WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 15

  1. 46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95.15-20... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a... of not more than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the...

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as... than 300 pounds of carbon dioxide, may have the cylinders located within the space protected. If...

  3. Carbon material formation on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 and residue constituents during acetylene decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. • Carbon spheres and filaments were formed after acetylene decomposition. • PAHs were determined in tar and residues. • Exhaust constituents include CO2, H2, NOx and hydrocarbon species. - Abstract: Carbon materials including carbon spheres and nanotubes were formed from acetylene decomposition on hydrogen-reduced SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of SBA-15, Ni-SBA-15 and carbon materials were analyzed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrometry, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). In addition, the contents of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tar and residue and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust were determined during acetylene decomposition on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15. Spherical carbon materials were observed on SBA-15 during acetylene decomposition at 750 and 850 °C. Carbon filaments and ball spheres were formed on Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. Raman spectroscopy revealed peaks at 1290 (D-band, disorder mode, amorphous carbon) and 1590 (G-band, graphite sp2 structure) cm−1. Naphthalene (2 rings), pyrene (4 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), and fluoranthene (4 rings) were major PAHs in tar and residues. Exhaust constituents of hydrocarbon (as propane), H2, and C2H2 were 3.9–2.6/2.7–1.5, 1.4–2.8/2.6–4.3, 4.2–2.4/3.2–1.7% when acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15/Ni-SBA-15, respectively, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 650 to 850 °C. The concentrations of 52 VOCs ranged from 9359 to 5658 and 2488 to 1104 ppm for SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 respectively, at acetylene decomposition temperatures from 650 to 850 °C, and the aromatics contributed more than 87% fraction of VOC concentrations

  4. Carbon material formation on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 and residue constituents during acetylene decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wu, Trong-Neng [Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Ho, Yung-Shou [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 831, Taiwan (China); Zeng, Li-Xuan [Department of Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. • Carbon spheres and filaments were formed after acetylene decomposition. • PAHs were determined in tar and residues. • Exhaust constituents include CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon species. - Abstract: Carbon materials including carbon spheres and nanotubes were formed from acetylene decomposition on hydrogen-reduced SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of SBA-15, Ni-SBA-15 and carbon materials were analyzed by field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrometry, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). In addition, the contents of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tar and residue and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaust were determined during acetylene decomposition on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15. Spherical carbon materials were observed on SBA-15 during acetylene decomposition at 750 and 850 °C. Carbon filaments and ball spheres were formed on Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. Raman spectroscopy revealed peaks at 1290 (D-band, disorder mode, amorphous carbon) and 1590 (G-band, graphite sp{sup 2} structure) cm{sup −1}. Naphthalene (2 rings), pyrene (4 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), and fluoranthene (4 rings) were major PAHs in tar and residues. Exhaust constituents of hydrocarbon (as propane), H{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were 3.9–2.6/2.7–1.5, 1.4–2.8/2.6–4.3, 4.2–2.4/3.2–1.7% when acetylene was decomposed on SBA-15/Ni-SBA-15, respectively, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 650 to 850 °C. The concentrations of 52 VOCs ranged from 9359 to 5658 and 2488 to 1104 ppm for SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 respectively, at acetylene decomposition temperatures from 650 to 850 °C, and the aromatics contributed more than 87% fraction of VOC concentrations.

  5. Helios: a 15 TW carbon dioxide laser-fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helios is an eight-beam carbon dioxide laser and target facility for the study of laser-fusion processes. The design of the laser is based on the principle of the electron-beam controlled high-pressure electrical discharge. The eight beams deliver a total of 9 kJ to targets in subnanosecond pulses and the peak intensity at focus exceeds 1016 W/cm2/beam. The laser can be fired at 5 min intervals but the system shot rate is restricted to 2/h because of target insertion, alignment, and preparation of diagnostic systems

  6. Reactions of carbon radicals generated by 1,5-transposition of reactive centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIVORAD CEKOVIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Radical intermediates can undergo specific reactions, such as intramolecular rearrangements, i.e., the transpositions of radical centers, which are not known in classical ionic organic reactions. 1,5-Transposition of a radical center to a non-activated carbon atom are of great synthetic importance. It can be successfully applied for the introduction of different functional groups (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens onto a carbon atom remote from the present functional group. In addition to functionalization of a remote non-activated carbon atom, the formation of new C-C bonds on the d-carbon atom have also been achieved. 1,5-Transposition of the radical centers takes place from alkoxyl, aminyl and carbon radicals to a remote carbon atom. Relocation of the radical centers preferentially involves 1,5-transfer of a hydrogen atom, although migrations of some other groups are known. The reactions of the carbon radical generated by 1,5-relocation of the radical center are presented and their synthetic applications are reviewed.

  7. Characteristics of Carbon Material Formation on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 Templates by Acetylene Decomposition and Their Bioactivity Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon spheres and tubes were formed from acetylene decomposition on SBA-15 and Ni-SBA-15 at 650–850 °C. At 650 °C, the decomposed carbons covered the surface of the support, and no carbon spheres and filament materials were formed. Carbon sphere formation occurred at 750 °C–850 °C; with diameters ranging from 0.8 μm–1.1 μm. For Ni-SBA-15, the diameters of the spheres and filaments were 0.8 μm and 62 nm, respectively, at 650 °C. At 750 °C, the diameter of the ball carbon materials ranged from 0.7 μm–0.8 μm, the diameter of the carbon tubes formed was 120–130 nm, and their pore diameter was 8.0 nm–11 nm. At 850 °C, the diameters of ball carbon materials and carbon tubes were similar to those of the materials at the formation temperature, 750 °C. Si, O and C were the main constituents of SBA-15; Ni-SBA-15 and carbon material formation supports. High-ring PAHs (such as BaP (five rings; IND (six rings; DBA (five rings and B[ghi]P (six rings exist in carbon materials. SBA-15 revealed insignificant cytotoxicity, but Ni-SBA-15 inhibited the proliferation of human lung cancer cells (A549. Less inhibition on cell viability and reactive oxidative species (ROS generation on A549 were determined for carbon material formation on the Ni-SBA-15 compared to the Ni-SBA-15.

  8. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  9. Changes of stable isotopes carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotope analysis is a potential tool for tracing food origin. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in different tissues of two varieties of cattle under the same culture condition were investigated. δ 13C and δ15N values of different defatted muscle and crude fat, cattle tail hair, blood, liver and feed were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen composition was not affected by cattle variety; the δ 13C values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver and cattle hair were not significantly different, but δ 15N value in the liver was much higher than other muscle and the δ 13C values didn't show difference among all the crude fat samples. So these results indicated that isotope fractionation in the various tissue was discrepant. (authors)

  10. Short-term carbon and nitrogen cycling in urine patches assessed by combined carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, Per; Petersen, S.O.; Soussana, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    ) fuel denitrification activity and N2O production. The study took advantage of carbon-13 pulse labelling the plant tissue combined with application of nitrogen-15 labelled synthetic urine as an attempt to identify the sources of N2O. Over a 6 weeks course, the CO2 evolved in response to urine...... indicating that root death was not a significant source to available C. Nitrous oxide emissions accumulated to 7, 59, 142 and 77 mg N2O-N m(-2), respectively, for control (0N), low urine N (LUN), high urine N (HUN) and high mineral N (HMN) treatments. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that HUN > LUN (P < 0...

  11. Inhibition of the Cardiac Na+ Channel Nav1.5 by Carbon Monoxide*

    OpenAIRE

    Elies, J; Dallas, M.; Boyle, JP; Scragg, JL; Duke, A; Steele, DS; Peers, C

    2014-01-01

    Sublethal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure is frequently associated with myocardial arrhythmias, and our recent studies have demonstrated that these may be attributable to modulation of cardiac Na(+) channels, causing an increase in the late current and an inhibition of the peak current. Using a recombinant expression system, we demonstrate that CO inhibits peak human Nav1.5 current amplitude without activation of the late Na(+) current observed in native tissue. Inhibition was associated with a...

  12. Benzoylation of anisole catalyzed by Ga/SBA-15 supported on carbon nanofibers composite

    OpenAIRE

    EL BERRICHI, F. Z.; Pham-Huu, C.; CHERIF, L.; Louis, B; M. J.; Ledoux

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber composite (C-NFC) shows several advantages compared to the conventional supports which are usually employed in catalysis such as alumina, silica or activated charcoal. In this present work we have developed a new hybrid catalyst consisting of SBA-15 supported on C-NFC for the benzoylation reaction. The structured materials allow an important improvement of the reaction hydrodynamics and favor the mass transfer between the active phase and the reactants, especially in the liqu...

  13. Amine-functionalized SBA-15 silica for the adsorption of carbon dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    span class="emphasis">Šiklová, Helenaspan>; span class="emphasis">Zukal, Arnoštspan>; span class="emphasis">Čejka, Jiříspan>; Zeleňák, V.

    Singapore : World Scientific Publ. Co. Pte. Ltd, 2008 - (Sayari, A.; Jaroniec, M.), s. 625-632 ISBN 978-981-277-915-1. [Nanoporous Materials /5./. Vancouver (CA), 25.05.2008-28.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : amine-functionalized SBA-15 silica * adsorption * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Comparison of amino and epoxy functionalized SBA-15 used for carbonic anhydrase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiaoyao; Chen, Shaoyun; Liu, Dai; Huang, Chunjie; Zhang, Yongchun

    2016-09-01

    Two functionalized SBA-15 [amine-functionalized SBA-15 (AFS) and epoxy-functionalized SBA-15 (GFS)] with different types of functional groups were synthesized by a hydrothermal process and post functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), respectively. They were used for the immobilization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The physicochemical properties of the functionalized SBA-15 were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, (13)C, (29)Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before and after CA was immobilized on AFS and GFS, the effects of temperature and pH value on the enzyme activity, storage stability, and reusability were investigated using para-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) assay. CA/GFS showed a better performance with respect to storage stability and reusability than CA/AFS. Moreover, the amount of CaCO3 precipitated over CA/AFS was less than that precipitated over CA/GFS, which was almost equal to that precipitated over the free CA. The results indicate that the epoxy group is a more suitable functional group for covalent bonding with CA than the amino group, and GFS is a promising support for CA immobilization. PMID:27215831

  15. Composition of Carbon-13 and Nitrogen-15 in Sediments of the Ha Long Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ha Long Bay with beautiful landscape and rich ecosystems is being used by human to develop the economy. The Ha Long Bay is currently affected by human activities causing the sedimentary environment to be much changed. The change of the environment in the Bay was studied using the composition of carbon-13, nitrogen-15 (δ13C, δ15N) and the C/N ratio in sediment of seven cores collected within the Ha Long Bay. In the Ha Long Bay, sedimentary environment receives many source sediment supplies. The north-east of Ha Long bay receives sources from sea, it is characterized by δ13C in sediment from -8.79 to -18.01‰, value δ15N in sediment from 4.36 to 4.73 ‰ and ratio of C/N from 13 to 41, the source organic matter in sediment shows that affected by C4 plant. The centre of Ha Long Bay receives organic source from sea, it is characterized by δ13C in sediment from -16.72 to -21.58 ‰, value δ15N in sediment ranges 4.15 - 5.20 ‰, ratio of C/N in sediment from 7 to 23. The north-west of Ha Long Bay is affected by rivers, it is characterized by δ13C in sediment range from -13.64 to -25.77 ‰, value δ15N in sediment from 2.50 to 4.38 ‰, and ratio C/N from 9 to 19. (author)

  16. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of dimethyl carbonate + 2-propanol + water system at 303.15 and 313.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Rizqy Romadhona; Mustain, Asalil; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Gunardi, Ignatius; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    In this work, liquid-liquid equilibria data of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) + 2-propanol + water system were accurately determined at 303.15 and 313.15 K using stirred and jacketed equilibrium cell under atmospheric pressure. The reliabilities of the experimental data were confirmed using Bachman-Brown correlation giving r-squared value of 0.9993 and 0.9983 at 303.15 and 313.15 K, respectively. Experimental data obtained in this work exhibit Treybal's Type I ternary phase behavior. The selectivity and distribution coefficient of DMC increases with addition of DMC concentration in the organic phase. On the other hand, the effect of temperature to phase boundary was found to be not significant. The data were correlated well using the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models with root-mean-square deviation of 1.5% and 1.3%, respectively.

  17. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Sjöström, Michael; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Owen, Jennifer R; Zeisel, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement in adolescents is correlated with 1-carbon metabolism (1-CM), as folate intake is positively related and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) negatively related to academic success. Because another 1-CM nutrient, choline is essential for fetal neurocognitive development, we...... hypothesized that choline and betaine could also be positively related to academic achievement in adolescents. In a sample of 15-yr-old children (n = 324), we measured plasma concentrations of homocysteine, choline, and betaine and genotyped them for 2 polymorphisms with effects on 1-CM......, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, rs1801133, and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), rs12325817 (G>C). The sum of school grades in 17 major subjects was used as an outcome measure for academic achievement. Lifestyle and family socioeconomic status (SES) data were obtained from...

  18. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Sjöström, Michael; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Owen, Jennifer R; Zeisel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Academic achievement in adolescents is correlated with 1-carbon metabolism (1-CM), as folate intake is positively related and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) negatively related to academic success. Because another 1-CM nutrient, choline is essential for fetal neurocognitive development, we hypothesized that choline and betaine could also be positively related to academic achievement in adolescents. In a sample of 15-yr-old children (n= 324), we measured plasma concentrations of homocysteine, choline, and betaine and genotyped them for 2 polymorphisms with effects on 1-CM, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, rs1801133, and phosphatidylethanolamineN-methyltransferase (PEMT), rs12325817 (G>C). The sum of school grades in 17 major subjects was used as an outcome measure for academic achievement. Lifestyle and family socioeconomic status (SES) data were obtained from questionnaires. Plasma choline was significantly and positively associated with academic achievement independent of SES factors (paternal education and income, maternal education and income, smoking, school) and of folate intake (P= 0.009,R(2)= 0.285). With the addition of thePEMTrs12325817 polymorphism, the association value was only marginally changed. Plasma betaine concentration, tHcy, and theMTHFR677C>T polymorphism did not affect academic achievement in any tested model involving choline. Dietary intake of choline is marginal in many adolescents and may be a public health concern.-Nilsson, T. K., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Sjöström, M., Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Owen, J. R., Zeisel, S. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents. PMID:26728177

  19. Measurements of the viscosity of carbon dioxide at temperatures from (253.15 to 473.15) K with pressures up to 1.2 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new rotating-body viscometer for the low-pressure region was presented. • A viscosity dependent offset was compensated by calibrating the viscometer. • The viscosity of carbon dioxide was measured at low pressures. • Measurements were carried out from T = (253.15 to 473.15) K with p ≤ 1.2 MPa. • The relative expanded combined uncertainty (k = 2) was Ur,c(η) = (0.20 to 0.41)%. - Abstract: The viscosity of carbon dioxide was measured over the temperature range T = (253.15 to 473.15) K with pressures up to 1.2 MPa utilizing a new rotating-body viscometer. The relative expanded combined uncertainty (k = 2) in viscosity (including uncertainties of temperature and pressure) was (0.20 to 0.41)%. The instrument was specifically designed for measurements at low gas densities and enables measurements of the dynamic viscosity at temperatures between T = 253.15 K and T = 473.15 K with pressures up to 2 MPa. For carbon dioxide, the fluid specific measuring range with regard to pressure was limited to 1.2 MPa due to the formation of disturbing vortices inside the measuring cell at higher pressures. The model function for the viscosity measurement was extended in such a way that the dynamic viscosity was measured relative to helium. Therefore, the influence of the geometry of the concentric cylindrical system inside the measuring cell became almost negligible. Moreover, a systematic offset resulting from a small but inevitable eccentricity of the cylindrical system was compensated for. The residual damping, usually measured in vacuum, was calibrated in the entire temperature range using viscosity values of helium, neon and argon calculated ab initio; at T = 298.15 K recommended reference values were used. A viscosity dependent offset of the measured viscosities, which was observed in previously published data, did not occur when using the calibrated residual damping. The new carbon dioxide results were compared to other experimental literature data

  20. Direct electron transfer and electrocatalysis of glucose oxidase immobilized on glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and mesoporous carbon FDU-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, it was found that glucose oxidase (GOD) has been stably immobilized on glassy carbon electrode modified with mesoporous carbon FDU-15 (MC-FDU-15) and Nafion by simple technique. The sorption behavior of GOD immobilized on MC-FDU-15 matrix was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), FTIR, respectively, which demonstrated that MC-FDU-15 could facilitate the electron exchange between the active center of GOD and electrode. The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis behavior of GOD on the modified electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammogram (CV) which indicated that GOD immobilized on Nafion and MC-FDU-15 matrices display direct, reversible and surface-controlled redox reaction with an enhanced electron transfer rate constant of 4.095 s-1 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) (pH 7.12). Furthermore, it was also discovered that, in the presence of O2, GOD immobilized on Nafion and MC-FDU-15 matrices could produce a linear response to glucose. Thus, Nafion/GOD-MC-FDU-15/GC electrode is hopeful to be used in glucose biosensor. In addition, GOD immobilized on MC-FDU-15 and Nafion matrices possesses an excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of O2. So, the Nafion/GOD-MC-FDU-15/GC electrode can be utilized as the cathode in biofuel cell.

  1. QM/MM & Monte Carlo simulation of single wall nano tube carbon SWNT (15, 15 binding with thymine dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudeh Safari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have studied of thymine dimer binding on the relative energies and dipole moment values and the structural properties of solvent effect (water, methanol and ethanol surrounding single-walled and multi walled carbon nanotube, by using QM/MM simulation, those calculations have carried out with the Gaussian and Hyper Chem package. In this study we investigated the polar solvents effects on SWCNT within the Onsager self - consistent reaction field (SCRF model using a Hartree-Fockmethod and the temperature effect on the stability of SWCNT in various. Because some of the Physicochemical parameters related to structural properties of SWCNT, we used different force fields to determine energy and other types of geometrical parameters, on the particular SWCNT, Because of the differences among force fields, the energy of a molecule calculated using two different force fields will not be the same. It is important to understand the energetic, stability dependent physical properties of armchair (m, n carbon nanotube. In this study, the difference in force fields illustrated by comparing the calculated energies by using force fields such as AMBER ,MM+, and BIO+ .The quantum Mechanics calculations were carried out with the GAUSSIAN 98 program based on density functional theory (DFT at the B1LYP/6-31G* level. Normal Mode Analysis is an important tool for studying the structure and dynamics of Nano-sized systems. The vibrational frequencies obtained can be used to relate observed spectra to the details of the molecular structure, dynamics and other thermodynamic properties.

  2. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanoma...

  3. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA

  4. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein, E-mail: mohammadnezhad@cc.iut.ac.ir; Dinari, Mohammad, E-mail: dinari@cc.iut.ac.ir; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  5. Relative stability of soil carbon revealed by shifts in δ15N and C:N ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alewell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Life on earth drives a continuous exchange of carbon between soils and the atmosphere. Some forms of soil carbon, or organic matter, are more stable and have a longer residence time in soil than others. Relative differences in stability have often been derived from shifts in δ13C (which is bound to a vegetation change from C3 to C4 type or through 14C-dating (which is bound to small sample numbers because of high measurement costs. Here, we propose a new concept based on the increase in δ15N and the decrease in C:N ratio with increasing stability. We tested the concept on grasslands at different elevations in the Swiss Alps. Depending on elevation and soil depth, it predicted mineral-associated organic carbon to be 3 to 73 times more stable than particulate organic carbon. Analysis of 14C-ages generally endorsed these predictions.

