions,including Dongying,Yantai,Weihai and Qingdao,the carbon emission economic efficiency is generally higher than inland regions of Shandong Province. The conclusion reached after correction of time weight is basically consistent with traditional TOPSIS overall evaluation,further proves validity of the evaluation. Finally,it gives recommendations for improving carbon emission economic efficiency in Shandong Province.

  19. New measurement of exotic decay of 225Ac by 14C emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, A.; Bonetti, R.; Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; Giles, T.; Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J. F.; Le Naour, C.; Mikheev, V. L.; Pasinetti, A. L.; Ravn, H. L.; Tretyakova, S. P.; Trubert, D.

    The branching ratio of 225Ac decay by emission of 14C was remeasured under improved experimental conditions by using a radioactive source produced at the ISOLDE mass-separator at CERN and a nuclear track detector technique. The result, B = λ14C/λα = (4.5+/-1.4)10-12, is consistent with the anomalously high value obtained in the 1993 experiment, thus confirming the importance of nuclear-structure effects in this exotic decay.

  20. Carbon emission patterns in different income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang, Le-Le Zou, Jie Guo, Wen-Jing Yi, Zhen-Hua Feng, Yi-Ming Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find the main driving forces affecting CO2 emission patterns and the relationship between economic development and CO2 emissions, this paper uses models of Sigma-convergence, absolute Beta-convergence and conditional Beta-convergence to analyze the inner characteristics of CO2 emissions and the income level of 128 countries (and regions in the world. The countries (and regions are divided into 5 groups based on their per capita income levels. The results show that in the past 40 years, all the groups showed trends of convergence on the CO2 emissions. In terms of emission levels, lagging countries (and regions tend to catch up with advanced nations, with convergence tending to be conditional on country-specific characteristics such as energy use and energy structures rather than absolute convergence. Then this paper examines the impacts of selected variables such as GDP per capita, population, oil, gas, coal etc. on the emission trends. The analysis on the impacting factors shows that for the developing countries (and regions, the levels of economic development have greater effects on their carbon emissions patterns. And for the developed countries (and regions, the energy consumption structures wielded a big influence for the past 40 years. We find that the growth speed of CO2 emissions in developed countries (and regions would get slower, and those of the developing countries (and regions give expression to catching-up effects. These findings are expected to shed a light on the global policy making in coping climate change.

  1. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  2. China's regional carbon emissions change over 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Cui Liu, Jin-Nan Wang, Gang Wu, Yi-Ming Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy in China has generated concomitant increase of carbon emissions, which poses an unprecedented challenge to China’s, and even global, sustainable development. In this paper, from the perspective of provincial carbon emissions, we analyze China’s carbon emissions changes during 1997-2007 based on the index decomposition analysis method. We find that: (1 China's CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption mainly originated from such major industrial provinces as Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Henan and Guangdong. (2 Economic growth and decline in energy intensity will have the greatest impact on CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption. Economic growth is the key factor driving the increase of CO2 emissions. Change in energy intensity can more or less decrease CO2 emissions. In the future, China’s carbon emissions mitigation policies should be developed to address these differences in provincial carbon emissions.

  3. Angular correlation measurements for 4-{alpha} decaying states in {sup 16}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Previous measurements of the {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{sup 8}Be){sup 16}O{sup *}(4 {alpha}) reaction identified discrete levels in {sup 16}O which decay by breakup into 4 {alpha} particles through a number of different decay sequences, including {sup 16}O{sup *} {yields} {sup 8}Be + {sup 8}Be and {alpha} + {sup 12}C (O{sub 2}{sup +}). These states are observed in a range of excitation energies where resonances are observed in inelastic {alpha} + {sup 12}C scattering leading to the {sup 8}Be + {sup 8}Be and {alpha} + {sup 12}C final states. These resonances were associated with 4 {alpha}-particle chain configurations in {sup 16}O. Should the states populated in the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction possess this same extended structure, it would serve as an important piece of evidence supporting the idea that even more deformed structures are formed in the {sup 24}Mg compound system. In order to more firmly make this association, it is important to determine the spins of the states populated in the {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C reaction.

  4. Establishing the fair allocation of international aviation carbon emission rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially unfair use of international aviation carbon emission rights in different countries, this paper presents a carbon Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, constructed on the basis of historical cumulative international aviation CO2 emissions per capita. The study follows a methodology adapted from the research into fair income allocation. The results of these calculations show that there has been vast unfairness surrounding international aviation carbon emissions in the past, and that this unfairness has been partially hidden by a delay in accumulative start dates. A solution to this problem, allowing fair allocation of carbon emissions, is the key to building a mechanism for the reduction of global international aviation emissions. This study proposes a fair method for allocating emission rights, based on a responsibility-capacity index. Taking a goal of carbon-neutral growth by 2020 as an example, the degree of carbon emission reduction expected from different countries by 2021 is calculated using the proposed method.

  5. Neutrino emissivity from Goldstone boson decay in magnetized neutron matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bedaque, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Neutron matter at densities somewhat above nuclear densities is believed to be superfluid due to the condensation of neutron pairs in the 3 P2 channel. This condensate breaks rotational symmetry spontaneously and leads to the existence of Goldstone bosons (angulons). We show that the coupling to magnetic fields mediated by the magnetic moment of the neutron makes angulons massive and capable of decaying into a neutrino-antineutrino pair. We compute the rate for this process and argue they become competitive with other cooling processes for temperatures around 10^7 K as long as the interior magnetic field of the star is in the B=10^15 G range or above.

  6. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Massachusetts); (Univ. of Surrey)

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  7. Carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ling; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Ning; Shan, Yuli; Chen, G. Q.

    2016-11-01

    The present study analyzed the consumption-based carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012. The multi-scale input-output analysis method was applied. It is capable of tracing the carbon emissions embodied in imports based on a global multi-regional input-output analysis using Eora data. The results show that the consumption-based carbon emission of Beijing has increased by 18% since 2007, which is 2.57 times higher than the production-based carbon emission in 2012. Only approximately 1/10 of the total carbon emissions embodied in Beijing’s local final demand originated from local direct carbon emissions. Meanwhile, more than 4/5 were from domestically imported products. The carbon emission nexus between Beijing and other Chinese regions has become closer since 2007, while the imbalance as the carbon emission transfer from Beijing to other regions has been mitigated. Instead, Beijing has imported more carbon emissions from foreign countries. Some carbon emission reduction strategies for Beijing concerning different goals are presented on the basis of detailed discussion.

  8. Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Daniel; Lerner, Brian; Granier, Claire; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Massoli, Paola; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

    2008-07-01

    Extensive measurements of the emission of light absorbing carbon aerosol (LAC) from commercial shipping are presented. Vessel emissions were sampled using a photoacoustic spectrometer in the Gulf of Mexico region. The highest emitters (per unit fuel burnt) are tug boats, thus making significant contributions to local air quality in ports. Emission of LAC from cargo and non cargo vessels in this study appears to be independent of engine load. Shipping fuel consumption data (2001) was used to calculate a global LAC contribution of 133(+/-27) Ggyr-1, or ~1.7% of global LAC. This small fraction could have disproportionate effects on both air quality near port areas and climate in the Arctic if direct emissions of LAC occur in that region due to opening Arctic sea routes. The global contribution of this LAC burden was investigated using the MOZART model. Increases of 20-50 ng m-3 LAC (relative increases up to 40%) due to shipping occur in the tropical Atlantic, Indonesia, central America and the southern regions of South America and Africa.

  9. Accounting Treatment for Carbon Emission Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the growing demand for sustainable behavior and the special interest that has emerged regarding the social and environmental impact of firms, the purpose of this research is to analyze the determinants of the accounting treatment of emission rights. To achieve that purpose, we use a sample composed of 119 firms worldwide from different  countries and activity sectors for the period 2011. Our findings show different accounting treatments depending on a series of factors. Specifically, firms pertaining to countries that have adopted Environmental Trading Schemes (ETS tend to account for emission rights through provisions, investments, or as inventory. For their part, firms that issue indicators that appear in the report drawn up by KPMG and GRI (2007 tend to account for these entries as expenses, especially as R + D expenses. Finally, firms located in countries that signed the Kyoto protocol have a tendency to not account for carbon emission rights. The findings of this work can be considered of great interest on the international level because our research contributes to the scant previous literature regarding the accounting treatment of emission rights.

  10. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  11. Measurement of the branching ratio for β-delayed α decay of 16N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Refsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While the C12(α,γ16O reaction plays a central role in nuclear astrophysics, the cross section at energies relevant to hydrostatic helium burning is too small to be directly measured in the laboratory. The β-delayed α spectrum of 16N can be used to constrain the extrapolation of the E1 component of the S-factor; however, with this approach the resulting S-factor becomes strongly correlated with the assumed βα branching ratio. We have remeasured the βα branching ratio by implanting 16N ions in a segmented Si detector and counting the number of βα decays relative to the number of implantations. Our result, 1.49(5×10−5, represents a 24% increase compared to the accepted value and implies an increase of ≈10% in the extrapolated S-factor.

  12. Measurement of the branching ratio for beta-delayed alpha decay of 16N

    CERN Document Server

    Refsgaard, J; Dijck, E A; Fynbo, H O U; Lund, M V; Portela, M N; Raabe, R; Randisi, G; Renzi, F; Sambi, S; Sytema, A; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2015-01-01

    While the 12C(a,g)16O reaction plays a central role in nuclear astrophysics, the cross section at energies relevant to hydrostatic helium burning is too small to be directly measured in the laboratory. The beta-delayed alpha spectrum of 16N can be used to constrain the extrapolation of the E1 component of the S-factor; however, with this approach the resulting S-factor becomes strongly correlated with the assumed beta-alpha branching ratio. We have remeasured the beta-alpha branching ratio by implanting 16N ions in a segmented Si detector and counting the number of beta-alpha decays relative to the number of implantations. Our result, 1.49(5)e-5, represents a 25% increase compared to the accepted value and implies an increase of 14% in the extrapolated S-factor.

  13. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  14. Estimation of carbon emissions from crown fires in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, O.; Bilgili, E.

    2009-04-01

    Forest biomass consumption is an important index for carbon cycling. Forest fire represents one of the important sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to biomass burning processes. Forest fire contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration therefore, role of forest fires in the global carbon cycle has received increasing interest. Various methods were used to estimation of carbon emission. IPCC methodology is commonly used for the calculation of GHG amounts released at forest fire in Europe especially on a national basis. Many European countries have done many studies relation to estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires. However, carbon emissions from forest fires were not estimated in Turkey. The objective of this paper was to estimate carbon emission from forest fires from 1997 to 2006 in three forest district directorate of Turkey. We have used IPCC methodology for estimation of carbon emission form forest fire in Turkey. The emission calculations associated with forest fires were carried out using the IPCC methodology for estimating emissions from biomass burning. According to IPCC methodology, the annual carbon release of gas is the product of parameters: Annual biomass loss by burning (kt), fraction of biomass oxidized on-site, carbon content (CC), emission ratio, N/C ratio. A set of forest fire data during 1997-2006 obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry-General Directorate of Forestry Service. Fuel biomass and fuel consumption data were provided from experimental fires and biomass studies in Turkey. The highest carbon emission amount was CO2 gas. A wide range in carbon emissions of 0.37-94.85 Gg was caused by variability in pre-fire fuel characteristics (fuel size, distribution, fuel moisture and total load), fire type, fire season and fire weather, which affected fuel moisture and fire behavior. Keywords: Carbon emissions, Forest fire, Fuel consumption, IPCC, Turkey

  15. Terahertz emission from two-plasmon-decay induced transient currents in laser-solid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, G.-Q.; Li, C. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Y.-T., E-mail: ytli@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn; Wang, W.-M. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Mondal, S.; Hafez, H. A.; Fareed, M. A.; Ozaki, T. [INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sheng, Z.-M., E-mail: ytli@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, J. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-01-15

    We have studied the generation of terahertz (THz) radiation via the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with solid targets at a small incidence angle. It is found that preplasma with a moderate density gradient can enhance the emission. We also observe saturation of the THz output with the driving laser energy. We find that THz emission is closely related to the 3/2 harmonics of the driving laser. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that under the present experimental conditions, the THz emission could be attributed to the transient currents at the plasma-vacuum interface, mainly formed by the two-plasmon-decay instability.

  16. Kenya Airways Launches New Project to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kenya Airways announced its new carbon offset project in May,aiming to have guests directly take part in a carbon emissions reduction plan for environmental protection.Titus Naikuni,Managing Director of

  17. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  18. Disentangling the drivers of coarse woody debris behavior and carbon gas emissions during fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; van Hal, Jurgen R.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-04-01

    The turnover of coarse woody debris, a key terrestrial carbon pool, plays fundamental roles in global carbon cycling. Biological decomposition and fire are two main fates for dead wood turnover. Compared to slow decomposition, fire rapidly transfers organic carbon from the earth surface to the atmosphere. Both a-biotic environmental factors and biotic wood properties determine coarse wood combustion and thereby its carbon gas emissions during fire. Moisture is a key inhibitory environmental factor for fire. The properties of dead wood strongly affect how it burns either directly or indirectly through interacting with moisture. Coarse wood properties vary between plant species and between various decay stages. Moreover, if we put a piece of dead wood in the context of a forest fuel bed, the soil and wood contact might also greatly affect their fire behavior. Using controlled laboratory burns, we disentangled the effects of all these driving factors: tree species (one gymnosperms needle-leaf species, three angiosperms broad-leaf species), wood decay stages (freshly dead, middle decayed, very strongly decayed), moisture content (air-dried, 30% moisture content in mass), and soil-wood contact (on versus 3cm above the ground surface) on dead wood flammability and carbon gas efflux (CO2 and CO released in grams) during fire. Wood density was measured for all coarse wood samples used in our experiment. We found that compared to other drivers, wood decay stages have predominant positive effects on coarse wood combustion (for wood mass burned, R2=0.72 when air-dried and R2=0.52 at 30% moisture content) and associated carbon gas emissions (for CO2andCO (g) released, R2=0.55 when air-dried and R2=0.42 at 30% moisture content) during fire. Thus, wood decay accelerates wood combustion and its CO2 and CO emissions during fire, which can be mainly attributed to the decreasing wood density (for wood mass burned, R2=0.91 when air-dried and R2=0.63 at 30% moisture content) as wood

  19. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  20. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003–2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr‑1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010–2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%–7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011–2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  1. First observation of 54Zn and its decay by two-proton emission

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, B; Canchel, G; Dossat, C; Fleury, A; Giovinazzo, J; Matea, I; Adimi, N; De Oliveira, F; Stefan, I; Georgiev, G; Grévy, S; Thomas, J C; Borcea, C; Cortina-Gil, D; Caamano, M; Stanoiu, M; Aksouh, F; Brown, B A; Barker, F C; Richter, W A

    2005-01-01

    The nucleus 54Zn has been observed for the first time in an experiment at the SISSI/LISE3 facility of GANIL in the quasi-fragmentation of a 58Ni beam at 74.5 MeV/nucleon in a natNi target. The fragments were analysed by means of the ALPHA-LISE3 separator and implanted in a silicon-strip detector where correlations in space and time between implantation and subsequent decay events allowed us to generate almost background free decay spectra for about 25 different nuclei at the same time. Eight 54Zn implantation events were observed. From the correlated decay events, the half-life of 54Zn is determined to be 3.2 +1.8/-0.8 ms. Seven of the eight implantations are followed by two-proton emission with a decay energy of 1.48(2) MeV. The decay energy and the partial half-life are compared to model predictions and allow for a test of these two-proton decay models.

  2. Results on decay with emission of two neutrinos or Majorons in Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-09-01

    A search for neutrinoless decay processes accompanied with Majoron emission has been performed using data collected during Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). Processes with spectral indices were searched for. No signals were found and lower limits of the order of 10 yr on their half-lives were derived, yielding substantially improved results compared to previous experiments with Ge. A new result for the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied decay of Ge with significantly reduced uncertainties is also given, resulting in yr.

  3. New measurement of exotic decay of {sup 225}Ac by {sup 14}C emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti, A.; Bonetti, R. [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata dell' Universita di Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Ardisson, G.; Barci, V. [Lab. de Radiochimie, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France); Giles, T.; Ravn, H.L. [CERN, EP Division, Geneva (Switzerland); Hussonnois, M.; Le Du, J.F.; Le Naour, C.; Trubert, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Mikheev, V.L.; Tretyakova, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pasinetti, A.L. [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata dell' Universita di Milano (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The branching ratio of {sup 225}Ac decay by emission of {sup 14}C was remeasured under improved experimental conditions by using a radioactive source produced at the ISOLDE mass-separator at CERN and a nuclear track detector technique. The result, B={lambda}{sup 14C}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}}=(4.5{+-}1.4)10{sup -12}, is consistent with the anomalously high value obtained in the 1993 experiment, thus confirming the importance of nuclear-structure effects in this exotic decay. (orig.)

  4. {alpha}-particle emission probabilities in the decay of {sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: E.Garciatorano@ciemat.es; Teresa Crespo, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Roteta, Miguel [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sibbens, Goedele [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Pomme, Stefaan [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Martin Sanchez, Alejandro [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Pilar Rubio Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Woods, Simon [Radioactivity Metrology Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Pearce, Andy [Radioactivity Metrology Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-21

    {sup 235}U decays by {alpha}-particle emission to {sup 231}Th. The decay scheme of this nuclide is very complex, with more than 20 alpha branches. Recommended values for P {sub {alpha}} of this nuclide are based on measurements carried out in 1975. This work presents the results of new measurements made with Si detectors and sources of enriched uranium in the frame of the EUROMET 591 cooperation project. The use of improved measurement techniques and numerical analysis of spectra allowed a new set of P {sub {alpha}} values for 13 lines with improved uncertainties to be obtained.

  5. Beta-delayed deuteron emission from 11Li: decay of the halo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The deuteron-emission channel in the beta decay of the halo nucleus 11Li was measured at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility at TRIUMF by implanting post-accelerated 11Li ions into a segmented silicon detector. The events of interest were identified by correlating the decays of 11Li with those of the daughter nuclei. This method allowed the energy spectrum of the emitted deuterons to be extracted, free from contributions from other channels, and a precise value for the branching ra...

  6. Study of the deuteron emission in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{6}$He

    CERN Multimedia

    Karny, M; Tengblad, O; Riisager, K; Perkowski, J; Garcia borge, M J; Raabe, R; Kowalska, M; Fynbo, H O U; Perea martinez, A; Ter-akopian, G; Huyse, M L

    The main goal of the present proposal is to measure the continuous spectrum of deuterons emitted in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{6}$He. In particular, we want to focus on the low energy part of the spectrum, below 400 keV, which could not be accessed by all previous experiments. For the decay spectroscopy the Warsaw Optical Time Projection Chamber (OTPC) will be used. The bunches of $^{6}$He ions produced by REX-ISOLDE facility will be implanted into the active volume of the OTPC, where the rare events of deuteron emission will be recorded, practically background free.

  7. New measurement of exotic decay of $^{225}$Ac by $^{14}$C emission

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmetti, A; Ardisson, G; Barci, V; Giles, T; Hussonnois, M; Le Dû, J F; Le Naour, C; Mikheev, V L; Pasinetti, A L; Ravn, H L; Tretyakova, S P; Trubert, D

    2001-01-01

    The branching ratio of $^{225}$Ac decay by emission of $^{14}$C was remeasured under improved experimental conditions by using a radioactive source produced at the ISOLDE mass-separator at CERN and a nuclear track detector technique. The result, B=$\\lambda_{^{14}\\textrm{C}} / \\lambda_{\\alpha} = (4.5 \\pm 1.4) 10^{-12}$, is consistent with the anomalously high value obtained in the 1993 experiment thus confirming the importance of nuclear structure effects in this exotic decay.

  8. Estimate of China's energy carbon emissions peak and analysis on electric power carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xuan Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China's energy carbon emissions are projected to peak in 2030 with approximately 110% of its 2020 level under the following conditions: 1 China's gross primary energy consumption is 5 Gtce in 2020 and 6 Gtce in 2030; 2 coal's share of the energy consumption is 61% in 2020 and 55% in 2030; 3 non-fossil energy's share increases from 15% in 2020 to 20% in 2030; 4 through 2030, China's GDP grows at an average annual rate of 6%; 5 the annual energy consumption elasticity coefficient is 0.30 in average; and 6 the annual growth rate of energy consumption steadily reduces to within 1%. China's electricity generating capacity would be 1,990 GW, with 8,600 TW h of power generation output in 2020. Of that output 66% would be from coal, 5% from gas, and 29% from non-fossil energy. By 2030, electricity generating capacity would reach 3,170 GW with 11,900 TW h of power generation output. Of that output, 56% would be from coal, 6% from gas, and 37% from non-fossil energy. From 2020 to 2030, CO2 emissions from electric power would relatively fall by 0.2 Gt due to lower coal consumption, and relatively fall by nearly 0.3 Gt with the installation of more coal-fired cogeneration units. During 2020–2030, the portion of carbon emissions from electric power in China's energy consumption is projected to increase by 3.4 percentage points. Although the carbon emissions from electric power would keep increasing to 118% of the 2020 level in 2030, the electric power industry would continue to play a decisive role in achieving the goal of increase in non-fossil energy use. This study proposes countermeasures and recommendations to control carbon emissions peak, including energy system optimization, green-coal-fired electricity generation, and demand side management.

  9. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  10. A Multiperiod Supply Chain Network Design Considering Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a mixed integer linear programming formulation for modeling and solving a multiperiod one-stage supply chain distribution network design problem. The model is aimed to minimize two objectives, the total supply chain cost and the greenhouse gas emissions generated mainly by transportation and warehousing operations. The demand forecast is known for the planning horizon and shortage of demand is allowed at a penalty cost. This scenario must satisfy a minimum service level. Two carbon emission regulatory policies are investigated, the tax or carbon credit and the carbon emission cap. Computational experiments are performed to analyze the trade-offs between the total cost of the supply chain, the carbon emission quantity, and both carbon emission regulatory policies. Results demonstrate that for a certain range the carbon credit price incentivizes the reduction of carbon emissions to the environment. On the other hand, modifying the carbon emission cap inside a certain range could lead to significant reductions of carbon emission while not significantly compromising the total cost of the supply chain.

  11. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  12. Beta-delayed deuteron emission from 11Li: decay of the halo

    CERN Document Server

    Raabe, R; García-Borge, M J; Buchmann, L; Capel, P; Fynbo, H O U; Huyse, M; Kanungo, R; Kirchner, T; Mattoon, C; Morton, A C; Mukha, I; Pearson, J; Ponsaers, J; Ressler, J J; Riisager, K; Ruiz, C; Ruprecht, G; Sarazin, F; Tengblad, O; Van Duppen, P; Walden, P

    2008-01-01

    The deuteron-emission channel in the beta-decay of the halo-nucleus 11Li was measured at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF by implanting post-accelerated 11Li ions into a segmented silicon detector. The events of interest were identified by correlating the decays of 11Li with those of the daughter nuclei. This method allowed the energy spectrum of the emitted deuterons to be extracted, free from contributions from other channels, and a precise value for the branching ratio B_d = 1.30(13) x 10-4 to be deduced for E(c.m.) > 200 keV. The results provide the first unambiguous experimental evidence that the decay takes place essentially in the halo of 11Li, and that it proceeds mainly to the 9Li + d continuum, opening up a new means to study of the halo wave function of 11Li.

  13. A Further Measurement of the beta-Delayed alpha-Particle Emission of 16N

    CERN Document Server

    III, R H F; McDonald, J E; Wilds, E L

    2007-01-01

    We measured the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission spectrum of 16N with a sensitivity for beta-decay branching ratios of the order of 10-10. The 16N nuclei were produced using the d(15N,16N)p reaction with 70 MeV 15N beams and a deuterium gas target 7.5 cm long at a pressure of 1250 torr. The 16N nuclei were collected (over 10 s) using a thin aluminum foil with an areal density of 180 mu g/cm2 tilted at 7 Deg with respect to the beam. The activity was transferred to the counting area by means of a stepping motor in less than 3 s with the counting carried out over 8 s. The beta-delayed alpha-particles were measured using a time of flight method to achieve a sufficiently low background. Standard calibration sources (148Gd, 241Am, 208,209Po, and 227Ac) as well as alpha-particles and 7Li from the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction were used for an accurate energy calibration. The energy resolution of the catcher foil (180-220 keV) was calculated and the time of flight resolution (3-10 nsec) was measured using the beta-de...

  14. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-07-01

    Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16-44years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt

  15. Using Carbon Emissions Data to "Heat Up" Descriptive Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates using carbon emissions data in an introductory statistics assignment. The carbon emissions data has desirable characteristics including: choice of measure; skewness; and outliers. These complexities allow research and public policy debate to be introduced. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)

  16. Observation of β-delayed two-proton emission in the decay of 22Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.X. Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The decay of the lightest nucleus with Tz=−3, 22Si, was studied by a silicon array. A charged-particle group at 5600 (70 keV in the decay-energy spectrum was identified experimentally as β-delayed two-proton emission from the isobaric analog state (IAS of 22Al. Experimental results of the IAS fed by a superallowed Fermi transition were compared with our large-scale shell-model calculations. The ground-state mass of 22Si was obtained indirectly in the experiment for the first time. Two-proton separation energy for 22Si is deduced to be −108 (125 keV, which indicates that it is a very marginal candidate for two-proton ground-state emission.

  17. Bremsstrahlung emission probability in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boie, Hans-Hermann

    2009-06-03

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed. The measured differential emission probabilities, which could be followed up to {gamma}-energies of {proportional_to} 500 keV, allow for the first time for a serious test of various model calculations of the bremsstrahlung accompanied {alpha} decay. It is shown that corrections to the {alpha}-{gamma} angular correlation due to the interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole amplitudes and due to the relativistic character of the process have to be taken into account. With the experimentally derived angular correlation the measured energydifferential bremsstrahlung emission probabilities show excellent agreement with the fully quantum mechanical calculation. (orig.)

  18. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  19. A Meson Emission Model of Psi to N Nbar m Charmonium Strong Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T; Roberts, W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider a sequential "meson emission" mechanism for charmonium decays of the type Psi -> N Nbar m, where Psi is a generic charmonium state, N is a nucleon and m is a light meson. This decay mechanism, which may not be dominant in general, assumes that an NNbar pair is created during charmonium annihilation, and the light meson m is emitted from the outgoing nucleon or antinucleon line. A straightforward generalization of this model can incorporate intermediate N* resonances. We derive Dalitz plot event densities for the cases Psi = eta_c, J/psi, chi_c0, chi_c1} and psi' and m = pi0, f0 and omega (and implicitly, any 0^{-+}, 0^{++} or 1^{--} final light meson). It may be possible to separate the contribution of this decay mechanism to the full decay amplitude through characteristic event densities. For the decay subset Psi -> p pbar pi0 the two model parameters are known, so we are able to predict absolute numerical partial widths for Gamma(Psi -> p pbar pi0). In the specific case J/psi -> p ...

  20. Study of multi-neutron emission in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    A new investigation of neutron emission in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{11}$Li is proposed. The principal goal of this study will be to directly measure, for the first time for any system, two $\\beta$-delayed neutrons in coincidence and determine the energy and angular correlations. This will be possible using liquid scintillator detectors, capable of distinguishing between neutrons and ambient $\\gamma$ and cosmic-rays, coupled to a new digital electronics and acquisition system. In parallel, a considerably more refined picture of the single-neutron emission will be obtained.

  1. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  2. Statistical analysis of time-resolved emission from ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots: Interpretation of exponential decay models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Driel, A.F.; Nikolaev, I.S.; Vergeer, P.

    2007-01-01

    analysis to recent examples of colloidal quantum dot emission in suspensions and in photonic crystals, and we find that this important class of emitters is well described by a log-normal distribution of decay rates with a narrow and a broad distribution, respectively. Finally, we briefly discuss......We present a statistical analysis of time-resolved spontaneous emission decay curves from ensembles of emitters, such as semiconductor quantum dots, with the aim of interpreting ubiquitous non-single-exponential decay. Contrary to what is widely assumed, the density of excited emitters...... and the intensity in an emission decay curve are not proportional, but the density is a time integral of the intensity. The integral relation is crucial to correctly interpret non-single-exponential decay. We derive the proper normalization for both a discrete and a continuous distribution of rates, where every...

  3. Measurement of direct photon emission in the K(L) ---> pi+ pi- gamma decay mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouzaid, E.; /Chicago U., EFI; Arenton, M.; /Virginia U.; Barker, A.R.; /Colorado U.; Bellantoni, L.; /Fermilab; Bellavance, A.; /Rice U.; Blucher, E.; /Chicago U., EFI; Bock,; /Fermilab; Cheu, E.; /Arizona U.; Coleman, R.; /Fermilab; Corcoran, M.D.; /Rice U.; Corti, G.; /Virginia U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the KTeV collaboration reports the analysis of 112.1 x 10{sup 3} candidate K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} decays including a background of 671 {+-} 41 events with the objective of determining the photon production mechanisms intrinsic to the decay process. These decays have been analyzed to extract the relative contributions of the Cp violating bremsstrahlung process and the CP conserving M1 and CP violating E1 direct photon emission processes. The M1 direct photon emission amplitude and its associated vector form factor parameterized as |{bar g}{sub M1}|(1 + a{sub 1}/a{sub 2}/(M{sub {rho}}{sup 2}-M{sub K}{sup 2}) + 2M{sub K}E{sub {gamma}}) have been measured to be |{bar g}{sub M1}| = 1.198 {+-} 0.035(stat) {+-} 0.086(syst) and a{sub 1}/a{sub 2} = =0.738 {+-} 0.007(stat) {+-} 0.018(syst) GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} respectively. An upper limit for the CP violating E1 direct emission amplitude |g{sub E1}| {le} 0.1 (90%CL) has been found. The overall ratio of direct photon emission (DE) to total photon emission including the bremsstrahlung process (IB) has been determined to be DE/(DE + IB) = 0.689 {+-} 0.021 for E{sub {gamma}} {ge} 20 MeV.