  6. Relative stability of soil carbon revealed by shifts in δ15N and C:N ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alewell

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Life on earth drives a continuous exchange of carbon between soils and the atmosphere. Some forms of soil carbon, or organic matter, are more stable and have a longer residence time in soil than others. Relative differences in stability have often been derived from shifts in δ13C (which is bound to a vegetation change from C3 to C4 type or through 14C-dating (which is bound to small sample numbers because of high measurement costs. Here, we propose a new concept based on the increase in δ15N and the decrease in C:N ratio with increasing stability. We tested the concept on grasslands at different elevations in the Swiss Alps. Depending on elevation and soil depth, it predicted mineral-associated organic carbon to be 3 to 73 times more stable than particulate organic carbon. Analysis of 14C-ages generally endorsed these predictions.

  7. Pharmaceutical preparation of oxygen-15 labelled molecular oxygen and carbon monoxide gasses in a hospital setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, Geert; Boellaard, Ronald; Greuter, Henri; Rijbroek, Abraham; Takkenkamp, Kevin; de Geest, Frank; Buijs, Fred; Hendrikse, NH; Franssen, Eric; van Lingen, Arthur; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical positron emission tomography (PET) requires safe and effective PET radiopharmaceuticals. Tracers used for measuring oxygen consumption and blood volume are [(15)O]O(2) and [(15)O]CO, respectively. In general, these oxygen-15 labelled tracers are produced using a cyclotron that a

  8. Complementary constraints from carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) isotopes on the glacial ocean's soft-tissue biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, A.; Somes, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional, process-based model of the ocean's carbon and nitrogen cycles, including 13C and 15N isotopes, is used to explore effects of idealized changes in the soft-tissue biological pump. Results are presented from one preindustrial control run (piCtrl) and six simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with increasing values of the spatially constant maximum phytoplankton growth rate μmax, which accelerates biological nutrient utilization mimicking iron fertilization. The default LGM simulation, without increasing μmax and with a shallower and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and increased sea ice cover, leads to 280 Pg more respired organic carbon (Corg) storage in the deep ocean with respect to piCtrl. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the colder glacial thermocline increase, which reduces water column denitrification and, with delay, nitrogen fixation, thus increasing the ocean's fixed nitrogen inventory and decreasing δ15NNO3 almost everywhere. This simulation already fits sediment reconstructions of carbon and nitrogen isotopes relatively well, but it overestimates deep ocean δ13CDIC and underestimates δ15NNO3 at high latitudes. Increasing μmax enhances Corg and lowers deep ocean δ13CDIC, improving the agreement with sediment data. In the model's Antarctic and North Pacific Oceans modest increases in μmax result in higher δ15NNO3 due to enhanced local nutrient utilization, improving the agreement with reconstructions there. Models with moderately increased μmax fit both isotope data best, whereas large increases in nutrient utilization are inconsistent with nitrogen isotopes although they still fit the carbon isotopes reasonably well. The best fitting models reproduce major features of the glacial δ13CDIC, δ15N, and oxygen reconstructions while simulating increased Corg by 510-670 Pg compared with the preindustrial ocean. These results are consistent with the idea that the soft-tissue pump was more efficient

  9. Loading amorphous Asarone in mesoporous silica SBA-15 through supercritical carbon dioxide technology to enhance dissolution and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengzan; Quan, Guilan; Wu, Qiaoli; Zhou, Chan; Li, Feng; Bai, Xuequn; Li, Ge; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to load amorphous hydrophobic drug into ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) by supercritical carbon dioxide technology in order to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of the drug. Asarone was selected as a model drug due to its lipophilic character and poor bioavailability. In vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of the obtained Asarone-SBA-15 were significantly improved as compared to the micronized crystalline drug. This study offers an effective, safe, and environmentally benign means of solving the problems relating to the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25720818

  10. Coupled transformation of inorganic stable carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 isotopes into higher trophic levels in a eutrophic shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enclosure and bag experiments were done in a eutrophic shallow lake with simultaneous use of inorganic 13C and 15N isotopes. It was demonstrated that coupled transformation of inorganic carbon and nitrogen can occur into herbivorous zooplankton through phytoplankton. Direct evidence is provided that there is an apparent coupling between photosynthesis and organic nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton during daytime under natural conditions and that the coupling occurs at a constant ratio

  11. Carbon black and vapor grown carbon fibers binary conductive additive for the Li1.18Co0.15Ni0.15Mn0.52O2 electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon black (CB) and vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) are used as conductive additives for the Li1.18Co0.15Ni0.15Mn0.52O2 electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The fibrous VGCFs can bridge the isolated Li1.18Ni0.15Co0.15Mn0.52O2 regions, thus construct an effective conductive network for electron transport. In addition, incorporation of CB and VGCFs can improve the electrochemical kinetics of the cathode material by retarding the harmful side reactions, promoting the charge transfer reactions and increasing the apparent lithium diffusion coefficient. In all electrodes under investigation, the one prepared with 3 wt.% of VGCFs and 12 wt.% of CB shows the largest discharge capacity of 252 mAh g−1 at the 0.2C rate with excellent capacity retention and rate capability. - Highlights: • CB/VGCFs binary conductive additive is used for Li-excess layered cathode electrode. • The binary conductive additive constructs a continuous network for electron transport. • The binary conductive additive improves the electrochemical kinetics of the electrode. • Improved electrochemical performance is gained using the binary conductive additive

  12. Differentiation of Pigment in Eggs Using Carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and Nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng M; Shi, Guang Y; Wang, Hui W

    2016-07-01

    Consumers prefer natural and healthy food, but artificial pigments are often abused in egg products. The study aimed at differentiating the origin of pigments in eggs by applying the technique of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) stable isotope analysis. Five hundred sixty laying hens were randomly distributed into 14 treatments, which were divided into four groups: maize, carophyll red pigment, carophyll yellow pigment, and a mixture of carophyll red and yellow pigments. Eggs were collected and pretreated to determe the values of the Roche Yolk Color Fan (RCF), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N. With increasing maize content, the RCF and δ(13)C values of yolks increased. Moreover, the RCF values in the three pigment groups were significantly influenced by the artificial colors, but δ(13)C values were not significantly different, regardless of the existence of pigment. The δ(15)N values in all treatments did not vary as regularly as the carbon stable isotope. A strong positive correlation was found between RCF and δ(13)C in the maize group, but no such correlation was be observed in the pigment groups. It is concluded that carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (δ(13)C) of the yolk can be used to differentiate the origin of the pigment added to eggs. PMID:27302905

  13. Effects of carbon, chromium and molybdenum contents on solidification and microstructure of 15 or 20% Cr white cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification experiments were performed on 30 mm diameter test pieces of while irons containing 15 or 20% chromium and 2,3 3,0 and 3,6% carbon, with additions of zero, 1,5 or 2,5% molybdenum for each carbon content. Measurements were made of: austenite and eutectic temperature arrest; number of eutectic carbide particles relative to total volume and to eutectic volume; volume fraction of primary austenite. It was observed that increasing carbon contents caused lower austenite and eutectic formation temperature arrest, reduced number of carbide p;articles in eutectic volume and smaller volume fraction of primary austenite. The addition of molybdenum led to lower austenite and eutectic formation temperature arrests, less carbide particles in total and in eutectic volume, and larger volume fraction of primary austenite. As compared to 15% chromium alloys, the 20% chromium alloys showed higher eutectic temperature arrests, more carbide particles both in the total volume and in the eutectic volume, and smaller volume fraction of primary austenite. (author)

  14. Enhanced sensitivity for biosensors: Functionalized P1,5-diaminonaphthalene-multiwall carbon nanotube composite film-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homogeneous electroactive poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene) (P1,5DAN) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry and a casting method. The dispersion and morphology of the MWNTs/P1,5DAN composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cyclic voltammograms of the electrode modified by the MWNTs/P15DAN composite film strongly depended on the film thickness and pH of the electrolyte solution. Two absolutely isolated oxidation potentials were found as the MWCNTs were immobilized onto the surface of P1,5DAN film in a pH 6.8 buffer solution containing ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Both peak currents linearly increased with increased concentrations. The electrochemical behavior of UA was not interrupted even in the presence of high-concentration AA given that AA had no observable electrochemical changes at the immobilized concentration. The electrocatalytic behavior of H2O2 was also investigated by steady-state amperometry for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on the P1,5DAN film. The plot of the response current vs. H2O2 concentration was linear over the wide concentration range of 0.015–5.37 mM.

  15. Carbon-rich presolar grains from massive stars. Subsolar 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios and the mystery of 15N

    CERN Document Server

    Pignatari, M; Hoppe, P; Jordan, C J; Gibson, B K; Trappitsch, R; Herwig, F; Fryer, C; Hirschi, R; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies compared to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C, and low-density graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. We present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. Different explosion energies and H concentrations are considered. If the SN shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of 13C and 15N. The short-lived radionuclides 22Na and 26Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic 22Ne from the decay of 22Na in the He shell might solve the pu...

  16. Radiation dose to upper airways from inhaled oxygen-15 carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Powell et al., significant retention of 15O in the tracheal mucosa results in a radiation absorbed dose of 75 to 200 rad upon breathing of 15O-CO2 for one hour at 1 mCi/liter. Such a high dose would seriously compromise the 15O-CO2 inhalation method for positron emission tomographic (PET) measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF). In order to verify these results, we have assayed 15O activity in the tracheal region of three volunteers by PET during inhalation of 15O-CO2 and 15O-O2. Using methods similar to those of the above authors for estimating absorbed dose in the tracheal mucosa, we have obtained a value of 14-38 rad, which is more in keeping with 3-5 rad found by Bigler et al. from direct assay of mucus and saliva. We conclude that the 15O-CO2 inhalation method is a safe and practical means of measuring CBF by PET

  17. Determination of biological transport of oxygen-15 and carbon-11 generated in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of induced 15O and 11C activity in live and dead rats was determined following local irradiation with a 32 MeV proton beam. Results indicate that rapid biological redistribution of some of the induced activity occurs within a minute following irradiation. Sufficient activity remains, bound in the intracellular water, to define the proton beam in tissue. Thus, mapping of the induced 15O activity proves to be a valid means of beam localization

  18. Grafting and carbonated irrigation water in transport of 15N and in the tomato production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of CO2 application through irrigation water, and of grafting in transport of 15N and in the tomato production, were studied. These treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (with and without CO2 in irrigation water and grafted and non-grafted tomato), in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The injection of CO2 into the water began at 34 days after transplant of seedlings (DAT) and continued for all irrigations. The application of the sulfate of ammonium with abundance in atoms of 15N of 3.13% in plants destined to analysis was done at 45 DAT when the plants were in the middle of fructification. After 14 days of fertilizer (15N) application the plants were harvested, washed, dried and sent for analysis of 15N in plant tissue. The results demonstrated that CO2 and the grafting did not alter the transport of 15N in the plant. The production of commercial fruits was larger when CO2 was applied in water. (author)

  19. Application of δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures of organic matter fractions sequentially separated from adjacent arable and forest soils to identify carbon stabilization mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kayler, Z.E.; Kaiser, M; Gessler, A.; Ellerbrock, R. H.; M. Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the chemical mechanisms behind soil carbon bound in organo-mineral complexes is necessary to determine the degree to which soil organic carbon is stabilized belowground. Analysis of δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures of stabilized OM fractions along with soil mineral characteristics may yield important information about OM-mineral associations and their processing history. We anlayzed the δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures from two organic matter (OM) fractio...

  20. Exhaustive Analysis of a Genotype Space Comprising 10(15 Central Carbon Metabolisms Reveals an Organization Conducive to Metabolic Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Rzgar Hosseini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All biological evolution takes place in a space of possible genotypes and their phenotypes. The structure of this space defines the evolutionary potential and limitations of an evolving system. Metabolism is one of the most ancient and fundamental evolving systems, sustaining life by extracting energy from extracellular nutrients. Here we study metabolism's potential for innovation by analyzing an exhaustive genotype-phenotype map for a space of 10(15 metabolisms that encodes all possible subsets of 51 reactions in central carbon metabolism. Using flux balance analysis, we predict the viability of these metabolisms on 10 different carbon sources which give rise to 1024 potential metabolic phenotypes. Although viable metabolisms with any one phenotype comprise a tiny fraction of genotype space, their absolute numbers exceed 10(9 for some phenotypes. Metabolisms with any one phenotype typically form a single network of genotypes that extends far or all the way through metabolic genotype space, where any two genotypes can be reached from each other through a series of single reaction changes. The minimal distance of genotype networks associated with different phenotypes is small, such that one can reach metabolisms with novel phenotypes--viable on new carbon sources--through one or few genotypic changes. Exceptions to these principles exist for those metabolisms whose complexity (number of reactions is close to the minimum needed for viability. Increasing metabolic complexity enhances the potential for both evolutionary conservation and evolutionary innovation.

  1. Organic matter inputs to soil after growth of carbon-14-nitrogen-15 labeled maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After growth of doubly labeled (14C and 15N) maize (Zea mays L.), two loamy soils were labeled by root exudation and rhizodeposition, and by direct microbial immobilization of N. Fresh roots were than carefully separated and washed, eliminating organic and organomineral cementing agents by acid and alkaline solubilizing reagents, and the remaining insoluble humin was water dispersed in order to separate coarse, medium, and fine fractions. At harvest time, fresh roots represented 85% of the total C input, and rhizodeposition 15%. Sixty to 70% of the N input was still in living roots at this time, and other organic forms of N were more a result of microbial activity than of rhizodeposition. The largest and most homogeneous organic fraction was the finest insoluble fraction, in which about half of the label for both C and N was found

  2. Experimental water content measurements of carbon dioxide in equilibrium with hydrates at (223.15 to 263.15) K and (1.0 to 10.0) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental water content data for carbon dioxide in equilibrium with hydrates. • Data required for setting drying requirements in carbon dioxide streams. • Comparison of experimental data with model predictions and available literature data. -- Abstract: The environmental impact of carbon dioxide has led to the need for capture and storage processes. Whenever water is present, at conditions inside the carbon dioxide hydrate stability zone, there is the possibility of hydrate formation which can cause problems such as pipeline restriction and blockage. To avoid such problems it is essential to know how dry the carbon dioxide needs to be. The measurement of the water content of carbon dioxide in equilibrium with hydrates at different temperature and pressure conditions gives a value below which hydrates will not form. There is a scarcity of relevant experimental data especially at low temperatures (<263.15 K). This is in part due to the challenging nature of making accurate equilibrium water content measurements at these conditions. The experimental data can be used to compare with predictions made using different thermodynamic models. This paper presents experimental equipment, methods and results for the water content of carbon dioxide in equilibrium with hydrates at temperatures between (223.15 and 263.15) K and pressures between (1.0 and 10.0) MPa, hence in both vapour and liquid phases. The experimental data are compared with predictions from an in-house (previously developed) thermodynamic model

  3. Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at geological conditions: Experimental results at 323.15, 373.15, and 423.15 K and 150 bar and modeling up to 573.15 K and 2000 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haining; Fedkin, Mark V.; Dilmore, Robert M.; Lvov, Serguei N.

    2015-01-01

    A new experimental system was designed to measure the solubility of CO2 at pressures and temperatures (150 bar, 323.15-423.15 K) relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. At 150 bar, new CO2 solubility data in the aqueous phase were obtained at 323.15, 373.15, and 423.15 K from 0 to 6 mol kg-1 NaCl(aq) for the CO2-NaCl-H2O system. A γ - φ (activity coefficient - fugacity coefficient) type thermodynamic model is presented for the calculation of both the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase and the solubility of H2O in the CO2-rich phase for the CO2-NaCl-H2O system. Validation of the model calculations against literature data and other models (MZLL2013, AD2010, SP2010, DS2006, and OLI) show that the proposed model is capable of predicting the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase for the CO2-H2O and CO2-NaCl-H2O systems with a high degree of accuracy (AAD response to increased temperature. A link of web-based CO2 solubility computational tool can be provided by sending a message to Haining Zhao at hzz5047@gmail.com.

  4. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Methanol and Carbon Dioxide Over Co1.5PW12O40 Keggin-Type Heteropolyanion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aouissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of Co1.5PW12O40 in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC from CO2 and CH3OH was investigated. The synthesized catalyst has been characterized by means of FTIR, XRD, TG, and DTA and tested in gas phase under atmospheric pressure. The effects of the reaction temperature, time on stream, and methanol weight hourly space velocity (MWHSV on the conversion and DMC selectivity were investigated. The highest conversion (7.6% and highest DMC selectivity (86.5% were obtained at the lowest temperature used (200 °C. Increasing the space velocity MWHSV increased the selectivity of DMC, but decreased the conversion. A gain of 18.4% of DMC selectivity was obtained when the MWHSV was increased from 0.65 h-1 to 3.2 h-1.

  5. Complexation of manganese(II) by cyclohexano-15-crown-5 in propylene carbonate: Calorimetric and X-ray crystallographic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yanpei; Burns, J.H.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-01-04

    Calorimetric titrimetry reveals that cyclohexano-15-crown-5 (C15C5) forms a 1:1 complex with Mn(II) ions (2.5 mM) in propylene carbonate (PC) solution to which was added levels of water up to 134 mM. The reaction proceeds with a strong driving force (log K = 4.7-5.0) and is enthalpically driven overall, but the magnitude of the enthalpy change decreases with increasing water concentration in the case of the Mn(II) nitrate salt. A minor anion effect occurs in which the trifluoromethansulfonate ion gives slightly more negative values of {Delta}H and T{Delta}S than the nitrate ion. Values of log K, however, do not change appreciably with increasing water concentration, nor are they dependent on the anion. The crystal structure of Mn(C15C5)(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} was determined, showing that the Mn(II) ion is coordinated by a pentagonal bipyramid of oxygen atoms provided by the equatorial crown {Angstrom}, b=14.145(1) {Angstrom}, c = 13,420(1) {Angstrom} {beta} = 100.31(2){degrees}, V = 5028 {Angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 8, t = 26 {degrees}C. For 2178 reflections with I > {sigma}(I), and 325 parameters, R(F) = 0.050 and R{sub w}(F) = 0.054.

  6. Radiation dose to the respiratory airway linings from inhalation of [/sup 15/O]-carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of the radiation dose to the upper airways including the trachea, oropharnyx, and nasal linings from inhalation of oxygen-15 labeled CO/sub 2/ studies are provided. Three air administration procedures were examined; inhalation by nose, by mouth and by mouth through a mouthpiece. Attention is given to the inhaled radioactive gas absorbed and retained in the mucus and saliva layers lining the respiratory passages. The authors estimates from direct measurements in saliva and mucus of the highest total radiation dose is to the oropharnyx (5.2 rads, mouth; 2.8 rads, nose). The dose to the trachea was estimated to be 3.5 rads from mucus measurements from dogs. The comparative dose to lungs is 1.2 rads (Bigler and Sgouros, JNM 24:431, 1983). These doses are for steady-state measurements involving the breathing of 1 mCi/1-air for 1 hr. Single breath estimates can be obtained by dividing by the number of breaths per hr (720). Although this procedure leads to a 10% reduction in the radiation dose to the lung, the radiation dose to the lining of the vein infused is high, ranging from 70 to 430 rads for equal activity administered. The authors recommend considering the lung as the tissue at highest risk for both inhalation and IV administration procedures

  7. Radiation dose to the respiratory airway linings from inhalation of (/sup 15/O)-carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigler, R.E.; Sgouros, G.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Cosma, M.; Leonard, R.W.; Dahl, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Estimates of the radiation dose to the upper airways including the trachea, oropharnyx, and nasal linings from inhalation of oxygen-15 labeled CO/sub 2/ studies are provided. Three air administration procedures were examined; inhalation by nose, by mouth and by mouth through a mouthpiece. Attention is given to the inhaled radioactive gas absorbed and retained in the mucus and saliva layers lining the respiratory passages. The authors estimates from direct measurements in saliva and mucus of the highest total radiation dose is to the oropharnyx (5.2 rads, mouth; 2.8 rads, nose). The dose to the trachea was estimated to be 3.5 rads from mucus measurements from dogs. The comparative dose to lungs is 1.2 rads (Bigler and Sgouros, JNM 24:431, 1983). These doses are for steady-state measurements involving the breathing of 1 mCi/1-air for 1 hr. Single breath estimates can be obtained by dividing by the number of breaths per hr (720). Although this procedure leads to a 10% reduction in the radiation dose to the lung, the radiation dose to the lining of the vein infused is high, ranging from 70 to 430 rads for equal activity administered. The authors recommend considering the lung as the tissue at highest risk for both inhalation and IV administration procedures.

  8. Carbon flow and trophic structure of an Antarctic coastal benthic community as determined by δ 13C and δ 15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, C. L.; Stark, J. S.; Johnstone, G. J.; Smith, S. D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to determine the different carbon pathways and trophic assemblages amongst coastal benthic fauna of the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Macroalgae, pelagic POM, sediment POM and sea ice POM had well-separated δ 13C signatures, which ranged from -36.75‰ for the red alga Phyllophora antarctica, to -10.35‰ for sea ice POM. Consumers were also well separated by δ 13C, ranging from -21.42‰ for the holothurian Staurocucumis sp. up to -7.47‰ for the urchin Sterechinus neumayeri. Analysis of δ 13C and δ 15N revealed distinct groups for suspension feeders, grazer/herbivores and deposit feeders, whilst predators and predator/scavengers showed less grouping. Consumers spanned a δ 15N range of 8.71‰, equivalent to four trophic levels, although δ 15N ratios amongst consumers were continuous, rather than grouped into discrete trophic levels. The study has built a trophic model for the Windmill Islands and summarises three main carbon pathways utilised by the benthos: (1) pelagic POM; (2) macroalgae/epiphytic/benthic diatoms and (3) sediment POM/benthic diatoms. The movement of carbon within the coastal benthic community of the Windmill Islands is considered complex, and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were valuable tools in determining specific feeding guilds and in tracing carbon flow, particularly amongst lower-order consumers.

  9. Two expedient ‘one-pot’ methods for synthesis of -aryl--mercaptoketones over anhydrous potassium carbonate or amberlyst-15 catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chayan Guha; Rina Mondal; Rammohan Pal; Asok K Mallik

    2013-11-01

    Two expedient one-pot methods have been developed for synthesis of -aryl--mercaptoketones using acetophenones, benzaldehydes and thiols as starting materials. The methods involve microwave irradiation (5min) of 1:1 mixtures of acetophenones and benzaldehydes over neutral alumina supported anhydrous potassium carbonate or amberlyst-15 in the first step, and that is followed by addition of thiol to the resulting material and keeping at room temperature for 1.5 h.

  10. Densities, excess molar volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity of (dimethyl carbonate + n-hexane) systems at temperatures (293.15 to 313.15) K and pressures from 0.1 MPa up to 40 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densities of dimethyl carbonate, n-hexane and their mixtures were measured for 12 compositions at five different temperatures varying from (293.15 to 313.15) K and over the pressure range of (0.1 to 40) MPa. The densities of pure substances and their mixtures at atmospheric pressure were measured by a vibrating-tube densimeter. The densities at high pressures were measured by a variable-volume autoclave and precise analytical balance. The excess molar volume, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric expansivity were derived from the experimental densities.

  11. 氧化钾/SBA-15催化合成碳酸二正丁酯%SYNTHESIS OF DIBUTYL CARBONATE BY TRANSESTERIFICATION OVER MESOPOROUS MOLECULAR SIEVE K2O/SBA-15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓燕; 沈健

    2011-01-01

    以介孔分子筛SBA-15为载体,浸渍KNO3后经过焙烧,制得K2O/SBA-15固体碱催化剂.通过XRD,N2等温吸附脱附和IR等测试手段对试样进行了分析.研究了K2O/SBA-15催化碳酸二甲酯(DMC)与正丁醇(n-BuOH)酯交换合成碳酸二正丁酯(DBC)的反应.结果表明:当K2O负载量为2%,反应时间2 h,反应温度180℃,n(正丁醇)∶n(DMC)为3.0,m(催化剂)∶m(原料)为0.08时,DMC转化率最大为89.6%,DBC 收率为58%,DBC选择性为64.7%.并且K2O/SBA-15催化剂重复使用多次仍具有较好的催化效果.%K2O/SBA-15 as the solid base catalyst was synthesized bu loading potassium on mesoporous sieve SBA-15.The sample has been characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption desorption and IR.The study on the synthesis of dibutyl carbonate from dimethyl carbonate and butanol has been done.The experimental results showed that when the loaded mount of K2 O was 2 %, reaction time was 2 h, reaction temperature was 180 ℃ ,n(n-butanol): n(dimethyl carbonate) was 3 and the ratio of catalyst to raw material was 8%, the highest conversion of dimethyl carbonate was 89.6%, the yield of DBC was 58%, the selectivity to DBC was 64.7%.The results also showed that the K2O/SBA-15 could be reused with good catalytic effect.

  12. Dynamic study of carbon nanotube growth and catalyst morphology evolution during acetylene decomposition on Co/SBA-15 in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    s Aires, F. J. Cadete Santo; Epicier, T.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2012-01-01

    In situ studies of micro- and nano-objects in their characteristic environment have been performed ever since the early days of electron microscopy [1]. Over several decades the in situ observation of the synthesis of filamentous carbon (nanotubes/nanofilaments) during hydrocarbon decomposition has...... been one of the most popular topics [2] for investigation in the environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). In this work we study the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by the decomposition of acetylene on Co nanoparticles inserted into mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) using both conventional...... were reduced in situ in a flow of hydrogen (1 mbar, ~500°C). Electron energy-loss spectra taken before and during reduction showed that the Co oxide nanoparticles were reduced to metallic Co. In situ high resolution TEM images are consistent with cubic Co. A first attempt to study carbon nanotube...

  13. Power factor improvement in hydrothermally synthesized Bi2−xSbxTe3 (x=1.5) — carbon sphere composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report fabrication of compacted Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 composites by adding 1 wt% of carbon spheres in the hydrothermal synthesis. The processing parameter of sintering temperature is investigated in order to optimize the thermoelectric power factor of pressed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 composites. As a result, we find that the composite sintered at 360 °C shows the best power factor performance among the composites and has a largest power factor of 15.4 μW/cm K2 at 205 K and 13.5 μW/cm K2 at 290 K. When compared with the samples without addition of carbon sphere in the hydrothermal synthesis, the composites sintered at 340 °C and 360 °C both surpass the largest power factor of 12.1 μW/cm K2 at 280 K and 11.9 μW/cm K2 at 290 K for the 340 °C-sintered counterpart. - Graphical abstract: Compacted Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3−δ composites obtained by adding 1 wt% of carbon spheres in the hydrothermal synthesis. The composites sintered at 340 °C and 360 °C both surpass the largest power factor of 12.1 μW/cm K2 at 280 K and 11.9 μW/cm K2 at 290 K for the 340 °C-sintered counterpart. Highlights: ► Fabrication of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3−δ composites. ► Addition of 1 wt% carbon spheres in the hydrothermal synthesis. ► Investigation of sintering temperature using encapsulating-and-sintering techniques. ► 360 °C-sintered composite showing the largest power factor of 15.4 μW/cm K2 at 205 K. ► 10–60% improvement over the counterpart without adding carbon spheres.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF CARBON NANO-COATING ON Li(Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05)O2 CATHODE MATERIAL USING ORGANIC CARBON FOR Li-ION BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    JEONG-HUN JU; YOUNG-MIN CHUNG; YU-RIM BAK; MOON-JIN HWANG; KWANG-SUN RYU

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nano-coated LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/C (LNCAO/C) cathode-active materials were prepared by a sol–gel method and investigated as the cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Electrochemical properties including the galvanostatic charge–discharge ability and cyclic voltammogram behavior were measured. Cyclic voltammetry (2.7–4.8 V) showed that the carbon nano-coating improved the "formation" of the LNCAO electrode, which was related to the increased electronic conductivity between the pr...

  15. Synthesis of carbon-14 analogue of 1,5 diaryl-5-[14C]-1,2,3-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-methyl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-tolunitrile-[cyano-14C] and benzonitrile-[cyano-14C], respectively

  16. Nature of organic carbon and nitrogen in physically protected organic matter of some Australian soils as revealed by solid-state 13 C and 15 N NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied for characterising the chemical nature of the remaining organic fraction. The 13C NMR spectroscopic comparison of the residues after UV photo-oxidation and the untreated bulk soils revealed a considerable increase in condensed aromatic structures in the residues for 4 of the 5 soils. This behaviour was recently shown to be typical for char-containing soils. In the sample where no char was detectable by NMR spectroscopy, the physically protected carbon consisted of functional groups similar to those observed for the organic matter of the bulk sample, although their relative proportions were altered. The solid-state 15N NMR spectrum from this sample revealed that some peptide structures were able to resist UV photo-oxidation, probably physically protected within the core of micro aggregates. Heterocyclic aromatic nitrogen was not detected in this spectrum, but pyrrolic nitrogen was found to comprise a major fraction of the residues after photo-oxidation of the <53 μm containing soils. Acid hydrolysis of these samples confirmed that some peptide-like material was still present. The identification of a considerable amount of aromatic carbon and nitrogen, assignable to charred material in 4 of the 5 investigated soils, supports previous observations that char largely comprises the inert or passive organic matter pool of many Australian soils. The influence of such material on the carbon and nitrogen dynamics in such soils, however, requires further research. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  17. Application of δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures of organic matter fractions sequentially separated from adjacent arable and forest soils to identify carbon stabilization mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayler, Z. E.; Kaiser, M.; Gessler, A.; Ellerbrock, R. H.; Sommer, M.

    2011-03-01

    Identifying the chemical mechanisms behind soil carbon bound in organo-mineral complexes is necessary to determine the degree to which soil organic carbon is stabilized belowground. We used the δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures from two organic matter (OM) fractions from soil to identify the likely binding mechanisms involved. We used OM fractions hypothesized to contain carbon stabilized through organo-mineral complexes: (1) OM separated chemically with sodium pyrophosphate (OM(PY)) and (2) OM stabilized in microstructures found in the chemical extraction residue (OM(ER)). Furthermore, because the OM fractions were separated from five different soils with paired forest and arable land use histories, we could address the impact of land use change on carbon binding and processing mechanisms within these soils. We used partial least squares regression to analyze patterns in the isotopic signature of OM with established proxies of different binding mechanisms. Parsing soil OM into different fractions is a systematic method of dissection, however, we are primarily interested in how OM is bound in soil as a whole, requiring a means of re-assembly. Thus, we implemented the recent zonal framework described by Kleber et al. (2007) to relate our findings to undisturbed soil. The δ15N signature of OM fractions served as a reliable indicator for microbial processed carbon in both arable and forest land use types. The δ13C signature of OM fractions in arable sites did not correlate well with proxies of soil mineral properties while a consistent pattern of enrichment was seen in the δ13C of OM fractions in the forest sites. We found a significant difference in δ13C of pooled OM fractions between the forest and arable land use type although it was relatively small (<1‰). We found different binding mechanisms predominate in each land use type. The isotopic signatures of OM fractions from arable soils were highly related to the clay and silt size particles amount while

  18. Application of δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures of organic matter fractions sequentially separated from adjacent arable and forest soils to identify carbon stabilization mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sommer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the chemical mechanisms behind soil carbon bound in organo-mineral complexes is necessary to determine the degree to which soil organic carbon is stabilized belowground. We used the δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures from two organic matter (OM fractions from soil to identify the likely binding mechanisms involved. We used OM fractions hypothesized to contain carbon stabilized through organo-mineral complexes: (1 OM separated chemically with sodium pyrophosphate (OM(PY and (2 OM stabilized in microstructures found in the chemical extraction residue (OM(ER. Furthermore, because the OM fractions were separated from five different soils with paired forest and arable land use histories, we could address the impact of land use change on carbon binding and processing mechanisms within these soils. We used partial least squares regression to analyze patterns in the isotopic signature of OM with established proxies of different binding mechanisms. Parsing soil OM into different fractions is a systematic method of dissection, however, we are primarily interested in how OM is bound in soil as a whole, requiring a means of re-assembly. Thus, we implemented the recent zonal framework described by Kleber et al. (2007 to relate our findings to undisturbed soil. The δ15N signature of OM fractions served as a reliable indicator for microbial processed carbon in both arable and forest land use types. The δ13C signature of OM fractions in arable sites did not correlate well with proxies of soil mineral properties while a consistent pattern of enrichment was seen in the δ13C of OM fractions in the forest sites. We found a significant difference in δ13C of pooled OM fractions between the forest and arable land use type although it was relatively small (<1‰. We found different binding mechanisms predominate in each land use type. The isotopic signatures of OM fractions from arable soils were highly related to the clay and silt size particles

  19. Surface-modified carbon nanotube coating on high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taejin; Lee, Joong Kee; Mun, Junyoung; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified carbon nanotubes were utilized as a coating for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) via a mechano-fusion method as a strategy to prevent unfavorable carbothermal reduction. Two types of carbon nanotubes were investigated as coating materials: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and oxidized carbon nanotubes (OCNTs), which were prepared by a simple re-oxidation process. The samples coated with CNTs or OCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The OCNT-coated LNMO presented a highly enhanced discharge capacity retention (95.5%) and a coulombic efficiency of 99.9% after 80 cycles between 3.5 and 4.9 V (versus Li/Li+), whereas the CNT-coated LNMO exhibited poor retention of 47.2% and a coulombic efficiency of 95.3%. In addition, post-mortem XPS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis proved that the OCNT coating improved the surface electrochemical stability and rate capability, whereas the CNT coating formed a thick resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film by accelerating the surface side reactions.

  20. 15,000 years of black carbon deposition – A post-glacial fire record from maar lake sediments (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lehndorff; Mareike Wolf; Thomas Litt; Achim Brauer; Wulf Amelung

    2015-01-01

    Fires accompanied human development throughout the Holocene, leaving behind black carbon (BC) as residues from incomplete biomass burning. Here we used molecular fire markers, benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), to reconstruct fire history in two Eifel maar lakes, Germany. We hypothesized to find indications for (i) changes in BC related to ecosystem changes, (ii) an increase in BC influx at the onset of agriculture until modern times, and (iii) a change in BC quality due to technical progr...

  1. 1.5 V battery driven reduced graphene oxide–silver nanostructure coated carbon foam (rGO–Ag–CF) for the purification of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A porous carbon foam (CF) electrode modified with a reduced graphene oxide–Ag (rGO–Ag) nanocomposite has been fabricated to purify water. It can perform as an antibacterial device by killing pathogenic microbes with the aid of a 1.5 V battery, with very little power consumption. The device is recycled ten times with good performance for long term usage. It is shown that the device may be implemented as a fast water purifier to deactivate the pathogens in drinking water. (paper)

  2. Evidence for shifting environmental conditions in Southwestern France from 33 000 to 15 000 years ago derived from carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 natural abundances in collagen of large herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bocherens, Hervé; Billiou, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of terrestrial environments in Southwestern France between 33 and 15 cal kyr BP is provided using δ 13C and δ 15N variations in collagen of three herbivorous mammals. Altogether 161 analyses have been carried out on collagen extracted from skeletal fragments of reindeer, horse and Bos/ Bison from four successive chronological phases covering the end of MOIS 3 and MOIS 2. The δ 13C values of ungulate collagen are clearly separated between the studied species. They are interpreted as reflecting a stable dietary adaptation in a changing environment. The variations of δ 15N values of ungulate collagen are significant, especially between specimens from MOIS 3 and specimens from MOIS 2, with a minimum during the Last Glacial Maximum. This phenomenon seems to reflect changes in the activity of nitrogen cycling processes associated with permafrost development. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of fossil herbivore collagen are worth investigating as paleoecological and paleoenvironmental tracers in Upper Pleistocene periglacial continental contexts.

  3. Ionic molar volumes in methanol mixtures with acetonitrile, N,N-dimethylformamide and propylene carbonate at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Densities of electrolyte solutions in methanol mixtures were measured at T = 298.15 K. • Apparent molar volumes of sodium cation and iodide anion were determined. • TPTB as a calculation method was used. • Preferential solvation of ions by organic solvents was examined. - Abstract: The densities of dilute solutions of three electrolytes (NaI, NaBPh4 and Ph4PI) in methanol mixtures with propylene carbonate (PC), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and acetonitrile (AN) have been measured by Anton Paar 5000 densimeter at T = 298.15 K. Apparent molar volumes, VΦ have been determined at an electrolyte concentration of 0.06 mol · kg−1 over the entire mixed solvent composition range. Single ionic apparent molar volumes of transfer, ΔtVΦ (ion) were calculated using the tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate (TPTB) assumption. The results are discussed in terms of ionic preferential solvation

  4. δ15N, δ13C and radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon as indicators of environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decomposition, humification, and stabilization of soil organic matter are closely related to the dynamics of dissolved organic matter. Enhanced peat decomposition results in increasing aromatic structures and polycondensation of dissolved organic molecules. Although recent studies support the concept that DOM can serve as an indicator for processes driven by changing environmental processes in soils affecting the C and N cycle (like decomposition and humification) and also permit insight in former conditions some 1000 years ago, it is unknown whether dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) have an equal response to these processes. (author)

  5. The Radiation Enhancement of 15 nm Citrate-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Exposed to 70 keV/μm Carbon Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Xi; Jin, Xiaodong; He, Pengbo; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy is an important modality for tumor treatment. The central goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a therapeutic dose to the tumor as much as possible whilst sparing the surrounding normal tissues. On one hand, heavy ion radiation induces maximum damage at the end of the track (called the Bragg Peak). Hadron therapy based on heavy ions is considered superior to conventional X-rays and γ-rays radiations for tumors sited in sensitive tissues, childhood cases and radioresistant cancers. On the other hand, radiation sensitizers enhanced the radiation effects in tumors by increasing the dose specifically to the tumor cells. Recently, the use of gold nanoparticles as potential tumor selective radio-sensitizers has been proposed as a breakthrough in radiotherapy with conventional radiations. The enhanced radiation effect of heavy ions in tumor by using gold nanoparticles as radio-sensitizer may provide alternative in hadron therapy. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effects of carbon ions with a linear energy transfer of 70 keV/μm in the presence of 15 nm citrate-capped AuNPs. The existing of AuNPs resulted in 5.5-fold enhancement in hydroxyl radical production and 24.5% increment in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for carbon-ion-irradiated HeLa cells. The study indicated gold nanoparticles can be used as potential radio-sensitizer in carbon ions therapy. PMID:27455642

  6. Production of oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11 and of their low molecular weight derivatives for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and the medical use of the short-lived radioisotopes of the 3 major elements of the biosphere, 13N, 11C and 15O, require the vicinity of a cyclotron, of radiochemistry laboratories and of a suitably equipped medical unit. The methodological and practical aspects of the routine, high efficiency, production of these gases, with the specifications that result from their medical use, are discussed and described. (author)

  7. Exhaustive Analysis of a Genotype Space Comprising 10(15 )Central Carbon Metabolisms Reveals an Organization Conducive to Metabolic Innovation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed-Rzgar Hosseini; Aditya Barve; Andreas Wagner

    2015-01-01

    All biological evolution takes place in a space of possible genotypes and their phenotypes. The structure of this space defines the evolutionary potential and limitations of an evolving system. Metabolism is one of the most ancient and fundamental evolving systems, sustaining life by extracting energy from extracellular nutrients. Here we study metabolism's potential for innovation by analyzing an exhaustive genotype-phenotype map for a space of 10(15) metabolisms that encodes all possible su...