  4. Effect of Population Structure Change on Carbon Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper expanded the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI model through the introduction of urbanization, residents’ consumption, and other factors, and decomposed carbon emission changes in China into carbon emission factor effect, energy intensity effect, consumption inhibitory factor effect, urbanization effect, residents’ consumption effect, and population scale effect, and then explored contribution rates and action mechanisms of the above six factors on change in carbon emissions in China. Then, the effect of population structure change on carbon emission was analyzed by taking 2003–2012 as a sample period, and combining this with the panel data of 30 provinces in China. Results showed that in 2003–2012, total carbon emission increased by 4.2117 billion tons in China. The consumption inhibitory factor effect, urbanization effect, residents’ consumption effect, and population scale effect promoted the increase in carbon emissions, and their contribution ratios were 27.44%, 12.700%, 74.96%, and 5.90%, respectively. However, the influence of carbon emission factor effect (−2.54% and energy intensity effect (−18.46% on carbon emissions were negative. Population urbanization has become the main population factor which affects carbon emission in China. The “Eastern aggregation” phenomenon caused the population scale effect in the eastern area to be significantly higher than in the central and western regions, but the contribution rate of its energy intensity effect (−11.10 million tons was significantly smaller than in the central (−21.61 million tons and western regions (−13.29 million tons, and the carbon emission factor effect in the central area (−3.33 million tons was significantly higher than that in the eastern (−2.00 million tons and western regions (−1.08 million tons. During the sample period, the change in population age structure, population education structure, and population occupation structure

  5. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  6. Characterization of decay and emission rates of ultrafine particles in indoor ice rink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Lee, K

    2013-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine indoor ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter DiSCmini were 0.54 ± 0.21/h and 0.85 ± 0.34/h, respectively. The average decay rate of UFP surface area concentration was 0.33 ± 0.15/h. The average emission rates of UFP number concentrations measured by P-Trak and DiSCmini were 1.2 × 10(14) ± 6.5 × 10(13) particles/min and 3.3 × 10(14) ± 2.4 × 10(14) particles/min, respectively. The average emission rate of UFP surface area concentration was 3.1 × 10(11) ± 2.0 × 10(11) μm(2)/min. UFP emission rate was associated with resurfacer age. DiSCmini measured higher decay and emission rates than P-Trak due to their different measuring mechanisms and size ranges.

  7. Plant factory: A new method for reducing carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Ma, Jianshe

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a focus issue all over the world. Many scientific studies have confirmed the relationship between the emission of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide and global climate change. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas is an effective way to solve the problem of climate change. This paper presents a new method for reducing carbon emissions: using the photosynthesis of plants to achieve carbon fixation in plant factory. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we built a closed artificial light plant factory adopting LED lighting to conduct the experiment of carbon dioxide enrichment. The results shows that the production of the plants increased by 20%-25% and the plants fixed a considerable amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment to 1000 ppm.

  8. Radioactive decay products in neutron star merger ejecta: heating efficiency and $\\gamma$-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Tanaka, Masaomi; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive decay of the freshly synthesized $r$-process nuclei ejected in compact binary mergers power optical/infrared macronovae (kilonovae) that follow these events. The light curves depend critically on the energy partition among the different products of the radioactive decay and this plays an important role in estimates of the amount of ejected $r$-process elements from a given observed signal. We study the energy partition and $\\gamma$-ray emission of the radioactive decay. We show that $20$-$50\\%$ of the total radioactive energy is released in $\\gamma$-rays on timescales from hours to a month. The number of emitted $\\gamma$-rays per unit energy interval has roughly a flat spectrum between a few dozen keV and $1$ MeV so that most of this energy is carried by $\\sim 1$ MeV $\\gamma$-rays. However at the peak of macronova emission the optical depth of the $\\gamma$-rays is $\\sim 0.02$ and most of the $\\gamma$-rays escape. The loss of these $\\gamma$-rays reduces the heat deposition into the ejecta and h...

  9. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, K A

    1997-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I where sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the sup 1 sup 2 sup 7 I(n, 2n) sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The beta branch measurement was carried out in a 4 pi(PC)beta-gamma coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch ...

  10. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  11. Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Effiong Akpan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.

  12. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector. Encouraging car owners to shift transport mode from private car to public transport could achieve significant emissions reductions. This study estimate carbon emissions savings by shifting from private cars to public transport for shopping trips in urban China, using Shenyang, one of the largest cities in China, as a case study. Our results show that the average carbon emissions per shopper is 426.9 g, and the carbon emissions on weekends is 13% higher than weekdays. Moreover, shoppers travelling by private car emitted five times more carbon emission than those by public transport. We also found that car ownership gradually increased as accessibility to public transport decreased, and that more car owners chose to travel by private cars than public transport in areas with limited access. This study, thus, highlights the potential for high-quality public transport to reduce the transport sector’s carbon emissions in urban China.

  13. Experimental study of direct photon emission in K- --> pi- pi0 gamma decay using ISTRA+ detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uvarov, V A; Britvich, G I; Datsko, K V; Filin, A P; Inyakin, A V; Khmelnikov, V A; Konstantinov, A S; Konstantinov, V F; Korolkov, I Ya; Leontiev, V M; Novikov, V P; Obraztsov, V F; Polyakov, V A; Romanovsky, V I; Ronjin, V M; Shelikhov, V I; Smirnov, N E; Chikilev, O G; Yushchenko, O P; Bolotov, V N; Duk, V A; Laptev, S V; Polyarush, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    The branching ratio in the charged-pion kinetic energy region of 55 to 90 MeV for the direct photon emission in the K- --> pi- pi0 gamma decay has been measured using in-flight decays detected with the ISTRA+ setup operating in the 25 GeV/c negative secondary beam of the U-70 PS. The value Br(DE)=[0.37+-0.39(stat)+-0.10(syst)]*10^(-5) obtained from the analysis of 930 completely reconstructed events is consistent with the average value of two stopped-kaon experiments, but it differs by 2.5 standard deviations from the average value of three in-flight-kaon experiments. The result is also compared with recent theoretical predictions.

  14. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.ximenes@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Forest Science, Agriculture NSW, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Level 12, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2150 (Australia); Björdal, Charlotte [Department of Conservation, Gothenburg University, Guldhedsgatan 5A, Box 130, SE-405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Cowie, Annette [NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, Trevenna Rd., University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Barlaz, Morton [Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Eng., North Carolina State University, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  15. Langevin study of neutron emission in the reactions 16O+181Ta and 19F+178Hf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei; WU Feng; YANG Hong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The pre-scission neutrons measured in the reactions 16O+181Ta and 19F+178Hf are studied via a Langevin equation coupled with a statistical decay model.We find that because of the mass asymmetry of different entrance channels,the spin distributions of compound nuclei would be different,consequently,the measured neutrons in these two reactions would also different.This means that the entrance channel will affect the particle emission in the fission process of hot nuclei.

  16. Re-grown aligned carbon nanotubes with improved field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Xiaodai; Zhu, Yanwu; Varghese, Binni; Gao, Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a simple technique to improve the field emission property of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is presented. Re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are grown on the same substrates after the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are transferred to other substrates using polydimethylsiloxane as intermediation. For the duration of the synthesis of the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes, similar synthesis parameters used in growing the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are utilized. As a form of possible application, field emission studies show -2.6 times improvement in field enhancement factor and more uniform emission for the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the turn-on field is reduced from 2.85 V/microm to 1.40 V/microm. Such significant improvements are attributed to new emission sites comprising of sharp carbonaceous impurities encompassing both tip and upper portion of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. As such, this technique presents a viable route for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with better field emission quality.

  17. Estimation and prediction of black carbon emissions in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan; SHAO Min

    2007-01-01

    Black carbon is a by-product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. It can alter atmospheric radiation property and make adverse impacts on human health. The energy consumption in Beijing City depends largely on coal burning. Recently, Beijing City has been performing the municipal energy structure adjustment as a tool for air pollution abatement, aiming at the air quality goal for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Based on Beijing energy use data in 2000, combined with emission factors of major sources of black carbon, the emission of black carbon in Beijing City is estimated to be 7.77 Gg. Coke, raw coal and biomass as non-commercial energy are the main contributors to municipal black carbon emissions. Based on Beijing energy planning in the year 2008, the emission of black carbon in 2008 will be 2.97 Gg if the contribution from biomass is not taken into account. Assuming that the black carbon emission from rural biomass in 2008 is the same as that in 2004, the biomass burning will be the largest emitter of black carbon to Beijing City in 2008.

  18. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  19. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  20. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Murray B.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr‑1 from 2000–2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr‑1 in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0.13% yr‑1 (IUCN Cat I). Emissions were not evenly distributed: 80% of emissions derived from 8.3% of PAs (112 ± 49.5 Tg CO2 yr‑1 n = 171). Unsurprisingly the largest emissions derived from PAs that started with the greatest total forest area; accounting for starting forest area and relating that to carbon lost using a linear model (r2 = 0.41), we found 1.1% outlying PAs (residuals >2σ N = 23), representing 1.3% of the total PA forest area, yet causing 27.3% of all PA emissions. These results suggest PAs have been a successful means of protecting biomass carbon, yet a subset causing a disproportionately high share of emissions should be an urgent priority for management interventions.

  1. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  2. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Transport under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern over environmental issues has considerably increased the number of regulations and legislation that aim to curb carbon emissions. Carbon emission trading mechanism, which is one of the most effective means, has been broadly adopted by several countries. This paper presents a road truck routing problem under the carbon emission trading mechanism. By introducing a calculation method of carbon emissions that considers the load and speed of the vehicle among other factors, a road truck routing optimizing model under the cap and trade mechanism based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is described. Compared with the classical TSP model that only considers the economic cost, this model suggests that the truck routing decision under the cap and trade mechanism is more effective in reducing carbon emissions. A modified tabu search algorithm is also proposed to obtain solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. We theoretically and numerically examine the impacts of carbon trading, carbon cap, and carbon price on truck routing decision, carbon emissions, and total cost. From the results of numerical experiments, we derive interesting observations about how to control the total cost and reduce carbon emissions.

  3. Enforcement Issues in the Governance of Ships’ Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bloor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The shipping industry, although relatively carbon-efficient, is projected to produce rising carbon emissions in the future as a consequence of increasing world trade. A number of candidate regulations designed to mitigate these emissions have been canvassed by the UN’s International Maritime Organisation and by the European Commission. Many of these schemes are focussed on the use of market measures—emission trading schemes or fuel levies. This paper draws on observational and interview data gathered to examine enforcement issues associated with the control of ships’ sulphur emissions in order to consider the possible enforcement problems that might be associated with projected market measures to control ships’ carbon emissions. Enforcement problems are shown to be associated with the globalised character of the industry and its polycentric governance structure.

  4. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  5. Disintegration rate and gamma ray emission probability per decay measurement of 123I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, M F; Gishitomi, K C; Brito, A B; Yamazaki, I M; Dias, M S

    2012-09-01

    A series of (123)I measurements have been carried out in a 4π(e(A),X)-γ coincidence system. The experimental extrapolation curve was determined and compared to Monte Carlo simulation, performed by code ESQUEMA. From the slope of the experimental curve, the total conversion coefficient for the 159 keV total gamma transition, α(159), was determined. All radioactive sources were also measured in an HPGe spectrometry system, in order to determine the gamma-ray emission probability per decay for several gamma transitions. All uncertainties involved and their correlations were analyzed applying the covariance matrix methodology and the measured parameters were compared with those from the literature.

  6. Woody debris volume depletion through decay: implications for biomass and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraver, Shawn; Milo, Amy M.; Bradford, John B.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Kenefic, Laura; Palik, Brian J.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Brissette, John

    2013-01-01

    Woody debris decay rates have recently received much attention because of the need to quantify temporal changes in forest carbon stocks. Published decay rates, available for many species, are commonly used to characterize deadwood biomass and carbon depletion. However, decay rates are often derived from reductions in wood density through time, which when used to model biomass and carbon depletion are known to underestimate rate loss because they fail to account for volume reduction (changes in log shape) as decay progresses. We present a method for estimating changes in log volume through time and illustrate the method using a chronosequence approach. The method is based on the observation, confirmed herein, that decaying logs have a collapse ratio (cross-sectional height/width) that can serve as a surrogate for the volume remaining. Combining the resulting volume loss with concurrent changes in wood density from the same logs then allowed us to quantify biomass and carbon depletion for three study species. Results show that volume, density, and biomass follow distinct depletion curves during decomposition. Volume showed an initial lag period (log dimensions remained unchanged), even while wood density was being reduced. However, once volume depletion began, biomass loss (the product of density and volume depletion) occurred much more rapidly than density alone. At the temporal limit of our data, the proportion of the biomass remaining was roughly half that of the density remaining. Accounting for log volume depletion, as demonstrated in this study, provides a comprehensive characterization of deadwood decomposition, thereby improving biomass-loss and carbon-accounting models.

  7. The long rapid decay phase of the extended emission from the short GRB 080503

    CERN Document Server

    Genet, Franck; Granot, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    GRB080503 was classified as a short GRB with extended emission (Perley et al. 2009). The origin of such extended emission (found in about a quarter of Swift short GRBs) is still unclear and may provide some clues to the identity of the elusive progenitors of short GRBs. The extended emission from GRB 080503 is followed by a rapid decay phase (RDP) that is detected over an unusually large dynamical range (one decade in time and ~3.5 decades in flux). We model the broad envelope of extended emission and the subsequent RDP using a physical model (Genet & Granot 2009), in which the prompt emission (and its tail) is the sum of its individual pulses (and their tails). For GRB 080503, a single pulse fit is found to be unacceptable. The RDP displays very strong spectral evolution and shows some evidence for the presence of two spectral components with different temporal behaviour, likely arising from distinct physical regions. A two pulse fit provides a much better fit to the data. The shallow gamma-ray and steep...

  8. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activities, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Tsap, Yuri T., E-mail: huangj@nao.cas.cn [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 98409 Crimea, Nauchny (Ukraine)

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  9. Field Emission from Carbon Nanotube/Tin Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bo; ZHANG Ya-fei

    2009-01-01

    Powder metallurgy was used to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. CNTs and tin (Sn) powder were blended, compacted and sintered. After polishing and etching, CNTs were exposed and protruded from the metal surface. CNTs were embedded into the Sn matrix, which acted as stable field emitters. The J-E curves show excellent field emission properties, such as low turn-on field of 2.8 V/μm, high emission current density and good current stability.

  10. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  11. Australian carbon dust emission: a carbon accounting omission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon redistribution are not considered in most SOC models, or within the Austr...

  12. Carbon radioactivity of {sup 223}Ac and a search for nitrogen emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti, A; Faccio, D; Bonetti, R [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata and INFN, Milano (Italy); Shishkin, S V; Tretyakova, S P [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S V; Ogloblin, A A; Pik-Pichak, G A [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meulen, N P van der; Steyn, G F; Walt, T N van der; Vermeulen, C; McGee, D [iThemba LABS, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)], E-mail: Alessandra.Guglielmetti@mi.infn.it

    2008-05-15

    A very intense {sup 227}Pa source was produced in order to study the possible {sup 14}C and {sup 15}N spontaneous emission from {sup 223}Ac. After the irradiation of a hemispherical, highly efficient array of nuclear track detectors, about 350 Carbon events were found leading to a branching ratio with respect to alpha decay B = 3.2 10{sup -11}. Comparison with other {sup 14}C emitters allows the study of the influence of even-odd effects on cluster radioactivity.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  14. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Alternative Approaches to Causality Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehdanz, Katrin (Christian-Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany)); Maddison, David J. (Univ. of Birmingham, Dept. of Economics, Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. More recently this technique has been extended to looking at the relationship between carbon emissions and GDP per capita. These analyses frequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper compares the standard fixed-dynamic-effects approach to a heterogenous panel approach testing for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP per capita and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity. Overall there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita

  15. Enhanced Gamma-Ray Emission from Neutron Unbound States Populated in Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Tain, J L; Algora, A; Agramunt, J; Rubio, B; Rice, S; Gelletly, W; Regan, P; Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Fallot, M; Porta, A; Rissanen, J; Eronen, T; Aysto, J; Batist, L; Bowry, M; Bui, V M; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Elomaa, V -V; Estevez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gomez-Hornillos, B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jordan, M D; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Moore, I; Penttila, H; Podolyak, Zs; Reponen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Sonzogni, A A

    2015-01-01

    Total absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the beta-decay intensity to states above the neutron separation energy followed by gamma-ray emission in 87,88Br and 94Rb. Accurate results were obtained thanks to a careful control of systematic errors. An unexpectedly large gamma intensity was observed in all three cases extending well beyond the excitation energy region where neutron penetration is hindered by low neutron energy. The gamma branching as a function of excitation energy was compared to Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. For 87Br and 88Br the gamma branching reaches 57% and 20% respectively, and could be explained as a nuclear structure effect. Some of the states populated in the daughter can only decay through the emission of a large orbital angular momentum neutron with a strongly reduced barrier penetrability. In the case of neutron-rich 94Rb the observed 4.5% branching is much larger than the calculations performed with standard nuclear statistical model parameters, even after proper c...

  16. Scenario analysis on the goal of carbon emission peaking around 2030 of China proposed in the China-U.S. joint statement on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T.

    2015-12-01

    A goal of carbon (C) emission peaking around 2030 of China was declared in the China-U.S. joint statement on climate change, and emphasized in China's intended nationally determined contributions (INDC). Here, we predicted the carbon emission of China during the period 2011~2050 under seven scenarios, and analyzed the scientific and social implications of realizing the goal. Our results showed that: (1) C emissions of China will reach their peaks at 2022~2045 (with peak values 3.15~5.10 Pg C), and the predicted decay rates of C intensity were 2.1~4.2% in 2011~2050; (2) the precondition that the national C emission reaches the peak before 2030 is that the annual decay rates of C intensity must exceed 3.3% , as decay rates under different scenarios were predicted higher than that except for Past G8 scenario; (3) the national C emission would reach the peak before 2030, if the government of China should realize the C emissions reduction goals of China's 12th five-year plan, climate commitments of Copenhagen and INDC; (4) Chinese government could realize the goal of C emission peaking around 2030 from just controlling C emission intensity , but associated with relatively higher government's burden. In summary, China's C emission may well peak before 2030, meanwhile the combination of emissions reduction and economic macro-control would be demanded to avoid heavier social pressure of C emissions reduction occurred.

  17. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization.

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, S; Clauson-Kaas, S; Bobul'ská, L

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application...

  19. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  20. [Forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Xia, Nianhe; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    The investigation on the forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin showed that since 1990, the forests in Tanjiang River basin acted as a carbon sink, and this action was increased with time and with economic development. The net carbon uptake by the forests was 1.0579 x 10 (7) t in 1990 and 1.28061 x 10 (7) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 1.856 x 10(5) t, while the fuel carbon emission was 9. 508 x 10(5) t in 1990 and 1.8562 x 10(6) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 7.0 x 10(4) t. In 2003, the fuel carbon emission was up to 2.1968 x 10(6) t, 3.406 x 105 t more than that in 2002. In 2002, the energy consumption per 10(4) yuan GDP in Tanjiang River basin was 2.21 t standard coal, higher than the average consumption (1.81 t standard coal) in the Pearl River delta. If the fuel consumption decreased to the average level, the carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin would be reduced by 3.360 x 10(5) t, which was higher than the annual increment of forest net carbon uptake in the basin. From the viewpoint of net carbon uptake and emission in a basin, more attention should be paid to the relations between forest carbon sink and human activities.

  1. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  2. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR and low temperature photoluminescence (PL measurement.

  3. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, L. T.; Yi, J. B., E-mail: jiabao.yi@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, X. Y.; Xing, G. Z.; Luo, X.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Fan, H. M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Herng, T. S.; Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Ionescu, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  4. Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implication for vehicle emission control policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle emission is a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce the vehicle emission. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emission in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicles emission, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII, metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang Tunnel of Guangzhou, the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC, and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4, and 1.31 mg vehicle−1 km−1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F- ~4.17 (Cl- mg vehicle−1 km−1, totally contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of the PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle−1 km−1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 μg vehicle−1 km−1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition δ13C value was measured and it was −25.0‰ on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2‰ was found during fuel combustion. Compared with a previous study in Zhujiang Tunnel in year 2004, emission factors of PM2.5 mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl-, and organic compounds decreased by 16.0–93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle condition. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emission, which should be a concern of the government. A

  5. Allowable carbon emissions for medium-to-high mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Annan, James D.; Kawamiya, Michio [Research Inst. for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, (Japan)], e-mail: tachiiri@jamstec.go.jp; Huntingford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Using an ensemble of simulations with an intermediate complexity climate model and in a probabilistic framework, we estimate future ranges of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to follow three medium-high mitigation concentration pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and SCP4.5 to 2.6. Uncertainty is first estimated by allowing modelled equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within widely accepted ranges. Results are then constrained by comparison against contemporary measurements. For both constrained and unconstrained projections, our calculated allowable emissions are close to the standard (harmonised) emission scenarios associated with these pathways. For RCP4.5, which is the most moderate scenario considered in terms of required emission abatement, then after year 2100 very low net emissions are needed to maintain prescribed year 2100 CO{sub 2} concentrations. As expected, RCP2.6 and SCP4.5 to 2.6 require more strict emission reductions. The implication of this is that direct sequestration of carbon dioxide is likely to be required for RCP4.5 or higher mitigation scenarios, to offset any minimum emissions for society to function (the 'emissions floor'). Despite large uncertainties in the physical and biogeochemical processes, constraints from model-observational comparisons support a high degree of confidence in predicting the allowable emissions consistent with a particular concentration pathway. In contrast the uncertainty in the resulting temperature range remains large. For many parameter sets, and especially for RCP2.6, the land will turn into a carbon source within the twenty first century, but the ocean will remain as a carbon sink. For land carbon storage and our modelling framework, major reductions are seen in northern high latitudes and the Amazon basin even after atmospheric CO{sub 2} is stabilised, while for ocean carbon uptake, the tropical ocean regions will be a

  6. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  7. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  8. Microwave Emission of Supra-arcade Structure associated with M1.6 Limb Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sujin; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Reznikova, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure, associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 4th of November 2010. It is observed in microwaves at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), soft X-rays in the range of 8-20 keV with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). As reported by Reeves & Golub (2011), the supra-arcade structure is observed predominantly in the AIA 131 {\\AA} channel, which contains a hot 11 MK component from Fe XIX (Boerner et al. 2011). While this hot flare plasma lasts over the decay phase of the flare, it shows some interesting characteristics in microwaves and soft X-rays: 1) In the supra-arcade structure, the brightness temperature (TB) of the microwave emission increases gradually up to 2\\times10^4 K, and 2) two soft X-ray sources appear: one cospatial with the supra-arcade structure and another above the post-flare arcade...

  9. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  10. Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, H., E-mail: hudson.zanin@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, F.R.; Lobo, A.O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology/Institute of Research and Development at UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile method to prepare graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs). • The electric field emission behaviour of g-CNTs was studied. • g-CNTs show better emission current stability than non-graphenated CNTs. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

  11. Analytical optimization for field emission of carbon nanotube array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XinQing; LI Liang; CHEN Min; JIN HongXiao; JIN DingFeng; PENG Min; GE HongLiang

    2009-01-01

    To optimize field emission (FE) property of carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a planar cathode surface,the Fowler-Nordheim formula has been used to discuss the maximum of the emission current density with the floating sphere model in this paper. The emission current density is dominating as the ane-lytical Fowler-Nordheim function of the intertube distance, and the maximum of the emission current density is deduced and discussed. The results indicate that the intertube distance in CNT array criti-cally affects the field enhancement factor and the emission current density, whose maximum occurs at the intertube distance approximating a tenth of the tube height. Considering the emission current den-sity and the field enhancement factor, the FE can be optimized analytically when the intertube distance is about a tenth of the tube height.

  12. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  13. Mixed Carbon Policies Based on Cooperation of Carbon Emission Reduction in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established cooperation decision model for a mixed carbon policy of carbon trading-carbon tax (environmental tax in a two-stage S-M supply chain. For three different cooperative abatement situations, we considered the supplier driven model, the manufacturer driven model, and the equilibrium game model. We investigated the influence of mixed carbon policy with constraint of reduction targets on supply chain price, productivity, profits, carbon emissions reduction rate, and so on. The results showed that (1 high-strength carbon policies do not necessarily encourage enterprises to effectively reduce emissions, and increasing market acceptance of low carbon products or raising the price of carbon quota can promote the benign reduction; (2 perfect competitive carbon market has a higher carbon reduction efficiency than oligarch carbon market, but their optimal level of cooperation is the same and the realized reduction rate is in line with the intensity of carbon policy; (3 the policy sensitivity of the carbon trading mechanism is stronger than the carbon tax; “paid quota mechanism” can subsidize the cost of abatement and improve reduction initiative. Finally, we use a numerical example to solve the optimal decisions under different market situations, validating the effectiveness of model and the conclusions.

  14. Simulation and Assessment of Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Emission Flows from Different Residential Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikun Wen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To explore the differences in carbon emissions over the whole life-cycle of different building structures, the published calculated carbon emissions from residential buildings in China and abroad were normalized. Embodied carbon emission flows, operations stage carbon emission flows, demolition and reclamation stage carbon emission flows and total life-cycle carbon emission flows from concrete, steel, and wood structures were obtained. This study is based on the theory of the social cost of carbon, with an adequately demonstrated social cost of carbon and social discount rate. Taking into consideration both static and dynamic situations and using a social discount rate of 3.5%, the total life-cycle carbon emission flows, absolute carbon emission and building carbon costs were calculated and assessed. The results indicated that concrete structures had the highest embodied carbon emission flows and negative carbon emission flows in the waste and reclamation stage. Wood structures that started the life-cycle with stored carbon had the lowest carbon emission flows in the operations stage and relatively high negative carbon emission flows in the reclamation stage. Wood structures present the smallest carbon footprints for residential buildings.

  15. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    , H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa. (2011). Carbon balance of South Asia constrained by passenger aircraft CO2 measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss, 11, 5379-5405. Ram, A.S.P., S. Nair, D. Chandramohan, (2003). Seasonal shift in net ecosystem production...

  16. Improvement of carbon nanotube field emission properties by ultrasonic nanowelding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Yadian, Boluo; Chen, Da; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yafei

    2008-12-01

    Ultrasonic nanowelding was used to improve the field emission properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes. The CNTs were deposited on the Ti-coated glass substrate by electrophoretic deposition. By pressing CNTs against metal (Ti) substrate under a vibrating force at ultrasonic frequency, a reliable and low resistance contact was obtained between CNTs and Ti. The scanning electron microscopy results show that CNTs are embedded into the metal substrate and act as stable field emitters. The welded cathode demonstrates an excellent field emission with high emission current density and good current stability.

  17. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert G.; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  18. Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

    1992-03-01

    The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

  19. Capacity and production planning with carbon emission constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Shuang; Govindan, Kannan; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds a two-stage, stochastic model to study capacity expansion problem in logistics under cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. The optimal capacity expansion and production decisions are obtained, and the effects of carbon emission regulations on capacity expansion are studied....... Through analytical study and a real case numerical analysis, we find that the carbon tax exhibits different impacts on optimal capacity expansion decisions in low tax rate and high tax rate, and the volatility of capacity investment cost has a larger impact on optimal capacity expansion than...

  20. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  1. Tail Emission from a Ring-like Jet: Its Application to Shallow Decays of Early Afterglows and GRB 050709

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Chuan Zou; Zi-Gao Dai

    2006-01-01

    Similar to the case of pulsars the magnetic axis and the spin axis of gamma-ray burst sources may not lie on the same line. This may cause the formation of a ring-like jet due to collimation of the precessing magnetic axis. We analyze the tail emission from such a jet,and find that it has a shallow decay phase with a temporal index of -1/9 if the Lorentz factor of the ejecta is not very high, which is consistent with the shallow decay phase of some early X-ray afterglow detected by Swift. The ring-like jet has a tail cusp with sharp rising and very sharp decay. This effect can provide an explanation for the re-brightening and sharp decay of the X-ray afterglowof GRB 050709.

  2. Investigation of photoneutron and capture gamma-ray production in Pb and W under irradiation from 16N decay radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebwaro, Jeremiah Monari; Zhao, Yaolin; He, Chaohui

    2015-09-01

    Lead and tungsten are potential alternative materials for shielding reactor ex-core components with high 16N activity when available space limits application of concrete. Since the two materials are vulnerable to photonuclear reactions, the nature and intensity of the secondary radiation resulting from (γ,n) and (n,γ) reactions when 16N decay radiation interact with these materials need to be well known for effective shielding design. In this study the MCNP code was used to calculate the photoneutron and capture gamma-ray spectra in the two materials when irradiated by 16N decay radiation. It was observed that some of the photoneutrons generated in the two materials lie in the low-energy range which is considered optimum for (n,γ) reactions. Lead is more transparent to the photoneutrons when compared to tungsten. The calculations also revealed that the bremsstrahlung generated by the beta spectrum was not sufficient to trigger any additional photoneutrons. Both energetic and less energetic capture gamma-rays are observed when photoneutrons interact with nuclei of the two materials. Depending on the strength of the 16N source term, the secondary radiation could affect the effectiveness of the shield and need to be considered during design.