  8. A nitrogen fertilization field study of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 transfers in ectomycorrhizas of Pinus sabiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, María Victoria; Six, Johan; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2013-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi form relationships with higher plants; plants transfer C to fungi, and fungi transfer nutrients to their host. While evidence indicates that this interaction is largely mutualistic, less is known about how nutrient supply and EM associates may alter C and nutrient exchanges, especially in intact plant-soil-microbe systems in the field. In a dual-labeling experiment with N fertilization, we used C and N stable isotopes to examine in situ transfers in EM pine trees in a Pinus sabiniana woodland in northern California. We added (15)NH4SO2 and (13)CO2 to track (13)C transfer from pine needles to EM roots and (15)N transfer from soil to EM roots and pine needles. Transfers of (13)C and (15)N differed with EM morphotype and with N fertilization. The brown morphotype received the least C per unit of N transferred (5:1); in contrast red and gold morphotypes gained more C and transferred less N (17:1 and 25:1, respectively). N fertilization increased N retention by ectomycorrhizas (EMs) but did not increase N transfer from EMs to pine needles. Therefore N fertilization positively affected both nutrient and C gains by EMs, increasing net C flows and N retention in EMs. Our work on intact and native trees/EM associations thereby extends earlier conclusions based on pot studies with young plants and culturable EM fungi; our results support the concept that EM-host relationships depend on species-level differences as well as responses to soil resources such as N. PMID:23912260

  9. Elucidating the impact of nitrate and labile carbon application on spatial heterogeneity of denitrification by 15N modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Laura; Loick, Nadine; Dixon, Liz; Matthews, Peter; Gilsanz, Claudia; Bol, Roland; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    N2O is considered to be an important GHG with soils representing its major source and accounting for approximately 6% of the current global warming and is also implicated in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. The atmospheric N2O concentration has been increasing since the Industrial Revolution making the understanding of its sources and removal processes very important for development of mitigation strategies. Bergstermann et al. (2011) found evidence of the existence of more than one pool of nitrate undergoing denitrification in a silty clay loam arable soil amended with glucose/nitrate solution. The Rayleigh type model was used to simulate d15N of N2O using process rates and associated fractionation factors, but assumptions for some of the model parameters had to be made due to lack of available data. In this study we carried out 2 incubation experiments in order to parameterise the model. To restrict the volume of soil reached by the amendment, we used blocks containing 3 soil cores that were incubated in one vessel to measure emissions of NO, N2O, N2 and CO2 from a clay grassland soil amended with KNO3 (N) and glucose (C) in three treatments: '1C' only 1 core received N and C (the other 2 received water), '3C' 3 cores received N and C, and 'Control' (received water only). The results showed changes in the d15Nbulk trends after day 6 post amendment application, coinciding with the decrease of N2O fluxes. We also report the results in the 15N site preference (SP) and d18O. We will show the results from the model validation based on this data.

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation Increases Percentage of Soil Olsen-P to Total P at Two 15-Year Mono-Cropping Systems in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Pu; XIAO Hou-jun; HE Xin-hua; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Hui-min; PENG Chang; GAO Hong-jun; LIU Hua; XU Yong-mei; QIN Song

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil Olsen-P are key soil fertility indexes but information on their relationships is limited particularly under long-term fertilization. We investigated the relationships between SOC and the percentage of soil Olsen-P to total P (PSOPTP) under six different 15-yr (1990-2004) long-term fertilizations at two cropping systems in northern China. These fertilization treatments were (1) unfertilized control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen (N);(3) N plus chemical P (NP);(4) NP plus chemical potassium (NPK);(5) NPK plus animal manure (NPKM) and (6) high NPKM (hNPKM). Compared with their initial values in 1989 at both sites, during the 11th to 15th fertilization years annual mean SOC contents were signiifcantly increased by 39.4-47.0%and 58.9-93.9%at Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, and Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, under the two NPKM fertilizations, respectively, while no signiifcant changes under the no-P or chemical P fertilization. During the 11th to 15th fertilization years, annual mean PSOPTP was respectively increased by 2.6-4.2 and 5.8-14.1 times over the initial values under the two chemical P fertilizations and the two NPKM fertilizations, but was unchanged in their initial levels under the two no-P fertilizations at both sites. Over the 15-yr long-term fertilization SOC signiifcantly positively correlated with PSOPTP (r2=0.55-0.79, P<0.01). We concluded that the combination of chemical P plus manure is an effective way to promote SOC accumulation and the percentage of soil Olsen-P to total P at the two mono-cropping system sites in northern China.

  11. Cobalt- and iron-based nanoparticles hosted in SBA-15 mesoporous silica and activated carbon from biomass: Effect of modification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoncheva, Tanya; Genova, Izabela; Paneva, Daniela; Dimitrov, Momtchil; Tsyntsarski, Boyko; Velinov, Nicolay; Ivanova, Radostina; Issa, Gloria; Kovacheva, Daniela; Budinova, Temenujka; Mitov, Ivan; Petrov, Narzislav

    2015-10-01

    Ordered mesoporous silica of SBA-15 type and activated carbon, prepared from waste biomass (peach stones), are used as host matrix of nanosized iron and cobalt particles. The effect of preparation procedure on the state of loaded nanoparticles is in the focus of investigation. The obtained materials are characterized by Boehm method, low temperature physisorption of nitrogen, XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR, Mossbauer spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen. The catalytic behaviour of the samples is tested in methanol decomposition. The dispersion, oxidative state and catalytic behaviour of loaded cobalt and iron nanoparticles are successfully tuned both by the nature of porous support and the metal precursor used during the samples preparation. Facile effect of active phase deposition from aqueous solution of nitrate precursors is assumed for activated carbon support. For the silica based materials the catalytic activity could be significantly improved when cobalt acetylacetonate is used during the modification. The complex effect of pore topology and surface functionality of different supports on the active phase formation is discussed.

  12. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: a window on AGB nucleosynthesis and binary evolution. I. Detailed analysis of 15 binary stars with known orbital periods

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Karakas, A I; Izzard, R G

    2015-01-01

    AGB stars are responsible for producing a variety of elements, including carbon, nitrogen, and the heavy elements produced in the slow neutron-capture process ($s$-elements). There are many uncertainties involved in modelling the evolution and nucleosynthesis of AGB stars, and this is especially the case at low metallicity, where most of the stars with high enough masses to enter the AGB have evolved to become white dwarfs and can no longer be observed. The stellar population in the Galactic halo is of low mass ($\\lesssim 0.85M_{\\odot}$) and only a few observed stars have evolved beyond the first giant branch. However, we have evidence that low-metallicity AGB stars in binary systems have interacted with their low-mass secondary companions in the past. The aim of this work is to investigate AGB nucleosynthesis at low metallicity by studying the surface abundances of chemically peculiar very metal-poor stars of the halo observed in binary systems. To this end we select a sample of 15 carbon- and $s$-element-en...

  13. Traceability of animal byproducts in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica tissues using carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Móri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistent information on meat products consumed by the public is essential. The technique of stable isotopes is a powerful tool to recover consumers' confidence, as it allows the detection of animal byproduct residues in poultry meat, particularly in quail meat. This study aimed at checking the presence of poultry byproduct mixtures in quail diets by applying the technique of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes in quail breast muscle, keel, and tibia. Sixty four one-day-old male quails were obtained from a commercial farm. Birds were housed in an experimental house from one to 42 days of age, and were randomly distributed into 8 experimental treatments, and fed diets containing poultry offal meal (POM, bovine meat and bone meal (MBM or poultry feather meal (PFM, or their mixtures. Four birds per treatment were slaughtered at 42 days of age, and breast (Pectoralis major, keel, and tibia were collected for analyses. The inclusion of animal byproducts in quail diets was detected by 13C e 15N analyses in the tissues of the birds; however, it was not possible to specify which byproducts were used. It was concluded that quail meat can be certified by the technique of stable isotopes.

  14. Pan-Arctic concentrations of mercury and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in marine zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Corinne; Stern, Gary A; Pućko, Monika; Foster, Karen L; Macdonald, Robie W; Fortier, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Zooplankton play a central role in marine food webs, dictating the quantity and quality of energy available to upper trophic levels. They act as "keystone" species in transfer of mercury (Hg) up through the marine food chain. Here, we present the first Pan-Arctic overview of total and monomethylmercury concentrations (THg and MMHg) and stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in selected zooplankton species by assembling data collected between 1998 and 2012 from six arctic regions (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea, southeastern Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay and northern Baffin Bay). MMHg concentrations in Calanus spp., Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp. were found to increase with higher δ(15)N and lower δ(13)C. The southern Beaufort Sea exhibited both the highest THg and MMHg concentrations. Biomagnification of MMHg between Calanus spp. and two of its known predators, Themisto spp. and Paraeuchaeta spp., was greatest in the southern Beaufort Sea. Our results show large geographical variations in Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures for individual species related to regional ecosystem features, such as varying water masses and freshwater inputs, and highlight the increased exposure to Hg in the marine food chain of the southern Beaufort Sea. PMID:26874765

  15. New quaternary carbon and nitrogen stabilized polyborides: REB15.5CN (RE: Sc, Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu), crystal structure and compound formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of quaternary carbon and nitrogen containing Rare Earth (RE: Sc, Y, Ho, Er, Tm and Lu) borides: REB15.5CN, has been synthesized and structurally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction data. They are all isotypic with Sc1-xB15.5CN whose structure was solved based on single-crystal X-ray data and HRTEM investigations. The structure refinement converged at a R(F2) value of 0.044 for 364 reflections. The new structure type of Sc1-xB15.5CN is composed of a three-dimensional network based on interconnected slabs of boron (B12)ico icosahedra and (B6)oct octahedra. A linear [CBC] chain and nitrogen tightly bridges icosahedra. Sc partially occupies voids in the sheets of boron octahedra. It crystallizes with the trigonal space group P3m1, with Z=2. Lattice parameters (nm) are as follows: for RE: Sc, a,b=0.5568(4), c=1.0756(2); Y, a,b=0.55919(6), c=1.0873(2); Ho, a,b=0.55883(7), c=1.0878(6); Er, a,b=0.55889(5), c=1.0880(6); Tm, a,b=0.5580(1), c=1.0850(6); Lu, a,b=0.55771(9), c=1.0839(4). Magnetic characterization of ErB17C1.3N0.6 has been performed

  16. 46 CFR 95.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commandant. (d) A pressure relief valve or equivalent set to relieve between 2,400 and 2,800 pounds per..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall...

  17. 46 CFR 193.15-15 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commandant. (d) A pressure relief valve or equivalent set to relieve between 2,400 and 2,800 pounds per..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall...

  18. Efficiency of Carbon Sequestration and Oxygen Release as well as Cooling and Humidification of 15 Precious Tree Species%15种珍贵树种固碳释氧和降温增湿功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培衍; 吴艺东; 林天民; 卢敏勇

    2015-01-01

    以漳州市龙海林下林场15种珍贵树种为材料,进行光合速率、叶面积指数和蒸腾速率的测定,对其固碳释氧和降温增湿功能进行量化研究。结果表明:石笔木有最大的叶面积指数,竹叶楠有最大的绿量,红叶乌桕的叶面积指数和绿量均最小。香樟、红锥、石笔木、蝴蝶树和油楠的固碳释氧能力在供试的珍贵树种中是较强的,而红叶乌桕和米老排的固碳释氧能力较弱。日降温增湿效果其从低到高的顺序为红色乌桕、米老排、火烧花、秋枫、檀香紫檀、降香黄檀、石笔木、油楠、竹叶楠、天竺桂、蝴蝶树、檀香、沉香、香樟和红锥。基于对供试15种珍贵树种固碳释氧和降温增湿能力的分析认为,红锥、香樟和蝴蝶树可作为优选树种。%Taking 1 5 precious tree species in Longhai Linxia State-Owned Forest Farm in Zhangzhou City as materi-als,photosynthetic rate,leaf area index (LAI)& transpiration rate were determined.Result shows that leaf area in-dex of Tutcheria championi are the maximum;the green biomass of Phoeba faberi are the maximum;the leaf area index and green biomass of Euphorbia cotinifolia are both minimum.The capability of carbon sequestration & oxy-gen release of Cinnamomum camphora ,Castanopsis hystrix ,Tutcheria championi ,Heritiera parvifolia and Sindo-ra glabra are stronger in these precious trees,while that of S .sebiferum and Mytilaria laosensis are weaker.The ascending order of effects of daily cooling and humidification is Euphorbia cotinifolia sebiferum ,Mytilaria laosen-sis ,Mayodendron igneum ,Bischofia j avanica ,Pterocarpus santalinus ,Dalbergia odorifera ,Tutcheria championi , Sindora glabra ,Phoebe faberi ,Cinnamomum j aponicum ,Heritiera parvifolia ,Santalum album ,Aquilaria sinen-sis ,Cinnamomum camphora and Castanopsis hystrix .Castanopsis hystrix ,Cinnamomum camphora and Heritiera parvifolia were considered to be priority tree species by

  19. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200 C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200 C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200 C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated

  20. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen co-metabolism in yeast by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry applying {sup 13}C- and {sup 15}N-labeled substrates simultaneously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, Lars M. [TU Dortmund University, Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, Dortmund (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Applied Microbiology - iAMB, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology - ABBt, Aachen (Germany); Desphande, Rahul R. [TU Dortmund University, Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, Dortmund (Germany); Michigan State University, Department of Plant Biology, East Lansing, MI (United States); Schmid, Andreas [TU Dortmund University, Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, Dortmund (Germany); Hayen, Heiko [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V, Dortmund (Germany); University of Wuppertal, Department of Food Chemistry, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Alternative metabolic pathways inside a cell can be deduced using stable isotopically labeled substrates. One prerequisite is accurate measurement of the labeling pattern of targeted metabolites. Experiments are generally limited to the use of single-element isotopes, mainly {sup 13}C. Here, we demonstrate the application of direct infusion nanospray, ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) for metabolic studies using differently labeled elemental isotopes simultaneously - i.e., {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N - in amino acids of a total protein hydrolysate. The optimized strategy for the analysis of metabolism by a hybrid linear ion trap-FTICR-MS comprises the collection of multiple adjacent selected ion monitoring scans. By limiting both the width of the mass range and the number of ions entering the ICR cell with automated gain control, sensitive measurements of isotopologue distribution were possible without compromising mass accuracy and isotope intensity mapping. The required mass-resolving power of more than 60,000 is only achievable on a routine basis by FTICR and Orbitrap mass spectrometers. Evaluation of the method was carried out by comparison of the experimental data to the natural isotope abundances of selected amino acids and by comparison to GC/MS results obtained from a labeling experiment with {sup 13}C-labeled glucose. The developed method was used to shed light on the complexity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbon-nitrogen co-metabolism by administering both {sup 13}C-labeled glucose and {sup 15}N-labeled alanine. The results indicate that not only glutamate but also alanine acts as an amino donor during alanine and valine synthesis. Metabolic studies using FTICR-MS can exploit new possibilities by the use of multiple-labeled elemental isotopes. (orig.)

  1. Effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase expression in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeau, N.; Coleman, J.R. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The effect of external CO{sub 2} concentration on the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was examined in pea (Pisum sativum cv Little Marvel) leaves. Enzyme activities and their transcript levels were reduced in plants grown at 1000 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} compared with plants grown in ambient air. Growth at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} also appeared to reduce steady-state transcript levels for the rbcS, the gene encoding the small subunit of Rubisco, and for ca, the gene encoding CA; however, rbcS transcripts were reduced to a greater extent at this concentration. Rubisco activity was slightly lower in plants grown at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2}, and CA activity was significantly higher than that observed in air-grown plants. Transfer of plants from 1000 {mu}L/L to air levels of CO{sub 2} resulted in a rapid increase in both ca and rbcS transcript abundance in fully expanded leaves, followed by an increase in enzyme activity. Plants transferred from air to high-CO{sub 2} concentrations appeared to modulate transcript abundance and enzyme activity less quickly. Foliar carbohydrate levels were also examined in plants grown continuously at high and ambient CO{sub 2}, and following changes in growth conditions that rapidly altered ca and rbcS transcript abundance and enzyme activities. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-15 (NODC Accession 0100074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100074 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-15. These data...

  3. Effect of Modification of SBA-15 by Carbon Films on Textural and Catalytic Properties of Supported Cobalt Catalysts%SBA-15的孔壁碳膜修饰对钴基催化剂结构与催化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 周朝华; 马兰; 程振兴; 沈俭一

    2011-01-01

    Carbon coated mesoporous SBA-15, named SBA-15C, was obtained from as-synthesized SBA-15 after graphitization in inert gas. With SBA-15 and SBA-15C as supports and cobalt nitrate aqueous solution as precursor, the supported cobalt-based catalyst samples were prepared by a wet impregnation method. The catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 physisorption, temperature-programmed reduction, and NH3 microcalorimetric adsorption. The results suggested that upon doping the inner walls of SBA-15 with carbon, the hexagonal ordered mesoporous framework was retained while the surface area decreased a little and the thickness of pore wall increased. The supported cobalt-based catalyst retained the mesoporous characteristics with decreased surface area and pore volume. The average particle size of CO3O4 on SBA-15C was smaller than that on SBA-15, which suggested that the existence of carbon improved the dispersion of CO3O4 particles. However, the modification of SBA-15 with carbon films did not seem to increase the reducibility of CO3O4. Both Co/SBA-15 and Co/SBA-15C exhibited high selectivity for Cs+ hydrocarbons (-80%), but Co/SBA-15C showed higher stability in the F-T synthesis reactions.%在惰性气体中焙烧SBA-15制得孔壁被碳修饰的SBA- 15C样品,以它和SBA-15为载体,采用等量浸渍法制备了负载型Co基催化剂,并运用X射线衍射、N2物理吸附、程序升温还原、NH3吸附量热等手段对样品进行了表征.结果表明,SBA- 15C仍保持原有的六方有序的中孔结构,但其孔壁经碳修饰后发生增厚,比表面积略有下降.Co的负载使得SBA-15和SBA-15C样品的孔径基本不变,但比表面积和孔体积下降,仍保持其中孔分子筛的特征.CO3O4在SBA- 15C上的晶粒较小,但还原度较低,表明碳的存在有利于Co物种的分散.比较了Co/SBA- 15和Co/SBA-15C上的费托合成反应性能,发现两者对C5+的选择性均较高(达80%左右),但Co/SBA- 15C

  4. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are quantitatively measured with positron emission tomography (PET) with 15O gases. Kudomi et al. developed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) protocol that enables the duration of a PET study to be shortened by sequentially administrating 15O2 and C15O2 gases. In this protocol, before the sequential PET scan with 15O2 and C15O2 gases (15O2-C15O2 PET scan), a PET scan with C15O should be preceded to obtain CBV image. C15O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C15O might exist during a 15O2-C15O2 PET scan. As the current DARG method assumes no residual C15O radioactivity before scanning, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the influence of the residual C15O radioactivity on the accuracy of measured CBF and OEF values with DARG method and also proposed a subtraction technique to minimize the error due to the residual C15O radioactivity. In the simulation, normal and ischemic conditions were considered. The 15O2 and C15O2 PET count curves with the residual C15O PET counts were generated by the arterial input function with the residual C15O radioactivity. The amounts of residual C15O radioactivity were varied by changing the interval between the C15O PET scan and 15O2-C15O2 PET scan, and the absolute inhaled radioactivity of the C15O gas. Using the simulated input functions and the PET counts, the CBF and OEF were computed by the DARG method. Furthermore, we evaluated a subtraction method that subtracts the influence of the C15O gas in the input function and PET counts. Our simulations revealed that the CBF and OEF values were underestimated by the residual C15O radioactivity. The magnitude of this underestimation depended on the amount of C15O radioactivity and the physiological conditions. This underestimation was corrected by the subtraction method. This

  5. Ecosystem partitioning of 15N-glycine after long-term climate and nutrient manipulations, plant clipping and addition of labile carbon in a subarctic heath tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2008-01-01

    Low temperatures and high soil moisture restrict cycling of organic matter in arctic soils, but also substrate quality, i.e. labile carbon (C) availability, exerts control on microbial activity. Plant exudation of labile C may facilitate microbial growth and enhance microbial immobilization of......, microorganisms and plants. There were few effects of long-term warming and fertilization on soil and plant pools. However, fertilization increased soil and plant N pools and increased pool dilution of the added 15N label. In all treatments, microbes immobilized a major part of the added 15N shortly after label...... addition. However, plants exerted control on the soil inorganic N concentrations and recovery of total dissolved 15N (TD15N), and likewise the microbes reduced these soil pools, but only when fed with labile C. Soil microbes in clipped plots were primarily C limited, and the findings of reduced N...

  6. Characterization and Catalytic Activity of CeO2-Ni/Mo/SBA-15 Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane%CeO2/Ni/Mo/SBA-15甲烷二氧化碳重整催化剂的表征和催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 马人熊; 高志华; 沈朝峰; 黄伟

    2012-01-01

    A Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalyst was modified with CeO2 and compared with the unmodified catalyst.The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption,CO2 temperature-programmed desorption,H2 temperature-programmed reduction,Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Both the Ni/Mo/SBA-15 and CeO2/Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalysts gave good catalytic activities at atmospheric pressure.The CeO2 impregnated Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited excellent stability at 800 ℃ for 100 h on stream,and after the resction,carbon deposits were not formed on the catalyst.The Ni/Mo/SBA-15 and CeO2/Ni/Mo/SBA-1 5 catalysts had a regular hexagonal mesoporous structure.The nickel species and the Ce-Mo oxide components were all in the SBA-15 mesopores.This prevented carbon deposition and sintering of the nickel species in the CeO2/Ni/Mo/SBA-15 catalyst.%考察了CeO2修饰及未修饰的Ni/Mo/SBA- 15催化剂在CH4-CO2重整上的催化性能并采用N2吸脱附、CO2程序升温脱附、H2程序升温还原、傅里叶红外光谱、X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜和X射线光电子能谱对催化剂进行了表征.结果表明,在常压,800C条件下,经过100 h在线评价后,Ni/Mo/SBA- 15和CeOz/Ni/Mo/SBA- 15催化剂仍具有高的反应活性和规整的六方介孔结构,其中CeO2修饰的CeO2/Ni/Mo/SBA-15催化剂表面没有积炭形成,表明CeO2的加入促进了Ni物种在SBA-15介孔分子筛表面的分散,从而阻止了Ce/Ni/Mo/SBA- 15催化剂上Ni的烧结和积炭.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2013-05-15 to 2013-07-12 (NODC Accession 0123316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  8. Two-dimensional NMR studies of staphylococcal nuclease. 2. Sequence-specific assignments of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 signals from the nuclease H124L-thymidine 3',5'-bisphosphate-Ca2+ ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of staphylococcal nuclease H124L (cloned protein overproduced in Escherichia coli whose sequence is identical with that of the nuclease isolated from the V8 strain of Staphylococcus aureus) were labeled uniformly with carbon-13 (26% ul 13C), uniformly with nitrogen-15 (95% ul 15N), and specifically by incorporating nitrogen-15-labeled leucine ([98% 15N]Leu) or carbon-13-labeled lysine ([26% ul 13C]Lys), arginine ([26% ul 13C]Arg), or methionine ([26% ul 13C]Met). Solutions of the ternary complexes of these analogues (nuclease H124L-pdTp-Ca2+) at pH 5.1 (H2O) or pH 5.5 (2H2O) at 45 degree C were analyzed as appropriate to the labeling pattern by multinuclear two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments spectrometer fields of 14.09 and 11.74 T. The results have assisted in spin system assignments and in identification of secondary structural elements. Nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE's) characteristic of antiparellel β-sheet (dαα NOE's) were observed in the 1H(13C)-SBC-NOE spectrum of the nuclease ternary complex labeled uniformly with 13C. NOE's characteristic of α-helix were observed in the 1H(15N)SBC-NOE spectrum of the complex prepared from protein labeled uniformly with 15N. The assignments obtained from these multinuclear NMR studies have confirmed and extended assignments based on 1H(1H) 2D NMR experiments

  9. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Final report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Pacala, S.W.

    1998-06-01

    The primary accomplishment of this research was the development of an ocean biogeochemistry model for the carbon cycle, and the application of this model to studies of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake and the global carbon cycle. The model has been used to study the oceanic uptake that would occur if future atmospheric CO{sub 2} were to be stabilized with the ocean circulation remaining constant. The authors also modeled how oceanic uptake would be affected by changes in ocean circulation that are predicted to occur due to global warming. The research resulted in 21 publications, and an additional 5 papers either in press or in preparation. The accomplishments of this research served as the foundation on which the Carbon Modeling Consortium was built. The CMC is a NOAA funded collaborative program involving principal investigators from various NOAA laboratories and universities. It has the goal of developing techniques to monitor the global carbon cycle on land as well as the ocean, and to predict its future course.

  10. The research of total organic carbon in boiler water of Taiyuan 1 st Power Plant unit 15%太原一电厂#15机组炉水中总有机碳控制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌

    2005-01-01

    通过对太原一电厂#15机组炉水中总有机碳(TOC)和离子成分检测、分析和试验研究,找到了水质异常的原因,同时确定了因TOC而引起水质异常应采取的措施和策略.

  11. Investigation on the preparation and mechanical properties of porous Cu35Ni15Cr alloy for a molten carbonate fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation process of porous Cu35Ni15Cr alloy was studied in this paper. The effect of ball milling time and sintering temperature on the porosity of Cu35Ni15Cr alloy was identified. It was found that 18 h ball milling and 950 °C sintering are the most promising parameters for the preparation of porous Cu35Ni15Cr alloy. The products have a ~62 % porosity. The alloy consists of an α phase and β phase. The influence of deformation temperature and loading rate on the mechanical properties of Cu35Ni15Cr alloys was investigated. The results show that with decreasing deformation temperature, the yield strength and elastic modulus of the porous alloy increase. With the increase of loading rate, the yield strength of these alloys shows an increasing trend, but the elastic modulus is on a steady level.

  12. Close association of carbonic anhydrase (CA2a & CA15a, Na+/H+ exchanger (Nhe3b, and ammonia transporter Rhcg1 in zebrafish ionocytes responsible for Na+ uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eIto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes actively absorb salt from their environment to tolerate low salinities. We previously reported that vacuolar-type H+-ATPase/mitochondrion-rich cells (H-MRCs on the skin epithelium of zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio are primary sites for Na+ uptake. In this study, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism for the Na+ uptake, we performed a systematic analysis of gene expression patterns of zebrafish carbonic anhydrase (CA isoforms and found that, of 12 CA isoforms, CA2a and CA15a are highly expressed in H-MRCs at larval stages. The ca2a and ca15a mRNA expression were salinity-dependent; they were up-regulated in 0.03 mM Na+ water whereas ca15a but not ca2a was down-regulated in 70 mM Na+ water. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated cytoplasmic distribution of CA2a and apical membrane localization of CA15a. Furthermore, cell-surface immunofluorescence staining revealed external surface localization of CA15a. Depletion of either CA2a or CA15a expression by Morphorino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in a significant decrease in Na+ accumulation in H-MRCs. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated a very close association of CA2a, CA15a, Na+/H+ exchanger 3b (Nhe3b, and Rhcg1 ammonia transporter in H-MRC. Our findings suggest that CA2a, CA15a, and Rhcg1 play a key role in Na+ uptake under freshwater conditions by forming a transport metabolon with Nhe3b.

  13. Low temperature steam reforming of ethanol for carbon monoxide-free hydrogen production over mesoporous Sn-incorporated SBA-15 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the application of a new metal catalytic species, Sn ion, rather than conventional Ni-based catalyst, to hydrogen production from ESR (ethanol steam reforming). Mesoporous SBA-15 catalysts with various contents of incorporated Sn (Sn-SBA-15) exhibited significantly higher ESR reactivity and the highest reactivity was achieved with 20 mol% Sn-SBA-15 catalysts: the H2 production and ethanol conversion were maximized at 75% and 92%, respectively, at a mild temperature of 500 °C for 1 h at a CH3CH2OH:H2O ratio of 1:1 and a GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) of 6600 h−1. The XRD (X-ray diffraction) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) results indicated that the incorporated Sn species, SnO2/Sn, was simultaneously transferred to Sn/SnO2 by alternating their redox reactions and that the reactivity of the Sn-based activity could be long-lasting. -- Highlights: ► Mesoporous SBA-15 catalysts with various contents of incorporated Sn (Sn-SBA-15) exhibited significantly higher ESR reactivity. ► The H2 production and ethanol conversion were maximized at 75% and 92% over 20-mol% Sn-SBA-15 catalysts. ► The reactivity of the Sn-based activity could be long-lasting.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by one-step precipitation method with ammonium carbonate as precipitating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Ammonium carbonate is used as the precipitating agent of synthesizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 for the first time. → All the metal ions precipitated in one time, no washing process is needed. → Effect of concentration and hydrothermal on the materials are concerned. → The obtained material shows regular quasi-spherical. → The synthesized materials behave excellent electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 materials are synthesized by one-step precipitation method. Ammonium carbonate is used as the precipitating agent to obtain a more precise feed ratio without recourse to traditional washing. After annealing at high temperature, the spherical particles become angular and show high levels of crystallinity. The synthesized samples are evaluated using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical testing. The samples synthesized with different metal ion concentrations yield different morphologies and rate performances. The sample synthesized with 0.2 mol L-1 gives the most uniform particle distribution and the best electrochemical performance. The specific discharge capacity values of the sample at 10 and 15 C are as high as 109.5 and 88.7 mAh g-1, respectively. After the high-rate cycling, its discharge capacity at 0.2 C can be reverted to 97.67% of its initial capacity.

  15. Wet oxidation of ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 by using (NH4)2S2O8 for fast adsorption of Sr(II): An investigation on surface chemistry and adsorption mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Ye, Gang; Chen, Jing; Lv, Dachao; Wang, Jianchen

    2015-12-01

    Surface modification of ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by wet oxidation provides an oxygen-enriched platform for complexation of metal ions. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the surface chemistry and textual property of OMC FDU-15 modified by wet oxidation using (NH4)2S2O8 as a benign oxidant. And, for the first time, the adsorption behavior and mechanism of wet-oxidized OMC FDU-15 toward Sr(II) in aqueous solutions were investigated. The mesostructural regularity of the OMC FDU-15 was well-reserved under wet oxidation. Compared to OMC CMK-type counterparts prepared via nanocasting, the OMC FDU-15 by soft template method showed much-enhanced structural stability. Due to the introduction of abundant oxygen-containing species, the oxidized OMC FDU-15 exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and dispersibility in aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior toward Sr(II) was fully investigated, showing a super-fast adsorption kinetics (equilibrium) and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Moreover, an in-depth X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis through deconvolution of high resolution C1s and O1s spectra was implemented to identify the chemical species of the surface functional groups, while probing the adsorption mechanism. The results suggested that oxygen donor atoms in Csbnd O single bonds mainly contribute to the adsorption of Sr(II) via formation of metal-ligand complexation.

  16. Spatial variability of carbon13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios in an Arctic marine food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Joan Holst; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg; Sünksen, Kaj;

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) were used to examine trophic structures in an arctic marine food web at small and large spatial scales. Twelve species, from primary consumers to Greenland shark, were sampled at a large spatial scale near the west and east coasts of Greenland...... illustrate the importance of spatial variability when interpreting trophic structure from stable isotopes......., attributing some of the variation to physical and biological sources. Hence, significant differences in isotopic signatures on both large and small spatial scales were less related to food web structure than to different physical and biological properties of the water masses. Accordingly, the results...

  17. Isotope dilution studies: determination of carbon-13, nitrogen-15 and deuterium-enriched compounds using capillary gas chromatography-chemical reaction interface/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the ability of a capillary gas chromatographic-chemical reaction interface/mass spectrometric technique (CRIMS) to detect the presence of 13C, 15N and 2H (D) it can also quantify the level of the enriched substance. To evaluate linearity and detection limits the authors used phenytoin as an example of an unlabeled substance and added various labeled phenytoin analogs. Atom enrichments of 0.3% were detectable for (2,4,5-13C3) phenytoin and 0.06% for (1,3-15N2)labeled phenytoin, each in the presence of 500 ng of unlabeled phenytoin, respectively. For deuterium, enrichment could not be directly determined. However, 1 ng of (ring D10) phenytoin was determined in the presence of 500 ng of unlabeled diethylated phenytoin. CRIMS was found capable of quantifying 13C-, 15N-and D-enriched substances. (author)

  18. The biomarkers of 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethylicosenes and their carbon isotopic composition in the sediments from the Gulf of Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhiguang; WANG Cuiping

    2006-01-01

    A group of 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethylicosenes (PMI△) containing 1-5 unsaturated double bonds has been identified in the sea floor sediments from the Gulf of Mexico at the Green Canyon 238 site.These PMI△ compounds are distributed between nC22 and nC24 on the mass chromatogram of aliphatic fraction. Their δ13C values are very much depleted in 13C and in the range of -86.7‰ to -115.5‰, whereas the δ13C values of companion n-alkanes range from -28.4‰ to -34.6‰. These unsaturated PMI△ compounds are typical biomarkers derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane mediated by methane-oxidizing archaeal bacteria and indicative of the gas seeps or even the occurrence of gas hydrates in the deep sea sediments.

  19. Enhancement of superconducting Tc (33 K) by entrapment of FeSe in carbon coated Au-Pd17Se15 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sukhada; Song, Kai; Ghosh, Kartik C; Nath, Manashi

    2014-03-25

    FeSe has been an interesting member of the Fe-based superconductor family ever since the discovery of superconductivity in this simple binary chalcogenide. Simplicity of composition and ease of synthesis has made FeSe, in particular, very lucrative as a test system to understand the unconventional nature of superconductivity, especially in low-dimensional models. In this article we report the synthesis of composite nanoparticles containing FeSe nanoislands entrapped within an ent-FeSe-Pd16Se15-Au nanoparticle and sharing an interface with Pd17Se15. This assembly exhibits a significant enhancement in the superconducting Tc (onset at 33 K) accompanied by a noticeable lattice compression of FeSe along the and directions. The Tc in FeSe is very sensitive to application of pressure and it has been shown that with increasing external pressure Tc can be increased almost 4-fold. In these composite nanoparticles reported here, immobilization of FeSe on the Pd17Se15 surface contributes to increasing the effect of interfacial pressure, thereby enhancing the Tc. The effect of interfacial pressure is also manifested in the contraction of the FeSe lattice (up to 3.8% in direction) as observed through extensive high-resolution TEM imaging. The confined FeSe in these nanoparticles occupied a region of approximately 15-25 nm, where lattice compression was uniform over the entire FeSe region, thereby maximizing its effect in enhancing the Tc. The nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple catalyst-aided vapor transport reaction at 800 °C where iron acetylacetonate and Se were used as precursors. Morphology and composition of these nanoparticles have been studied in details through extensive electron microscopy. PMID:24494773

  20. EPR, ESE, and pulsed ENDOR study of the nitrogen donors in 15R SiC grown under carbon-rich conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savchenko, Dariia; Kalabukhova, E.; Shanina, B.; Pöppl, A.; Yukhymchuk, V.; Lančok, Ján; Ubyivovk, E.; Mokhov, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-572. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-06697P; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant ostatní: SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ENDOR * nitrogen donors * 15R SiC * stoichiometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2014

  1. Selective detection of carbon-13, nitrogen-15, and deuterium labeled metabolites by capillary gas chromatography-chemical reaction interface/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied a new chemical reaction interface/mass spectrometer technique (CRIMS) to the selective detection of 13C-, 15N-, and 2H-labeled phenytoin and its metabolites in urine following separation by capillary gas chromatography. The microwave-powered chemical reaction interface converts materials from their original forms into small molecules whose mass spectra serve to identify and quantify the nuclides that make up each analyte. The presence of each element is followed by monitoring the isotopic variants of CO2, NO, or H2 that are produced by the chemical reaction interface. Chromatograms showing only enriched 13C and 15N were produced by subtracting the abundance of naturally occurring isotopes from the observed M + 1 signal. A selective chromatogram of 2H (D) was obtained by measuring HD at m/z 3.0219 with a resolution of 2000. Metabolites representing less than 1.5% of the total labeled compounds could be identified in the chromatogram. Detection limits from urine of 380 pg/mL of a 15N-labeled metabolite, 7 ng/mL of a 13C-labeled metabolite, and 16 ng/mL of a deuterium labeled metabolite were determined at a signal to noise ratio of 2. Depending on the isotope examined, a linear dynamic range of 250-1000 was observed using CRIMS. To identify many of these labeled peaks (metabolites), the chromatographic analysis was repeated with the chemical reaction interface turned off and mass spectra obtained at the retention times found in the CRIMS experiment. CRIMS is a new analytical method that appears to be particularly useful for metabolism studies

  2. Effects of carbon on Pr0.15Tb0.30Dy0.55Fe1.85 compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Heyan; LI Yangxian; YU Xiao; LI Songtao; MENG Xiangxi; XU Xuewen

    2006-01-01

    The structure, Curie temperature and magnetostriction of Pr0.15Tb0.30Dy0.55Fe1.85Cx (x=0-0.1) compounds were investigated by X-ray diffraction, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a standard strain technique.All the samples show entirely MgCu2-type Laves phase structure.The lattice parameter and Curie temperature increase with C content increasing.The magnetostriction at high magnetic field shows maximum value at x=0.05.

  3. Isotopic signatures (13C/12C; 15N/14N) of blue penguin burrow soil invertebrates : carbon sources and trophic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabird burrows provide a soil environment for processing discards such as feathers and guano, hence constituting a primary interface between the sea and the land. This study involved collection and culturing of soil invertebrates from three blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) burrows, and examined their 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic composition in relation to potential burrow resources (terrestrial plant litter, burrow soil, guano, blue penguin feathers). Two taxa (cerylonid beetles and small tineid moth larvae) had a depleted 13C/12C indicative of a level of dependence on C from terrestrial soil. Tineid moth larvae (Monopis crocicapitella and (or) M. ethelella) substantially increased their 13C/12C enrichment during development, implying increasing dependence on marine C. Remaining taxa, both decomposers and predators, had 13C/12C intermediate between guano and feathers. Larval and emergent fleas had the most enriched 13C/12C , indicative of a greater dependence on feather C and the likelihood of co-processing with guano. Pseudoscorpions and histerid beetles had overlapping isotopic enrichments implying competition for prey, but were spatially separated in burrow soil. With their highly enriched 15N/14N and marine 13C/12C, larvae and protonymphs of the histiostomatid mite Myianoetus antipodus stood alone. Blue penguin burrows therefore support a diverse invertebrate fauna that incorporates terrestrial soil as well as varying proportions of the various blue penguin discards. (author). 45 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Neutral atomic-carbon QSO absorption-line systems at z>1.5: Sample selection, HI content, reddening, and 2175 A extinction feature

    CERN Document Server

    Ledoux, C; Petitjean, P; Srianand, R

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a search for cold gas at high redshift along QSO lines-of-sight carried out without any a priori assumption on the neutral atomic-hydrogen (HI) content of the absorbers. To do this, we systematically looked for neutral-carbon (CI) 1560,1656 transition lines in low-resolution QSO spectra from the SDSS database. We built up a sample of 66 CI absorbers with redshifts 1.521 compared to systematic DLA surveys. We study empirical relations between W_r(CI), N(HI), E(B-V) and the strength of the 2175 A extinction feature, the latter being detected in about 30% of the CI absorbers. We show that the 2175 A feature is weak compared to Galactic lines-of-sight exhibiting the same amount of reddening. This is probably the consequence of current or past star formation in the vicinity of the CI systems. We also find that the strongest CI systems tend to have the largest amounts of dust and that the metallicity of the gas and its molecular fraction is likely to be high in a large number of cases.