  3. Decay rate of critical fluctuations in ethane + carbon dioxide mixtures near the critical line including the critical azeotrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. F.; Doiron, T.; Pegg, I. L.

    1986-03-01

    Using the technique of photon correlation spectroscopy we have measured the decay rate of critical fluctuations in mixtures of ethane and carbon dioxide of various compositions including a near-azeotropic mixture. Our experimental data indicate that there is only one dominant mode of fluctuations and the decay rate is well described by the predictions of the mode-coupling theory with the exponent v=0.63 for all compositions. The decay rate, its background contributions, the shear viscosity, and the correlation length for the mixtures appear to interpolate simply between those of ethane and carbon dioxide.

  4. Decay rate of critical fluctuations in ethane+carbon dioxide mixtures near the critical line including the critical azeotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, R.F.; Doiron, T.; Pegg, I.L.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Cezairliyan, A.

    1986-03-01

    Using the technique of photon correlation spectroscopy we have measured the decay rate of critical fluctuations in mixtures of ethane and carbon dioxide of various compositions including a near-azeotropic mixture. Our experimental data indicate that there is only one dominant mode of fluctuations and the decay rate is well described by the predictions of the mode-coupling theory with the exponent v=0.63 for all compositions. The decay rate, its background contributions, the shear viscosity, and the correlation length for the mixtures appear to interpolate simply between those of ethane and carbon dioxide.

  5. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    In the year 2013, 9.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide gas was emitted into the air, and each year this amount is increasing [1]. Carbon dioxide emissions are of particular concern as they represent 80% of greenhouse gas emissions and therefore are a large contributor to global warming. Among...... the two approaches that are currently being investigated, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilization (CCU) [1] to address this issue, the later approach is more promising as it reuses captured carbon dioxide, as a fuel, reactant, solvent, and others, to produce valuable products....... There is not only a need for technologies for capture and utilization, via conversion, but also there are numerous questions that need to be resolved. For example, which higher value chemicals can be produced, what are their current demands and costs of production, and, how much of the captured carbon dioxide would...

  6. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  7. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...

  8. Field emission characteristics of regular arrays of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, A A; Al-Heniti, S; Al-Hazmi, F S; Faidah, Adel S; Shalaan, E; Husain, M

    2014-06-01

    The developments of electronic devices based on micron-sized vacuum electron sources during the last decades have triggered intense research on highly efficient carbon based thin film electron emitters. The synthesis of massive arrays of carbon nanotubes that are oriented on patterned Fe catalyst deposited on quartz substrates is reported. The well-ordered nanotubes can be used as electron field emission arrays. Scaling up of the synthesis process should be entirely compatible with the existing semiconductor processes, and should allow the development of nanotubes devices integrated into future technology. The emission from carbon nanotubes array is explained by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons from tip-like structures in the nanometer range, which locally amplify the applied field by the field enhancement factor beta. We found that the low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) system can produce nanotubes capable of excellent emission currents at lower voltages. The carbon nanotubes array shows good field emission with turn on field E(alpha) = 1.30 V/microm at the current density of 3.50 mA/cm2 with enhancement factor beta = 1.22 x 10(2).

  9. Carbon Emissions Abatement Cost in China: Provincial Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the quadratic directional output distance function to derive shadow prices of China’s aggregate carbon emissions at the province level between 1997 and 2010. The empirical results indicate that the national weighted average shadow price presents an “N-shape” curve across the sample period, experiencing the initial phase of growth followed by a phase of deterioration, and then a further increase. This change trend implies that the cost of carbon emissions reduction is increasing. In addition, the shadow price varies significantly across provinces, which means that China should uphold the principal of “common but differentiated responsibilities” in regional carbon emissions reduction. Generally, the shadow price of the east provinces with high economic development is markedly higher than that of the west provinces with low economic development. The OLS regression results indicate that the shadow price positively connected with the regional economic development levels. Moreover, an inflection point exists in the relation curve between the shadow price and GDP per capita, that is, the increase rate of the shadow price becomes small when the GDP per capita is less than 18.1 thousand Yuan, while it becomes large when the GDP per capita surpasses 18.1 thousand Yuan. With the economic growth, the cost of carbon emissions reduction would be significantly increased. The empirical results can provide more insight for policymakers.

  10. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    2012-01-01

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also relativel

  11. Development of a Carbon Emission Calculations System for Optimizing Building Plan Based on the LCA Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle thinking has become widely applied in the assessment for building environmental performance. Various tool are developed to support the application of life cycle assessment (LCA method. This paper focuses on the carbon emission during the building construction stage. A partial LCA framework is established to assess the carbon emission in this phase. Furthermore, five typical LCA tools programs have been compared and analyzed for demonstrating the current application of LCA tools and their limitations in the building construction stage. Based on the analysis of existing tools and sustainability demands in building, a new computer calculation system has been developed to calculate the carbon emission for optimizing the sustainability during the construction stage. The system structure and detail functions are described in this paper. Finally, a case study is analyzed to demonstrate the designed LCA framework and system functions. This case is based on a typical building in UK with different plans of masonry wall and timber frame to make a comparison. The final results disclose that a timber frame wall has less embodied carbon emission than a similar masonry structure. 16% reduction was found in this study.

  12. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework.

  13. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  14. Study of Carbon Emission in Computing Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Nikhil B. Dhake Mr. Pankaj M. Poul Prof. Pranav R. Shriram Prof. Kanchan V. Wankhade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of what is green computing, why we need to go green computing & will tell you how to minimize the energy consumption as well how to lessen the CO2 emission by going Green Computing. The huge amount of computing manufactured worldwide has a direct impact on environment issues and scientists are conducting numerous studies in order to reduce the negative impact of computing technology on environment. Energy consumption in the datacenter reached the highs. A large corporate IT infrastructure, consumes as much as the energy produced by five power plants over the same time period. This case study will provide a rich source for anyone interested in green computing research.

  15. Carbon emission reduction potentials through thinned wood in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninomiya H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fossil fuel with woody biomass for bioelectricity production has great potentials for carbon emission reductions while increasing forest productivity to increase carbon sequestration and improve ecological functionalities. Until recently, study on such potentials was very limited. Beginning in 2007, Japan’s special budgets were allocated for a 6-year intensive thinning on about 3.3 million ha of young stands for increasing carbon sinks in Japanese forests to meet the capped amount of 47.7 Tg CO2 year-1 allowed under the Marrakesh Accord. Because of only 30% of the thinned wood were used for sawntimber, CO2 and CH4 must have been emitted from the disposed thinned wood and wood waste. Such emissions and reduction potentials need to be assessed to provide future alternatives for climate change mitigation. We assessed carbon emission reduction potentials when woody biomass from thinned wood is fully utilized for bioelectricity production as compared with the generation of the same amount of energy produced under coal, oil, and natural gas scenarios. Our analytical results show that if all disposed thinned wood and wood waste are utilized to generate energy, about 62.6, 58.3, and 37.8 Tg CO2 year-1 could be prevented from emitting depending on emission scenarios or about 33.2, 30.9, and 20.0% of Japan’s reduction commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, if thinned wood and wood waste are not utilized, about 13.4 Tg CO2 year-1 would be released due to thinning. Our results suggest that incentives to reducing emission reductions in forest sector in the future climate change mitigation agreements will likely lead to large emission reductions, otherwise leakages due to thinning are unavoidable.

  16. Effects of Land Use Change on Carbon Emission:A Case Study of Yuheng Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yarui; WU; Wenhai; XIA

    2014-01-01

    Land use is the main factor affecting the carbon emission. Taking Yuheng Mining Area as the research object,this paper chose two periods of remote sensing data of 1999 and 2006,and adopted the remote sensing image interpretation and supervised classification to study the changes in land use types and carbon sink in different periods in the mining area. The results showed that the area of arable land was reduced from 166. 96 km2 to 81. 10 km2,the area of woodland was increased from 46.79 km2 to 134. 53 km2,and arable land decreased by 51%,but carbon sink in the mining area still showed a rising trend; the carbon sink value increased by 16. 4 million yuan in 2006 compared to 1999,an increase of 40%,indicating that the reasonable land use pattern can improve the ecological environment,and promote the sustainable development of environment and economy in the mining area.

  17. A study of legal attributes of carbon emission rights in carbon trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Qing; Jiang Dongmei; Zhang Mengheng

    2009-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has given birth to an international carbon trading market prosperity,which provides developing countries with valuable opportunity to address climate change issues right along with economic development and environmental improvement to achieve sustainable development,However,most studies of CDM focus on economics,and few on its legal problems.CDM involves too many aspects.And the clear legal attribute of trading object is the basis of progress of the transaction and also the start point of legal protection.Therefore,this paper in accordance with the inherent principle of property rights economics,and environmental economics in CDM,only discusses CDM carbon emission right legal interpretation and its attribution.The paper recommends that in order to ensure and promote the carbon emission right trading,carbon emission right should be attributed into the system of real rights to be regulated by Real Right Law.In this way,carbon emission right can gain exclusive power of possession and use,which can achieve a clear right definition of environmental goods in line with Coase's theory to protect Chinese profit in carbon trading market and promote the development of the carbon trading market further.

  18. Development of TEM and SEM high brightness electron guns using cold-field emission from a carbon nanotip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdellier, F.; Knoop, L. de; Gatel, C.; Masseboeuf, A. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Mamishin, S.; Taniguchi, Y. [Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, 882, Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Delmas, M.; Monthioux, M.; Hÿtch, M.J.; Snoeck, E. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2015-04-15

    A newly developed carbon cone nanotip (CCnT) has been used as field emission cathode both in low voltage SEM (30 kV) electron source and high voltage TEM (200 kV) electron source. The results clearly show, for both technologies, an unprecedented stability of the emission and the probe current with almost no decay during 1 h, as well as a very small noise (rms less than 0.5%) compared to standard sources which use tungsten tips as emitting cathode. In addition, quantitative electric field mapping around the FE tip have been performed using in situ electron holography experiments during the emission of the new tip. These results show the advantage of the very high aspect ratio of the new CCnT which induces a strong enhancement of the electric field at the apex of the tip, leading to very small extraction voltage (some hundred of volts) for which the field emission will start. The combination of these experiments with emission current measurements has also allowed to extract an exit work function value of 4.8 eV. - Highlights: • We develop a new field emission cathode based on carbon material. • We determine the exit work function of this new cathode using a combination of in situ electron holography and finite element modeling. • We show that the stability of cold-field emitted current can be improved with no decay during one hour of emission with a lower emission noise (less than 0.5%). • We used this cathode both for 200 kV TEM and 30 kV SEM cold field emission source. • As a TEM source, we also observe an increase of the spatial coherence using Fresnel fringes contrast.

  19. Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in

  20. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  1. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  2. The Tractor and Semitrailer Routing Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the minimization of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the VRP is important to logistics companies. The paper deals with the tractor and semitrailer routing problem with full truckload between any two depots of the network; an integer programming model with the objective of minimizing CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer is proposed. A two-stage approach with the same core steps of the simulated annealing (SA in both stages is designed. The number of tractors is provided in the first stage and the CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer are then optimized in the second stage. Computational experiments on small-scale randomly generated instances supported the feasibility and validity of the heuristic algorithm. To a practical-scale problem, the SA algorithm can provide advice on the number of tractors, the routes, and the location of the central depot to realize CO2 emissions decrease.

  3. A Healthy Reduction in Oil Dependence and Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.; Higgins, M.

    2003-12-01

    Societal dependence on oil as an energy source for personal transportation leads to increasingly negative social consequences including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Our heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation, determined in part by urban sprawl, also contributes to the population's increasingly sedentary lifestyle and to a concomitant degradation in health. We have shown that widespread substitution of exercise, commensurate with previously recommended levels, through biking or walking instead of driving can substantially reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions. For example, if all individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 substituted one hour of cycling for driving the reduction in gasoline demand would be equivalent to the gas produced from 34.9 percent of current oil consumption. Relative to 1990 net US emissions, this constitutes a 10.9 percent reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, substitution of exercise for driving could improve health, reduce carbon emissions and save more oil than even upper estimates of that contained in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

  4. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations.

  5. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Rob; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  6. {sup 12}C+{sup 16}O: Properties of sub-barrier resonance {gamma}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goasduff, A.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Lebhertz, D.; Jenkins, D. G.; Fallis, J.; Ruiz, C.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Amandruz, P.-A.; Davis, C.; Hager, U.; Ottewell, D.; Ruprecht, G. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France) and CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2012-10-20

    In a recent experiment performed at Triumf using the Dragon 0 Degree-Sign spectrometer and its associated BGO array, the complete {gamma}-decay of the radiative capture channel below the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. This measurement has been performed at two energies E{sub c.m.}= 6.6 and 7.2 MeV. A selective contribution of the entrance spins 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} has been evidenced which is consistent with existing results above the barrier.

  7. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  8. Carbon emissions from land use and land-cover change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The net flux of carbon from land use and land-cover change (LULCC accounted for 12.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions from 1990 to 2010. This net flux is the most uncertain term in the global carbon budget, not only because of uncertainties in rates of deforestation and forestation, but also because of uncertainties in the carbon density of the lands actually undergoing change. Furthermore, there are differences in approaches used to determine the flux that introduce variability into estimates in ways that are difficult to evaluate, and not all analyses consider the same types of management activities. Thirteen recent estimates of net carbon emissions from LULCC are summarized here. In addition to deforestation, all analyses considered changes in the area of agricultural lands (croplands and pastures. Some considered, also, forest management (wood harvest, shifting cultivation. None included emissions from the degradation of tropical peatlands. Means and standard deviations across the thirteen model estimates of annual emissions for the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, are 1.14 ± 0.23 and 1.12 ± 0.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg = 1015 g carbon. Four studies also considered the period 2000–2009, and the mean and standard deviations across these four for the three decades are 1.14 ± 0.39, 1.17 ± 0.32, and 1.10 ± 0.11 Pg C yr−1. For the period 1990–2009 the mean global emissions from LULCC are 1.14 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1. The standard deviations across model means shown here are smaller than previous estimates of uncertainty as they do not account for the errors that result from data uncertainty and from an incomplete understanding of all the processes affecting the net flux of carbon from LULCC. Although these errors have not been systematically evaluated, based on partial analyses available in the literature and expert opinion, they are estimated to be on the order of ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1.

  9. Optical Emission Lines from Warm Interstellar Clouds a Decisive Test of the Decaying Neutrino Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sciama, Dennis William

    1998-01-01

    Recently developed instruments such as the Taurus Tunable Filter and WHAM should be able to detect some or all of the optical emission lines H$\\alpha$, [OI] $\\lambda$6300, [SII] $\\lambda$6717, [NI] $\\lambda$ 5200 and [NII] $&$ Fitzpatrick (1993) (SF) along the line of sight to the halo star HD93521. The strengths of these lines should resolve the debate as to whether the free electrons, which SF held responsible for the observed excitation of CII in the clouds, are located mainly in the skins of the clouds or in their interiors. If the free electrons are indeed mainly located in the cloud interiors, then the substantial electron density derived by SF, and its constancy from cloud to cloud for the slow-moving clouds, when combined with their opacity to Lyman continuum radiation, lend strong support to the decaying neutrino theory for the ionisation of the interstellar medium (Sciama 1990, 1993 a, b, 1997). If the [OI] and [NI] lines are relatively strong but the [NII] line is weak, then this would lend fur...

  10. Study on direct pion emission in decay $D^{*+} \\to D^+ \\pi$

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xing-Dao; Ke, Hong-Wei; Li, Xue-Qian

    2015-01-01

    The QCD multipole expansion (QCDME) is based on the quantum field theory, so should be more reliable. However, on another aspect, it refers to the non-perturbative QCD , so that has a certain application range. Even though it successfully explains the data of transition among members of the $\\Upsilon$ ($\\psi$) family, as Eichten indicates, beyond the production threshold of mediate states it fails to meet data by several orders. In this work, by studying a simple decay mode $D^*\\to D+\\pi^0$, where a pion may be emitted before $D^*$ transiting into $D$, we analyze the contribution of QCD multipole expansion. Whereas as the $D\\pi$ portal is open, the dominant contribution is an OZI allowed process where a light quark-pair is excited out from vacuum and its contribution can be evaluated by the $^3P_0$ model. Since the direct pion emission is a process which is OZI suppressed and violates the isospin conservation, its contribution must be much smaller than the dominant one. By a careful calculation, we may quanti...

  11. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who – like other scientists – rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc. were calculated for the years 2005–2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  12. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  13. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  14. Carbon Emissions Decomposition and Environmental Mitigation Policy Recommendations for Sustainable Development in Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Provincial carbon emissions research is necessary for China to realize emissions reduction targets. Two-level decomposition model based on the Kaya identity was applied to uncover the main driving forces for the energy related carbon emissions in Shandong province from 1995 to 2011, an important energy base in China. Coal consumption is still the biggest contributor to the increased carbon emissions in Shandong. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect is the most important contributors to the carbon emissions increments. The energy intensity effect is the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions. The emission coefficient effect plays an important negative but relatively minor effect on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a series of environment-friendly mitigation policies are raised by fully considering all of these influencing factors. Sustainable mitigation policies will pay more attention to the low-carbon economic development along with the significant energy intensity reduction in Shangdong province.

  15. The Application of Two-stage Structure Decomposition Technique to the Study of Industrial Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqiu HE

    2015-01-01

    The total carbon emissions control is the ultimate goal of carbon emission reduction, while industrial carbon emissions are the basic units of the total carbon emission. On the basis of existing research results, in this paper, a two-stage input-output structure decomposition method is creatively proposed for fully combining the input-output method with the structure decomposition technique. In this study, more comprehensive technical progress indicators were chosen in comparison with the previous studies and included the utilization efficiency of all kinds of intermediate inputs such as energy and non-energy products, and finally were positioned at the factors affecting the carbon emissions of different industries. Through analysis, the affecting rate of each factor on industrial carbon emissions was acquired. Thus, a theory basis and data support is provided for the total carbon emissions control of China from the perspective of industrial emissions.

  16. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  17. A Pareto Optimal Auction Mechanism for Carbon Emission Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emission rights do not fit well into the framework of existing multi-item auction mechanisms because of their own unique features. This paper proposes a new auction mechanism which converges to a unique Pareto optimal equilibrium in a finite number of periods. In the proposed auction mechanism, the assignment outcome is Pareto efficient and the carbon emission rights’ resources are efficiently used. For commercial application and theoretical completeness, both discrete and continuous markets—represented by discrete and continuous bid prices, respectively—are examined, and the results show the existence of a Pareto optimal equilibrium under the constraint of individual rationality. With no ties, the Pareto optimal equilibrium can be further proven to be unique.

  18. Estimation of Direct Carbon Emissions from Chinese Forest Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANXiaorui; GAOChengde; SHULifu; WANGMingyu; YANGXiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Many studies indicated that the products of biosphere burning have short and long-term effects on the atmosphere. Vegetation burning can produce some gases which have significant influence on environment, including some greenhouse gases as CO2 and CH4, etc. Smoke aerosols produced from burning also influence global climate and atmospheric chemistry. The paper calculates the consumed biomass due to forest fires according to the statistics of forest fires from 1991 to 2000 and research results of biomass of Chinese forests. During the study period, forest fires burned average 5Tg-7Tg biomass each year and directly emitted 20.24 Tg-28.56 Tg carbon. In 1991-2000, average emission of carbon dioxide and CH4 account for 2.7%-3.9% and 3.3%-4.7% of the total emission of China (calculating with the data of 2000), respectively.

  19. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, S B; Guzmán, F; Di Marco, A; García, F; Rodríguez, O; Gonçalves, M

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the effective liquid drop model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer (VMAS) and Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient (WW). The calculated half lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. These comparisons show that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified, theoretical framework. A table listing the predicted half-life values, tau sub c , is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear breakup such that -7.30 -17.0, where tau is the total half life of the parent nucleus.

  20. Research on the Influence of Carbon Tax on Carbon Emission and Economic Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Luo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax is one of ways to cut the emissions of GHG, which has already been employed by the west. To study the effect of carbon tax on energy conservation and carbon reduction in China, a new model is constructed based on dynamic CGE model and the linkage of dynamic CGE model and energy technology model. Besides the improvement of technology of energy, if carbon taxation is employed, the goal to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 compared with 2005 need to levy a tax of 60 yuan at least per tonne, the simulations of this tax to carbon reduction, economic and income of residents are analysed under different circumstances, the results shows that there is a great impact on income of residents and GDP with a higher tax burden level.

  1. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  2. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; V V L Padma Alekhya; K R L Saranya; K Athira; C S Jha; P G Diwakar; V K Dadhwal

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km², respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO₂ emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO₂ emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO₂ emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO₂ emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Resolution of heterogeneous fluorescence emission signals and decay lifetime measurement on fluorochrome-labeled cells by phase-sensitive FCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.

    1993-02-01

    A phase-sensitive flow cytometer has been developed to resolve signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emission spectra and quantify fluorescence decay times on cells labeled with fluorescent dyes. This instrument combines flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence spectroscopy measurement principles to provide unique capabilities for making phase-resolved measurements on single cells in flow, while preserving conventional FCM measurement capabilities. Stained cells are analyzed as they pass through an intensity-modulated (sinusoid) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence is measured orthogonally using a s barrier filter to block scattered laser excitation light, and a photomultiplier tube detector output signals, which are shifted in phase from a reference signal and amplitude demodulated, are processed by phase-sensitive detection electronics to resolve signals from heterogeneous emissions and quantify decay lifetimes directly. The output signals are displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate diagrams using a computer-based data acquisition system. Results have demonstrated signal phase shift, amplitude demodulation, and average measurement of fluorescence lifetimes on stained cells; a detection limit threshold of 300 to 500 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC); fluorescence measurement precision of 1.3% on alignment fluorospheres and 3.4% on propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells; the resolution of PI and FITC signals from cells stainedin combination with PI and FITC, based on differences in their decay lifetimes; and the ability to measure single decay nines by the two-phase, phase comparator, method.

  4. Resolution of heterogeneous fluorescence emission signals and decay lifetime measurement on fluorochrome-labeled cells by phase-sensitive FCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    A phase-sensitive flow cytometer has been developed to resolve signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emission spectra and quantify fluorescence decay times on cells labeled with fluorescent dyes. This instrument combines flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence spectroscopy measurement principles to provide unique capabilities for making phase-resolved measurements on single cells in flow, while preserving conventional FCM measurement capabilities. Stained cells are analyzed as they pass through an intensity-modulated (sinusoid) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence is measured orthogonally using a s barrier filter to block scattered laser excitation light, and a photomultiplier tube detector output signals, which are shifted in phase from a reference signal and amplitude demodulated, are processed by phase-sensitive detection electronics to resolve signals from heterogeneous emissions and quantify decay lifetimes directly. The output signals are displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate diagrams using a computer-based data acquisition system. Results have demonstrated signal phase shift, amplitude demodulation, and average measurement of fluorescence lifetimes on stained cells; a detection limit threshold of 300 to 500 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC); fluorescence measurement precision of 1.3% on alignment fluorospheres and 3.4% on propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells; the resolution of PI and FITC signals from cells stainedin combination with PI and FITC, based on differences in their decay lifetimes; and the ability to measure single decay nines by the two-phase, phase comparator, method.

  5. Beta-Decay Half-Lives and Neutron-Emission Probabilities of Very Neutron-Rich Y to Tc Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehren, T.; Pfeiffer, B.; Schoedder, S.; Kratz, K. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Huhta, M.; Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Oinonen, M.; Parmonen, J.; Penttilae, H.; Popov, A.; Rubchenya, V.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-07-01

    Neutron-rich {sub 39}Y to {sub 43}Tc isotopes have been produced by fission of uranium with a 50MeV H{sub 2}{sup +} beam. Beta-decay half-lives, delayed neutron-emission probabilities, and production yields have been measured and compared with theory. Beta decay of 4 new isotopes is reported, and the {beta}-delayed neutron-emission mode has been discovered for 12 isotopes of the elements niobium and technetium. The results compared to quasiparticle random phase approximation predictions indicate the increasing importance of fast {beta} transitions to high-lying states of nuclei with large neutron excess. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production.

  7. Economic Growth And Carbon Emission: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim BAKIRTAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between carbon dioxide emission (CO2 and economic growth is one of the crucial topics in environmental economics. This study is aimed to investigatethat problem. In this study, depending on the theory of Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC, the impact of income in carbon dioxide emission has measured for 34 OECD and5 BRICS countries with using Dynamic Panel Data Analysis. In this regard OECD countries are classified by income groups due to the average per capita income rate ofOECD to solve the homogeneity problem among OECD countries. On the other hand EKC hypothesis analysed by short and long run income elasticity which will be using foran evident that a country reduces CO2 emissions with the income increase in this study. According to the findings of the study, % 36 of the country sample coherent with theEKC hypothesis. The main encouragement for testing this relationship between economic growth and CO2 emission is leading politicians to reconsider the environmental impactswhich are arising from income increase when they are taking a decision to maximizes the economic growth.Keywords: EKC; OECD; Dynamic Panel Data

  8. Biochar carbon stability and effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben Wilson; Cross, Andrew; Hammond, Jim;

    2016-01-01

    on the biochar quality is necessary in order to produce the most beneficial biochars for soil application. Beside carbon sequestration in soil biochar may improve the GHG balance by reducing N2O and CH4 soil emissions, although contrasting results are found in the literature. The mechanisms behind......As demonstrated by several scientific studies there is no doubt that biochar in general is very recalcitrant compared to other organic matter additions and soil organic matter fractions and also that it is possible to sequester carbon at a climate change relevant time scale (~100 years or more......) by soil application of biochar. However, the carbon stability of biochar in soil is strongly correlated with the degree of thermal alteration of the original feedstock (the lower the temperature, the larger the labile fraction) and in depth understanding of the technology used and its effect...

  9. Microscopic approach to the rates of radioactive decay by emission of heavy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivascu, M.; Silisteanu, I.

    1988-08-08

    We have applied a simple microscopic decay theory to the analysis of the rare decay modes. The absolute decay rates are estimated by using the shell model and resonance formation factors and optical model penetrabilities. The resonance formation factors are deduced from the strong interaction form of the theory where the wave function in the internal region is represented in terms of compound nucleus decay. In order to account fully for the data, the implication of internal degrees of freedom was found to be necessary, but no adjustment of Gamow factor was needed. The results have been discussed in the light of the previously reported results and data.

  10. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-02-17

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  11. Trend Prediction and Decomposed Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in Jiangsu Province during 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the economic and energy consumption statistics in Jiangsu Province, we combined the GM (1, 1 grey model and polynomial regression to forecast carbon emissions. Historical and projected emissions were decomposed using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI approach to assess the relative contribution of different factors to emission variability. The results showed that carbon emissions will continue to increase in Jiangsu province during 2015–2020 period and cumulative carbon emissions will increase by 39.5487 million tons within the forecast period. The growth of gross domestic product (GDP per capita plays the greatest positive role in driving carbon emission growth. Furthermore, the improvement of energy usage efficiency is the primary factor responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Factors of population, industry structure adjustment and the optimization of fuel mix also help to reduce carbon emissions. Based on the LMDI analysis, we provide some advice for policy-makers in Jiangsu and other provinces in China.

  12. Development of an Evaluating Method for Carbon Emissions of Manufacturing Process Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon intensity reduction and energy utilization enhancement in manufacturing industry are becoming a timely topic. In a manufacturing system, the process planning is the combination of all production factors which influences the entail carbon emissions during manufacturing. In order to meet the current low carbon manufacturing requirements, a carbon emission evaluation method for the manufacturing process planning is highly desirable to be developed. This work presents a method to evaluate the carbon emissions of a process plan by aggregating the unit process to form a combined model for evaluating carbon emissions. The evaluating results can be used to decrease the resource and energy consumption and pinpoint detailed breakdown of the influences between manufacturing process plan and carbon emissions. Finally, the carbon emission analysis method is applied to a process plan of an axis to examine its feasibility and validity.

  13. Field emission from Mo2C coated carbon nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge-Hansen, M.; Outlaw, R. A.; Miraldo, P.; Zhu, M. Y.; Hou, K.; Theodore, N. D.; Zhao, X.; Manos, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanosheets have recently evolved into useful edge emitters with high emission current densities, low threshold electric fields, and long lifetimes. In addition to further improvement in these characteristics, good stability and repeatability are also essential for these materials to be suitable for high vacuum applications such as microwave tubes and flat panel displays. Since the work function of graphite, carbon nanotubes, and amorphous carbon is relatively high, 4.6-4.8eV, selective thin film coatings may offer significant advantages. Carbides are a good film choice for their corrosive resistance, chemical stability, and substantially lower work function. Approximately 3 ML (monolayer) (˜1nm) of molybdenum were deposited on carbon nanosheets by physical vapor deposition and the carbide (Mo2C) formed by heating to >200°C at 1×10-8Torr. The carbide stoichiometry was confirmed in situ by the characteristic Auger triple peak at 272eV. A stoichiometric Mo2C calibration sample was used to acquire the Auger electron spectroscopy asymmetric ratio of 0.7 and this was used to determine the carbide growth as a function of temperature (from room temperature to 1000°C). Field emission currents of up to 400μA were compared with uncoated CNS at a given electric field. The Mo2C/CNS cathodes were shown to have greater than a factor of 100 increase in current and greater than 2V/μm decrease in threshold. The Fowler-Nordheim plots were exceptionally linear and quite repeatable (correlation coefficient R2=0.999+). Using the slope and vertical intercept, an emission area for the 0.07cm2 Mo2C/CNS dot sample was determined to be ˜3×10-9cm2 and the field enhancement factor was found to be β ˜530.