  5. Cast pipe joints of Fe-15Mn-5Si-8Cr-5Ni-0.25C shape memory alloy with high carbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Li, J.C.; Jiang, Q. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University at Nanling Campus, Renmin Street 142, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2003-08-01

    The cast pipe joint of the Fe-15Mn-5Si-8Cr-5Ni-0.25C alloy was manufactured (the numbers in the composition denote the weight percentage of the elements while the weight percentage of Fe is the balance). The corresponding microstructure and shape memory effect are compared with those of a forged alloy. The results show that the cast joint has a good shape memory effect and may be industrially applied while the cast joint keeps jointing under a tensile force of 20 kN and a sealing pressure of 5 MPa. Moreover, it is found that the addition of nitrogen in the alloy doesn't evidently improve the shape memory effect of the alloy. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Water as a solute in aprotic dipolar solvents. 2. D2O-H2O solute isotope effects on the enthalpy of water dissolution in nitromethane, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enthalpies of solution of ordinary (H2O) and heavy (D2O) water in nitromethane (NM), acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC) were measured calorimetrically at 298.15 K. Standard (at the infinite dilution) enthalpies of solution and solvation, along with D2O-H2O solute isotope effects on the quantities in question, were calculated. The enthalpies of solution of water H/D isotopologues were found to be positive by sign and substantially increasing in magnitude on going from ACN and PC to NM, whereas the corresponding positive solute H/D isotope effect changes in a consequence: NM > ACN > PC. The qualitative interrelations between the enthalpy-isotopic effect of dissolution (solvation) of water and the electron-accepting/donating ability of aprotic dipolar solvent (within a series considered) were found.

  7. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    producers could generate revenue at carbon price of 15 per t CO2-e and 45 per t CO2-e in the range of 415 - 475 ha-1 and 440 - 620 ha-1, respectively. As a carbon negative technology, carbon farms could provide the backbone technology for a carbon neutral transportation biofuel through reduced indirect land use change.

  8. ENJA15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Aizawa, Akiko; Yamada, Masaru

    collected within the ENJA15 project, in which translators were observed while writing and speaking translations (translation dictation) and during machine translation post-editing. The transcription of the spoken data, keyboard logging and eye-tracking data were recorded with Translog-II, post-processed and......Speech-enabled interfaces have the potential to become one of the most efficient and ergonomic environments for human-computer interfaces, text production and documentation. This paper introduces and evaluates a corpus of more than 55 hours of English-to-Japanese user activity data that were...... integrated into the CRITT TPR-DB1, which is publicly available under a creative commons license. The paper also evaluates a subset corpus, the JTD16 study, a collection of translation dictation activity data produced by seven participants who were tasked with additional six sessions of dictation assignments...

  9. Effect of sublethal (5, 15, 40, 150, 400 R) whole-body x irradiation on collagen metabolism in the liver manifest as a subnormal response to subsequent carbon tetrachloride injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of sublethal, whole body x-irradiation on the induction of synthesis and the maturation of hepatic collagen was studied. The findings of this study support suggestions made by others that problems in wound healing observed in x-irradiated subjects can be traced in part to defects in collagen metabolism. The model employed was that of acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) poisoning of mouse liver. This model was chosen instead of the more conventional skin wounding technique because of its relative ease of application, the uniformity of response, and the ability to clearly define the limits of assay. The fibrotic response of liver to CCl4 was studied 1, 3 and 6 weeks following irradiation (0, 5, 15, 40, 150 or 400 R) and three days after the administration of CCl2. The significance of this work rests with the fact that an alteration of collagen synthesis was demonstrated under CCl4 stress following exposure to a dose as low as 150 R. This x-ray effect was expressed as a reduction in prolyl hydroxylase activity, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of collagen. Previously, such an effect has only been demonstrated indirectly and with higher doses of radiation, e.g. 1500 R. Further, this sublethal injury was found to require more than 1 week for repair as opposed to 1 hour for the repair of classical sublethal radiation damage. These findings indicate that impaired wound healing observed following x-irradiation may be linked to defects in collagen metabolism and that these defects may remain for more extended periods and result from lower x-ray doses than previously reported

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-10-04 to 2014-10-15 (NCEI Accession 0144547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144547 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-10-04 to 2014-10-15. These data...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-12-05 to 2013-03-15 (NODC Accession 0117060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117060 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-12-05 to 2013-03-15 and retrieved during cruise...

  12. Synthesis of 15 N double labelled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of double 15 N labelled urea by reacting 15 N - ammonia with elemental sulfur and carbon monoxide in a pressure vessel is presented. 15 NH3 was produced by H15 NO3 reduction with Dewarda alloy in alkaline solution, or by nitric monoxide reduction with hydrogen on metallic manganese. An average yield of 85% tacking into account 15 N - urea and 15 N ammonium sulfate, produced in the same time, and 99% urea purity (checked by I.R. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry) were obtained. (authors)

  13. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from time series and surface observations using Moored Autonomous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (MADIC) System, Sunburst SAMI2 pH sensor, and other instruments from Kewalo Buoy near the coast of Honolulu, Hawaii from 2013-10-31 to 2014-06-15 (NCEI Accession 0132048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To expand the number of tools available for autonomous carbonate system observations, we have developed a robust surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)...

  15. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean. WOCE Section A9, February--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.M.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations (as well as in other radiatively active trace gases) because of human activity has produced serious concern regarding the heat balance of the global atmosphere (Moore and Braswell 1994). The increasing concentrations of these gases may intensify the earth`s natural greenhouse effect, and force the global climate system in ways that are not well understood. The oceans play a major role in global carbon cycle processes. Carbon in the oceans is unevenly distributed because of complex circulation patterns and biogeochemical cycles, neither of which are completely understood. To better understand the ocean`s role in climate and climatic changes, several large experiments have been conducted in the past, and others are currently under way. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) is a major component of the World Climate Research Program. Although total carbon dioxide (TC0{sub 2}) is not an official WOCE measurement, a coordinated effort, supported in the United States by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is being made on WOCE cruises (through 1998) to measure the global, spatial, and temporal distributions of TC0{sub 2} and other carbon-related parameters. The CO{sub 2} survey goals include estimation of the meridional transport of inorganic carbon in a manner analogous to the oceanic heat transport (Bryden and Hall 1980; Brewer et al. 1989; Roemmich and Wunsch 1985), evaluation of the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the atmosphere and the ocean, and preparation of a database suitable for carbon-cycle modeling and the subsequent assessment of the anthropogenic C0{sub 2} increase in the oceans. The C0{sub 2} survey is taking advantage of the sampling opportunities provided by the WOCE cruises during this period. The final data set is expected to cover {approx_gt}23,000 stations.

  16. 15 CFR 15.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 15.12 Section 15.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce LEGAL PROCEEDINGS Testimony by Employees and... all phases of discovery as well as responses to formal or informal requests by attorneys or...

  17. Influence of organic carbon sources and isotope exchange processes between water and nitrate on the fractionation of the stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O in dissolved nitrate during microbial dentrification in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes of nitrate are commonly used to determine sources and degradation of nitrate. In this study, nitrite oxidizing bacteria were found to promote an oxygen isotope exchange between water and nitrate under anoxic conditions. Also, different carbon sources were found to influence the enrichment of stable isotopes in nitrate during microbial denitrification. Both results refine the stable isotope model of nitrate in respect to nitrate source determination and microbial nitrate reduction.

  18. 15 sekund slave / 15 seconds of fame

    OpenAIRE

    Bučar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    15 seconds of fame is an interactive installation that every 15 seconds generates a new pop-art portrait of a randomly selected viewer. The installation was inspired by Andy Warhol’s ironical statement that “in the future everybody will be famous for 15 minutes.” The installation detects human faces and crops them from the wide-angle view of people standing before the installation. Pop-art portraits are then generated by applying randomly selected filters to a randomly chosen face from the au...

  19. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-rein...

  20. E15 and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, J. [Ecoengineering, Inc.,Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This report explores the compatibility of refueling station equipment with E15--a 15% ethanol and 85% gasoline blend intended for use in conventional gasoline light duty vehicles model year 2001 or newer. The report includes background information on E15, a literature review seeking to identify issues during the nationwide deployment of E10, a diagram of all station equipment and supporting data.

  1. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar an...

  2. Vanadium Oxide Supported on Mesoporous SBA-15 as Highly Selective Catalysts in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene with Carbon Dioxide%负载型 VOx/SBA-15 催化剂催化CO2气氛下乙苯脱氢反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相彬; 余长林; 徐恒泳; 李文钊

    2008-01-01

    利用浸渍法制备了系列不同钒含量的VOx/SBA-15乙苯脱氢催化剂. 并采用BET、 UV-vis、 XRD、 TPO和O2 脉冲等物理化学表征手段对催化剂进行了表征. 二氧化碳气氛下的乙苯氧化脱氢反应结果表明, 在 550 ℃, 当V2O5 的含量为20% 时, 催化剂表现出最好的脱氢性能. 乙苯的转化率达到 74.1%, 同时也获得95.7% 的苯乙烯选择性. 20 VOx/SBA-15具有较高的比表面积、较多的酸性、较少的积碳, 这可能是该催化剂表现出较好的催化性能的原因.

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-04-19 to 2012-05-15 (NODC Accession 0108160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108160 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ATLANTIS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-04-19 to 2012-05-15. These data...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-15 to 1990-06-04 (NODC Accession 0113534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113534 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-15 to...

  5. Turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil assessed from δ13C and δ15N changes under pasture and cropping practices and estimates of greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ram C; Thornton, Craig M; Cowie, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    The continuing clearance of native vegetation for pasture, and especially cropping, is a concern due to declines in soil organic C (SOC) and N, deteriorating soil health, and adverse environment impact such as increased emissions of major greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4). There is a need to quantify the rates of SOC and N budget changes, and the impact on greenhouse gas emissions from land use change in semi-arid subtropical regions where such data are scarce, so as to assist in developing appropriate management practices. We quantified the turnover rate of SOC from changes in δ(13)C following the conversion of C3 native vegetation to C4 perennial pasture and mixed C3/C4 cereal cropping (wheat/sorghum), as well as δ(15)N changes following the conversion of legume native vegetation to non-legume systems over 23 years. Perennial pasture (Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Biloela) maintained SOC but lost total N by more than 20% in the top 0-0.3m depth of soil, resulting in reduced animal productivity from the grazed pasture. Annual cropping depleted both SOC and total soil N by 34% and 38%, respectively, and resulted in decreasing cereal crop yields. Most of these losses of SOC and total N occurred from the >250 μm fraction of soil. Moreover, this fraction had almost a magnitude higher turnover rates than the 250-53 μm and system. Even then, the pasture system is not considered as a benchmark of agricultural sustainability because of its decreasing productivity in this semi-arid subtropical environment. Introduction of legumes (for N2 fixation) into perennial pastures may arrest the productivity decline of this system. Restoration of SOC in the cropped system will require land use change to perennial ecosystems such as legume-grass pastures or native vegetation. PMID:23721610

  6. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar an...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  7. 15 seconds of fame

    OpenAIRE

    Solina, Franc

    2003-01-01

    15 seconds of fame is an interactive installation which every 15 seconds generates a new pop-art portrait of a randomly selected person from the audience. The installation was inspired by Andy Warhol's ironical statement that ``In the future everybody will be famous for 15 minutes''. The installation detects human faces to crop them from the wide-angle picture of people who are standing in front of the installation. Pop-art portraits are then generated by applying different, rand...

  8. Adsorption of octadecyltrichlorosilane on mesoporous SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on mesoporous SBA-15 has been studied by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. BET surface area analysis shows decrease of surface area from 930 to 416 m2/g after OTS adsorption. SEM pictures show close attachment of SBA-15 particles. EDAX measurements show increase of carbon weight percentage and decrease of oxygen and silicon weight percentage. XPS results closely support EDAX analysis. FTIR spectra shows presence of methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2) bands and oriented OTS monolayer on SBA-15. Thermo-gravimetric analysis shows that the OTS adsorbed on SBA-15 are stable up to a temperature of 230 deg. C and that the OTS monolayers decompose between 230 and 400 deg. C

  9. Adsorption of octadecyltrichlorosilane on mesoporous SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirji, S.A. [Physical Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)]. E-mail: mirji@dalton.ncl.res.in; Halligudi, S.B. [Inorganic and Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Sawant, Dhanashri P. [Inorganic and Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Jacob, Nalini E. [Inorganic and Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Patil, K.R. [Center for Material Characterization, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Gaikwad, A.B. [Center for Material Characterization, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Pradhan, S.D. [Center for Material Characterization, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2006-04-15

    Adsorption of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on mesoporous SBA-15 has been studied by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. BET surface area analysis shows decrease of surface area from 930 to 416 m{sup 2}/g after OTS adsorption. SEM pictures show close attachment of SBA-15 particles. EDAX measurements show increase of carbon weight percentage and decrease of oxygen and silicon weight percentage. XPS results closely support EDAX analysis. FTIR spectra shows presence of methyl (-CH{sub 3}) and methylene (-CH{sub 2}) bands and oriented OTS monolayer on SBA-15. Thermo-gravimetric analysis shows that the OTS adsorbed on SBA-15 are stable up to a temperature of 230 deg. C and that the OTS monolayers decompose between 230 and 400 deg. C.

  10. Main: LTRECOREATCOR15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LTRECOREATCOR15 S000153 8-February-2006 (last modified) kehi Core of low temperature responsive element (LT...ction of BN115 gene from winter Brassica napus; LTRE; See S000157, S000152; Light...DRE in Arabidopsis; See S000152; low temperature; cold; LTRE; drought; ABA; cor15a; BN115; leaf; shoot; phytochrome; Arabidopsis thaliana; Brassica napus CCGAC ...

  11. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  12. Carbon Concentration of Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to examine the influence of temperature and times of austempering process on the maximum extend towhich the bainite reaction can proceed and the carbon content in retained austenite. It should be noted that a small percentage change in theaustenite carbon content can have a significant effect on the subsequent austempering reaction changing the volume fraction of the phasespresent and hence, the resulting mechanical properties. Specimens were prepared from an unalloyed ductile cast iron, austenitised at 950oCfor 60 minutes and austempered by the conventional single-step austempering process at four temperatures between BS and MS, eg., 250,300, 350 and 400oC. The samples were austempered at these temperatures for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes and finally quenched toambient temperature. Volume fractions of retained austenite and carbon concentration in the residual austenite have been observed byusing X-ray diffraction. Additionally, carbon concentration in the residual austenite was calculated using volume fraction data of austeniteand a model developed by Bhadeshia based on the McLellan and Dunn quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The comparison ofexperimental data with the T0, T0' and Ae3' phase boundaries suggests the likely mechanism of bainite reaction in cast iron is displacive rather than diffusional. The carbon concentration in retained austenite demonstrates that at the end of bainite reaction the microstructure must consist of not only ausferrite but additionally precipitated carbides.

  13. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  14. Census_sum_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Census_sum_15" provides a standardized tool for examining spatial patterns in abundance and demographic trends of the southern sea otter (Enhydra...

  15. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  16. 15. European TRIGA Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 15th European TRIGA Conference was organised by the VTT Chemical Technology and held in June 15-17, 1998, in Espoo, Finland. The topics of the conference included: reactor operation and maintenance experience, developments and improvements of TRIGA components, safety aspects, licensing, radiation protection, fuel management, personnel, training programmes, and research programmes at TRIGA stations. The special topic of the conference was TRIGA reactors and the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

  17. 15. European TRIGA Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmenhaara, S. (ed.)

    1999-12-15

    The 15th European TRIGA Conference was organised by the VTT Chemical Technology and held in June 15-17, 1998, in Espoo, Finland. The topics of the conference included: reactor operation and maintenance experience, developments and improvements of TRIGA components, safety aspects, licensing, radiation protection, fuel management, personnel, training programmes, and research programmes at TRIGA stations. The special topic of the conference was TRIGA reactors and the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

  18. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA) to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration. PMID:26966555

  19. 49 CFR 15.15 - SSI disclosed by DOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SSI disclosed by DOT. 15.15 Section 15.15 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.15 SSI... containing SSI are not available for public inspection or copying, nor does DOT release such records...

  20. 44 CFR 15.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 15.15 Section 15.15 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.15 Weapons...

  1. Reinforcement of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube in Nitrile Rubber: In Comparison with Carbon Black, Conductive Carbon Black, and Precipitated Silica

    OpenAIRE

    Atip Boonbumrung; Pongdhorn Sae-oui; Chakrit Sirisinha

    2016-01-01

    The properties of nitrile rubber (NBR) reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), conductive carbon black (CCB), carbon black (CB), and precipitated silica (PSi) were investigated via viscoelastic behavior, bound rubber content, electrical properties, cross-link density, and mechanical properties. The filler content was varied from 0 to 15 phr. MWCNT shows the greatest magnitude of reinforcement considered in terms of tensile strength, modulus, hardness, and abrasion resistance follow...

  2. Carbon, chromium and molybdenum contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes solidification experiments on white cast iron, with 15 and 20% of chromium, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 % of carbon and 0.0, 1.5 and 2.5 % of molybdenum in test de samples with 30 mm diameter. Measurements were performed on the austenite and eutectic formation arrests, the number of the eutectic carbide particles relative to the total and the eutectic volumes, and the volume fraction of the primary austenite

  3. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  4. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  6. Effect of Implantation Sequence on Tribological Behavior of GCr15 Steel by PBII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Le; Zhou, Hui; Cao, Guojian; Tang, Guangze; Ma, Xinxin; Wang, Liqin

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, the effect of implantation sequence on tribological behavior of GCr15 steel treated by plasma-based ion implantation of carbon and nitrogen has been investigated. The treated GCr15 steels were characterized for microstructure and abrasive wear performance through combination of Raman spectroscopy, nano-indentation, and wear tests. Raman spectroscopy indicated that diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were formed after implantation of carbon with or without implantation of nitrogen, and the implantation of nitrogen after the implantation of carbon destroyed the graphite structure of the DLC films. The nano-indentation and wear tests showed that nanohardness as well as wear resistance of the GCr15 steel treated with the implantation sequence of nitrogen-carbon was better than those with the implantation sequence of carbon-nitrogen. Meanwhile, the properties were improved with increasing of carbon ion fluence.

  7. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  8. Apollo 15 Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the Apollo 15 Moon landing mission logo. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. It was the first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions. The mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn Five rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, G M; Hobbie, J E; Houghton, R A; Melillo, J M; Moore, B; Peterson, B J; Shaver, G R

    1983-12-01

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1860 and 1980 was between 135 x 10(15) and 228 x 10(15) grams. Between 1.8 x 10(15) and 4.7 x 10(15) grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the release from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 x 10(15) grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed. PMID:17747369

  10. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  11. 15 theses on power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susen Simon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to contribute to a critical understanding of the multifaceted nature of power, emphasizing its capacity to shape the development of society by permeating constitutive aspects of human reality. To this end, the article proposes an outline of a multidimensional approach to power. It does so by identifying and examining several - arguably universal - features and functions of power. On the basis of 15 theses, it is argued that, within the social world, the power of power derives from the fact that it is (1 ubiquitous, (2 productive, (3 relational, (4 intangible, (5 habitual, (6 discursive, (7 corporeal, (8 polycentric, (9 performative, (10 normative, (11 spatial, (12 temporal, (13 disciplinary, (14 circular, and (15 transcendental. By way of conclusion, the article provides a comprehensive summary of the main insights gained and challenges arising from such a multidimensional approach to power.

  12. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 °C/20-40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The existence of impurities such as water and remnants of alkaline catalyst in crude glycerol will direct the reaction to produce glycidol. Although impurities might not be desirable, the non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate could be an alternative method for conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added glycerol carbonate.Graphical abstractPlausible reaction scheme for conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate. PMID:27386367

  13. Carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  14. UX-15 Reaches LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The creation of the world's largest sandstone cavern, not a small feat! At the bottom, cave-in preventing steel mesh can be seen clinging to the top of the tunnel. The digging of UX-15, the cavern that will house ATLAS, reached the upper ceiling of LEP on October 10th. The breakthrough which took place nearly 100 metres underground occurred precisely on schedule and exactly as planned. But much caution was taken beforehand to make the LEP breakthrough clean and safe. To prevent the possibility of cave-ins in the side tunnels that will eventually be attached to the completed UX-15 cavern, reinforcing steel mesh was fixed into the walls with bolts. Obviously no people were allowed in the LEP tunnels below UX-15 as the breakthrough occurred. The area was completely evacuated and fences were put into place to keep all personnel out. However, while personnel were being kept out of the tunnels below, this has been anything but the case for the work taking place up above. With the creation of the world's largest...

  15. The Carbon Budget of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  16. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over a...... corporations construing themselves as able and suitable to manage their emissions, and, additionally, given that the construction of carbon emissions has performative consequences, the underlying practices need to be declassified, i.e. opened for public scrutiny. Hence the paper concludes by arguing for a...

  17. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  18. Main: HBOXPVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6 kDa; Elicitation of bean cell with glutathione causes a rapid increase in specific activities of KAP-1 and...in factors, KAP-1 and KAP-2; KAP-1 is a 97 kDa polypeptide; KAP-2 comprises two polypeptides of 76 kDa and 5... KAP2; H-box; KAP-1; KAP-2; elicitor; glutathione; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) CCTACCNNNNNNNCTNNNNA ... ...HBOXPVCHS15 S000361 16-Feb-2001 (last modified) seki Binding site of two bean prote

  19. MARS15 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    MARS15 is a Monte Carlo code for inclusive and exclusive simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon, heavy-ion, and low-energy neutron transport in accelerator, detector, spacecraft, and shielding components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV. Main features of the code are described in this paper with a focus on recent developments and benchmarking. Newest developments concern inclusive and exclusive nuclear event generators, extended particle list in both modes, heavy-ion capability, electromagnetic interactions, enhanced geometry, tracking, histogramming and residual dose modules, improved graphical-user interface, and other external interfaces.

  20. CarbonSat Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Tobehn, Carsten; Ernst, Robert; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Notholt, John

    1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important manmade greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are driving global climate change. Currently, the CO2 measurements from the ground observing network are still the main sources of information but due to the limited number of measurement stations the coverage is limited. In addition, CO2 monitoring and trading is often based mainly on bottom-up calculations and an independent top down verification is limited due to the lack of global measurement data with local resolution. The first CO2 and CH4 mapping from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT shows that satellites add important missing global information. Current GHG measurement satellites (GOSAT)are limited either in spatial or temporal resolution and coverage. These systems have to collect data over a year or even longer to produce global regional fluxes products. Conse-quently global, timely, higher spatial resolution and high accuracy measurement are required for: 1. A good understanding of the CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks for reliable climate predic-tion; and 2. Independent and transparent verification of accountable sources and sinks in supporting Kyoto and upcoming protocols The CarbonSat constellation idea comes out the trade off of resolution and swath width during CarbonSat mission definition studies. In response to the urgent need to support the Kyoto and upcoming protocols, a feasibility study has been carried out. The proposed solution is a constellation of five CarbonSat satellites in 614km LTAN 13:00, which is able to provide global, daily CO2 and CH4 measurement everywhere on the Earth with high spatial resolution 2 × 2 km and low uncertainty lt;2ppm (CO2) and lt;8ppb (CH4). The unique global daily measurement capability significantly increases the number of cloud free measurements, which enables more reliable services associated with reduced uncertainty, e.g. to 0.15ppm (CO2) per month in 10km and even more timely products. The CarbonSat Constellation in

  1. Deoxyiminoalditols from Aldonolactones - V. Preparation of the Four Stereoisomers of 1,5-Dideoxy-1,5-iminopentitols. Evaluation of these Iminopentitols and Three 1,5-Dideoxy-1,5-iminoheptitols as Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Michael Anders; Lundt, Inge; Madsen, Robert;

    1996-01-01

    aqueous ammonia, the 5-amino-5-deoxy-1,5-lactams, 2, 8, 12 and 17, respectively. Reduction of the lactam function using sodium borohydride/acetic or trifluoroacetic acid, or borane dimethyl sulfide complex yielded the iminopentitols. The compounds 3, 9, 13 and 18, together with the three 1,5-dideoxy-1......-substituted carbon atoms, were good inhibitors of alpha-L-fucosidase. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  2. Carbon isotope effects in carbonate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Global carbon cycle models require a complete understanding of the δ 13C variability of the Earth's C reservoirs as well as the C isotope effects in the transfer of the element among them. An assessment of δ 13C changes during CO 2 loss from degassing magmas requires knowledge of the melt-CO 2 carbon isotope fractionation. In order to examine the potential size of this effect for silicate melts of varying composition, 13C reduced partition functions were computed in the temperature range 275 to 4000 K for carbonates of varying bond strengths (Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba, Pb, Zn, Cd, Li, and Na) and the polymorphs of calcite. For a given cation and a given pressure the 13C content increases with the density of the carbonate structure. For a given structure the tendency to concentrate 13C increases with pressure. The effect of pressure (‰/10 kbar) on the size of the reduced partition function of aragonite varies with temperature; in the pressure range 1 to 10 5 bars the change is given by: Δ 13C p average=-0.01796+0.06635∗ 10 3/T+0.006875∗ 10 6/T2 For calcite III the pressure effect is on average 1.4× larger than that for aragonite at all temperatures. The nature of the cation in a given structure type has a significant effect on the carbon isotope fractionation properties. The tendency to concentrate 13C declines in the series magnesite, aragonite, dolomite, strontianite, siderite, calcite, smithonite, witherite, rhodochrosite, otavite, cerrusite. For divalent cations a general expression for an estimation of the reduced partition function (β) from the reduced mass (μ = [M Cation × M Carbonate]/[M Cation + M Carbonate]) is: 1000 lnβ=(0.032367-0.072563∗ 10 3/T-0.01073∗ 10 6/T2)∗μ-14.003+29.953∗ 10 3/T+9.4610∗ 10 6/T2 For Mg-calcite the 13C content varies with the Mg concentration. The fractionation between Mg-calcite (X = mole fraction of MgCO 3) and calcite is given by: 1000 ln(α MgCalite- Calcite)=[0.013702-0.10957× 10 3/T+1.35940× 10 6/T2

  3. Ringberg15: Earth's Climate Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Bony, Sandrine; Hegerl, Gabi; Schmidt, Gavin; Sherwood, Steven; Webb, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To assess gaps in understanding of Earth's climate sensitivities a workshop was organised under the auspices of the WCRP (World Climate Research Programme) Grand Science Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity (Ringberg15). The workshop took place in March 2015 and gathered together over thirty experts from around the world for one week. Attendees each gave short presentations and participated in moderated discussions of specific questions related to understanding Earth's climate sensitivities. Most of the time was focused on understanding of the equilibrium climate sensitivity, defined as the equilibrium near-surface warming associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The workshop produced nine recommendations, many of them focusing on specific research avenues that could be exploited to advance understanding of climate sensitivity. Many of these dealt, in one fashion or another, with the need to more sharply focus research on identifying and testing story lines for a high (larger than 4 degrees Kelvin) or low (less than 2 degrees Kelvin) equilibrium climate sensitivity. Additionally, a subset of model intercomparison projects (CFMIP (Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project), PMIP (Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project), PDRMIP (Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project), RFMIP (Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project) and VolMIP (Volcanic Forcings Model Intercomparison Project)) that have been proposed for inclusion within CMIP were identified as being central to resolving important issues raised at the workshop; for this reason modelling groups were strongly encouraged to participate in these projects. Finally the workshop participants encouraged the WCRP to initiate and support an assessment process lead by the Grand Science Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity on the topic of Earth's Climate Sensitivities, culminating in a report that will be published in 2019

  4. New developments of carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 117th Committee on Carbon Materials in the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) started in March 1948. The committee will have 60th anniversary in March 2008. As memorial of this, the title publication was published for informing about new developments of carbon materials to many people. The publication is divided into 3 chapters. A theme of the 1st chapter is 'Synthesis' which includes 17 papers, a theme of the 2nd chapter is 'Analysis' which includes 11 papers, a theme of the 3rd chapter is Application' which includes 15 papers. The publication also includes historical review of the committee. (J.P.N.)

  5. SPAT 15 - Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Spring of 1997, the Department of Energy's Department Standards Committee (DSC) convened a Standards Process Action Team (SPAT-15) to evaluate assessment processes within the DOE complex. If time and resources permitted, the team was also to evaluate assessment processes used by private industry conducting similar work and activities. The specific task statement was as follows: ''Define the attributes of assessment programs that effectively support organizational feedback and improvement of safety systems at all the different levels of contractor and Department organizations.'' The team gathered information on existing assessment programs through surveys and presentations by representatives from national laboratories, processing facilities, and remediation sites. Examples of assessment programs described in this report encompass site-wide, individual facility, and task level applications within the DOE compIex

  6. Physics Colloquium | 15 April

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    From multiferroic oxides to cosmology with electronic structure calculations, Professeur Nicola Spaldin, Materials Theory, ETH Zürich. Monday 15 April 2013, 5 pm École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: What happened in the early universe just after the Big Bang? This is one of the most intriguing basic questions in all of science, and is difficult to answer because of insurmountable issues associated with replaying the Big Bang in the laboratory. One route to the answer is to use condensed matter systems to test the so-called "Kibble- Zurek" scaling laws for the formation of defects such as cosmic strings that are proposed to have formed in the early universe. In this talk I will show that a popular multiferroic material -- with its coexisting magnetic, ferroelectric and structural phase transitions -- generates the crystallographic equivalent of cosmic strings. I will describe how we used electronic struc...

  7. Investigation of interaction processes in SrCO3-VOsub(1,5) and BaCO3-VOsub(1,5) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of sesquioxide of vanadium with strontium and barium carbonates is of redox character. Orthovanadate and carbon oxide are formed at the initial stage of the reaction. Therefore, it seems impossible to obtain stoichiometric vanadites MV2O4 in the systems SrCo3(BaCO3)-VOsub(1.5)

  8. Evidence for Carbonate Surface Complexation during Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, John S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth Ep Gisquet, Pascale; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Washton, Nancy M.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2015-07-14

    Continental flood basalts are attractive formations for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide because of their reactive divalent-cation containing silicates, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4), suitable for long-term trapping of CO2 mineralized as metal carbonates. The goal of this study was to investigate at a molecular level the carbonation products formed during the reaction of forsterite with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) as a function of the concentration of H2O adsorbed to the forsterite surface. Experiments were performed at 50 °C and 90 bar using an in situ IR titration capability, and post-reaction samples were examined by ex situ techniques, including SEM, XPS, FIB-TEM, TGA-MS, and MAS-NMR. Carbonation products and reaction extents varied greatly with adsorbed H2O. We show for the first time evidence of Mg-carbonate surface complexation under wet scCO2 conditions. Carbonate is found to be coordinated to Mg at the forsterite surface in a predominately bidentate fashion at adsorbed H2O concentrations below 27 µmol/m2. Above this concentration and up to 76 µmol/m2, monodentate coordinated complexes become dominant. Beyond a threshold adsorbed H2O concentration of 76 µmol/m2, crystalline carbonates continuously precipitate as magnesite, and the particles that form are hundreds of times larger than the estimated thicknesses of the adsorbed water films of about 7 to 15 Å. At an applied level, these results suggest that mineral carbonation in scCO2 dominated fluids near the wellbore and adjacent to caprocks will be insignificant and limited to surface complexation, unless adsorbed H2O concentrations are high enough to promote crystalline carbonate formation. At a fundamental level, the surface complexes and their dependence on adsorbed H2O concentration give insights regarding forsterite dissolution processes and magnesite nucleation and growth.

  9. Carbon sequestration in European croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the

  10. 15 CFR 14.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric system of measurement. 14.15... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.15 Metric system of measurement. The Metric Conversion... system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The Act requires each...

  11. Controlling carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the use of carbon taxes to reduce emissions of CO2 in China. To do so, we develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Chinese economy. In addition to accounting for the effects of population growth, capital accumulation, technological change, and changing patterns of demand, we also incorporate into our model elements of the dual nature of China's economy where both plan and market institutions exist side by side. We conduct simulations in which carbon emissions are reduced by 5, 10, and 15 per cent from our baseline. After initial declines, in all of our simulations GDP and consumption rapidly exceed baseline levels as the revenue neutral carbon tax serves to transfer income from consumers to producers and then into increased investment. Although subject to a number of caveats, we find potential for what is in some sense a double dividend, a decrease in emissions for CO2 and a long run increase in GDP and consumption. (Author)

  12. Carbon Footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Rahel Aichele; Gabriel Felbermayr

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich der Beitrag eines Landes zum weltweiten Klimaschutz an der Veränderung seines CO2-Ausstoßes messen, wie es im Kyoto-Abkommen implizit unterstellt wird? Oder ist aufgrund der Bedeutung des internationalen Güterhandels der Carbon Footprint – der alle CO2-Emissionen erfasst, die durch die Absorption (d.h. Konsum und Investitionen) eines Landes entstehen – das bessere Maß? Die Autoren erstellen eine Datenbank mit den Footprints von 40 Ländern für den Zeitraum 1995–2007. Die deskriptive...

  13. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Ilham, Zul; Saka, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 °C/20–40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The ex...

  14. Evidence for Carbonate Surface Complexation during Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loring, John S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Washton, Nancy M.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2015-06-16

    Continental flood basalts are attractive formations for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide because of their reactive divalent-cation containing silicates, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4), suitable for long-term trapping of CO2 mineralized as metal carbonates. The goal of this study was to investigate at a molecular level the carbonation products formed during the reaction of forsterite with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) as a function of the concentration of H2O adsorbed to the forsterite surface. Experiments were performed at 50 °C and 90 bar using an in situ IR titration capability, and post-reaction samples were examined by ex situ techniques, including SEM, XPS, FIB-TEM, TGA-MS, and MAS-NMR. Carbonation products and reaction extents varied greatly with adsorbed H2O. We show for the first time evidence of Mg-carbonate surface complexation under wet scCO2 conditions. Carbonate is found to be coordinated to Mg at the forsterite surface in a predominately bidentate fashion at adsorbed H2O concentrations below 27 µmol/m2. Above this concentration and up to 76 µmol/m2, monodentate coordinated complexes become dominant. Beyond a threshold adsorbed H2O concentration of 76 µmol/m2, crystalline carbonates continuously precipitate as magnesite, and the particles that form are hundreds of times larger than the estimated thicknesses of the adsorbed water films of about 7 to 15 Å. At an applied level, the implication of these results is that mineral trapping in scCO2 dominated fluids will be insignificant and limited to surface complexation unless adsorbed H2O concentrations are high enough to promote crystalline carbonate formation. At a fundamental level, the surface complexes and their dependence on adsorbed H2O concentration give insights regarding forsterite dissolution processes and magnesite nucleation and growth.

  15. Carbon-14 measurement using carbon dioxide absorption method - Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    experimental standard deviation of 0.041 cpm (n=15). The mean count rate of last fifteen secondary standard samples normalised for 100 pMC and corrected for carbon-13 with reference to -25 per mille is 5.97 ± .0035 cpm with an experimental standard deviation of 0.23 cpm (n=15). All the samples were counted for 1000 min each. The last fifteen secondary standard CO2 samples were prepared from same batch of oxalic acid at different time. We participated in the IAEA 14C Intercomparison Exercise (1990) and Third International Radiocarbon Intercomparison organized by University of Glasgow, Scotland. We have analyzed a few samples using carbon dioxide absorption technique and results are very close to consensus value. We have also measured a few samples of various hydrological projects using absorption as well as benzene synthesis method and results are in good agreement. Carbon dioxide absorption technique gives reproducible result with constant level of quenching represented by Spectral Quench Parameter (SQP). This technique has been standardized to be used routinely for carbon-14 dating in Isotope Hydrology

  16. Carbon Nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are synthetic 2D carbon sheets with tailored physical or chemical properties. These depend on the structure, molecular composition, and surroundings on either side. Due to their molecular thickness, they can be regarded as "interfaces without bulk" separating regions of different gaseous, liquid, or solid components and controlling the materials exchange between them. Here, a universal scheme for the fabrication of 1 nm-thick, mechanically stable, functional CNMs is presented. CNMs can be further modified, for example perforated by ion bombardment or chemically functionalized by the binding of other molecules onto the surfaces. The underlying physical and chemical mechanisms are described, and examples are presented for the engineering of complex surface architectures, e.g., nanopatterns of proteins, fluorescent dyes, or polymer brushes. A simple transfer procedure allows CNMs to be placed on various support structures, which makes them available for diverse applications: supports for electron and X-ray microscopy, nanolithography, nanosieves, Janus nanomembranes, polymer carpets, complex layered structures, functionalization of graphene, novel nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices. To close, the potential of CNMs in filtration and sensorics is discussed. Based on tests for the separation of gas molecules, it is argued that ballistic membranes may play a prominent role in future efforts of materials separation. PMID:27281234

  17. Influence of variable rates of neritic carbonate deposition on atmospheric carbon dioxide and pelagic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C.; Opdyke, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Short-term imbalances in the global cycle of shallow water calcium carbonate deposition and dissolution may be responsible for much of the observed Pleistocene change in atmospheric carbon dioxide content. However, any proposed changes in the alkalinity balance of the ocean must be reconciled with the sedimentary record of deep-sea carbonates. The possible magnitude of the effect of shallow water carbonate deposition on the dissolution of pelagic carbonate can be tested using numerical simulations of the global carbon cycle. Boundary conditions can be defined by using extant shallow water carbonate accumulation data and pelagic carbonate deposition/dissolution data. On timescales of thousands of years carbonate deposition versus dissolution is rarely out of equilibrium by more than 1.5 x 10(13) mole yr-1. Results indicate that the carbonate chemistry of the ocean is rarely at equilibrium on timescales less than 10 ka. This disequilibrium is probably due to sea level-induced changes in shallow water calcium carbonate deposition/dissolution, an interpretation that does not conflict with pelagic sedimentary data from the central Pacific.

  18. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  19. Digital Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon Contents and Stocks in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Kabindra Adhikari; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Budiman Minasny; Rania Bou Kheir; Mette B Greve; Greve, Mogens H.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of carbon contents and stocks are important for carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and national carbon balance inventories. For Denmark, we modeled the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and bulk density, and mapped its spatial distribution at five standard soil depth intervals (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60 and 60-100 cm) using 18 environmental variables as predictors. SOC distribution was influenced by precipitation, land use, soil type, wetland, elevation, ...

  20. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  2. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests. PMID:24405426

  3. Carbon Cycling and Storage in Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y-1) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y-1) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  5. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  6. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  7. Understanding carbon regulation in aquatic systems - Bacteriophages as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmukh, Swapnil; Khairnar, Krishna; Paunikar, Waman; Lokhande, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria and their phages are the most abundant constituents of the aquatic environment, and so represent an ideal model for studying carbon regulation in an aquatic system. The microbe-mediated interconversion of bioavailable organic carbon (OC) into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the microbial carbon pump (MCP) has been suggested to have the potential to revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration. It is estimated that DOC is the largest pool of organic matter in the ocean and, though a major component of the global carbon cycle, its source is not yet well understood. A key element of the carbon cycle is the microbial conversion of DOC into inedible forms. The primary aim of this study is to understand the phage conversion from organic to inorganic carbon during phage-host interactions. Time studies of phage-host interactions under controlled conditions reveal their impact on the total carbon content of the samples and their interconversion of organic and inorganic carbon compared to control samples. A total organic carbon (TOC) analysis showed an increase in inorganic carbon content by 15-25 percent in samples with bacteria and phage compared to samples with bacteria alone. Compared to control samples, the increase in inorganic carbon content was 60-70-fold in samples with bacteria and phage, and 50-55-fold for samples with bacteria alone. This study indicates the potential impact of phages in regulating the carbon cycle of aquatic systems. PMID:26213615

  8. Apparatus and process for the surface treatment of carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Ozcan, Soydan; Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-05-17

    A method for surface treating a carbon-containing material in which carbon-containing material is reacted with decomposing ozone in a reactor (e.g., a hollow tube reactor), wherein a concentration of ozone is maintained throughout the reactor by appropriate selection of at least processing temperature, gas stream flow rate, reactor dimensions, ozone concentration entering the reactor, and position of one or more ozone inlets (ports) in the reactor, wherein the method produces a surface-oxidized carbon or carbon-containing material, preferably having a surface atomic oxygen content of at least 15%. The resulting surface-oxidized carbon material and solid composites made therefrom are also described.

  9. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  10. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  11. A 15-step synthesis of (+)-ryanodol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kangway V; Xu, Chen; Reisman, Sarah E

    2016-08-26

    (+)-Ryanodine and (+)-ryanodol are complex diterpenoids that modulate intracellular calcium-ion release at ryanodine receptors, ion channels critical for skeletal and cardiac muscle excitation-contraction coupling and synaptic transmission. Chemical derivatization of these diterpenoids has demonstrated that certain peripheral structural modifications can alter binding affinity and selectivity among ryanodine receptor isoforms. Here, we report a short chemical synthesis of (+)-ryanodol that proceeds in only 15 steps from the commercially available terpene (S)-pulegone. The efficiency of the synthesis derives from the use of a Pauson-Khand reaction to rapidly build the carbon framework and a SeO2-mediated oxidation to install three oxygen atoms in a single step. This work highlights how strategic C-O bond constructions can streamline the synthesis of polyhydroxylated terpenes by minimizing protecting group and redox adjustments. PMID:27563092

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  13. Sulfonated mesoporous silica–carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla Solís, Marta; Fuertes Arias, Antonio Benito

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica–carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica–carbon composites contain ∼30 wt % of carbo...

  14. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO2 and CH4 causing a net release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO2 and CH4) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  15. 33 CFR 83.15 - Crossing situation (Rule 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crossing situation (Rule 15). 83... situation (Rule 15). (a) Vessel which must keep out of the other vessel's way. When two power-driven vessels... Rivers, or water specified by the Secretary, a power-driven vessel crossing a river shall keep out of...

  16. 15th European conference on personality (ECP15)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millová, Katarína; Hřebíčková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 184-185. ISSN 0009-062X. [European conference on personality /15./. Brno, 20.07.2011-24.07.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : 15th European Conference on Personality * report Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.087, year: 2011

  17. Densities and volumetric properties of (N-(2-hydroxyethyl)morpholine + ethanol, + 1-propanol, + 2-propanol, + 1-butanol, and + 2-butanol) at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densities of binary mixtures of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)morpholine with ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol were measured over the entire composition range at temperatures from (293.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure using a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volumes, VE were calculated from density data and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Apparent molar volumes, partial molar volume at infinite dilution and the thermal expansion coefficient of the mixtures were also calculated. The VE values were found to be negative over the entire composition range and at all temperatures studied and become less negative with increasing carbon chain length of the alkanols

  18. The inv dup (15 or idic (15 syndrome (Tetrasomy 15q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Agatino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inv dup(15 or idic(15 syndrome displays distinctive clinical findings represented by early central hypotonia, developmental delay and intellectual disability, epilepsy, and autistic behaviour. Incidence at birth is estimated at 1 in 30,000 with a sex ratio of almost 1:1. Developmental delay and intellectual disability affect all individuals with inv dup(15 and are usually moderate to profound. Expressive language is absent or very poor and often echolalic. Comprehension is very limited and contextual. Intention to communicate is absent or very limited. The distinct behavioral disorder shown by children and adolescents has been widely described as autistic or autistic-like. Epilepsy with a wide variety of seizure types can occur in these individuals, with onset between 6 months and 9 years. Various EEG abnormalities have been described. Muscle hypotonia is observed in almost all individuals, associated, in most of them, with joint hyperextensibility and drooling. Facial dysmorphic features are absent or subtle, and major malformations are rare. Feeding difficulties are reported in the newborn period. Chromosome region 15q11q13, known for its instability, is highly susceptible to clinically relevant genomic rearrangements, such as supernumerary marker chromosomes formed by the inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15. Inv dup(15 results in tetrasomy 15p and partial tetrasomy 15q. The large rearrangements, containing the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region (PWS/ASCR, are responsible for the inv dup(15 or idic(15 syndrome. Diagnosis is achieved by standard cytogenetics and FISH analysis, using probes both from proximal chromosome 15 and from the PWS/ASCR. Microsatellite analysis on parental DNA or methylation analysis on the proband DNA, are also needed to detect the parent-of-origin of the inv dup(15 chromosome. Array CGH has been shown to provide a powerful approach for identifying and detecting the extent of the

  19. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  20. Radiation polymerization of vinylene carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced polymerization of vinylene carbonate of 99,97% purity has been investigated. The relationship between conversion and irradiation time is strictly linear, even at the lowest conversions, thus proving that the normal induction period observed for the polymerization of lower-purity vinylene carbonate indeed results from the presence of an inhibitor. Although the identity of the inhibitor has not been established, it has been shown that it is not dichlorovinylene carbonate. An activation energy of 15,1 kJ/mole was calculated for the homopolymerization process. The radiation-induced copolymerization of vinylene carbonate (M1) with isobutyl vinyl ether (M2) has been investigated over the temperature range of 40-80 degrees Celcius. The monomer reactivity ratios r1 and r2 were determined to be 0,118 and 0,148 respectively, and an activation energy of 31,8kJ/mole was calculated for the copolymerization process. The radiation-induced telomerization of vinylene carbonate with carbon tetrachloride has been investigated over a telogen to monomer concentration ratio range of 4 to 20. The rate of formation of the n=1 adduct was found to be independent of monomer concentration, directly proportional to the telogen concentration, and exhibiting a 0,38 order power dependence on the radiation intensity, in general agreement with the derived rate equations. The rate of formation of the n=2 telomer was found to be independent of both monomer and telogen concentrations and radiation intensity, which is not in agreement with the derived rate equations. The first and second chain-transfer coefficients C1 and C2 were determined to be 0,116 and 0,34 respectively, and the activation energies for the formation of the n=1 adduct and n=2 telomer were calculated to be 17,6 and 64,9 kJ/mole respectively

  1. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro and...

  2. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  3. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri [School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada); Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, N1G 2W1, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  4. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems

  5. A remote system for the routine production of oxygen-15 radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of the construction and operation of a remote, automated system for the production of oxygen-15 labelled radiopharmaceuticals are described. This system routinely provides oxygen-15 labelled oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water directly to the PET imaging facility, in quantities and purities suitable for human studies. (author)

  6. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  7. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  8. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  9. Design of Higher Education Teaching Models and Carbon Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Sally; Lane, Andy; Swithenby, Ed; Roy, Robin; Potter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions, based on an analysis of the likely energy consumption and carbon emissions of a range of face-to-face, distance, online and information and communication technology…

  10. Systematic AMD+GCM Study of Structure of Carbon Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of low-lying states of the carbon isotopes is investigated using the extended version of the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD) Multi-Slater Determinant model. We can reproduce reasonably well many experimental data for carbon isotopes 12C-22C. A special approach is adopted for 15C to better describe the tail of the wave function

  11. Wood - a carbon depot

    OpenAIRE

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  12. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of t

  13. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-08-15 to 1997-09-09 (NODC Accession 0113914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113914 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-08-15 to 1997-09-09...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-06-27 to 2001-08-15 (NODC Accession 0113568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113568 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-06-27 to 2001-08-15...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2009-05-15 (NODC Accession 0108075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108075 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2009-05-15. These data include...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 2002-03-01 to 2002-04-15 (NODC Accession 0108226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108226 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 2002-03-01 to 2002-04-15...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DARVIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-28 to 1990-06-15 (NODC Accession 0113523)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113523 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DARVIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-28 to 1990-06-15...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DARVIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-05-01 to 2005-06-15 (NODC Accession 0113527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113527 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DARVIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-05-01 to 2005-06-15...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-01 to 1992-09-15 (NODC Accession 0115700)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115700 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-01 to 1992-09-15...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-04-08 to 1991-05-15 (NODC Accession 0113606)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113606 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-04-08 to 1991-05-15...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-05-15 to 1997-06-06 (NODC Accession 0113912)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113912 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-05-15 to 1997-06-06...

  3. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Malek methods. The activation energy (Ea) of the solid-state process is determined to be 202 kJ mol--1 in an oxidative atmosphere using Kissinger's method, which is 10-15 kJ mol--1 more than the results calculated in a nitrogen atmosphere. The value of the activation energy obtained using Ozawa-Flynn methods is in agreement with that using the Kissinger method. Different degradation mechanisms are used to compare with this value. Based on the analytical result, the actual thermal degradation mechanism of the CPPS is a Dn deceleration type. The carbonization temperature range of the CPPS is the same as pure PPS resin.

  4. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  5. Ocean sequestration of crop residue carbon: recycling fossil fuel carbon back to deep sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Stuart E; Benford, Gregory

    2009-02-15

    For significant impact any method to remove CO2 from the atmosphere must process large amounts of carbon efficiently, be repeatable, sequester carbon for thousands of years, be practical, economical and be implemented soon. The only method that meets these criteria is removal of crop residues and burial in the deep ocean. We show here that this method is 92% efficient in sequestration of crop residue carbon while cellulosic ethanol production is only 32% and soil sequestration is about 14% efficient. Deep ocean sequestration can potentially capture 15% of the current global CO2 annual increase, returning that carbon backto deep sediments, confining the carbon for millennia, while using existing capital infrastructure and technology. Because of these clear advantages, we recommend enhanced research into permanent sequestration of crop residues in the deep ocean. PMID:19320149

  6. Processing of thermo-structural carbon-fiber reinforced carbon composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pardini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the processes used to obtain thermostructural Carbon/Carbon composites. The processing of these materials begins with the definition of the architecture of the carbon fiber reinforcement, in the form of stacked plies or in the form of fabrics or multidirectional reinforcement. Incorporating fiber reinforcement into the carbon matrix, by filling the voids and interstices, leads to the densification of the material and a continuous increase in density. There are two principal processing routes for obtaining these materials: liquid phase processing and gas phase processing. In both cases, thermal processes lead to the formation of a carbon matrix with specific properties related to their precursor. These processes also differ in terms of yield. With liquid phase impregnation the yield is around 45 per cent, while gas phase processing yields around 15 per cent.

  7. ISS Expedition 15 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 15 from 04/2007-10/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  9. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  10. The impact of a unilateral carbon tax on carbon-intensive industries: evidence from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.

    1996-02-01

    This publication identifies the impact of a unilateral Norwegian carbon tax on the profitability and the exit probability in 12 carbon intensive manufacturing sectors. The study uses Norwegian panel data for manufacturing firms and focuses both on a tax on burning of fossil fuels and a tax on all emissions of carbon. It is demonstrated that for most carbon intensive sectors the impact on both profits and the exit probability of a tax on burning of fossil fuel is negligible or moderate. That is, the increase in the average sectorial exit probability is always less that one percentage point when the tax is 75 USD per tonne carbon dioxide. On the other hand, for sectors where carbon emissions are due to both burning of fossil fuels and the production process, the impact of a general tax on carbon dioxide (at 75 USD) is significant. In particular, in the manufacture of ferro alloys the average exit probability may increase by more than 15 percentage points. 15 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Basalt catalyzed carbonate precipitation reactions using carbon dioxide at low temperatures and low pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik-Huff, C.; Finkelstein, D. B.; Mabee, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    Increased attention is being paid to basalts as host formations for the geologic sequestration of anthropogenically produced CO2. Here, we present preliminary results of batch experiments conducted on basalts from the Hartford Basin, the Deerfield and the Holyoke Basalt, to better constrain the optimum conditions to maximize carbon sequestration through the precipitation of carbonate. The purpose of this work is to explore options for CO2 sequestration in a locality where there is a lack of large geologic reservoirs appropriate for storage. In these experiments, 10 grams of 400 micron Deerfield and Holyoke basalt was reacted with deionized water for three hours both at and below supercritical conditions. These experiments showed carbonate precipitation of 15% was consistent at low pressures of CO2 (800 psi) both at high (100 Celsius) and low (20 Celsius) temperatures. These ranges of carbonate precipitation were greatest (15%) when CO2 was at low pressures. Experiments conducted at supercritical conditions precipitated a maximum of 4.7% carbonate. This information is valuable when considering alternative sequestration mechanisms that could be operated adjacent to power generation facilities or more industrial pure sources of CO2. The possibility of low pressure/temperature sequestration reactors to be operated in areas where transport to regional or national sequestration facilities may be cost prohibitive is a parallel course of action that should also be considered. Additionally, it is important to consider how a small ex-situ carbon sequestration project can help increase public acceptance of carbon capture and sequestration.

  12. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  13. 76 FR 45509 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November 3, 2010...: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 71 FR 27989 (May 15, 2006). Notification This notice... of the Order The merchandise subject to this order is certain hot-rolled products of carbon steel...

  14. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). The... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube)...

  15. Deep Soil: Quantifying and Modeling Subsurface Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. N.; Devine, W.; Harrison, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Some soil carbon datasets that are spatially rich, such as the USDA Forest Service Inventory and Analysis National Program dataset, sample soil to only 20 cm (8 inches), despite evidence that substantial stores of soil C can be found deeper in the soil profile. The maximum extent of tree rooting is typically many meters deep and provides: direct exchange with the soil solution; redistribution of water from deep horizons toward the surface during times of drought; resources for active microbial communities in deep soil around root channels; and direct carbon inputs through exudates and root turnover. This study examined soil carbon to a depth of 2.5 meters across 22 soils in Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests. Excavations at 20 additional sites took place in summer 2014, greatly expanding the spatial coverage and extent of the data set. Forest floor and mineral soil bulk density samples were collected at depths of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 meters. Pool estimates from systematic sampling depths shallower than 1.5 m yielded significantly smaller estimates than the total soil stock to 2.5 meters (PAndisols with non-crystalline minerals, which can adsorb large quantities of carbon on mineral surfaces and preserve it from decomposition. An accurate spatial dataset of soil depth to bedrock would be extremely useful to constrain models of the vertical distribution of soil carbon. Efforts to represent carbon in spatial models would benefit from considering the vertical distribution of carbon in soil. Sampling deep soil will avoid biased estimates of soil carbon and create a more complete picture of soil pools and changes over time.

  16. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  17. Development of DMBZ-15 High-Glass-Transition-Temperature Polyimides as PMR-15 Replacements Given R&D 100 Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    PMR-15, a high-temperature polyimide developed in the mid-1970s at the NASA Lewis Research Center,1 offers the combination of low cost, easy processing, and good high-temperature performance and stability. It has been recognized as the leading polymer matrix resin for carbon-fiber-reinforced composites used in aircraft engine components. The state-of-the-art PMR-15 polyimide composite has a glass-transition temperature (Tg) of 348 C (658 F). Since composite materials must be used at temperatures well below their glass-transition temperature, the long-term use temperatures of PMR-15 composites can be no higher than 288 C (550 F). In addition, PMR-15 is made from methylene dianiline (MDA), a known liver toxin. Concerns about the safety of workers exposed to MDA during the fabrication of PMR-15 components and about the environmental impact of PMR-15 waste disposal have led to the industry-wide implementation of special handling procedures to minimize the health risks associated with this material. These procedures have increased manufacturing and maintenance costs significantly and have limited the use of PMR-15 in commercial aircraft engine components.

  18. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 1025 n/m2 (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 9150C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC2, UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO2, zirconium-buffered UO2 (referred to in this report as UO2/sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O2 with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO2 with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of 2/sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO2 particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios

  19. Carbon isotope fluctuations in Precambrian carbonate sequences of several localities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAL ALCIDES N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope fluctuations in Precambrian sedimentary carbonates between 2.8 Ga and 0.60 Ga in Brazil are examined in this study. The carbonate facies of the BIF of the 2.8 Ga-old Carajás Formation, state of Pará in northern Brazil, has rather homogeneous delta13C (-5 o/ooPDB, compatible with carbonatization of a silicate protolith by a CO2-rich fluid from mantle degassing. The Paleoproterozoic Gandarela Formation, state of Minas Gerais, displays a narrow delta13C variation (-1.5 to +0.5 o/oo compatible with carbon isotope signatures of carbonates deposited around 2.4 Ga worldwide. The Fecho do Funil Formation has probably recorded the Lomagundi delta13C positive anomaly (+6.4 to +7.1 o/ooPDB. The magnesite-bearing carbonates of the Orós mobile belt, state of Ceará, exhibit carbon isotope fluctuation within the range for carbonates deposited at 1.8 Ga. The C-isotope record of the Frecheirinha Formation, northwestern state of Ceará, shows negative delta13C values in its lower portion (-2 o/oo and positive values up section (+1 to +3 o/oo, which suggests this sequence is a cap carbonate deposited after a glacial event around 0.95 Ga. The Jacoca and Acauã sedimentary carbonate Formations, state of Sergipe, NE Brazil, show carbon isotope fluctuations very similar to each other (average around -5 o/oo, compatible with a deposition around 0.76 Ga. The younger Olho D'Água carbonate Formation, however, also in the state of Sergipe, displays negative delta13C values at the lower portion of the Formation, changing dramatically up section to positive values as high as +10 o/oo, a characteristic compatible with a Sturtian cap carbonate deposited around 0.69 Ga. On the light of the C isotope data discussed in this study, it seems that delta13C fluctuations in Paleoproterozoic carbonates in Brazil are within the range found globally for metasedimentary carbonates of this age. Carbon isotope data proved to be very useful in establishing relative

  20. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmanabhan, E., E-mail: Eswaran_padmanabhan@petronas.com.my [Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, 31750, Perak (Malaysia); Eswaran, H.; Reich, P.F. [USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O have an anthropic source and of these CO{sub 2} is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10–15 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1 m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}. Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. - Highlights: • Soil carbon stocks in different soils in Sarawak • In depth discussion of

  1. Carbon nanotube cathode with capping carbon nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Dengchao; Pang, Kaige; Pang, Junchao; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-10-01

    Here, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film capped with a few layer of carbon nanosheet (FLCN) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The square resistance of the VACNT film is significantly reduced from 1500 Ω/□ to 300 Ω/□ when it is capped with carbon nanosheet. The VACNT capped with carbon nanosheet was transferred to an ITO glass substrate in an inverted configuration so that the carbon nanosheet served as a flexible transparent electrode at the bottom and the VACNT roots served as emission tips. Because all of the VACNTs start growing from a flat silicon substrate, the VACNT roots are very neat and uniform in height. A field emission test of the carbon nanosheet-capped VACNT film proved that the CNT roots show better uniformity in field emission and the carbon nanosheet cap could also potentially serve as a flexible transparent electrode, which is highly desired in photo-assisted field emission.

  2. Effect of carbon nanofibers on the infiltration and thermal conductivity of carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The CNFs improve the infiltration rate and thermal properties of carbon/carbon composites. → The densification rate increases with the CNF content increasing at the beginning of infiltration. → The values of the thermal conductivity of the composite obtain their maximum values at 5 wt.%. -- Abstract: Preforms containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by spreading layers of carbon cloth, and infiltrated using the electrified preform heating chemical vapor infiltration method (ECVI) under atmospheric pressure. Initial thermal gradients were determined. Resistivity and density evolutions with infiltration time have been recorded. Scanning electron microscopy, polarized light micrograph and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the infiltration rate increased with the rising of CNF content, and after 120 h of infiltration, the density was the highest when the CNF content was 5 wt.%, but the composite could not be densified efficiently as the CNF content ranged from 10 wt.% to 20 wt.%. CNF-reinforced C/C composites have enhanced thermal conductivity, the values at 5 wt.% were increased by nearly 5.5-24.1% in the X-Y direction and 153.8-251.3% in the Z direction compared to those with no CNFs. When the additive content was increased to 20 wt.%, due to the holes and cavities in the CNF web and between carbon cloth and matrix, the thermal conductivities in the X-Y and Z directions decreased from their maximum values at 5 wt.%.

  3. The ISG15 conjugation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Larissa A; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like modifier that is expressed in response to type 1 interferon signaling (IFN-α/β) and plays a role in antiviral responses. The