  14. Seasonal Variability of Tropical Wetland CH4 emissions: the role of the methanogen-available carbon pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Reay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a dynamic methanogen-available carbon model (DMCM to quantify the role of the methanogen-available carbon pool in determining the spatial and temporal variability of tropical wetland CH4 emissions over seasonal timescales. We fit DMCM parameters to satellite observations of CH4 columns from SCIAMACHY CH4 and equivalent water height (EWH from GRACE. Over the Amazon river basin we find substantial seasonal variability of this carbon pool (coefficient of variation = 28 ± 22% and a rapid decay constant (φ = 0.017 day−1, in agreement with available laboratory measurements, suggesting that plant litter is likely the prominent methanogen carbon source over this region. Using the DMCM we derive global CH4 emissions for 2003–2009, and determine the resulting seasonal variability of atmospheric CH4 on a global scale using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry and transport model. First, we estimate tropical emissions amount to 111.1 Tg CH4 yr−1 of which 24% is emitted from Amazon wetlands. We estimate that annual tropical wetland emissions have increased by 3.4 Tg CH4 yr−1 between 2003 and 2009. Second, we find that the model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal lag between CH4 concentrations peaking 1–3 months before peak EWH values. We also find that our estimates of CH4 emissions substantially improve the comparison between the model and observed CH4 surface concentrations (r = 0.9. We anticipate that these new insights from the DMCM represent a fundamental step in parameterising tropical wetland CH4 emissions and quantifying the seasonal variability and future trends of tropical CH4 emissions.

  15. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  16. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Bréon, F.-M.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms......, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon...... dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed...

  17. Effect of carbon nanotubes upon emissions from cutting and sanding carbon fiber-epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitbrink, William A. [LMK OSH Consulting LLC (United States); Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being incorporated into structural composites to enhance material strength. During fabrication or repair activities, machining nanocomposites may release CNTs into the workplace air. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the emissions generated by cutting and sanding on three types of epoxy-composite panels: Panel A containing graphite fibers, Panel B containing graphite fibers and carbon-based mat, and Panel C containing graphite fibers, carbon-based mat, and multi-walled CNTs. Aerosol sampling was conducted with direct-reading instruments, and filter samples were collected for measuring elemental carbon (EC) and fiber concentrations. Our study results showed that cutting Panel C with a band saw did not generate detectable emissions of fibers inspected by transmission electron microscopy but did increase the particle mass, number, and EC emission concentrations by 20–80 % compared to Panels A and B. Sanding operation performed on two Panel C resulted in fiber emission rates of 1.9 × 10{sup 8} and 2.8 × 10{sup 6} fibers per second (f/s), while no free aerosol fibers were detected from sanding Panels A and B containing no CNTs. These free CNT fibers may be a health concern. However, the analysis of particle and EC concentrations from these same samples cannot clearly indicate the presence of CNTs, because extraneous aerosol generation from machining the composite epoxy material increased the mass concentrations of the EC.

  18. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  19. Taxing Strategies for Carbon Emissions: A Bilevel Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative and computational method to determine the optimal tax rate among generating units. To strike a balance between the reduction of carbon emission and the profit of energy sectors, the proposed bilevel optimization model can be regarded as a Stackelberg game between the government agency and the generation companies. The upper-level, which represents the government agency, aims to limit total carbon emissions within a certain level by setting optimal tax rates among generators according to their emission performances. The lower-level, which represents decision behaviors of the grid operator, tries to minimize the total production cost under the tax rates set by the government. The bilevel optimization model is finally reformulated into a mixed integer linear program (MILP which can be solved by off-the-shelf MILP solvers. Case studies on a 10-unit system as well as a provincial power grid in China demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and its capability in practical applications.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  1. Very stable electron field emission from strontium titanate coated carbon nanotube matrices with low emission thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Moscatello, Jason P; Engelhard, Mark; Wang, Chongmin; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2013-01-22

    Novel PMMA-STO-CNT matrices were created by opened-tip vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with conformal coatings of strontium titanate (STO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Emission threshold of 0.8 V/μm was demonstrated, about 5-fold lower than that of the as-grown VA-MWCNTs. This was obtained after considering the related band structures under the perspective of work functions and tunneling width as a function of the STO thickness. We showed that there is an optimum thickness of STO coatings to effectively reduce the work function of CNTs and yet minimize the tunneling width for electron emissions. Furthermore, simulation and modeling suggest that PMMA-STO-CNT matrices have suppressed screening effects and Coulombs' repulsion forces between electrons in adjacent CNTs, leading to low emission threshold, high emission density, and prolonged emission stability. These findings are important for practical application of VA-MWCNTs in field emission devices, X-ray generation, and wave amplification.

  2. The application of the acoustic emission technique to stone decay by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission was monitored during salt crystallisation cycles in order to study the mechanisms of rock deterioration by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests. Some porous carbonate stones used in Spanish monuments (Cathedral of Oviedo, Murcia and Seo Vella of Lérida were selected for this study. The acoustic emission detected during the different stages of the cycles (immersion, drying and cooling was interpreted to be the result of the salt behaviour inside the stone. The use of this technique has confirmed that this behaviour depends on salt characteristics (solubility, hydration state and polymorphism of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stone porosity and pore network.

    Para determinar los mecanismos de deterioro de las rocas debidos a la acción del sulfato de sodio, se ha registrado la emisión acústica durante ensayos de cristalización de sales en el laboratorio. Para ello, se han seleccionado tres piedras porosas carbonatadas utilizadas como materiales de construcción en monumentos españoles (Catedrales de Oviedo, Murcia y Seo Vella de Lérida. La emisión acústica detectada durante las diferentes etapas de los ciclos (inmersión, secado y enfriamiento se ha interpretado como debida al comportamiento de la sal en el interior de la piedra. Mediante esta técnica se ha confirmado que este comportamiento depende de las características de la sal (solubilidad, diferentes estados de hidratación y el polimorfismo del sulfato de sodio anhidro y de la porosidad y configuración del sistema poroso de las rocas.

  3. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-02-10

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

  4. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Amnuaylojaroen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem version 3.3 using MOZART gas-phase chemistry and GOCART aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO, the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B, the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects, the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINNv1 model. WRF-chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 20% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16%, respectively, when comparing the March biomass burning period to December with low biomass burning emissions. The simulations show that none of the anthropogenic emission inventories are

  5. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  6. Implications of carbon dust emission for terrestrail carbon cycling and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution are not considered in most carbon cycle models,...

  7. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16–24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services. PMID:28030599

  8. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  9. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Causality Testing in Heterogenous Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Maddison; Katrin Rehdanz [Department of Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-30

    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. Using time series techniques these analyses not infrequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper presents a heterogenous panel approach to Granger causality testing. This technique is used to examine a panel of data for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity in short run dynamics and even the long run cointegrating vector. This technique is compared to the standard fixed dynamic effects approach to pooling individual error correction models. In one important case the heterogenous panel test for Granger causality reaches conclusions quite different to those from conventional tests of Granger causality. Except for Asia there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita.

  10. Carbon dioxide emission prediction using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Chairul; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Bayu Nugroho, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the SVM model was proposed for predict expenditure of carbon (CO2) emission. The energy consumption such as electrical energy and burning coal is input variable that affect directly increasing of CO2 emissions were conducted to built the model. Our objective is to monitor the CO2 emission based on the electrical energy and burning coal used from the production process. The data electrical energy and burning coal used were obtained from Alcohol Industry in order to training and testing the models. It divided by cross-validation technique into 90% of training data and 10% of testing data. To find the optimal parameters of SVM model was used the trial and error approach on the experiment by adjusting C parameters and Epsilon. The result shows that the SVM model has an optimal parameter on C parameters 0.1 and 0 Epsilon. To measure the error of the model by using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) with error value as 0.004. The smallest error of the model represents more accurately prediction. As a practice, this paper was contributing for an executive manager in making the effective decision for the business operation were monitoring expenditure of CO2 emission.

  11. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasko, K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Beach, R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kindermann, G. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Obersteiner, M. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Rametsteiner, E. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [TerraCarbon, Graz, (Austria); Sohngen, B. [Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Wunder, S. [Center for International Forestry Research, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of glboal land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 105 g) CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion{center_dot}yr-1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion{center_dot}yr-1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  12. Correlation between calcium carbonate content and emission characteristics of incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ru; Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2006-12-01

    In Taiwan and China, calcium carbonate is commonly added as a filler during incense production to lower the cost. This study has found an unexpected benefit for this practice: it reduces particulate emission. Nine types of the popular incense on the local market were chosen for this study. The calcium content in raw material incense was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The correlation between the calcium content and emission characteristics of incense was investigated. The calcium content varied from 1.8 to 60 mg/g (incense burned) among those nine different types of incense. Very little calcium (incense. Instead, most calcium was artificially added in the form of CaCO3 during manufacturing. The combustion characteristics, including burning rate, emission factors of particulate, ash, and solid-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (S-PAHs), varied significantly among the nine types of incense. Incense containing 2% calcium would emit 30% less S-PAHs, compared with those with little (incense by approximately 50%.

  13. Hard-X-ray emission lines from the decay of 44Ti in the remnant of supernova 1987A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, S A; Lutovinov, A A; Tsygankov, S S; Winkler, C

    2012-10-18

    It is assumed that the radioactive decay of (44)Ti powers the infrared, optical and ultraviolet emission of supernova remnants after the complete decay of (56)Co and (57)Co (the isotopes that dominated the energy balance during the first three to four years after the explosion) until the beginning of active interaction of the ejecta with the surrounding matter. Simulations show that the initial mass of (44)Ti synthesized in core-collapse supernovae is (0.02-2.5) × 10(-4) solar masses (M circled dot). Hard X-rays and γ-rays from the decay of this (44)Ti have been unambiguously observed from Cassiopeia A only, leading to the suggestion that values of the initial mass of (44)Ti near the upper bound of the predictions occur only in exceptional cases. For the remnant of supernova 1987A, an upper limit to the initial mass of (44)Ti of supernova 1987A in the narrow band containing two direct-escape lines of (44)Ti at 67.9 and 78.4 keV. The measured line fluxes imply that this decay provided sufficient energy to power the remnant at late times. We estimate that the initial mass of (44)Ti was (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10(-4), which is near the upper bound of theoretical predictions.

  14. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  15. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  16. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  17. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from the Mojave desert: Isotopic evidence for a carbonate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Fiona M.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Sparks, Kimberlee; Sparks, Jed P.

    2017-01-01

    Arid soils represent a substantial carbonate pool and may participate in surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange via a diel cycle of carbonate dissolution and exsolution. We used a Keeling plot approach to determine the substrate δ13C of CO2 emitted from carbonate-dominated soils in the Mojave desert and found evidence for a nonrespiratory source that increased with surface temperature. In dry soils at 25-30°C, the CO2 substrate had δ13C values of -19.4 ± 4.2‰, indicative of respiration of organic material (soil organic matter = -23.1 ± 0.8‰). CO2 flux increased with temperature; maximum fluxes occurred above 60°C, where δ13CO2 substrate (-7.2‰ ± 2.8‰) approached soil carbonate values (0.2 ± 0.2‰). In wet soils, CO2 emissions were not temperature dependent, and δ13CO2 substrate was lower in vegetated soils with higher flux rates, higher organic C content, and potential root respiration. These data provide the first direct evidence of CO2 emissions from alkaline desert soils derived from an abiotic source and that diurnal emission patterns are strongly driven by surface temperature.

  18. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  19. Methane emissions of rice increased by elevated carbon dioxide and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leon H; Albrecht, Stephan L; Colón-Guasp, Wilfredo; Covell, Stephen A; Baker, Jeffrey T; Pan, Deyun; Boote, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) effluxes by paddy-culture rice (Oryza sativa L.) contribute about 16% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Since radiative forcing of CH4 at current atmospheric concentrations is 21 times greater on a per mole basis than that of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is imperative that the impact of global change on rice CH4 emissions be evaluated. Rice (cv. IR72) was planted in sunlit, closed-circulation, controlled-environment chambers in which CH4 efflux densities were measured daily. The CO2 concentration was maintained at either 330 or 660 micromol mol(-1). Air temperatures were controlled to daily maxima and minima of 32/23, 35/26, and 38/29 degrees C at each CO2 treatment. Emissions of CH4 each day were determined during a 4-h period after venting and resealing the chambers at 0800 h. Diurnal CH4 effluxes on 77, 98, and 119 d after planting (DAP) were obtained similarly at 4-h intervals. Emissions over four-plant hills and over flooded bare soil were measured at 53, 63, and 100 DAP. Emissions were negligible before 40 DAP. Thereafter, emissions were observed first in high-CO2, high-temperature treatments and reached a sustained maximum efflux density of about 7 mg m(-2) h(-1) (0.17 g m(-2) d(-1)) near the end of the growing season. Total seasonal CH4 emission was fourfold greater for high-CO2, high-temperature treatments than for the low-CO2, low-temperature treatment, probably due to more root sloughing or exudates, since about sixfold more acetate was found in the soil at 71 DAP. Both rising CO2 and increasing temperatures could lead to a positive feedback on global warming by increasing the emissions of CH4 from rice.

  20. Results on $\\beta\\beta$ decay with emission of two neutrinos or Majorons in $^{76}$Ge from GERDA Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Borowicz, D; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjáš, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; D'Andrea, V; Demidova, E V; di Vacri, A; Domula, A; Doroshkevich, E; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Fedorova, O; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Csáthy, J Janicskó; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kazalov, V; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Medinaceli, E; Misiaszek, M; Moseev, P; Nemchenok, I; Palioselitis, D; Panas, K; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Schönert, S; Selivanenko, O; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Stepaniuk, M; Ur, C A; Vanhoefer, L; Vasenko, A A; Veresnikova, A; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wilsenach, H; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    A search for neutrinoless $\\beta\\beta$ decay processes accompanied with Majoron emission has been performed using data collected during Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). Processes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 were searched for. No signals were found and lower limits of the order of 10$^{23}$ yr on their half-lives were derived, yielding substantially improved results compared to previous experiments with $^{76}$Ge. A new result for the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied $\\beta\\beta$ decay of $^{76}$Ge with significantly reduced uncertainties is also given, resulting in $T^{2\

  1. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions from their conversion, and the other important functions and services they provide, their inclusion in climate-change mitigation strategies is warranted.

  2. Field emission energy distributions from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, M. J.; van Rooy, Th. L.; Kruit, P.

    1999-05-01

    We measured field emission energy distributions of electrons emitted from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes mounted on tungsten tips. The shape of the energy distribution is strongly sample dependent. Some nanotube emitters exhibit an almost metallic behaviour, while others show sharply peaked energy distributions. The smallest half-width we measured was only 0.11 eV, without correction for the broadening of the energy analyzer. A common feature of both types of carbon nanotube energy spectra is that the position of the peaks in the spectrum depends linearly on the extraction voltage, unlike metallic emitters, where the position stays in the vicinity of the Fermi level. With a small modification to the field emission theory for metals we extract the distance between the highest filled energy level of the nanotube and the vacuum potential, the field on the emitter surface, the emitter radius and the emitting area, from the energy distribution and the Fowler-Nordheim plot. The last two parameters are in good agreement with transmission electron micrographs of such samples. The sharply-peaked energy distributions from other samples indicate that resonant states can exist at the top of the nanotube.

  3. Life cycle study. Carbon dioxide emissions lower in electric heating than in oil heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, A.; Jaervinen, P.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    A primary objective of energy conservation is to cut carbon dioxide emissions. A comparative study on the various heating forms, based on the life cycle approach, showed that the carbon dioxide emissions resulting form heating are appreciably lower now that electric heating has become more common. The level of carbon dioxide emissions in Finland would have been millions of tonnes higher had oil heating been chosen instead of electric heating. (orig.)

  4. Litter decay controlled by temperature, not soil properties, affecting future soil carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Edward G; Janzen, Henry; Ellert, Benjamin H; Helgason, Bobbi L; Qian, Budong; Zebarth, Bernie J; Angers, Denis A; Beyaert, Ronald P; Drury, Craig F; Duguid, Scott D; May, William E; McConkey, Brian G; Dyck, Miles F

    2017-04-01

    Widespread global changes, including rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, climate warming and loss of biodiversity, are predicted for this century; all of these will affect terrestrial ecosystem processes like plant litter decomposition. Conversely, increased plant litter decomposition can have potential carbon-cycle feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 levels, climate warming and biodiversity. But predicting litter decomposition is difficult because of many interacting factors related to the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, as well as to climate and agricultural management practices. We applied (13) C-labelled plant litter to soil at ten sites spanning a 3500-km transect across the agricultural regions of Canada and measured its decomposition over five years. Despite large differences in soil type and climatic conditions, we found that the kinetics of litter decomposition were similar once the effect of temperature had been removed, indicating no measurable effect of soil properties. A two-pool exponential decay model expressing undecomposed carbon simply as a function of thermal time accurately described kinetics of decomposition. (R(2)  = 0.94; RMSE = 0.0508). Soil properties such as texture, cation exchange capacity, pH and moisture, although very different among sites, had minimal discernible influence on decomposition kinetics. Using this kinetic model under different climate change scenarios, we projected that the time required to decompose 50% of the litter (i.e. the labile fractions) would be reduced by 1-4 months, whereas time required to decompose 90% of the litter (including recalcitrant fractions) would be reduced by 1 year in cooler sites to as much as 2 years in warmer sites. These findings confirm quantitatively the sensitivity of litter decomposition to temperature increases and demonstrate how climate change may constrain future soil carbon storage, an effect apparently not influenced by soil properties.

  5. Structural Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions and Policy Recommendations for Energy Sustainability in Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional carbon dioxide emissions study is necessary for China to realize the emissions mitigation. An environmental input–output structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA has been conducted in order to uncover the driving forces for the increment in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in Xinjiang from both production and final demands perspectives from 1997 to 2007. According to our research outcomes, emissions increase can be illustrated as a competition between consumption growth (per capita GDP and efficiency improvement (carbon emission intensity. Consumption growth have caused an increase of 109.98 Mt carbon dioxide emissions during 1997 to 2007, and efficiency improvement have caused a 97.03 Mt decrease during the same period. Per capita GDP is the most important driver for the rapid emission growth, while carbon emission intensity is the significant contributor to offset these increments. In addition, production structure changes performed as a new major driver for the steep rise in carbon dioxide emissions in recent years (2002–2007, indicating that the rapid emission growth in Xinjiang is the result of structural changes in the economy making it more carbon-intensive. From the viewpoint of final demands, fixed capital formation contributed the highest carbon dioxide emission, followed by inter-provincial export and urban residential consumption; while inter-provincial imports had the biggest contributions to offset emission increments. Based on our analysis results, Xinjiang may face great challenges to curb carbon dioxide emissions in the near future. However, several concrete mitigation measures have been further discussed and then raised by considering the regional realities, aiming to harmonize regional development and carbon dioxide emissions reduction.

  6. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.

  7. Can a unilateral carbon tax reduce emissions elsewhere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Joshua [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Fullerton, Don [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    One country that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries get a competitive advantage and increase emissions (''leakage''). Estimates from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al (2010a,b) indicate that 15% to 25% of abatement might be offset by leakage. Yet the Fullerton et al (2012) analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. To derive analytical expressions, their model is quite simple, with only one good from each country or sector, a fixed stock of capital, competitive markets, and many identical consumers that purchase both goods. Their model is not intended to be realistic, but only to demonstrate the potential for negative leakage. Most CGE models do not allow for negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for negative leakage. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that negative leakage depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good and the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.

  8. Analysis and forecast of residential building energy consumption in Chongqing on carbon emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沁; 刘猛; 钱发

    2009-01-01

    Carbon emissions mainly result from energy consumption. Carbon emissions inevitably will increase to some extent with economic expansion and rising energy consumption. We introduce a gray theory of quantitative analysis of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing,China,on the impact of carbon emission factors. Three impacts are analyzed,namely per capita residential housing area,domestic water consumption and the rate of air conditioner ownership per 100 urban households. The gray prediction model established using the Chongqing carbon emission-residential building energy consumption forecast model is sufficiently accurate to achieve a measure of feasibility and applicability.

  9. Evaluation of the Fast-Electron Source Function for Two-Plasmon Decay from Temporal Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Follett, R. K.; Myatt, J. F.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    The modeling of the fast-electron transport in the 1-D hydrodynamic code LILAC requires the description of the source electrons as a function of time. The particle-in-cell code OSIRIS and the interaction code FPSE provide some guidance but have not provided an algorithm for the energy fraction from the laser pulse as the coronal parameters change with time. The original algorithm, based on the measured hard x-ray (HXR) emission as a function of laser intensity, depended exponentially on the two-plasmon-decay threshold parameter up to about 0.9 and saturates above it. This algorithm along with FPSE simulations produced HXR emissions much earlier than observed. Analysis of the measured HXR emissions from implosions with near-constant threshold parameter values show that the rise time of the emission can be described with an exponential curve with roughly a rise time of 200 ps. Trial and error set the start of the rise at the threshold value of 0.75. Causes for this rise time will be discussed. Comparison between measured and computed HXR emissions for different implosion scenarios will be presented, including those for cryogenic targets. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Genovese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

  11. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  12. Carbon Emission Effect of Land Use in Nanchang City and Its Optimization Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng; CAI; Ting; ZHANG; Xueling; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Land use/coverage change(LUCC)exerts a profound influence on global carbon emission through changing structure and functions of ecosystem.Taking Nanchang City as an example,this study determined organic carbon emission of land ecosystem by ecosystem type method.In 2005,total carbon emission of Nanchang City was 4.826 2 Tg.In 2010,it became 5.535 9 Tg,showing a growth trend of carbon emission from land use change.The carbon emission of cropland and grassland decreased in 2005-2010,that of garden land and construction land had increase,and carbon absorption function of water land and other unused land was weakened.Due to difference of land use structure,the carbon emission of Nanchang City is varied.In 2005-2010,the rank of carbon emission from high to low is as follows:Nanchang County,Xinjian County,Jinxian County and Qingshanhu District.In combination with land use change and development plan of Nanchang City,Nanchang City should take carbon emission reduction measures,including conceding the land to forestry,returning the land to water,limiting excessive expansion of construction land,optimizing distribution of urban land use,flexibly regulating land supply policies,and establishing carbon trading legal system,to reach the objective of combining land use plan with ecological construction.

  13. The computation of carbon emissions due to the net payload on a truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel

    , it is necessary to compute the carbon emissions of these decisions. Current studies are only able to determine this for very specific conditions, such as a given vehicle under given driving conditions, and they may require many input parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a simple and broadly applicable...... emission computation tool. We determine the share of the carbon emissions of fully loaded vehicles due to the weight of the load on the vehicle, i.e. the load‐based emission percentage (LBEP). We conduct a review study on papers that report on carbon emissions or fuel consumption for different load factors...

  14. Physical and bacterial controls on inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon during a sea ice growth and decay experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, J.; Delille, B.; Kaartokallio, H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how physical incorporation, brine dynamics and bacterial activity regulate the distribution of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in artificial sea ice during a 19-day experiment that included periods of both ice growth and decay. The experiment was performed...... temperatures and bulk ice salinities, we derived the brine volume fractions, brine salinities and Rayleigh numbers. The temporal evolution of these physical parameters indicates that there was two main stages in the brine dynamics: bottom convection during ice growth, and brine stratification during ice decay...

  15. Carbon Emission Trading System of New Zealand and Its Enlightenment for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XIAO; Xiaoxue; LI

    2013-01-01

    The design characteristics and operation results of carbon emission trading system of New Zealand was introduced in this paper. The results suggested that taking forest carbon trade as the only one supplying source of greenhouse gas emission improved the foreseeability in forest maintenance,and strengthened the effect of forestation. According to this,the author suggested that carbon emission trading market in which forest carbon trade was the only one supplying source should be cultivated in China. A compensation mechanism that industry compensated forestry should be established. A social participated,highly united,coordinated and mutual intermediated carbon trading market should be built.

  16. Emission Inventories of Carbon-containing Greenhouse Gases in and Technological Measures for Their Abatement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Yahui; Zhang Hongxun; Wang Xiaoke; Li Changsheng

    2004-01-01

    The report summarizes surveys on carbon inventories and initiatives on sustainable carbon cycling taken by the Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, where the authors work/worked. The first part of the report, which appeared in the preceding issue of this journal, deals with the concept of sustainable carbon cycling, the historic evolution of carbon cycling processes in China, carbon pool enhancement, value addition,carbon sequestration and carbon balance. This very paper, as the second part of the report, covers the results of carbon dynamics modeling, emission inventories of various carbon-containing greenhouse gases and their potential abatement measures.

  17. Mechanism of field electron emission from carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-bing; DENG Shao-zhi; XU Ning-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Field electron emission (FE) is a quantum tunneling process in which electrons are injected from materials (usually metals) into a vacuum under the influence of an applied electric field.In order to obtain usable electron current,the conventional way is to increase the local field at the surface of an emitter.For a plane metal emitter with a typical work function of 5 eV,an applied field of over 1000V/μm is needed to obtain a significant current.The high working field (and/or the voltage between the electrodes)has been the bottleneck for many applications of the FE technique.Since the 1960s,enormous effort has been devoted to reduce the working macroscopic field (voltage).A widely adopted idea is to sharpen the emitters to get a large surface field enhancement.The materials of emitters should have good electronic conductivity,high melting points,good chemical inertness,and high mechanical stiffness.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are built with such needed properties.As a quasi-one-dimensional material,the CNT is expected to have a large surface field enhancement factor.The experiments have proved the excellent FE performance of CNTs.The turn-on field (the macroscopic field for obtaining a density of 10 μA/cm2 ) of CNT based emitters can be as low as 1 V/μm.However,this turn-on field is too good to be explained by conventional theory.There are other observations,such as the non-linear Fowler-Nordheim plot and multi-peaks field emission energy distribution spectra,indicating that the field enhancement is not the only story in the FE of CNTs.Since the discovery of CNTs,people have employed more serious quantum mechanical methods,including the electronic band theory,tight-binding theory,scattering theory and density function theory,to investigate FE of CNTs.A few theoretical models have been developed at the same time.The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)should be assembled with a sharp metal needle of nano-scale radius,for which the FE mechanism is more or less clear

  18. Cosmological Implications of High-Energy Neutrino Emission from the Decay of Long-Lived Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Moroi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmological scenario in which high-energy neutrinos are emitted from the decay of long-lived massive particles at the cosmic time later than the redshift of 10^6. The high-energy neutrino events recently observed by the IceCube experiment suggest a new source of high-energy cosmic-ray neutrinos; decay of a heavy particle can be one of the possibilities. We calculate the spectrum of the high-energy neutrinos emitted from the decay of long-lived particles, taking account of the neutrino scattering processes with background neutrinos. Then, we derive bounds on the scenario using the observation of high-energy cosmic-ray neutrino flux. We also study constraints from the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, taking into account both the current (COBE/FIRAS) and future (PIXIE) bounds. In addition, we show that the PeV neutrinos observed by the IceCube experiment can originate from the decay of a massive particle with its mass as large as O(10^10 GeV).

  19. Nuclear Structure Effects in the Exotic Decay of $^{225}$Ac via $^{14}$C Emission

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS323 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to build at Isolde a high intensity $^{225}$Ac source by $\\beta$-decay of $^{225}$(Ra+Fr) beam, to be used at the superconducting spectrometer SOLENO of IPN-Orsay in order to study a possible fine structure in the spectrum of $^{14}$C ions spontaneously emitted by $^{225}$Ac.

  20. Can a many-nucleon structure be visible in bremsstrahlung emission during $\\alpha$ decay?

    CERN Document Server

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We analyze if the nucleon structure of the $\\alpha$ decaying nucleus can be visible in the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra of the emitted photons which accompany such a decay. We develop a new formalism of the bremsstrahlung model taking into account distribution of nucleons in the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclear system. We conclude the following: (1) After inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model the calculated bremsstrahlung spectrum is changed very slowly for a majority of the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclei. However, we have observed that visible changes really exist for the $^{106}{\\rm Te}$ nucleus ($Q_{\\alpha}=4.29$ MeV, $T_{1/2}$=70 mks) even for the energy of the emitted photons up to 1 MeV. This nucleus is a good candidate for future experimental study of this task. (2) Inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model increases the bremsstrahlung probability of the emitted photons. (3) We find the following tendencies for obtaining the nuclei, which have bremsstrahlung spectra more sensitive to the ...

  1. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V{sub MAS}/WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, {tau}{sub c} is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 <{approx_equal} log{sub 10} {tau}{sub c} [S] <{approx_equal} 27.50 and log {sub 10}({tau}/{tau}{sub c}) > -17.0, where {tau} is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  2. Hard X-ray emission lines from the decay of Ti-44 in the remnant of supernova 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenev, S A; Tsygankov, S S; Winkler, C; 10.1038/nature11473

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that the radioactive decay of Ti-44 powers the infrared, optical and UV emission of supernova remnants after the complete decay of Co-56 and Co-57 (the isotopes that dominated the energy balance during the first three to four years after the explosion) until the beginning of active interaction of the ejecta with the surrounding matter. Simulations show that the initial mass of Ti-44 synthesized in core-collapse supernovae is (0.02-2.5) x 10^{-4} solar masses (M_sun). Hard X-rays and gamma-rays from the decay of this Ti-44 have been unambiguously observed from Cassiopeia A only, leading to the suggestion that the values of the initial mass of Ti-44 near the upper bound of the predictions occur only in exceptional cases. For the remnant of supernova 1987A, an upper limit to the initial mass of Ti-44 of < 10^{-3} M_sun has been obtained from direct X-ray observations, and an estimate of (1-2) x 10^{-4} M_sun has been made from infrared light curves and ultraviolet spectra by complex model-depend...

  3. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles overestimated? Real-time, in situ measurement of black carbon emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Zhao, Shuhui; Zheng, Mei; Mu, Chao; Du, Ke

    2016-03-15

    Accurately quantifying black carbon (BC) emission factors (EFs) is a prerequisite for estimation of BC emission inventory. BC EFs determined by measuring BC at the roadside or chasing a vehicle on-road may introduce large uncertainty for low emission vehicles. In this study, BC concentrations were measured inside the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles with different engine sizes under different driving modes to determine the respective EFs. BC EFs ranged from 0.005-7.14 mg/kg-fuel under the speeds of 20-70 km/h, 0.05-28.95 mg/kg-fuel under the accelerations of 0.5-1.5m/s(2). Although the water vapor in the sampling stream could result in an average of 12% negative bias, the BC EFs are significantly lower than the published results obtained with roadside or chasing vehicle measurement. It is suggested to conduct measurement at the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles instead of in the atmosphere behind the vehicles to reduce the uncertainty from fluctuation in ambient BC concentration.

  4. Urban Traffic Congestion Pricing Model with the Consideration of Carbon Emissions Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most effective traffic demand management opinions, congestion pricing can reduce private car travel demand and the associated carbon dioxide emissions. First, we summarized the status quo of transport carbon dioxide emission charges and congestion pricing, and then, we analyzed the characteristics of urban transport carbon dioxide emissions. Then, we proposed a (pricing framework in which carbon emission costs would be considered as part of the generalized cost of travel. Based on this framework, this paper developed a bi-level mathematical model to optimize consumer surplus, using congestion and carbon emission charges as the control variables. A dissect search algorithm was used to solve the bi-level program model, and a numerical example was given to illustrate the methodology. This paper incorporates the emission pricing into the congestion pricing model, while considering two modes, and puts forward suitable proposals for the implementation of an urban traffic congestion pricing policy in China.

  5. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  6. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission Accounting and Management of Low-Carbon Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emission, cities have been under tremendous pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction for decades. Community is the main unit of urban housing, public facilities, transportation, and other properties of city's land use. The construction of low-carbon community is an important pathway to realize carbon emission mitigation in the context of rapid urbanization. Therefore, an efficient carbon accounting framework should be proposed for CO2 emissions mitigation at a subcity level. Based on life-cycle analysis (LCA, a three-tier accounting framework for the carbon emissions of the community is put forward, including emissions from direct fossil fuel combustion, purchased energy (electricity, heat, and water, and supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods. By compiling a detailed CO2 emission inventory, the magnitude of carbon emissions and the mitigation potential in a typical high-quality community in Beijing are quantified within the accounting framework proposed. Results show that emissions from supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods cannot be ignored. Specific suggestions are also provided for the urban decision makers to achieve the optimal resource allocation and further promotion of low-carbon communities.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission accounting and management of low-carbon community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Su, Meirong; Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    As the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, cities have been under tremendous pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction for decades. Community is the main unit of urban housing, public facilities, transportation, and other properties of city's land use. The construction of low-carbon community is an important pathway to realize carbon emission mitigation in the context of rapid urbanization. Therefore, an efficient carbon accounting framework should be proposed for CO₂ emissions mitigation at a subcity level. Based on life-cycle analysis (LCA), a three-tier accounting framework for the carbon emissions of the community is put forward, including emissions from direct fossil fuel combustion, purchased energy (electricity, heat, and water), and supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods. By compiling a detailed CO₂ emission inventory, the magnitude of carbon emissions and the mitigation potential in a typical high-quality community in Beijing are quantified within the accounting framework proposed. Results show that emissions from supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods cannot be ignored. Specific suggestions are also provided for the urban decision makers to achieve the optimal resource allocation and further promotion of low-carbon communities.

  9. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

  10. Global Warming: Predicting OPEC Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Petroleum Consumption Using Neural Network and Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Chiroma

    Full Text Available Global warming is attracting attention from policy makers due to its impacts such as floods, extreme weather, increases in temperature by 0.7°C, heat waves, storms, etc. These disasters result in loss of human life and billions of dollars in property. Global warming is believed to be caused by the emissions of greenhouse gases due to human activities including the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 from petroleum consumption. Limitations of the previous methods of predicting CO2 emissions and lack of work on the prediction of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC CO2 emissions from petroleum consumption have motivated this research.The OPEC CO2 emissions data were collected from the Energy Information Administration. Artificial Neural Network (ANN adaptability and performance motivated its choice for this study. To improve effectiveness of the ANN, the cuckoo search algorithm was hybridised with accelerated particle swarm optimisation for training the ANN to build a model for the prediction of OPEC CO2 emissions. The proposed model predicts OPEC CO2 emissions for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 years with an improved accuracy and speed over the state-of-the-art methods.An accurate prediction of OPEC CO2 emissions can serve as a reference point for propagating the reorganisation of economic development in OPEC member countries with the view of reducing CO2 emissions to Kyoto benchmarks--hence, reducing global warming. The policy implications are discussed in the paper.

  11. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling; Shi, Zhengjun; Chu, L M

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m(-2)y(-1) to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m(-2) for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m(-2) for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5-24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles.

  12. Anthropogenic emissions and space-borne observations of carbon monoxide over South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this study is to understand anthropogenic emissions, spatiotemporal variability and trends of carbon monoxide (CO) over South Asia by using datasets from MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, MACC and megaCITY - Zoom for the Environment, CityZEN), REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY). MACCity anthropogenic emissions show an overall increase of 16.5% during 2000-2010. Elevated levels of MACCity CO are found in Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB), eastern mining region of India, Bangladesh and large urban areas. Some of the major contributors of these emissions have been identified as agricultural waste burning, land transport, industrial production, and energy generation and distribution. An area averaged mean value of AIRS CO at 600 hPa is found to be 114 ± 2 ppbv (slope -0.48 ± 0.2 ppbv yr-1, y-intercept 117 ± 1 ppbv and r = 0.68) with a minor declining trend at -0.41 ± 0.18% yr-1 over the region during 2003-2015. A strong seasonality in AIRS CO concentration is observed with spring season peak in March 129 ± 1.9 ppbv, whereas low values have been observed in summer monsoon with sturdy dip in July 99.6 ± 1.94 ppbv. AIRS CO and SCIAMACHY CO Total Column (CO TC) over the study region show spatial patterns similar to MACCity and REAS emissions. An analysis of SCIAMACHY CO TC tendencies has been performed which indicates minor rising trends over some parts of the region. Background CO, Recent Emissions (RE), and spatial anomalies in RE over high anthropogenic activity zones of Indus Basin, Ganges Basin and Eastern Region were analyzed using AIRS and SCIAMACHY CO data.

  13. Assessment of Carbon Emission Reduction for Buildings Projects in Malaysia-A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klufallah Mustafa M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian construction industry significantly contributes as an empowerment to its development vision of 2020 by reducing 40% of carbon emission. Moreover, this industry accounts as a threat to the environment, not only in terms of consumption of natural resources but also in emitting million tons of carbon emission annually. In fact, Malaysia is categorized the 30th in the world's ranking in carbon emission level. To mitigate the raise of carbon emission level from the buildings construction, several studies identified some of the effective carbon emission assessment tools for construction projects but it is lack of implementation in Malaysia. The green building index (GBI, Malaysian CIB Report has been introduced to assist the construction stakeholders in reducing the level of carbon emission and the impact of buildings on the environment. This paper presents an analysis of carbon emission from housing projects and office buildings in order to identify and quantify the main sources of carbon emission for each project and it proposes environmental friendly materials as replacement for conventional construction materials to achieve the implementation of sustainability in Malaysia.

  14. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  15. Joint Optimal Production Planning for Complex Supply Chains Constrained by Carbon Emission Abatement Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the joint production planning of complex supply chains facing stochastic demands and being constrained by carbon emission reduction policies. We pick two typical carbon emission reduction policies to research how emission regulation influences the profit and carbon footprint of a typical supply chain. We use the input-output model to capture the interrelated demand link between an arbitrary pair of two nodes in scenarios without or with carbon emission constraints. We design optimization algorithm to obtain joint optimal production quantities combination for maximizing overall profit under regulatory policies, respectively. Furthermore, numerical studies by featuring exponentially distributed demand compare systemwide performances in various scenarios. We build the “carbon emission elasticity of profit (CEEP” index as a metric to evaluate the impact of regulatory policies on both chainwide emissions and profit. Our results manifest that by facilitating the mandatory emission cap in proper installation within the network one can balance well effective emission reduction and associated acceptable profit loss. The outcome that CEEP index when implementing Carbon emission tax is elastic implies that the scale of profit loss is greater than that of emission reduction, which shows that this policy is less effective than mandatory cap from industry standpoint at least.

  16. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C7F16 and C8F18, and estimate their radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs). We find that C8F18's radiative efficiency is similar to trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride's (SF5F3) at 0.57 W m-2 ppb-1, which is the highest radiative efficiency of any measured atmospheric species. Using the 100-yr time horizon GWPs, the total radiative impact of the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons emissions are also estimated; we find the high molecular weight PFCs peak contribution was in 1997 at 24 000 Gg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents and has decreased by a factor of three to 7300 Gg of CO2 equivalents in 2010. This 2010 cumulative emission rate for the high molecular weight PFCs is comparable to: 0.02% of the total CO2 emissions, 0.81% of the total hydrofluorocarbon emissions, or 1.07% of the total chlorofluorocarbon emissions projected for 2010 (Velders et al., 2009). In terms of the total PFC emission budget, including the lower molecular weight PFCs, the high molecular weight PFCs peak contribution was also in 1997 at 15.4% and was 6% of the total PFC emissions in CO2 equivalents in 2009.

  17. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions and nutrition on a drained pine mire - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.; Karsisto, M.; Kaunisto, S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland). Vantaa Research Centre

    1996-12-31

    Drainage of boreal peatlands intensify aerobic decomposition and carbon dioxide emission from the peat substrate and increase tree growth. CO{sub 2} emission rates depend on the ground water level and the soil temperature. Predicted rises in mean air temperatures due to anthropogenically induced climate change are expected to further increase carbon dioxide emission from drained boreal peatlands. The role of added nutrients is somewhat vague. The purpose of this presentation is to give some preliminary results on microbial biomass carbon and on carbon dioxide output/input relationship on a pine mire. (6 refs.)

  19. Purifications of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, AMoRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, HyangKyu [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea, 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-17

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is going to use calcium molybdate crystals to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo isotope. In order to make the crystal, we use calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders as raw materials. Therefore it is highly necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th in the powders. In this talk, we will present our studies for purification of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders.

  20. Near infrared lights emission of 40Ar16+ impacting on metal surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XiaoAn; XIAO GuoQing; YANG ZhiHu; WANG Li; ZHAN WenLong

    2009-01-01

    The highly charged ion 40Ar16+ with the velocity (kinetic energy EK=150 keV, velocity V=8.5×105 m/s) smaller than Bohr velocity (Vbohr=2.9×106 m/s) was found to hove impacts on the surfaces of metals Ni, Mo, Au and Al, and the Ar atomic infrared light lines and X-rays spectra were simultaneously measured. The experimental results show that the highly charged ion that captures electrons is neutralized, and the multiply-excited hollow atom forms. The hollow atom cascade decay radiates lights from infrared to X-ray spectrum. The intensity of infrared lights shows that the metallic work functions play an impor-tant role in the neutralization process of highly charged ions during their interaction with metallic sur-faces, which verifies the classical over-the-barrier model.

  1. Near infrared lights emission of 40Ar16+ impacting on metal surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The highly charged ion 40Ar16+ with the velocity (kinetic energy EK=150 keV, velocity V=8.5×105 m/s) smaller than Bohr velocity (VBohr=2.9×106 m/s) was found to hove impacts on the surfaces of metals Ni, Mo, Au and Al, and the Ar atomic infrared light lines and X-rays spectra were simultaneously measured. The experimental results show that the highly charged ion that captures electrons is neutralized, and the multiply-excited hollow atom forms. The hollow atom cascade decay radiates lights from infrared to X-ray spectrum. The intensity of infrared lights shows that the metallic work functions play an important role in the neutralization process of highly charged ions during their interaction with metallic surfaces, which verifies the classical over-the-barrier model.

  2. Examining the Efforts of a Small, Open Economy to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    emissions by relatively small, open economies. Although, these economies are small players in international markets, international trade has an important influence on their economies. Investigating the outcome of efforts to curb emissions by these small, open economies provides insights into the situation...... faced by a large set of the world's economies. This paper has three objectives: (1) investigate the outcome of Denmark's efforts to reduce its carbon emissions by characterizing the relationship between Denmark's macroeconomic activity and carbon emissions; (2) determine the carbon content of Danish...... suggest two, related lessons. First, small, open economies, should track both production and consumption emissions when evaluating their progress towards reducing carbon emissions. Second, international trade should be considered in the design of environmental policy. The Danish experience indicates...

  3. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  4. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  5. Unbound states in $^{12}$C populated by $\\gamma$-decay of the $(J^{\\pi},T) = (2^+,1)$ 16.11 MeV state

    CERN Document Server

    Laursen, K L; Kirsebom, O S; Madsøll, K S; Riisager, K

    2016-01-01

    The reaction $^{11}\\textrm{B}+p$ has been used to populate the $(J^\\pi,T) = (2^+,1)$ state at an excitation energy of 16.11 MeV in $^{12}$C. $\\gamma$-decay to unbound states in $^{12}$C are identified from analysis of the decay of the populated daughter states. Due to a new technique, $\\gamma$-decay to the 10.8 MeV 1$^-$ state is observed for the first time, and transitions to the 9.64 MeV (3$^-$) and 12.71 MeV (1$^+$) are confirmed. Unresolved transitions to natural parity strength at 10 MeV and 11.5-13 MeV are also observed. For all transitions partial widths are deduced

  6. Carbon Emissions in China: A Spatial Econometric Analysis at the Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT model, incorporating factors that drive carbon emissions, is built from the regional perspective. A spatial Durbin model is applied to investigate the factors, including population, urbanization level, economic development, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption structure, energy price, and openness, that impact both the scale and intensity of carbon emissions. After performing the model, we find that the revealed negative and significant impact of spatial-lagged variables suggests that the carbon emissions among regions are highly correlated. Therefore, the empirical results suggest that the provinces are doing an exemplary job of lowering carbon emissions. The driving factors, with the exception of energy prices, significantly impact carbon emissions both directly and indirectly. We, thus, argue that spatial correlation, endogeneity and externality should be taken into account in formulating polices that seek to reduce carbon emissions in China. Carbon emissions will not be met by controlling economic development, but by energy consumption and low-carbon path.

  7. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qin, E-mail: zhuqin@fudan.edu.cn; Peng Xizhe, E-mail: xzpeng@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  8. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  9. Preequilibrium particle emission in 250 MeV {sup 16}O + {sup 116}Sn reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlini, S.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Gramegna, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro Padova (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    A certain progress in understanding the phenomenon of the Preequilibrium (fast) light charged particle and neutron Emission (PE) was achieved in the last two decades. However, there is a strong need to study systematically the dependence of the PE emission on the reaction mass asymmetry and the projectile energy. In the present work we present the results on the PE proton and alpha-particle multiplicities and the total energy loss of the composite system formed in fusion reaction E{sub b}eam=250 MeV (15.6 MeV/u) {sup 16}O + {sup 116}Sn. The experiment was performed at the Legnaro National Laboratory using a 1 ns (FWHM) pulsed beam provided by the TANDEM-ALPI acceleration system.

  10. Carbon Embodied in International Trade of China and Its Emission Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huimin; Qi Ye

    2010-01-01

    Carbon emissions embodied in international trade of China during 1997-2007 are accounted by input-output method based on Chinese input-output table and global trade analysis project database.It is revealed that carbon emissions embodied in imports and exports both increased during 1997-2007,but carbon emissions embodied in exports are greater than those embodied in imports,China is a net export nation in embodied carbon.The net exports of embodied carbon account for about 10.82% of the total carbon emissions in 1997,dropped to 7.15% in 2002,increased to13.13% in 2006,and slightly dropped to 12.64% in 2007.Low-end position of international industry division is an objective factor of being a net exporter of embodied carbon for China,and usage of a large amount of obsolete energy-using equipments wasted much energy and increased carbon emissions embodied in exports.Importers should take more responsibilities for carbon emissions embodied in trade,and China should take a certain responsibility for unreasonable energy dissipations too.

  11. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  12. Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH₃), methane (CH₄), carbon dioxide (CO₂), and nitrous oxide (N₂O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH₃, 0.49 kg CH₄, 28.1 kg CO₂, and 0.01 kg N₂O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH₃, 103 g CH₄, 637 g CO₂, and 0.49 g N₂O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH₃, 13.5 g CH₄, 516 g CO₂, and 0.90 g N₂O. The combined emissions of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH₃, CO₂, and N₂O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

  14. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-12-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  15. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation reveals distinct process of CH4 emission from different compartments of paddy ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangbin; Yu, Haiyang; Fan, Xianfang; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua

    2016-06-01

    Carbon isotopic fractionations in the processes of CH4 emission from paddy field remain poorly understood. The δ13C-values of CH4 in association with production, oxidation and transport of CH4 in different pools of a paddy field were determined, and the stable carbon isotope fractionations were calibrated to assess relative contribution of acetate to CH4 production (fac) and fraction of CH4 oxidized (fox) by different pathways. The apparent isotope fractionation for CO2 conversion to CH4 (αapp) was 1.041-1.056 in the soil and 1.046-1.080 on the roots, indicating that fac was 10-60% and 0-50%, respectively. Isotope fractionation associated with CH4 oxidation (αox) was 1.021 ± 0.007 in the soil and 1.013 ± 0.005 on the roots, and the transport fractionation (ɛtransport) by rice plants was estimated to be -16.7‰ ~ -11.1‰. Rhizospheric fox was about 30-100%, and it was more important at the beginning but decreased fast towards the end of season. Large value of fox was also observed at the soil-water interface and soil and roots surfaces, respectively. The results demonstrate that carbon isotopic fractionations which might be different in different conditions were sensitive to the estimations of fac and fox in paddy field.

  17. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  18. Wind farms on peatland: Effect of Management Practices on Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. U.; Nayak, D. R.; Miller, D.; Nolan, A.; Smith, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Scottish Government has set ambitious targets for electricity generation by renewables (Scottish Government, 2007). To meet the interim target of 31% electricity generation from renewable sources by 2011 and 50% by 2020, a substantial increase in the number of onshore wind farms is likely to be required. In Scotland a large number of proposed wind farm developments are on peatlands. One concern raised over the development of wind farms on peatlands questions whether the expected saving in carbon emissions due to electricity generation using wind power will be offset by increased carbon losses associated with the development. If carbon payback time exceeds the life time of the wind farm, then the development represents a net carbon cost. However, our calculations show that even on peatlands, good management practices can be used to minimise carbon losses and achieve carbon payback times that are significantly less than the lifetime of the wind farm. Using floating roads instead of excavated roads can minimise the carbon loss. Restoration of the site could potentially halt carbon loss processes, so allowing carbon dioxide emissions to be limited to the time before the habitat and hydrological conditions are restored. If the site is restored after decommissioning, the carbon payback time can be reduced by 50%. Habitat improvement at disturbed sites can significantly reduce carbon emissions, potentially preventing further losses and increasing carbon stored in the improved habitat. We present the calculations of carbon losses at a range of wind farm developments across Scotland, differing in soil type, climate, management practices and site design. We assess the impact of management and design on carbon emissions, and demonstrate the importance of good site management and design to reducing carbon emissions, especially for wind farms sited on peatlands.

  19. Correlated emission of three {alpha}-particles in the {beta}-decay of {sup 12}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynbo, H.O.U.; Oinonen, M.; Weissman, L. [EP Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Prezado, Y.; Borge, M.J.G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Aeystoe, J.; Dendooven, P.; Huang, W.; Huikari, J.; Jones, P.; Wang, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Bergmann, U.C.; Jeppesen, H.; Riisager, K.; Vogelius, I.S. [Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jonson, B.; Meister, M.; Nyman, G. [Experimentell Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rolander, K.W. [Fysiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet, Box 6730, S-113 85 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-10-01

    The {beta}-decay of {sup 12}N is used to populate {alpha}-emitting excited states in {sup 12}C. The {alpha}-particles from the break-up of both the 10.3 MeV and 12.71 MeV states were measured in coincidence with an efficient detector setup consisting of two double-sided Si strip detectors. The break-up of the 12.71 MeV 1{sup +} state is an interesting testing ground for the different descriptions of multi-particle break-up, whereas the properties of the 10.3 MeV state, which under some astrophysical conditions is relevant for the production of {sup 12}C in stars, are poorly known. First results from the analysis of the data is presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  20. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  1. Factors Leading to Variability of Emission Factors, Single Scattering Albedo, and Elemental Carbon Fraction from Biofuel Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, C. A.; Bond, T. C.; Conway, S.; Osorto Pinel, B.; Maccarty, N.

    2006-12-01

    In a three-year study of field and laboratory emissions of traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves, we found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking events average 2.5 times those of reproduced lab emissions. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator, and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in the lab. The single scatter albedo (SSA) of the emissions is very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. In Honduras, improved stoves generally had lower emission factors than traditional stoves. Over the course of 3 summers we have measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively-new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.5 g/kg significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 5.7 g/kg and 3.5 g/kg respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories. Wood type affects on the PM emission factor, the SSA of the emissions and EC fraction. During our 2006 field measurements, we performed multiple emission measurements on the same stove while varying the fuel. Pine wood generally produced more PM than oak per kilogram of fuel. Additionally, Ocote, a resinous pitch pine often used in Central America for lighting fires, produces emissions which have a very low SSA and high EC fraction. We present the elemental carbon fraction and mass emission factors for different type of stoves and testing conditions. We summarize the characteristics of the particles emitted

  2. Study of XK and gamma photon emission following decay of 154Eu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terechtchenko, E; Rasko, M; Sepman, S; Zanevsky, A; Tuan, A Tran; Amiot, M N; Bobin, C; Morel, J

    2004-01-01

    A joint project has been established between VNIIM (D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology) and LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) to determine as accurately as possible the X- and gamma-ray emission probabilities of 154Eu. Point sources were prepared by VNIIM, and absolute measurements of activity per unit mass were undertaken by both laboratories using coincidence, anti-coincidence and 4pi-gamma counting methods. Other point sources and one aliquot were also prepared for precise gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Absolute photon emission probabilities were determined with a maximum uncertainty of 0.5% for the most intense lines, supporting the development of this nuclide as a multigamma standard.

  3. High energy neutron and pion-decay gamma-ray emissions from solar flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward L. Chupp; James M. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Solar flare gamma-ray emissions from energetic ions and electrons have been detected and measured to GeV energies since 1980. In addition, neutrons produced in solar flares with 100 MeV to GeV energies have been observed at the Earth. These emis-sions are produced by the highest energy ions and electrons accelerated at the Sun and they provide our only direct (albeit secondary) knowledge about the properties of the acceler-ator(s) acting in a solar flare. The solar flares, which have direct evidence for pion-decaygamma-rays, are unique and are the focus of this paper. We review our current knowl-edge of the highest energy solar emissions, and how the characteristics of the acceleration process are deduced from the observations. Results from the RHESSI, INTEGRAL and CORONAS missions will also be covered. The review will also cover the solar flare ca-pabilities of the new mission, FERMI GAMMA RAY SPACE TELESCOPE, launched on 2008 June 11. Finally, we discuss the requirements for future missions to advance this vital area of solar flare physics.

  4. Alpha-particle emission probabilities in the decay of {sup 240}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbens, G., E-mail: goedele.sibbens@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Pomme, S.; Altzitzoglou, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Garcia-Torano, E. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Janssen, H.; Dersch, R.; Ott, O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Martin Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, E-06071 (Spain); Rubio Montero, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Merida, Badajoz, E-06800 (Spain); Loidl, M. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, LNE/CEA-LIST, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coron, N.; Marcillac, P. de [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Semkow, T.M. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Sources of enriched {sup 240}Pu were prepared by vacuum evaporation on quartz substrates. High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of {sup 240}Pu was performed with high statistical accuracy using silicon detectors and with low statistical accuracy using a bolometer. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of six transitions were derived from the spectra and compared with literature values. Additionally, some alpha-particle emission probabilities were derived from {gamma}-ray intensity measurements with a high-purity germanium detector. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of the three main transitions at 5168.1, 5123.6 and 5021.2 keV were derived from seven aggregate spectra analysed with five different fit functions and the results were compatible with evaluated data. Two additional weak peaks at 4863.5 and 4492.0 keV were fitted separately, using the exponential of a polynomial function to represent the underlying tailing of the larger peaks. The peak at 4655 keV could not be detected by alpha-particle spectrometry, while {gamma}-ray spectrometry confirms that its intensity is much lower than expected from literature.

  5. Carbon emissions from U.S. ethylene production under climate change policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Matthias; Amato, Anthony D; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur

    2002-01-15

    This paper presents the results from a dynamic computer model of U.S. ethylene production, designed to explore implications of alternative climate change policies for the industry's energy use and carbon emissions profiles. The model applies to the aggregate ethylene industry but distinguishes its main cracker types, fuels used as feedstocks and for process energy, as well as the industry's capital vintage structure and vintage-specific efficiencies. Results indicate that policies which increase the cost of carbon of process energy-such as carbon taxes or carbon permit systems-are relatively blunt instruments for cutting carbon emissions from ethylene production. In contrast, policies directly affecting the relative efficiencies of new to old capital-such as R&D stimuli or accelerated depreciation schedules-may be more effective in leveraging the industry's potential for carbon emissions reductions.

  6. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ling [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Shi, Zhengjun [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen (China); Chu, L.M., E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m{sup −2} y{sup −1} to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m{sup −2} for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m{sup −2} for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5–24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles. - Highlights: • Carbon storage capacity at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m{sup −2} for grasses and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m{sup −2} for soils (to 15 cm depth). • Turf maintenance contributed to carbon emissions at 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce (carbon equivalent) m{sup −2} y{sup −1}. • Turf system respiration was negatively correlated with soil carbon capacity but only in the wet season. • Carbon stored in turfs could be offset by maintenance carbon emissions in 5–24 years.

  7. Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic carbon and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a global level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in global fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon balance. In this study, we investigated global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in global pyrogenic carbon emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high carbon storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic carbon emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and global average combustion rate (defined as carbon emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and carbon sink of global terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical management strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.

  8. A hybrid method for provincial scale energy-related carbon emission allocation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongtao; Zhang, Yingxuan; Wang, Huizhi; Huang, Yanying; Xu, He

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of carbon emission reduction targets proposed by national governments relies on provincial/state allocations. In this study, a hybrid method for provincial energy-related carbon emissions allocation in China was developed to provide a good balance between production- and consumption-based approaches. In this method, provincial energy-related carbon emissions are decomposed into direct emissions of local activities other than thermal power generation and indirect emissions as a result of electricity consumption. Based on the carbon reduction efficiency principle, the responsibility for embodied emissions of provincial product transactions is assigned entirely to the production area. The responsibility for carbon generation during the production of thermal power is borne by the electricity consumption area, which ensures that different regions with resource endowments have rational development space. Empirical studies were conducted to examine the hybrid method and three indices, per capita GDP, resource endowment index and the proportion of energy-intensive industries, were screened to preliminarily interpret the differences among China's regional carbon emissions. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of this method are also provided herein.

  9. Method of synthesizing small-diameter carbon nanotubes with electron field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie (Inventor); Du, Chunsheng (Inventor); Qian, Cheng (Inventor); Gao, Bo (Inventor); Qiu, Qi (Inventor); Zhou, Otto Z. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube material having an outer diameter less than 10 nm and a number of walls less than ten are disclosed. Also disclosed are an electron field emission device including a substrate, an optionally layer of adhesion-promoting layer, and a layer of electron field emission material. The electron field emission material includes a carbon nanotube having a number of concentric graphene shells per tube of from two to ten, an outer diameter from 2 to 8 nm, and a nanotube length greater than 0.1 microns. One method to fabricate carbon nanotubes includes the steps of (a) producing a catalyst containing Fe and Mo supported on MgO powder, (b) using a mixture of hydrogen and carbon containing gas as precursors, and (c) heating the catalyst to a temperature above 950.degree. C. to produce a carbon nanotube. Another method of fabricating an electron field emission cathode includes the steps of (a) synthesizing electron field emission materials containing carbon nanotubes with a number of concentric graphene shells per tube from two to ten, an outer diameter of from 2 to 8 nm, and a length greater than 0.1 microns, (b) dispersing the electron field emission material in a suitable solvent, (c) depositing the electron field emission materials onto a substrate, and (d) annealing the substrate.

  10. Is faster economic growth compatible with reductions in carbon emissions? The role of diminished population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Gregory; Galor, Oded

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence that lower fertility can simultaneously increase income per capita and lower carbon emissions, eliminating a trade-off central to most policies aimed at slowing global climate change. We estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the fact that changes in fertility patterns affect carbon emissions through three channels: total population, the age structure of the population, and economic output. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to population and income per capita in an unbalanced yearly panel of cross-country data from 1950-2010. We demonstrate that the elasticity with respect to population is nearly seven times larger than the elasticity with respect to income per capita and that this difference is statistically significant. Thus, the regression results imply that 1% slower population growth could be accompanied by an increase in income per capita of nearly 7% while still lowering carbon emissions. In the second part of our analysis, we use a recently constructed economic-demographic model of Nigeria to estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the impacts of fertility on population growth, population age structure, and income per capita. We find that by 2100 C.E. moving from the medium to the low variant of the UN fertility projection leads to 35% lower yearly emissions and 15% higher income per capita. These results suggest that population policies could be part of the approach to combating global climate change.

  11. The causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem-an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a long-term food security and preventing hunger include a better nutrition through sustainable systems of production, distribution, and consumption. Nonetheless, the quest for an alternative to increasing global food supply to meet the growing demand has led to the use of poor agricultural practices that promote climate change. Given the contribution of the agricultural ecosystem towards greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study investigated the causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2012. Evidence from long-run elasticity shows that a 1 % increase in the area of rice paddy harvested will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.49 %, a 1 % increase in biomass-burned crop residues will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.00 %, a 1 % increase in cereal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.38 %, and a 1 % increase in agricultural machinery will decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 0.09 % in the long run. There was a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions, cereal production, and biomass-burned crop residues. The Granger causality shows that the agricultural ecosystem in Ghana is sensitive to climate change vulnerability.

  12. Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Economic Implications for the post-Kyoto Carbon Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Niels (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)); Sathaye, Jayant (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States))

    2008-07-01

    This paper quantitatively assesses the economic implications of crediting carbon abatement from reduced deforestation for the emissions market in 2020 by linking a numerical equilibrium model of the global carbon market with a dynamic partial equilibrium model of the forestry sector. We find that integrating avoided deforestation in international emissions trading considerably decreases the costs of post-Kyoto climate policy - even when accounting for conventional abatement options of developing countries under the CDM. Regarding uncertainties of this future carbon abatement option, we find both forestry transaction costs and deforestation baselines to play an important role for the post-Kyoto carbon market

  13. Evidence for Decay of Turbulence by MHD Shocks in Molecular Clouds via CO Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Rebecca L; Green, Joel D; Yang, Yao-Lun

    2015-01-01

    We utilize observations of sub-millimeter rotational transitions of CO from a Herschel Cycle 2 open time program ("COPS", PI: J. Green) to identify previously predicted turbulent dissipation by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in molecular clouds. We find evidence of the shocks expected for dissipation of MHD turbulence in material not associated with any protostar. Two models fit about equally well: model 1 has a density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$, a shock velocity of 3 km s$^{-1}$, and a magnetic field strength of 4 ${\\mu}$G; model 2 has a density of 10$^{3.5}$ cm$^{-3}$, a shock velocity of $2$ km s$^{-1}$, and a magnetic field strength of 8 $\\mu$G. Timescales for decay of turbulence in this region are comparable to crossing times. Transitions of CO up to $J$ of 8, observed close to active sites of star formation, but not within outflows, can trace turbulent dissipation of shocks stirred by formation processes. Although the transitions are difficult to detect at individual positions, our Herschel-SPIRE survey o...

  14. Spatial Configuration of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Shanghai, and Our Policy Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research constructs a 1 km × 1 km Shanghai energy consumption and carbon emission spatial grid through a bottom-up approach. First, we locate all energy consumption locations in Shanghai via GIS. Second, we calculate energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions by energy type, by usage type, and by facilities. Finally, we use a spatial grid to represent the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The grid shows CO2 emissions in Shanghai are highly spatially correlated with energy types and volumes of consumption. This research also finds out that high energy consumption and carbon emission locations in Shanghai display significant spatial aggregation. In 7209 spatial energy consumption cells, the top 10 grids of emissions account for 52.8% of total CO2 emissions in Shanghai; the top 20 grids account for 64.5% and the top 50 grids account for 76.5%. The most critical point emission sources are coal-fired power plants and iron and steel plants. The most important line emission sources are the Yan’an Road and Inner Ring viaducts. The area emission sources that account for the most future-projected growth are commercial and residential natural gas. After this spatial analysis, this paper makes policy suggestions and solutions to conserve energy consumption and mitigate carbon emissions in Shanghai.

  15. The Logistics Equipment Carbon Emission Monitoring System for a Green Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungrim; Park, Byoungkwon; Lee, Byungha; Park, Yongsung; Lee, Changsup; Ha, Jeongsoo

    Recently, due to the global enforcement of obligations to reduce green house gases and various environmental regulations, low carbon green growth strategies are required. Currently, in our country, environment friendly logistics activities are staying in the early stage compared to advanced countries because of our country's large energy consumption type industrial structures. As a measure to respond to the trend of the reinforcement of international environmental regulations in the sector of logistics, active green logistics systems should be established and to solve this problem, this study is intended to develop a monitoring system that can manage the carbon emission of logistics equipment(container truck, discharging equipment etc) in real time using a new technology named IP-RFID. The monitoring system developed in this study can actively manage the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment by attaching IP-Tags that can measure the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment in real time and transmit the information obtained from the measurement directly to users through IP communication. Since carbon emission can be managed by logistics equipment and drivers can check the carbon emission of equipment through this system, the carbon emission generated in the logistics sector may be reduced by using this system.

  16. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  17. A Longitudinal Study on the Carbon Emissions of a New Residential Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for nearly 50% of all greenhouse gases globally. While this has been widely recognized, the GHG mitigation strategies have traditionally concentrated on reducing the use phase emissions, as over 90% of the emissions are generated during the use phase according to several studies. However, two current developments increase the importance of the construction phase emissions and the embodied emissions of the building materials. Firstly, the improvements in the energy efficiency of buildings directly increase the relative share of the construction phase emissions. Secondly, the notification of the temporal allocation of the emissions increases the importance of the carbon spike from construction. While these perspectives have been noted, few studies exist that combine the two perspectives of the construction and the use phase. In this paper, we analyze the implications of low-carbon residential construction on the life cycle emissions of a residential area with a case study. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when the temporal allocation of the emissions is taken into account, the construction phase emissions can hinder or even reverse the carbon mitigation effect of low-carbon buildings for decades.

  18. Partitioning carbon dioxide emission and assessing dissolved organic carbon leaching of a drained peatland cultivated with pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim Kim Choo, Liza Nuriati; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna

    2014-01-01

    Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.

  19. Partitioning Carbon Dioxide Emission and Assessing Dissolved Organic Carbon Leaching of a Drained Peatland Cultivated with Pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Nuriati Lim Kim Choo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L. Merr. cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2 into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr, and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.

  20. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  1. A comparative study of the field emission properties of aligned carbon nanostructures films, from carbon nanotubes to diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, F.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C.; Li, J. Q.; Vincent, P.; Pirio, G.; Gangloff, L.; Nedellec, Y.; Legagneux, P.

    2007-05-01

    The electron field emission properties of different graphitic and diamond-like nanostructures films are compared. They are prepared in the same CVD chamber on SiO{2}/Si(100) and Si(100) flat surfaces, respectively. These nanostructures are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron emission (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Films of dense aligned carbon nanotubes by far display the lowest threshold fields around few V/μ m and the largest emission currents. Carbon nanofibers, with platelet arrangement of the graphitic planes parallel to the substrate, exhibit higher emission thresholds around 10 V/μ m. Diamond nanostructures, either modified through ammonia incorporation within the gas phase or not, exhibit the largest emission threshold around 25 V/μ m. The high enhancement factors, deduced from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, can explain the low emission thresholds whereas limitations to the electron transport ever occur through different processes (i) surface modifications of the surface, as the transformation of the SiO{2} barrier layer into SiN{x} in the presence of ammonia evidenced by XPS; (ii) different orientation of the graphitic basal planes relative to the direction of electron transport (carbon nanofiber) and (iii) presence of a graphitic nest at the interface of the carbon nanostructure and the substrate, observed when catalyst is deposited through mild evaporation.

  2. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  3. Research on Urban Road Congestion Pricing Strategy Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitian Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The objective function of the upper level model is to minimize the sum of travel costs and the carbon dioxide emissions costs. The lower level is a multi-modal transportation network equilibrium model. To solve the model, the method of successive averages (MSA and the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA are introduced. The proposed method and algorithm are tested through the numerical example. The results show that the proposed congestion pricing strategy can mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon emissions effectively.

  4. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan, E-mail: wyn3615@126.com; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  5. AIDA: A 16-channel amplifier ASIC to read out the advanced implantation detector array for experiments in nuclear decay spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, D. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P. J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Page, R. D. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Thomas, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detector channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)

  6. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  7. Decoupled distance-decay patterns between dsrA and 16S rRNA genes among salt marsh sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Angus; Crosby, Sarah C; Huber, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    In many habitats, microorganisms exhibit significant distance-decay patterns as determined by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and various other genetic elements. However, there have been few studies that examine how the similarities of both taxonomic and functional genes co-vary over geographic distance within a group of ecologically related microbes. Here, we determined the biogeographic patterns of the functional dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) and the 16S rRNA gene in sulfate-reducing bacterial communities of US East Coast salt marsh sediments. Distance-decay, ordination and statistical analyses revealed that the distribution of 16S rRNA genes is strongly influenced by geographic distance and environmental factors, whereas the dsrA gene is not. Together, our results indicate that 16S rRNA genes are likely dispersal limited and under environmental selection, whereas dsrA genes appear randomly distributed and not selected for by any expected environmental variables. Selection, drift, dispersal and mutation are all factors that may help explain the decoupled biogeographic patterns for the two genes. These data suggest that both the taxonomic and functional elements of microbial communities should be considered in future studies of microbial biogeography to aid in our understanding of the diversity, distribution and function of microorganisms in the environment.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of Regional Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Xiao; Zhi-Hua Hu; Ke-Xin Wang; Pei-Hua Fu

    2015-01-01

    Facing serious energy-related constraints and environmental stress, the development of the green logistics industry is restricted by degrees of logistics energy utilization and carbon emissions. Considering different logistics spatial distributions, this paper uses the degree of regional logistics energy utilization and the spatial distribution of carbon emissions as two indicators of green logistics to investigate the regional differences and changes in spatiotemporal logistics energy effici...

  9. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year...... with age but indifference in CO2 emissions across the age and management in temporary grasslands, thus, indicates potential for long-term sequestration of soil C....

  10. A Simple Approach to Estimate Soil Organic Carbon and Soil CO2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SOC (Soil Organic Carbon and soil CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO 2 emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO 2 emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies.

  11. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  12. Carbon now and carbon futures -- a systems and performance based approach to reducing GHG emissions in the Auckland region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R., E-mail: robert.perry@arc.govt.nz; Chambers, P. [Auckland Regional Council (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    The Auckland Regional Council (ARC) has led a consortium of all Auckland councils and key stakeholders to develop an integrated regional policy response to address the critical climate change-related issues affecting the Auckland region's resilience and sustainable development. The development of climate mitigation policy has been underpinned by two separate but complementary initiatives known as Carbon Now, and Carbon Futures. Carbon Now is a performance and systems based management framework for measuring, monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions against prescribed targets. Carbon Futures refers to a backcasting and visioning study which sought to (i) develop long-term (year 2040) emissions projections, and (ii) to evaluate a suite of mitigations to achieve a range of reduction targets. These initiatives were developed in five broad stages. Stage one focused on the development of the Carbon Now framework and guidelines to provide a consistent methodology for the development of a detailed regional emissions inventory. An initial estimation of Auckland regional GHG emissions was undertaken in stage two based on a 2006 base year. In stage three a suite of potential GHG mitigation options were identified and evaluated to deliver GHG reductions and broader co-benefits for Auckland region. Stage four was the development of the Auckland regional GHG emission inventory using the Carbon Now Framework. In stage five a series of modified projections have been evaluated based on a series of scenarios and underpinning assumptions. It was estimated using a 'top down' approach (stage one) that Auckland's regional emissions have risen by 17.7% between 2001 and 2008, compared to a 26% increase rise in national emissions since 1990. It was predicted that by 2040, regional emissions will increase by 87.3% relative to 2001 levels. The Auckland regional footprint equated to 10,040,084 tonnes carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) or 7

  13. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-12-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission.

  14. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India: A multivariate cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal, E-mail: sghosh@mdi.ac.i [Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth.

  15. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India. A multivariate cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Assistant, Professor, Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth. (author)

  16. Study of Biodiesel Emissions and Carbon Mitigation in Gas Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alalim Altaher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy security and reduction of carbon emissions have accelerated the R&D of the alternative fuels in the transport, heating and power generation sectors in last decade. The heating and power generation sectors are two of the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which are due to the combustion of petroleum fuels. A gas turbine combustor test rig was used to study the combustion and emission characteristics of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME biodiesel. A 140mm diameter atmospheric pressure premixed combustion test rig was used at 600K inlet air temperature and Mach number 0.017. The tests were conducted using pure WME and blend with kerosene. The central fuel injection was used for liquid fuels and wall injection was used for NG (Natural Gas. The exhaust samples for smoke and gaseous emissions (NOx, UHC, CO and CO₂ have been analysed on dry basis and corrected to 15% O₂ over range of different fuel rate. The results showed that the biodiesel had lower CO, UHC emissions and higher NOx emissions than the kerosene. The blend B20 had lowest NOx emissions comparing with pure biodiesel (B100 and B50. The optimum conditions for WME with lowest emissions were identified. The carbon dioxide emissions per 100 megawatts of heat generated for each fuel were calculated. The relative carbon emissions and mitigations by biodiesel were compared. The results can be used to estimate pollutant emissions and carbon reductions by biodiesel in power generation industry and other sectors where gas turbine engines are used.

  17. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-07-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity.

  18. Decoupling China's carbon emissions increase from economic growth : An economic analysis and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    2000-01-01

    As the world's second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticized as a "free-rider" benefiting from other countries' efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but not taking responsibility for its own emissions. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent neg

  19. Spatiotemporal Changes of Built-Up Land Expansion and Carbon Emissions Caused by the Chinese Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Lu, Qinli; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Rongqin; Lu, Junyu

    2015-11-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization, enlarging the construction industry, greatly expanding built-up land, and generating substantial carbon emissions. We calculated both the direct and indirect carbon emissions from energy consumption (anthropogenic emissions) in the construction sector and analyzed built-up land expansion and carbon storage losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. According to our study, the total anthropogenic carbon emissions from the construction sector increased from 3,905×10(4) to 103,721.17×10(4) t from 1995 to 2010, representing 27.87%-34.31% of the total carbon emissions from energy consumption in China. Indirect carbon emissions from other industrial sectors induced by the construction sector represented approximately 97% of the total anthropogenic carbon emissions of the sector. These emissions were mainly concentrated in seven upstream industry sectors. Based on our assumptions, built-up land expansion caused 3704.84×10(4) t of carbon storage loss from vegetation between 1995 and 2010. Cropland was the main built-up land expansion type across all regions. The study shows great regional differences. Coastal regions showed dramatic built-up land expansion, greater carbon storage losses from vegetation, and greater anthropogenic carbon emissions. These regional differences were the most obvious in East China followed by Midsouth China. These regions are under pressure for strong carbon emissions reduction.

  20. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  1. Daily black carbon emissions from fires in northern Eurasia for 2002-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Petkov, Alexander; Nordgren, Bryce L.; Corley, Rachel E.; Silverstein, Robin P.; Urbanski, Shawn P.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Kinder, Bradley L.

    2016-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from fires in northern Eurasia is transported and deposited on ice and snow in the Arctic and can accelerate its melting during certain times of the year. Thus, we developed a high spatial resolution (500 m × 500 m) dataset to examine daily BC emissions from fires in this region for 2002-2015. Black carbon emissions were estimated based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land cover maps and detected burned areas, the Forest Inventory Survey of the Russian Federation, the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the year 2000, and vegetation specific BC emission factors. Annual BC emissions from northern Eurasian fires varied greatly, ranging from 0.39 Tg in 2010 to 1.82 Tg in 2015, with an average of 0.71 ± 0.37 Tg from 2002 to 2015. During the 14-year period, BC emissions from forest fires accounted for about two-thirds of the emissions, followed by grassland fires (18 %). Russia dominated the BC emissions from forest fires (92 %) and central and western Asia was the major region for BC emissions from grassland fires (54 %). Overall, Russia contributed 80 % of the total BC emissions from fires in northern Eurasia. Black carbon emissions were the highest in the years 2003, 2008, and 2012. Approximately 58 % of the BC emissions from fires occurred in spring, 31 % in summer, and 10 % in fall. The high emissions in spring also coincide with the most intense period of ice and snow melting in the Arctic.

  2. β-decay half-lives and β-delayed neutron emission probabilities of nuclei in the region A≲110, relevant for the r process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J.; Hennrich, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Arndt, O.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Estrade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Kessler, R.; Kratz, K.-L.; Lorusso, G.; Mantica, P. F.; Matos, M.; Möller, P.; Montes, F.; Pfeiffer, B.; Schatz, H.; Schertz, F.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Smith, E.; Stolz, A.; Quinn, M.; Walters, W. B.; Wöhr, A.

    2009-03-01

    Measurements of β-decay properties of A≲110 r-process nuclei have been completed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. β-decay half-lives for Y105, Zr106,107, and Mo111, along with β-delayed neutron emission probabilities of Y104, Mo109,110 and upper limits for Y105, Zr103-107, and Mo108,111 have been measured for the first time. Studies on the basis of the quasi-random-phase approximation are used to analyze the ground-state deformation of these nuclei.

  3. Beta-decay half-lives and beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities of nuclei in the region below A=110, relevant for the r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, J; Aprahamian, A; Arndt, O; Becerril, A; Elliot, T; Estrade, A; Galaviz, D; Kessler, R; Kratz, K -L; Lorusso, G; Mantica, P F; Matos, M; Møller, P; Montes, F; Pfeiffer, B; Schatz, H; Schertz, F; Schnorrenberger, L; Smith, E; Stolz, A; Quinn, M; Walters, W B; Wöhr, A

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the beta-decay properties of r-process nuclei below A=110 have been completed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, at Michigan State University. Beta-decay half-lives for Y-105, Zr-106,107 and Mo-111, along with beta-delayed neutron emission probabilities of Y-104, Mo-109,110 and upper limits for Y-105, Zr-103,104,105,106,107 and Mo-108,111 have been measured for the first time. Studies on the basis of the quasi-random phase approximation are used to analyze the ground-state deformation of these nuclei.

  4. A SECOND-BEST EVALUATION OF EIGHT POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS. (R825313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThis paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and br...

  5. Modeling of carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions from cattle manure compost windrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrow composting of cattle manure is a significant source of gaseous emissions, which include ammonia (NH3) and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). A manure compost model was developed to simulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) processes includ...

  6. A comparative study of the field emission properties of aligned carbon nanostructures films, from carbon nanotubes to diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Le Normand, Francois; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Fleaca, Claudiu; Li, J. Q.; Vincent, Pascal; Pirio, Gilles; Gangloff, Laurent; Nedellec, Yanick; Legagneux, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The electron field emission properties of different graphitic and diamond-like nanostructures films are compared. They are prepared in the same CVD chamber on SiO{2}/Si(100) and Si(100) flat surfaces, respectively. These nanostructures are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron emission (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Films of dense aligned carbon nan...

  7. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  8. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  9. Carbon dioxid emissions of the investments obliged to emission trading in the year 2010; Kohlendioxidemissionen der Emissionshandelspflichtigen Anlagen im Jahr 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt) at the Federal Environment Office (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) has evaluated the reported carbon dioxide emissions for 2010 (VET 2010) and presents now the key findings. From 15th May, the performance status (compliance status) of the investments obliged to emissions trading is accessible in the German register and for all European investments in the central register of the European Commission (Community Independent Transaction Log, CITL). The operators of the investments obliged to emissions trading were required to submit emission allowances according to carbon dioxide emissions of their investment in 2010 till to 30th April, 2011.

  10. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  11. A new biogeochemical model to simulate regional scale carbon emission from lakes, ponds and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Tina; Brakebusch, Matthias; Gustafsson, Erik; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Small aquatic systems are receiving increasing attention for their role in global carbon cycling. For instance, lakes and ponds in permafrost are net emitters of carbon to the atmosphere, and their capacity to process and emit carbon is significant on a landscape scale, with a global flux of 8-103 Tg methane per year which amounts to 5%-30% of all natural methane emissions (Bastviken et al 2011). However, due to the spatial and temporal highly localised character of freshwater methane emissions, fluxes remain poorly qualified and are difficult to upscale based on field data alone. While many models exist to model carbon cycling in individual lakes and ponds, we perceived a lack of models that can work on a larger scale, over a range of latitudes, and simulate regional carbon emission from a large number of lakes, ponds and wetlands. Therefore our objective was to develop a model that can simulate carbon dioxide and methane emission from freshwaters on a regional scale. Our resulting model provides an additional tool to assess current aquatic carbon emissions as well as project future responses to changes in climatic drivers. To this effect, we have combined an existing large-scale hydrological model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity Macroscale Hydrologic Model (VIC), Liang & Lettenmaier 1994), an aquatic biogeochemical model (BALTSEM, Savchuk et al., 2012; Gustafsson et al., 2014) and developed a new methane module for lakes. The resulting new process-based biogeochemical model is designed to model aquatic carbon emission on a regional scale, and to perform well in high-latitude environments. Our model includes carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycling in lake water and sediments, primary production and methanogenesis. Results of calibration and validation of the model in two catchments (Torne-Kalix in Northern Sweden and of a large arctic river catchment) will be presented.

  12. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ching-Chih [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  13. An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.

  14. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions...

  15. Estimation of Black Carbon Emissions from Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fires in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubonwan Chaiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the estimation of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires in Thailand. Field experiments were set up at the natural forest, Mae Nam Phachi wildlife sanctuary, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The dead leaves were the main component consumed of the surface biomass with coverage higher than 90% in volume and mass. The dead leaves load was 342 ± 190 g∙m−2 and followed by a little mass load of twig, 100 g∙m−2. The chemical analysis of the dead leaves showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 45.81 ± 0.04%. From the field experiments, it was found that 88.38 ± 2.02% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 10% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. The quantity of dead leaves consumed to produce each gram of carbon released was 2.40 ± 0.02 gdry biomass burned. From the study, the emissions factor of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 1329, 90, 26.19 and 2.83 g∙kg−1dry biomass burned, respectively. In Thailand, the amount of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires amounted 17.43 tonnes∙y−1.

  16. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiekun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  17. Study on influencing factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  18. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasharty, I. Y.; Kassem, A. K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  19. Global emission inventory and atmospheric transport of black carbon. Evaluation of the associated exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong

    2015-06-01

    This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.

  20. Optimization of the Waterbus Operation Plan Considering Carbon Emissions: The Case of Zhoushan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juying Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon because of the gradually increasing pressure of the urban road traffic. Therefore, the waterbus along the coast becomes a new direction of the urban public transport development. In order to optimize the operation plan of the waterbus, a bi-level model considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. In the upper-level model, a multiple objective model is established, which considers both the interests of the passengers and the operator while considering the carbon emissions. The lower-level model is a traffic model split by using a Nested Logit model. A NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Finally, the city of Zhoushan is chosen as an example to prove the feasibility of the model and the algorithm. The result shows that the proposed model for waterbus operation optimization can efficiently reduce transportation carbon emissions and satisfy passenger demand at the same time.

  1. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  2. The Evaluation System Design of GIS-Based Oil and Gas Resources Carbon Emission Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenju; Bi, Jiantao; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia; Pang, Wenqi

    2014-03-01

    Due to the importance of research on carbon budgets in natural processes, it is critical to be able to effectively manage and process all types of data in order to get measure carbon emissions. For this purpose, data produced in oil and gas exploration and natural processes are the focus of this research. Various tools are used including Oracle11g for data storage, Arc Engine combined with Microsoft Visual C# among others including C++ and the Database Storage Management Platform with GIS software functions. The IPCC algorithms are the most important reference, combine this with actual events, a new calculation model about oil and gas resources carbon emission was constructed. This model will analyze and predict the amount of carbon emissions in the oil and gas production in the future. Putting the new calculation model into the Database Storage Management Platform, an Intelligent Prediction Database Platform contained the new calculation model was established.

  3. Carbon-centered free radicals in particulate matter emissions from wood and coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linwei Tian; Catherine P. Koshland; Junko Yano; Vittal K. Yachandra; Ignatius T.S. Yu; S.C. Lee; Donald Lucas [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School of Public Health

    2009-05-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggests that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029-2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  5. Terrestrial carbon disturbance from mountaintop mining increases lifecycle emissions for clean coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott

    2010-03-15

    The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.--a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production--has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon, including terrestrial soil and nonsoil carbon using published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data of the forest floor removed and U.S. Department of Agriculture--Forest Service inventory data. We estimate the amount of previously buried geogenic organic carbon brought to the soil surface during MCM using published measurements of total organic carbon and carbon isotope data for reclaimed soils, soil organic matter and coal fragments. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the life-cycle emissions of coal production for MCM methods were found to be quite significant when considering the potential terrestrial source. Including terrestrial disturbance in coal life-cycle assessment indicates that indirect emissions are at least 7 and 70% of power plant emissions for conventional and CO(2) capture and sequestration power plants, respectively. To further constrain these estimates, we suggest that the fate of soil carbon and geogenic carbon at MCM sites be explored more widely.

  6. Innovative Carbon Allowance Allocation Policy for the Shenzhen Emission Trading Scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial allocation of tradable carbon emission allowances is among the most contentious issues in developing an emission trading scheme (ETS. China faces serious dilemmas of system complexity and information incompleteness and asymmetry in allocating carbon allowance among enterprises. As one of the pilot ETS regions, Shenzhen has launched the first regional cap-and-trade ETS (SZ ETS in China. Adhering to the overall plan and classification analysis, SZ ETS intends to solve the aforementioned dilemmas by developing innovative allowance allocation policies. A fundamental principle is to allocate allowances based on carbon intensity and actual output, according to which a two-step allocation procedure is constructed. A competitive game mechanism is introduced for allowance allocation among manufacturing enterprises. Empirical results indicate the following: (1 Carbon allowance allocation based on carbon intensity and actual output can mitigate carbon emission growth by reducing CO2 emitted per unit output, and, thus, buffer the shocks of unexpected economic fluctuations to ETS stability; (2 Competitive game allocation may contribute to improving the use of scattered information to enhance the efficiency of information and emission resource allocation. Exploring SZ ETS may provide a reference for formulating future national carbon allowance allocation policies in China and other developing regions.

  7. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  8. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  9. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  10. Field emission of carbon quantum dots synthesized from a single organic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Bingjun; Yang, Juan; Yu, Shengxue; Chen, Jiangtao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a facile synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and its field emission performance are reported. The CQDs are prepared from a single N, N-dimethylformamide acting as carbon and nitrogen-doping sources simultaneously. The CQDs are investigated by photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The CQDs have an average size of 3 nm and are doped with N atoms. CQD dispersion shows strong fluorescence under UV illumination. For the first time, the field emission behavior of CQDs coated on Si substrate is studied. As a candidate of cold cathode, the CQDs display good field emission performance. The CQD emitter reaches the current density of 1.1 mA cm-2 at 7.0 V μm-1 and exhibits good long-term emission stability, suggesting promising application in field emission devices.

  11. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers strongly influence CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per trip to commercial centers in the suburbs of Shenyang were on average 6.94% and 26.92% higher than those to commercial centers in the urban core and the inner city, respectively. CO2 emissions induced by wholesale centers were nearly three times higher than the lowest CO2 emissions of commercial centers in the inner city. These empirical results enhance our understanding of shopping-related transport carbon emissions and highlight the importance of optimizing urban space structure, in particular, the layout of commercial centers.

  12. Observation of Ground-State Two-Neutron Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Thoennessen, M; Spyrou, A; Lunderberg, E; DeYoung, P A; Attanayake, H; Baumann, T; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Christian, G; Divaratne, D; Grimes, S M; Haagsma, A; Finck, J E; Frank, N; Luther, B; Mosby, S; Nagi, T; Peaslee, G F; Peters, W A; Schiller, A; Smith, J K; Snyder, J; Strongman, M; Volya, A

    2012-01-01

    Neutron decay spectroscopy has become a successful tool to explore nuclear properties of nuclei with the largest neutron-to-proton ratios. Resonances in nuclei located beyond the neutron dripline are accessible by kinematic reconstruction of the decay products. The development of two-neutron detection capabilities of the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) at NSCL has opened up the possibility to search for unbound nuclei which decay by the emission of two neutrons. Specifically this exotic decay mode was observed in 16Be and 26O.

  13. Field Emission of Thermally Grown Carbon Nanostructures on Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    thermal decomposition of silicon carbide does not utilize a catalyst, therefore relatively defect free. One drawback to this method, however is that the CNT...In this thesis, silicon carbide samples are patterned to create elevated emission sites in an attempt to minimize the field emission screening effect...Patterning is accomplished by using standard photolithography methods to implement a masking nickel layer on the silicon carbide . Pillars are created

  14. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  15. A study of the radiative K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}e{sup -+}{nu}{gamma} decay and search for direct photon emission with the KLOE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Chiefari, G.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M.; Perfetto, F.; Saracino, G. [Univ. ' Federico II' , Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy)]|[INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Chi, S.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Forti, C.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Lanfranchi, G.; Mei, W.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Archilli, F. [Univ. ' Tor Vergata' , Dipt. di Fisica, Roma (Italy)]|[INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Bacci, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Cesario, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Univ. ' Roma Tre' , Dipt. di Fisica, Roma (Italy)]|[INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Kluge, W.; Leone, D. [Univ. et Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bini, C.; Caloi, R.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Lacava, F.; Testa, M. [Univ. ' La Sapienza' , Dipt. di Fisica, Roma (Italy)]|[INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Crucianelli, F. [Univ. ' La Sapienza' , Dipt. di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Di Donato, C.; Doria, A. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Gorini, E. [Univ. Lecce, Dipt. di Fisica, Lecce (Italy)]|[INFN Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Roma) (Italy)]|[State Univ. of New York, Physics Dept., Stony Brook (United States)] [and others

    2008-06-15

    We present a measurement of the ratio R={gamma}(K{sup 0}{sub e3{gamma}};E{sup *}{sub {gamma}}>30 MeV, {theta}{sup *}{sub {gamma}}>20 )/{gamma}(K{sup 0}{sub e3}) and a first measurement of the direct emission contribution in semileptonic K{sub L} decays. The measurement was performed at the DA{phi}NE{phi} factory by selecting {phi}{yields}K{sub L}K{sub S} decays with the KLOE detector. We use 328 pb{sup -1} of data, corresponding to about 3.5 million K{sup 0}{sub e3} events and about 9000 K{sup 0}{sub e3{gamma}} radiative events. Our result is R=(924{+-}23{sub stat}{+-}16{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5} for the branching ratio and left angle X right angle =-2.3{+-}1.3{sub stat}{+-}1.4{sub syst} for the effective strength parameter describing direct emission. (orig.)

  16. Specific solvent effects of linear alcohols on the emission spectrum and the excited state decay of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Paul; Leiner, Marc J. P.; Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1996-06-01

    This study aims at a quantitative extraction of specific solvent effects of hydroxylic solvents on the non-radiative decay of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II). For this purpose the emission spectra, quantum yields and excited state lifetimes of the dye were measured in a series of monovalent linear alcohols. Separation of the non-radiative decay via the energy gap was achieved by evaluating the temperature dependence of quantum yields to account for temperature-activated transitions. The parameters determining the shapes of the emission spectra were calculated by a modified Franck-Condon analysis including the anharmonic Morse potential, and correlated with the non-radiative rate with the help of the energy gap law. The specific effects of hydroxylic solvents were finally obtained by comparison with the well-known behavior in non-hydroxylic solvents, and interpreted with the help of the energy gap law theory.

  17. Multicolour Emission States from Charge Transfer between Carbon Dots and Surface Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The emissive states of carbon dots have been tuned by controlling the charge transfer process. The carbon dots couple with molecules, which are made of a benzene ring and different heteroatom substituents, through amino-carboxylic bonds that are generally identified as charge transfer promoters at the interface. New ways of radiative recombination are created due to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from carbon dots to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO of the grafted molecules. By variation of the molecular orbital energy levels via heteroatom substituents in the benzene ring, the different optical properties and emission colors of the carbon dots were presented. This work opens up new opportunities for the application of carbon dots since different heteroatom substituents could lead to many possibilities for conjugation with drugs and biomolecules.

  18. Carbon dioxide emission in relation with irrigation and organic amendments from a sweet corn field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Ali; Bensley, Adam; Bayabil, Haimanote; Awal, Ripendra; Fares, Samira; Valenzuela, Hector; Abbas, Farhat

    2017-03-03

    Soil moisture and organic matter level affects soil respiration and microbial activities, which in turn impact greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation levels (75% [deficit], 100% [full], and 125% [excess] of reference crop evapotranspiration requirements), and organic amendments (OA) type (chicken manure [CM] and bone meal [BM]) and OA application rates (0,168, 336 and 672 kg total N ha(-1)) on (i) soil physical properties (bulk density, organic matter content and soil moisture content) and (ii) soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a highly weathered tropical Hawai'ian soil. Carbon dioxide readings were consistently taken once or twice a week for the duration of the cropping season. A drip irrigation system was used to apply the appropriate amount of irrigation water to the treatment plots. Treatments were randomly selected and corresponding organic amendments were manually incorporated into the soil. Plots were cultivated with sweet corn (Zea mays 'SS-16'). Soil moisture content within and below the rootzone was monitored using a TDR 300 soil moisture sensor (Spectrum Technologies, Inc., Plainfield, IL, USA) connected with 12 cm long prongs. Soil bulk density and organic matter content were determined at the end of the cropping season. Analysis of variance results revealed that OA type, rate, and their interaction had significant effect on soil CO2 flux (P < 0.05). Among the OA rates, all CM mostly resulted in significantly higher soil CO2 fluxes compared to BM and control treatment (p < 0.05). The two highest rates of BM treatment were not significantly different from the control with regard to soil CO2 flux. In addition, organic amendments affected soil moisture dynamics during the crop growing season and organic matter content measured after the crop harvest. While additional studies are needed to further investigate the effect of irrigation levels on soil CO2 flux, it is recommended that in order to

  19. Scenarios Analysis of the Energies’ Consumption and Carbon Emissions in China Based on a Dynamic CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanying Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development trends and variation characteristics of China’s economy, energy consumption and carbon emissions from 2007 to 2030, and the impacts on China’s economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon emissions under the carbon tax policy scenarios, based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model. The results show that during the simulation period, China’s economy will keep a relatively high growth rate, but the growth rate will slow down under the benchmark scenario. The energy consumption intensity and the carbon emissions intensity per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP will continually decrease. The energy consumption structure and industrial structure will gradually optimize. With the economic growth, the total energy consumption will constantly increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions are still large, and the situation of energy-saving and emission-reduction is still serious. The carbon tax is very important for energy-saving and emission-reduction and energy consumption structure optimization, and the effect of the carbon tax on GDP is small. If the carbon tax could be levied and the enterprise income tax could be reduced at the same time, the dual goals of reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions and increasing the GDP growth can be achieved. Improving the technical progress level of clean power while implementing a carbon tax policy is very meaningful to optimize energy consumption structure and reduce the carbon emissions, but it has some offsetting effect to reduce energy consumption.

  20. Wildfires in a warmer climate: Emission fluxes, emission heights, and black carbon concentrations in 2090-2099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, A.; Lasslop, G.; Kloster, S.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming is expected to considerably impact wildfire activity and aerosol emission release in the future. Due to their complexity, the future interactions between climate change, wildfire activity, emission release, and atmospheric aerosol processes are still uncertain. Here we use the process-based fire model SPITFIRE within the global vegetation model JSBACH to simulate wildfire activity for present-day climate conditions and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The modeled fire emission fluxes and fire radiative power serve as input for the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2, which has been extended by a semiempirical plume height parametrization. Our results indicate a general increase in extratropical and a decrease in tropical wildfire activity at the end of the 21st century. Changes in emission fluxes are most pronounced for the strongest warming scenario RCP8.5 (+49% in the extratropics, -37% in the tropics). Tropospheric black carbon (BC) concentrations are similarly affected by changes in emission fluxes and changes in climate conditions with regional variations of up to -50% to +100%. In the Northern Hemispheric extratropics, we attribute a mean increase in aerosol optical thickness of +0.031±0.002 to changes in wildfire emissions. Due to the compensating effects of fire intensification and more stable atmospheric conditions, global mean emission heights change by at most 0.3 km with only minor influence on BC long-range transport. The changes in wildfire emission fluxes for the RCP8.5 scenario, however, may largely compensate the projected reduction in anthropogenic BC emissions by the end of the 21st century.

  1. A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-15

    Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  2. Network environ perspective for urban metabolism and carbon emissions: a case study of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2012-04-17

    Cities are considered major contributors to global warming, where carbon emissions are highly embedded in the overall urban metabolism. To examine urban metabolic processes and emission trajectories we developed a carbon flux model based on Network Environ Analysis (NEA). The mutual interactions and control situation within the urban ecosystem of Vienna were examined, and the system-level properties of the city's carbon metabolism were assessed. Regulatory strategies to minimize carbon emissions were identified through the tracking of the possible pathways that affect these emission trajectories. Our findings suggest that indirect flows have a strong bearing on the mutual and control relationships between urban sectors. The metabolism of a city is considered self-mutualistic and sustainable only when the local and distal environments are embraced. Energy production and construction were found to be two factors with a major impact on carbon emissions, and whose regulation is only effective via ad-hoc pathways. In comparison with the original life-cycle tracking, the application of NEA was better at revealing details from a mechanistic aspect, which is crucial for informed sustainable urban management.

  3. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions of China’s Model Environmental Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies three types of model environmental cities in China and examines their levels of energy-related carbon emissions using a bottom-up accounting system. Model environmental cities are identified as those that have been recently awarded official recognition from the central government for their efforts in environmental protection. The findings show that, on average, the Low-Carbon Cities have lower annual carbon emissions, carbon intensities, and per capita emissions than the Eco-Garden Cities and the Environmental Protection Cities. Compared internationally, the Eco-Garden Cities and the Environmental Protection Cities have per capita emissions that are similar to those of American cities whereas per capita emissions from the Low-Carbon Cities are similar to those of European cities. The result indicates that addressing climate change is not a priority for some model environmental cities. Policy changes are needed to prioritize climate mitigation in these cities, considering that climate change is a cross-cutting environmental issue with wide-ranging impact.

  4. Field Emission Properties of the Dendritic Carbon Nanotubes Film Embedded with ZnO Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Response on the effects of individual differences of common carbon nanotubes on the field emission current stability and the luminescence uniformity of cathode film, a new type of cathode film made of dendritic carbon nanotubes embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots is proposed. The film of dendritic carbon nanotubes was synthesized through high-temperature pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine on a silicon substrate coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles. The dendritic structure looks like many small branches protrude from the main branches in SEM and TEM images, and both the branch and the trunk are embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots. The turn-on field of the dendritic structure film is ∼1.3 V/μm at a current of 2 μA, which is much lower than that of the common carbon nanotube film, and the emission current and the luminescence uniformity are better than that of the common one. The whole film emission uniformity has been improved because the multi-emission sites out from the dendritic structure carbon nanotubes cover up the failure and defects of the single emission site.

  5. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  6. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central Europe between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlčková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and environmental policies are widely discussed, but much less is known about emissions embodied in goods traded internationally, and the distinction between emission producers and consumers. The carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central European countries are subject to examination in this paper. As a result of industrial restructuring and environmental legislation, air pollution has improved significantly in Central European countries since the 1989 transition. On the other hand, economic growth has been accompanied by a rise in consumerism. Despite the increasing role of exports, the Visegrad group countries have become net importers of carbon dioxide emissions between 1995 and 2008. This seems to be the ‘standard trajectory’ of a country’s transition toward a more developed and consumption-oriented economy. The global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in manufacturing exports are also mapped, using network analysis and constructing ‘product space’. The analysis confirms that industrial re-structuring played an important role in lowering the production of carbon dioxide emissions in the Visegrad countries.

  8. LIDAR-based urban metabolism approach to neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Coops, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kellet, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    2010-07-01

    A remote sensing technology was used to model neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions in a case study set in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The study was used to compile and aggregate atmospheric carbon flux, urban form, and energy and emissions data in a replicable neighbourhood-scale approach. The study illustrated methods of integrating diverse emission and uptake processes on a range of scales and resolutions, and benchmarked comparisons of modelled estimates with measured energy consumption data obtained over a 2-year period from a research tower located in the study area. The study evaluated carbon imports, carbon exports and sequestration, and relevant emissions processes. Fossil fuel emissions produced in the neighbourhood were also estimated. The study demonstrated that remote sensing technologies such as LIDAR and multispectral satellite imagery can be an effective means of generating and extracting urban form and land cover data at fine scales. Data from the study were used to develop several emissions reduction and energy conservation scenarios. 6 refs.

  9. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, N. W.; Kirchstetter, T.; Martien, P. T.; Apte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  10. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  11. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James Jay; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yuan; Shao, Min

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources.

  12. Energy substitution to reduce carbon dioxide emission in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinping Huang (Beijing Economic Research Inst. of Water Resources and Electric Power (BERI), BJ (China))

    1993-03-01

    Energy consumption per capita in China is very low, less than one-half of the average level of the world. But China has a large population and coal consumption dominates total energy consumption (the share of coal was 76% in 1989). Therefore, the amount of CO[sub 2] emitted is very large (11% of the total world emission in 1990). Many people are concerned about what measures can be taken to reduce CO[sub 2] emission in China. Proposed measures include energy-efficiency improvement and energy substitution. Energy substitution is one the most effective measures of reducing CO[sub 2] emission in China. We give a detailed analysis of the exploitable potential of hydropower, nuclear power and the new energy sources (including solar, wind, geothermal, and tidal energy) from 1990 to 2020. Estimated reductions in CO[sub 2] emission due to enhanced use of non-fossil energy are also given. About 330 x 10[sup 6] tce (we use for coal 7000 kcal/kgce) of non-fossil energy will be produced and about 239 x 10[sup 6] mt of C can be eliminated in 2020 (about 38% of China's total CO[sub 2] emission in 1990). (author)

  13. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  14. Exotic decay in cerium isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2002-04-01

    Half life for the emission of exotic clusters like 8Be, 12C, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si are computed taking Coulomb and proximity potentials as interacting barrier and many of these are found well within the present upper limit of measurement. These results lie very close to those values reported by Shanmugam et al using their cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model (CYEM). It is found that 12C and 16O emissions from 116Ce and 16O from 118Ce are most favorable for measurement (1/2 < 1010 s). Lowest half life time for 16O emission from 116Ce stress the role of doubly magic 100Sn daughter in exotic decay. Geiger–Nuttall plots were studied for different clusters and are found to be linear. Inclusion of proximity potential will not produce much deviation to linear nature of Geiger–Nuttall plots. It is observed that neutron excess in the parent nuclei slow down the exotic decay process. These findings support the earlier observations of Gupta and collaborators using their preformed cluster model (PCM).

  15. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: An empirical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Muhammad, E-mail: nasirawan84@yahoo.co [Staff Economist, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Ur Rehman, Faiz, E-mail: faizeconomist@yahoo.co [Department of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-03-15

    This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972-2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth. - Research highlights: {yields} Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only in the long-run in Pakistan. {yields} Both energy consumption and trade openness also affect carbon emissions positively in the long run. {yields} The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. {yields} None of the explanatory variables affect emissions in short-run. {yields} There is uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption. {yields} There is uni-directional causality from growth to emissions.

  16. Emissions from prescribed fire in temperate forest in south-east Australia: implications for carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possell, M.; Jenkins, M.; Bell, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    We estimated of emissions of carbon, as CO2-equivalents, from planned fire in four sites in a south-eastern Australian forest. Emission estimates were calculated using measurements of fuel load and carbon content of different fuel types, before and after burning, and determination of fuel-specific emission factors. Median estimates of emissions for the four sites ranged from 20 to 139 T CO2-e ha-1. Variability in estimates was a consequence of different burning efficiencies of each fuel type from the four sites. Higher emissions resulted from more fine fuel (twigs, decomposing matter, near-surface live and leaf litter) or coarse woody debris (CWD; > 25 mm diameter) being consumed. In order to assess the effect of estimating emissions when only a few fuel variables are known, Monte-Carlo simulations were used to create seven scenarios where input parameters values were replaced by probability density functions. Calculation methods were: (1) all measured data were constrained between measured maximum and minimum values for each variable, (2) as for (1) except the proportion of carbon within a fuel type was constrained between 0 and 1, (3) as for (2) but losses of mass caused by fire were replaced with burning efficiency factors constrained between 0 and 1; and (4) emissions were calculated using default values in the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA), National Inventory Report 2011, as appropriate for our sites. Effects of including CWD in calculations were assessed for calculation Method 1, 2 and 3 but not for Method 4 as the NGA does not consider this fuel type. Simulations demonstrate that the probability of estimating true median emissions declines strongly as the amount of information available declines. Including CWD in scenarios increased uncertainty in calculations because CWD is the most variable contributor to fuel load. Inclusion of CWD in scenarios generally increased the amount of carbon lost. We discuss implications of these simulations and

  17. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km(2)) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km(2). Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  18. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many atmospheric greenhouse gases and photochemically reactive trace gases. There are limited data available on the spatial and temporal extent of biomass fires and associated trace gas and aerosol emissions in Mexico. Biomass burning is a unique source of these gases and aerosols, in comparison to industrial and biogenic sources, because the locations of fires vary considerably both daily and seasonally and depend on human activities and meteorological conditions. In Mexico, the fire season starts in January and about two-thirds of the fires occur in April and May. The amount of trace gases and aerosols emitted by fires spatially and temporally is a major uncertainty in quantifying the impact of fire emissions on regional atmospheric chemical composition. To quantify emissions, it is necessary to know the type of vegetation, the burned area, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factor of each compound for each ecosystem. In this study biomass burning experiments were conducted in Mexico to measure trace gas emissions from 24 experimental fires and wildfires in semiarid, temperate, and tropical ecosystems from 2005 to 2007. A range of representative vegetation types were selected for ground-based experimental burns to characterize fire emissions from representative Mexico fuels. A third of the country was surveyed each year, beginning in the north. The fire experiments in the first year were conducted in Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas states in pine forest, oak forest, grass, and chaparral. The second-year fire experiments were conducted on pine forest, oak forest, shrub, agricultural, grass, and herbaceous fuels in Jalisco, Puebla, and Oaxaca states in central Mexico. The third-year experiments were conducted in pine-oak forests of Chiapas, coastal grass, and low subtropical forest on the Yucatan peninsula. FASS (Fire Atmosphere Sampling System) towers were deployed for the experimental fires. Each FASS

  19. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  20. Connecting the cycles: impact of farming practices, Carbon and nutrient erosion on GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on identifying links between GHG emissions, soil management and soil erosion that are not considered in the commonly applied emission calculations associated with farming and soil erosion. The role of agriculture in generating GHG emissions through the use of fertilizers and fossil fuels is well documented. The negative impacts of soil erosion on agricultural land and its productivity have also been studied extensively. The lateral movement of soil through terrestrial ecosystems has also been recognized as a significant flux of C within the global C cycle. Soil erosion removes approximately 0.5 Gt of C per year from agricultural land. Much of this C is deposited in the landscape, effectively burying the organic matter from the atmosphere and taking it, at least for an unspecified time, out of the C exchange between soil and atmosphere. Such calculations raise the notion that soil erosion generates an unintentional benefit for climate, owing to the long-term burial of soil organic Carbon. But limiting the assessment of the impact of soil erosion on climate change to organic carbon burial ignores, apart from economic and social damages, the coupling between biogeochemical cycles. For example, the eroded nitrogen has to be replaced, at least in part by artificial fertilizers, to maintain soil fertility. At this point the sediment, Carbon and nitrogen cycles meet, because the production of fertilizer generates greenhouse gases. The production of one ton of fertilizer generates on the order of 850 kg of carbon dioxide. Applying this number to the 0.5 GT C erosion estimate, the amount of nitrogen lost owing to erosion each year yields carbon dioxide emissions of 0.02-0.04 Pg per year. These emissions correspond to 15-30% of the organic carbon buried owing to soil erosion. In this presentation, the full complexity of biogeochemical cycling on agricultural land is explored and connections between cycles which require consideration for a full GHG emission

  1. Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Preble, Chelsea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Hadley, Odelle [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2010-11-05

    Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that endanger the lives of billions of people and contribute to climate change. This study quantifies the emission of pollutants from the Berkeley-Darfur Stove and the traditional three-stone fire at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory cookstove testing facility. The Berkeley-Darfur Stove was designed as a fuel efficient alternative to the three-stone fire to aid refugees in Darfur, who walk long distances from their camps and risk bodily harm in search of wood for cooking. A potential co-benefit of the more fuel efficient stove may be reduced pollutant emissions. This study measured emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and sunlight-absorbing black carbon. It also measured climate-relevant optical properties of the emitted particulate matter. Pollutant monitors were calibrated specifically for measuring cookstove smoke.

  2. Photon cascade emission of Pr3+ in LnBaB9O16 (Ln = La, Y)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Under 216 nm UV-excitation, cascade emission of Pr3+ occurs from1S0 state in LaBaB9O16:Pr3+ that converts a single UV photon of high energy into two visible photons. The observation of the cascade emission in this oxide matrix is largely due to the weak crystal field on the lanthanum sites. The analysis of the vibrational coupling indicates that the radiative transition from the 3P0 state is related to the low phonon frequency of the BO4 borate groups bonded to the lanthanum atoms (hwmax~850 cm-1). On the other hand, the cascade emission does not take place in a closely related material, YBaB9O16:Pr3+, which can be interpreted by the fact that the 4f5d levels are located below the 1S0 level in this material.

  3. Reduction of harmful nitrogen oxide emission from low heat rejection diesel engine using carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasi Gopinathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lanthanum aluminate is used as thermal barrier coating material for the first time in the internal combustion engine to convert the standard engine into low heat rejection engine. Initially, the biodiesel is prepared from sunflower oil by using trans-esterification process. The piton crown, cylinder head and valves of the engine is coated with lanthanum aluminate for a thickness of around 200 microns. However, the analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a standard diesel is carried out with diesel/biodiesel to compare with the low heat rejection engine. The lanthanum aluminate coated engine fueled with sunflower methyl ester shows better performance and emission. But the emission of NOx founds to be higher in the coated engine. Further, a small quantity of carbon nanotubes is added onto the biodiesel to carry out the experiments. Based on the results, the carbon nanotubes are added with the biodiesel to reduce the emission of NOx.

  4. Electron emission degradation of nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhan-Ling; Wang Chang-Qing; Jia Yu; Zhang Bing-Lin; Yao Ning

    2007-01-01

    The initial field electron emission degradation behaviour of original nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon films has been observed.which can be attributed to the increase of the work function of the film in the field emission process analysed using a Fowler-Nordheim plot.The possible re.on for the change of work function is suggested to be the desorption of hydrogen from the original hydrogen termination film surface due to field emission current-induced local heating.For the explanation of the emission degradation behaviour of the nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon film,a cluster model with a series of graphite(0001) basal surfaces has been presented,and the theoretical calculations have been performed to investigate work functions of graphite(0001) surfaces with different hydrogen atom and ion chemisorption sites by using first principles method based on density functional theory-local density approximation.

  5. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  6. INFLUENCES OF DENSITY AND DIMENSION OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON THEIR FIELD EMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.B. Zhu; W.L. Wang; C.G. Hu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of density and dimension of carbon nanotubes on their electron emission from arrays are studied. The tip electric field of nanotubes, electric field enhancement factor, and optimum nanotube density are expressed by analytic equations. The theoretical analyses show that the field enhancement factor is sensitive to nanotube density, and can be sharply improved at a specific and optimum density. Some experiments have demonstrated these. Owning to electrostatic screening effect, the length of carbon nanotubes has little effect on their emission. A uniformly-distributed carbon nanotube array model is set up, and applied to analysis of carbon nanotube arrays.The results obtained here are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

  8. Potential of forest management to reduce French carbon emissions - regional modelling of the French forest carbon balance from the forest to the wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vallet, P.

    2015-12-01

    In France the low levels of forest harvest (40 Mm3 per year over a volume increment of 89Mm3) is frequently cited to push for a more intensive management of the forest that would help reducing CO2 emissions. This reasoning overlooks the medium-to-long-term effects on the carbon uptake at the national scale that result from changes in the forest's structure and delayed emissions from products decay and bioenergy burning, both determinant for the overall C fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. To address the impacts of an increase in harvest removal on biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes at national scale, we build a consistent regional modeling framework to integrate the forest-carbon system from photosynthesis to wood uses. We aim at bridging the gap between regional ecosystem modeling and land managers' considerations, to assess the synergistic and antagonistic effects of management strategies over C-based forest services: C-sequestration, energy and material provision, fossil fuel substitution. For this, we built on inventory data to develop a spatial forest growth simulator and design a novel method for diagnosing the current level of management based on stand characteristics (density, quadratic mean diameter or exploitability). The growth and harvest simulated are then processed with a life cycle analysis to account for wood transformation and uses. Three scenarii describe increases in biomass removals either driven by energy production target (set based on national prospective with a lock on minimum harvest diameters) or by changes in management practices (shorter or longer rotations, management of currently unmanaged forests) to be compared with business as usual simulations. Our management levels' diagnostics quantifies undermanagement at national scale and evidences the large weight of ownership-based undermanagement with an average of 26% of the national forest (between 10% and 40% per species) and thus represents a huge potential wood resource

  9. Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change.

  10. Non-energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions in Germany: a carbon flow analysis with the NEAT model for the period of 1990–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Neelis, M.L.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Non-energy use of fossil fuels accounts for 7% of the Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) of Germany and represents an important potential source of CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. To gain a better understanding of emissions associated with non-energy use in Germany, we conduct a bottom-up carbon flo

  11. Electron field emission from 2-induced insulating to metallic behaviour of amorphous carbon (-C) films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitamber Mahanandia; P N Viswakarma; Prasad Vishnu Bhotla; S V Subramanyam; Karuna Kar Nanda

    2010-06-01

    The influence of concentration and size of 2 cluster on the transport properties and electron field emissions of amorphous carbon films have been investigated. The observed insulating to metallic behaviour from reduced activation energy derived from transport measurement and threshold field for electron emission of -C films can be explained in terms of improvements in the connectivity between 2 clusters. The connectivity is resulted by the cluster concentration and size. The concentration and size of 2 content cluster is regulated by the coalescence of carbon globules into clusters, which evolves with deposition conditions.

  12. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  13. Carbon emission impact on the operation of virtual power plant with combined heat and power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hang XIA; Jun-yong LIU; Zheng-wen HUANG; Xu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    A virtual power plant (VPP) can realize the aggregation of distributed generation in a certain region, and represent distributed generation to participate in the power market of the main grid. With the expansion of VPPs and ever-growing heat demand of consumers, managing the effect of fluctuations in the amount of available renewable resources on the operation of VPPs and maintaining an economical supply of electric power and heat energy to users have been important issues. This paper proposes the allocation of an electric boiler to realize wind power directly converted for supplying heat, which can not only overcome the limitation of heat output from a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, but also reduce carbon emissions from a VPP. After the electric boiler is considered in the VPP operation model of the combined heat and power system, a multi-objective model is built, which includes the costs of carbon emissions, total operation of the VPP and the electricity traded between the VPP and the main grid. The model is solved by the CPLEX package using the fuzzy membership function in Matlab, and a case study is pre-sented. The power output of each unit in the case study is analyzed under four scenarios. The results show that after carbon emission is taken into account, the output of low carbon units is significantly increased, and the allocation of an electric boiler can facilitate the maximum absorption of renewable energy, which also reduces carbon emissions from the VPP.

  14. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Heather L. MacLean

    2014-01-01

    While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international...

  15. Methane emissions proportional to permafrost carbon thawed in Arctic lakes since the 1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter Anthony, Katey; Daanen, Ronald; Anthony, Peter; Schneider von Deimling, Thomas; Ping, Chien-Lu; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Grosse, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost thaw exposes previously frozen soil organic matter to microbial decomposition. This process generates methane and carbon dioxide, and thereby fuels a positive feedback process that leads to further warming and thaw. Despite widespread permafrost degradation during the past ~40 years, the degree to which permafrost thaw may be contributing to a feedback between warming and thaw in recent decades is not well understood. Radiocarbon evidence of modern emissions of ancient permafrost carbon is also sparse. Here we combine radiocarbon dating of lake bubble trace-gas methane (113 measurements) and soil organic carbon (289 measurements) for lakes in Alaska, Canada, Sweden and Siberia with numerical modelling of thaw and remote sensing of thermokarst shore expansion. Methane emissions from thermokarst areas of lakes that have expanded over the past 60 years were directly proportional to the mass of soil carbon inputs to the lakes from the erosion of thawing permafrost. Radiocarbon dating indicates that methane age from lakes is nearly identical to the age of permafrost soil carbon thawing around them. Based on this evidence of landscape-scale permafrost carbon feedback, we estimate that 0.2 to 2.5 Pg permafrost carbon was released as methane and carbon dioxide in thermokarst expansion zones of pan-Arctic lakes during the past 60 years.

  16. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  17. Implication of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change into Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Wildlife Reserve, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Basyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest in the context of climate change is important sector to be included in the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The present study describes land-use and land-cover change during 2006–2012 of a mangrove forest conservation area, Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Laut Wildlife Reserve (KGLTLWR in North Sumatra, Indonesia and their implications to carbon dioxide emissions. A land-use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest due to increases of other land-use such as aquaculture (50.00% and oil palm plantation (28.83%. Furthermore, the net cumulative of carbon emissions in KGLTLWR for 2006 was 3804.70 t CO2-eq year-1, whereas predicting future emissions in 2030 was 11,318.74 t CO2-eq year-1 or an increase of 33.61% for 12 years. Source of historical emissions mainly from changes of secondary mangrove forests into aquaculture and oil palm plantation were 3223.9 t CO2-eq year-1 (84.73% and 959.00 t CO2-eq year-1 (25.21%, respectively, indicating that the KGLTLWR is still a GHG emitter. Mitigation scenario with no conversion in secondary mangrove forest reduced 16.21% and 25.8% carbon emissions in 2024 and 2030, respectively. This study suggested that aquaculture and oil palm plantation are drivers of deforestation as well as the largest of GHG emission source in this area. Keywords: carbon emission, climate change, deforestation, forest degradation, mangrove conservation

  18. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources: case study of Murmansk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture, fishing and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emission in Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 70% of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source emitting about 12% of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 56.7 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 55% of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  19. Soil carbon dioxide emission from intensively cultivated black soil in Northeast China. Nitrogen fertilization effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Kang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ding, Weixin; Cai, Zucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xilin; Zhou, Baoku [Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China). Inst. of Soil and Fertilizer

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration and native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and to identify the key factor affecting soil respiration in a cultivated black soil. Materials and methods: A field experiment was conducted at the Harbin State Key Agroecological Experimental Station, China. The study consisted of four treatments: unplanted and N-unfertilized soil (U0), unplanted soil treated with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (UN), maize planted and N-unfertilized soil (P0), and planted soil fertilized with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (PN). Soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured using the static closed chamber method. Results and discussion: Cumulative CO{sub 2} emissions during the maize growing season with the U0, UN, P0, and PN treatments were 1.29, 1.04, 2.30 and 2.27 Mg C ha{sup -1}, respectively, indicating that N fertilization significantly reduced the decomposition of native SOC. However, no marked effect on soil respiration in planted soil was observed because the increase of rhizosphere respiration caused by N addition was counteracted by the reduction of native SOC decomposition. Soil CO{sub 2} fluxes were significantly affected by soil temperature but not by soil moisture. The temperature sensitivity (Q{sub 10}) of soil respiration was 2.16-2.47 for unplanted soil but increased to 3.16-3.44 in planted soil. N addition reduced the Q{sub 10} of native SOC decomposition possibly due to low labile organic C but increased the Q{sub 10} of soil respiration due to the stimulation of maize growth. The estimated annual CO{sub 2} emission in N-fertilized soil was 1.28 Mg C ha{sup -1} and was replenished by the residual stubble, roots, and exudates. In contrast, the lost C (1.53 Mg C ha{sup -1}) in N-unfertilized soil was not completely supplemented by maize residues, resulting in a reduction of SOC. Although N fertilization significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions, the global warming potential

  20. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dong

    Full Text Available China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1 During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2 According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3 Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  1. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  2. Volatile organic compound emissions in relation to plant carbon fixation and the terrestrial carbon budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Ciccioli, P.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Biesenthal, T.; Rottenberger, S.; Wolf, A.; Vitullo, M.; Valentini, R.; Nobre, A.; Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A substantial amount of carbon is emitted by terrestrial vegetation as biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), which contributes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, to particle production and to the carbon cycle. With regard to the carbon budget of the terrestrial biosphere, a release of

  3. Carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores is a function of the surface exposure plus the chemical and mineralogical composition of the individual samples. The depth profiles of carbide and methane yields in the Apollo 15 core show a general decline with depth and correlate with the solar wind noble gas content, percentage agglutinates, track densities, and metallic iron. All horizons examined were exposed for a considerable time on the lunar surface. The Apollo 16 core samples show that chemical and mineralogical composition plays an important role in determining the nature of carbide-like material present in the fines. The higher aluminum and calcium contents and lower iron contents of highlands material result in carbide-like material yielding less CD4 and more C2D2 (deuteroacetylene) upon DF acid dissolution.

  4. Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P; Butler, Harry J; Strong, Craig L; McTainsh, Grant H; Leys, John F; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A

    2013-10-01

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) budget because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by removing selectively SOC from vast areas and transporting C dust quickly offshore; augmenting the net loss of C from terrestrial systems. However, the contribution of wind erosion to rates of C release and sequestration is poorly understood. Here, we describe how SOC dust emission is omitted from national C accounting, is an underestimated source of CO(2) and may accelerate SOC decomposition. Similarly, long dust residence times in the unshielded atmospheric environment may considerably increase CO(2) emission. We developed a first approximation to SOC enrichment for a well-established dust emission model and quantified SOC dust emission for Australia (5.83 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)) and Australian agricultural soils (0.4 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)). These amount to underestimates for CO(2) emissions of ≈10% from combined C pools in Australia (year = 2000), ≈5% from Australian Rangelands and ≈3% of Australian Agricultural Soils by Kyoto Accounting. Northern hemisphere countries with greater dust emission than Australia are also likely to have much larger SOC dust emission. Therefore, omission of SOC dust emission likely represents a considerable underestimate from those nations' C accounts. We suggest that the omission of SOC dust emission from C cycling and C accounting is a significant global source of uncertainty. Tracing the fate of wind-eroded SOC in the dust cycle is therefore essential to quantify the release of CO(2) from SOC dust to the atmosphere and the contribution of SOC deposition to downwind C sinks.

  5. Policy Considerations for Using Forests to Mitigate Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent article in Nature, “Soil Fertility Limits Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in a CO2-Enriched Atmosphere” by Oren and colleagues[1], has been widely reported on, and often misinterpreted, by the press. The article dampens enthusiasm for accelerated forest growth due to CO2 fertilization and puts in question the fringe theory that the world’s forests can provide an automatic mitigation feedback. We agree that these results increase our understanding of the global carbon cycle. At the same time, their relevance in the context of the international climate change negotiations is much more complicated than portrayed by newspapers such as the New York Times (“Role of Trees in Curbing Greenhouse Gases is Challenged”, May 24, 2001 and the Christian Science Monitor (“Trees No Savior for Global Warming”, May 25, 2001.

  6. Agricultural mechanization, erosion and carbon emission: A review

    OpenAIRE

    VURARAK, Yasemin; Bilgili, Mehmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to develop and application of different strategies for irrigated and dry agricultural areas because of global warming and climate change. Dry farming areas in Turkey is more than irrigated area. The slope of this areas is generally more than 9-12%. It can be observed mild erosion, moderate erosion , severe and more severe erosion in this respectively 14%, 20%, 63%. Increasing irreversible soil and carbon loss, erosion causes land degradation, infertile soil and climate change...

  7. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions" which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N. Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper. We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of

  8. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Klimont, Z.; Eckhardt, S.; Kupiainen, K.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kopeikin, V. M.; Novigatsky, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC) with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions") which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N). Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper). We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD) concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of annual mean Arctic

  9. Origins and implications of the relationship between warming and cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.; Davis, S. J.; Peters, G. P.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.

    2014-12-01

    A near-linear relationship between warming (T) and cumulative carbon emissions (Q) is a robust finding from numerous studies. This finding opens biophysical questions concerning (1) its theoretical basis, (2) the treatment of non-CO2 forcings, and (3) uncertainty specifications. Beyond these biophysical issues, a profound global policy question is raised: (4) how can a quota on cumulative emissions be shared? Here, an integrated survey of all four issues is attempted. (1) Proportionality between T and Q is an emergent property of a linear carbon-climate system forced by exponentially increasing CO2 emissions. This idealisation broadly explains past but not future near-proportionality between T and Q: in future, the roles of non-CO2 forcings and carbon-climate nonlinearities become important, and trajectory dependence becomes stronger. (2) The warming effects of short-lived non-CO2 forcers depend on instantaneous rather than cumulative fluxes. However, inertia in emissions trajectories reinstates some of the benefits of a cumulative emissions approach, with residual trajectory dependence comparable to that for CO2. (3) Uncertainties arise from several sources: climate projections, carbon-climate feedbacks, and residual trajectory dependencies in CO2 and other emissions. All of these can in principle be combined into a probability distribution P(T|Q) for the warming T from given cumulative CO2 emissions Q. Present knowledge of P(T|Q) allows quantification of the tradeoff between mitigation ambition and climate risk. (4) Cumulative emissions consistent with a given warming target and climate risk are a finite common resource that will inevitably be shared, creating a tragedy-of-the-commons dilemma. Sharing options range from "inertia" (present distribution of emissions is maintained) to "equity" (cumulative emissions are distributed equally per-capita). Both extreme options lead to emissions distributions that are unrealisable in practice, but a blend of the two

  10. Carbon emissions and sinks in agro-ecosystems of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林而达; 李月娥; 郭李萍

    2002-01-01

    Besides ruminant animals and their wastes, soil is an important regula ting medium in carbon cycling. The soil can be both a contributor to climate cha nge and a recipient of impacts. In the past, land cultivation has generally resu lted in considerable depletion of soil organic matter and the release of greenho use gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The observation in the North-South Transec t of Eastern China showed that climate change and land use strongly impact all s oil processes and GHG exchanges between the soil and the atmosphere. Soil manage ment can restore organic carbon by enhancing soil structure and fertility and by doing so mitigating the negative impacts of atmospheric greenhouses on climate. A wide estimation carried out in China shows that carbon sequestration potentia l is about 77.2 MMt C/a (ranging from 26.1—128.3 MMt C/a) using proposed IPCC a ctivities during the next fifty years.

  11. The Search For The Cp-violating Emission Of An E1 Photon From The Kaon Long Decays To Positive Pion Negative Pion Gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Shields, J M

    2005-01-01

    A search for the CP-violating electric dipole (E1) direct emission contribution to the KL → π+π −γ decay is performed using data from the 1997 KTeV/E832 experiment. Because the KL → π +π−γ decay mode is massively dominated by the CP-violating inner bremsstrahlung (IB) and the CP-conserving magnetic dipole (M1) direct emission processes, previous analyses have neglected the E1 contribution. Therefore, this measurement is the first attempt to directly quantify the size of the E1 decay process. This E1 transition is one of the very few CP-violating processes that is accessible to experiment and, in principle, will produce new insights into the structure of the neutral kaon. The result of this analysis is that the E1 contribution is below the threshold of sensitivity, and therefore an upper bound of |g E1| < 0.14 (90% CL) is reported. In the process of obtaining this upper limit, high resolution measurements of fit parame...

  12. BLACK Carbon Emissions from Diesel Sources in the Largest Arctic City: Case Study of Murmansk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Russia has very little data on its black carbon (BC) emissions. Because Russia makes up such a large share of the Arctic, understanding Russian emissions will improve our understanding of overall BC levels, BC in the Arctic and the link between BC and climate change. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up inventory of BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk, Russia, along with uncertainty estimates associated with these emissions. The research team developed a detailed data collection methodology. The methodology involves assessing the vehicle fleet and activity in Murmansk using traffic, parking lot and driver surveys combined with an existing database from a vehicle inspection station and statistical data. The team also assessed the most appropriate emission factors, drawing from both Russian and international inventory methodologies. The researchers also compared fuel consumption using statistical data and bottom-up fuel calculations. They then calculated emissions for on-road transportation, off-road transportation (including mines), diesel generators, fishing and other sources. The article also provides a preliminary assessment of Russia-wide emissions of black carbon from diesel sources.

  13. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Blumsack, Seth A; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B; Morgan, M Granger

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO2 emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO2 emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO2 emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO2 emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO2 emissions that has been shown in earlier workto stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO2 reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale.

  14. Growth of Aligned Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and the Effect of Adsorbates on the Field Emission Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, W. I.; Teo, K. B. K.; Lansley, S. B.; Chhowalla, M.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; Semet, V.; Binh, Vu Thien; Pirio, G.; Legagneux, P.

    2003-10-01

    In attempt to decipher the field emission characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), we have developed a fabrication method based on plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) to provide utmost control of the nanotube structure such as their alignment, individual position, diameter, length and morphology. We investigated the field emission properties of these nanotubes to elucidate the effect of adsorbates on the nanotubes. Our results show that although the adsorbates cause an apparent lowering of the required turn on voltage/field of the nanotubes, the adsorbates undesirably cause a saturation of the current, large temporal fluctuations in the current, and also a deviation of the emission characteristics from Fowler-Nordheim like emission. The adsorbates are easily removed by extracting an emission current of 1 uA per nanotube or using a high applied electric field (˜25V/um).

  15. Field emission from carbon films deposited by VHF CVD on difference substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, A A; Andronov, A N; Felter, T E; Ioffe, A F; Kosarev, A I; Shotov, M V; Vinogradov, A J

    1999-04-01

    As previously demonstrated, non-diamond carbon (NDC) films deposited at low temperatures 200-300 C on silicon tips reduced the threshold of field emission. In this paper we will present the results of the study of field emission from flat NDC films prepared by VHF CVD. Emission measurements were performed in a diode configuration at approximately 10{sup {minus}10} Torr. NDC films were deposited on ceramic and on c-Si substrates sputter coated with layers of Ti, Cu, Ni and Pt. The back contact material influences the emission characteristics but not as a direct correlation to work function. A model of field emission from metal-NDC film structures will be discussed.

  16. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a headwater stream network of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2013-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems store significant quantities of organic carbon (C) that may be vulnerable to degradation as a result of a warming climate. Despite their limited coverage on the landscape, streams play a significant role in the processing, gaseous emission, and downstream export of C, and small streams are thought to be particularly important because of their close connection with the surrounding landscape. However, ecosystem carbon studies do not commonly incorporate the role of the aquatic conduit. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions in a headwater stream network of interior Alaska underlain by permafrost to assess the potential role of stream gas emissions in the regional carbon balance. First-order streams exhibited the greatest variability in fluxes of CO2 and CH4,and the greatest mean pCO2. High-resolution time series of stream pCO2 and discharge at two locations on one first-order stream showed opposing pCO2 responses to storm events, indicating the importance of hydrologic flowpaths connecting CO2-rich soils with surface waters. Repeated longitudinal surveys on the stream showed consistent areas of elevated pCO2 and pCH4, indicative of discrete hydrologic flowpaths delivering soil water and groundwater having varying chemistry. Up-scaled basin estimates of stream gas emissions suggest that streams may contribute significantly to catchment-wide CH4 emissions. Overall, our results indicate that while stream-specific gas emission rates are disproportionately high relative to the terrestrial landscape, both stream surface area and catchment normalized emission rates were lower than those documented for the Yukon River Basin as a whole. This may be due to limitations of C sources and/or C transport to surface waters.

  17. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  18. CarbonTracker-CH4: an assimilation system for estimating emissions of atmospheric methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Bruhwiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an assimilation system for atmospheric methane (CH4, CarbonTracker-CH4, and demonstrate the diagnostic value of global or zonally averaged CH4 abundances for evaluating the results. We show that CarbonTracker-CH4 is able to simulate the observed zonal average mole fractions and capture inter-annual variability in emissions quite well at high northern latitudes (53–90° N. CarbonTracker-CH4 estimates of total fluxes at high northern latitudes are about 81 Tg CH4 yr−1, about 12 Tg CH4 yr−1 (13% lower than prior estimates, a result that is consistent with other atmospheric inversions. Emissions from European wetlands are decreased by 30%, a result consistent with previous; however, emissions from wetlands in Boreal Eurasia are increased relative to the prior estimate. Although CarbonTracker-CH4 does not estimate increases in emissions from high northern latitudes for 2000 through 2010, significant inter-annual variability in high northern latitude fluxes is recovered. During the exceptionally warm Arctic summer of 2007, estimated emissions were greater than the decadal average by 4.4 Tg CH4 yr−1. In 2008, temperatures returned to more normal values over Arctic North America while they stayed above normal over Arctic Eurasia. CarbonTracker-CH4 estimates were 2.4 Tg CH4 yr−1 higher than the decadal average, and the anomalous emissions occurred over Arctic Eurasia, suggesting that the data allow discrimination between these two source regions. Also, the emission estimates respond to climate variability without having the system constrained by climate parameters. CarbonTracker-CH4 estimates for temperate latitudes are only slightly increased over prior estimates, but about 10 Tg CH4 yr−1 is redistributed from Asia to North America. We used time invariant prior flux estimates, so for the period from 2000 to 2006, when the growth rate of global atmospheric CH4 was very small, the assimilation does not produce increases in natural

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  20. Results on ββ decay with emission of two neutrinos or Majorons in {sup 76}Ge from GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Zavarise, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-09-15

    A search for neutrinoless ββ decay processes accompanied with Majoron emission has been performed using data collected during Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). Processes with spectral indices n = 1, 2, 3, 7 were searched for. No signals were found and lower limits of the order of 10{sup 23} yr on their half-lives were derived, yielding substantially improved results compared to previous experiments with {sup 76}Ge. A new result for the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied ββ decay of {sup 76}Ge with significantly reduced uncertainties is also given, resulting in T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν} = (1.926 ± 0.094) @ x 10{sup 21} yr. (orig.)

  1. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to

  2. Causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission for Malaysia using maximum entropy bootstrap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sehrish; Zou, Xiang; Hassan, Che Hashim; Azam, Muhammad; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.

  3. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  4. Transportation Costs and Carbon Emissions in a Vendor Managed Inventory Situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been much focus on carbon emissions and fuel consumption from road transport. In this paper, we consider a vendor deciding on the degree to which deliveries to geographically dispersed retailers should be consolidated. The vendor can consolidate shipments over time and deliver...

  5. Spatial Distribution of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of Regional Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Facing serious energy-related constraints and environmental stress, the development of the green logistics industry is restricted by degrees of logistics energy utilization and carbon emissions. Considering different logistics spatial distributions, this paper uses the degree of regional logistics energy utilization and the spatial distribution of carbon emissions as two indicators of green logistics to investigate the regional differences and changes in spatiotemporal logistics energy efficiency. We firstly measure the regional logistics in terms of energy consumption and carbon emission, then further measure the logistics by energy intensity and carbon intensity. Based on these four indicators, the relations between spatiotemporal logistics and regional logistics development are analyzed. Through studying the spatial and temporal evolution trends of the above indicators, we found that a certain convergence exists. Finally, based on the analysis, the suggestions for energy saving and emission reduction are proposed according to regional conditions. The results benefit to narrow the efficiency gap between regions and achieve the goal of improving logistics energy efficiency.

  6. Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current use of South Asian palm oil as biofuel is far from climate neutral. Dependent on assumptions, losses of biogenic carbon associated with ecosystems, emission of CO2 due to the use of fossil fuels and the anaerobic conversion of palm oil mill effluent currently correspond in South Asia wit

  7. Trade-off between carbon dioxide emissions and logistics costs based on multiobjective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Janic, M.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the freight transport costs and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in given intermodal and truckonly freight networks. When the trade-off, which is represented as the relationship, is changed, the freight mode share and route choice are also modified. To

  8. Carbon emissions, logistics volume and GDP in China: empirical analysis based on panel data model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Ren, Dongfang; Shi, Jiaxing

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the relationship among carbon emissions, GDP, and logistics by using a panel data model and a combination of statistics and econometrics theory. The model is based on the historical data of 10 typical provinces and cities in China during 2005-2014. The model in this paper adds the variability of logistics on the basis of previous studies, and this variable is replaced by the freight turnover of the provinces. Carbon emissions are calculated by using the annual consumption of coal, oil, and natural gas. GDP is the gross domestic product. The results showed that the amount of logistics and GDP have a contribution to carbon emissions and the long-term relationships are different between different cities in China, mainly influenced by the difference among development mode, economic structure, and level of logistic development. After the testing of panel model setting, this paper established a variable coefficient model of the panel. The influence of GDP and logistics on carbon emissions is obtained according to the influence factors among the variables. The paper concludes with main findings and provides recommendations toward rational planning of urban sustainable development and environmental protection for China.

  9. ECOS E-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, Lia [The Environmental Council Of The States, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    This final scientific/technical report on the ECOS e-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database provides a disclaimer and acknowledgement, table of contents, executive summary, description of project activities, and briefing/technical presentation link.

  10. Economic modelling approaches to cost estimates for the control of carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives an assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of a variety of economic modelling approaches commonly used for cost estimates for limiting carbon emissions, including the ad hoc approach, dynamic optimization approach, input-output approach, macroeconomic approach, computa

  11. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a sing

  12. Life Cycle Building Carbon Emissions Assessment and Driving Factors Decomposition Analysis Based on LMDI—A Case Study of Wuhan City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions calculation at the sub-provincial level has issues in limited data and non-unified measurements. This paper calculated the life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building industry in Wuhan, China. The findings showed that the proportion of carbon emissions in the construction operation phase was the largest, followed by the carbon emissions of the indirect energy consumption and the construction material preparation phase. With the purpose of analyzing the contributors of the construction carbon emissions, this paper conducted decomposition analysis using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI. The results indicated that the increasing buidling area was the major driver of energy consumption and carbon emissions increase, followed by the behavior factor. Population growth and urbanization, to some extent, increased the carbon emissions as well. On the contrary, energy efficiency was the main inhibitory factor for reducing the carbon emissions. Policy implications in terms of low-carbon construction development were highlighted.

  13. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  14. Relationship between construction characteristics and carbon emissions from urban household operational energy usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Li, Xuanqi; Pan, Lingyang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Carbon emitted from urban metabolism constitutes a substantial proportion of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission, which is at least partially responsible for the recent global warming. Part of the urban carbon emission comes from residential energy consumption. Given the ongoing rapid urbanization and strict emission-reduction requirement, understanding the urban home energy usage carbon emission (UHEUCE) is of great importance to optimize the sustainability of social and economic developments in China. For this reason, a survey has been conducted to exam the condition of home energy usage in Xiamen Island, SE China. This study was based on 340 valid responses and a general linear model for univariate method. The analysis showed (1) among the residential building characteristics, window thermal insulation has the greatest effect on UHEUCE. (2) Construction age and wall thermal insulation could also influence UHEUCE in areas where summer is hot and winter is warm. The better heat prohibiting effect of external wall and window, as well as the newer construction, the more UHEUCE can be generated. The survey provided helpful first-hand data for design and planning on urban energy saving, emission reduction, and for relevant scientific researches. (author)

  15. A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Qu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The household sector consumes a large amount of goods and services and is therefore a major source of global carbon emissions. This study aims to analyze per person household carbon emission (HCEs patterns of urban and rural China over the period from 1995 to 2011. Annual macroeconomic data for the study were obtained from authentic Chinese government sources. Direct HCE estimates for each fossil fuel were obtained using the IPCC’s reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. In 1995, per person HCEs from direct sources for urban and rural China were 0.50 tCO2 and 0.22 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 0.60 tCO2 and 0.61 tCO2, an increase of 20% and 177.27%, respectively. Similarly, in 1995, per person HCEs from indirect sources for urban and rural China were 0.43 tCO2 and 0.16 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 1.77 tCO2 and 0.53 tCO2, respectively, an increase of 306% and 235%. The reasons for these differences and the sets of policies required to rectify increasing emissions are discussed. If current trends and practices continue, with a RMB1000 increase in per capita income from 2011 levels, per person HCEs in urban and rural China will increase by 0.119 tCO2 and 0.197 tCO2, respectively. This result indicates that the sector of society which is most vulnerable will contribute most to China’s increasing HCEs. Therefore, while developing energy consumption and emissions reduction policies and programs, principles of fairness and equity need to be followed.

  16. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  17. Minimization of nitrous oxide emission from CASS process treating low carbon source domestic wastewater: Effect of feeding strategy and aeration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weihao; Yu, Chao; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during wastewater treatment can be mitigated by improving operational conditions, e.g., organic carbon supply and dissolved oxygen. To evaluate the control parameters for N2O emission in the low carbon source domestic wastewater treatment process, N2O emissions from Cyclic Activated Sludge System (CASS) under different feeding strategies and aeration rates were investigated. Results showed that continuous feeding enhanced nitrogen removal and reduced N2O emission compared to batch feeding, while a higher aeration rate led to less N2O emission. N2O was mainly produced during non-aeration phases in batch feeding CASS and the amount of N2O generated from denitrification decreased under continuous feeding, indicating that carbon source in the continuous influent relieved the electron competition between denitrification reductases during non-aeration phase. Moreover, taxonomic analysis based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed higher abundance of denitrifying bacteria, especially N2O-reducing bacteria in continuous feeding CASS.

  18. Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; Gasser, T.; Fader, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Kato, E.; Li, W.; Lindeskog, M.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Robertson, E.; Viovy, N.; Yue, C.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change and CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  19. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  20. Effect of Electrochemical Treatment in a Lithium Chloride Solution on Field Emission from Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; LI Chun; YUAN Guang; GU Chang-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are electrochemically treated in a lithium chloride solution at a concentration 0.1 mol/L.The field emission properties of the CNTs are investigated at different temperatures before and after the electrochemical treatment.After treatment,the turn-on voltage to produce field emission current of 10 μA decreases from 4.2kV to 2.7kV and the field emission current increases distinctly,but the stability falls off.Based on the Fowler-Nordheim plot,the values of the work function for the CNTs are calculated,which reveals that work function decreases after the electrochemical treatment.These results are attributed to the decrease of the work function of the carbon nanotubes.

  1. Prediction on carbon dioxide emissions based on fuzzy rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Herrini; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    There are several ways to predict air quality, varying from simple regression to models based on artificial intelligence. Most of the conventional methods are not sufficiently able to provide good forecasting performances due to the problems with non-linearity uncertainty and complexity of the data. Artificial intelligence techniques are successfully used in modeling air quality in order to cope with the problems. This paper describes fuzzy inference system (FIS) to predict CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Furthermore, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to compare the prediction performance. Data of five variables: energy use, gross domestic product per capita, population density, combustible renewable and waste and CO2 intensity are employed in this comparative study. The results from the two model proposed are compared and it is clearly shown that the ANFIS outperforms FIS in CO2 prediction.

  2. Implications of Carbon and Energy Taxes as Instrument for Environmental Emission Reduction in China's Power Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the Integrated Resources Planning Assessment (IRPA) model, implications of carbon tax and energy tax on technological selection, power price and environmental pollution in power industry of China were studied. This model is a least-cost generation planning model, with which the technological composition, electricity price and pollutant emission can be calculated by comparing the cost changes for different power generation options due to carbon and energy taxes. The primary simulation result shows that the levy of US$ 25/tC carbon tax or US$ 0.5/Mbtu energy tax can improve the power generation structure and greatly reduce CO2, SO2 and NOx emissions in power industry. Several advanced power generation technologies such as IGCC and NGCC are of competitive cost, and should be given priority in future planning of power industry.

  3. Deforestation and carbon emissions at tropical frontiers: a case study from the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton-Treves, L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison and Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of national development policy on land cover change and associated carbon fluxes at a Peruvian Amazon frontier. Remote sensing and field transects reveal changes in forest carbon stocks and accumulation rates. Deforestation was most rapid along the Interoceanic Highway during 1986-91 when credit and guaranteed markets were available, resulting in emissions of 708,000 Mg C yr{sup -1}, of which 14% was offset by secondary regrowth. Despite continued population growth, deforestation slowed during 1991-97 when fiscal austerity measures were imposed, resulting in emissions of 389,000 Mg C yr{sup -1}, of which 41% was offset by regrowth. Strategies to conserve frontier forests are compared in terms of carbon, biodiversity and economic costs and benefits. (author)

  4. DREAM-World: a simple model of energy-related carbon emissions in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes DREAM-World, a simple model of global carbon emissions using logistic equations to describe the variations, over the period 1900-2100, in world population, GDP per capita, energy intensity and carbon intensity. The resulting simulations of historical and projected future carbon emissions are in reasonably good agreement with both the historical emissions data and with three published future emission scenarios, chosen to reflect a wide range of possibilities. The use of logistic equations highlights the need to consider when the inflection points in key variables, such as GDP per capita, will occur in future. The modelling exercise also highlights the fact that, because energy intensity cannot in principle reach zero whereas carbon intensity can, energy efficiency improvements can only buy time in the carbon abatement process: a shift to carbon-free energy sources is ultimately required - if global economic growth is to continue. (Author)

  5. Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

  6. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL CARBON EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA%长三角城市工业碳排放及其经济增长关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶懿安; 朱继业; 李升峰; 徐秋辉

    2013-01-01

    根据《IPCC国际温室气体清单指南》中的参考方法对长三角16个城市2005~2009年的工业碳排放进行核算,具体分析比较16个城市的化石燃料的碳排放量、工业碳排放强度、工业碳排放变化率等影响因素,并通过关联性分析和脱钩分析对比城市工业碳减排现状与发展趋势,得出:(1)2009年长三角工业碳排放量达到20 979.79万t,其中煤炭消耗产生的碳排放量占主导,达到95.25%;(2)2005~2009年长三角16个城市的平均工业碳排放强度从1.25t/万元降低到0.88t/万元,上海的工业碳排放水平一直保持较低水平,江苏8个城市的工业碳排放强度较为接近,浙江省的7个城市工业碳排放强度差异明显;(3)长三角地区的碳排放强度与工业经济强度两者之间存在明显的负相关性;(4)工业增加值与工业碳排放量脱钩分析显示上海等13个城市落在弱脱钩区域.%With the rapid socio-economic development of China, energy consumption and environmental problems become increasingly serious,especially the greenhouse effect which results from carbon emission becomes the worldwide focus. Global warming brings severe challenges to the sustainable development of human society, and has great effect on agriculture and food security, water safety, ecological safety and public health security. The paper proposed a method to analyze and compare the current situation of carbon emission and development tendency of 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta. Firstly,it calculated the industrial carbon emission of 16 cities in the Yangtze River Delta from 2005 to 2009 based on the reference approach of IPCC Guideline for National Greenhouse-Gas Emission Inventory. Secondly, it specifically analyzed and compared these influence factors such as the carbon emission of fossil fuel, carbon emission intensity and the change rate of industrial carbon emission. Lastly,it used correlation analysis and decoupling a-nalysis to

  7. A Modelling Study of the Impact of On-Road Diesel Emissions on Arctic Black Carbon and Solar Radiation Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Market strategies have greatly incentivized the use of diesel engines for land transportation. These engines are responsible for a large fraction of black carbon (BC emissions in the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere, with significant effects on both air quality and global climate. In addition to direct radiative forcing, planetary-scale transport of BC to the Arctic region may significantly impact the surface albedo of this region through wet and dry deposition on ice and snow. A sensitivity study is made with the University of L’Aquila climate-chemistry-aerosol model by eliminating on-road diesel emissions of BC (which represent approximately 50% of BC emissions from land transportation. According to the model and using emission scenarios for the year 2000, this would imply an average change in tropopause direct radiative forcing (RF of −0.054 W∙m−2 (globally and −0.074 W∙m−2 over the Arctic region, with a peak of −0.22 W∙m−2 during Arctic springtime months. These RF values increase to −0.064, −0.16 and −0.50 W∙m−2, respectively, when also taking into account the BC snow-albedo forcing. The calculated BC optical thickness decrease (at λ = 0.55 µm is 0.48 × 10−3 (globally and 0.74 × 10−3 over the Arctic (i.e., 10.5% and 16.5%, respectively, with a peak of 1.3 × 10−3 during the Arctic springtime.

  8. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowin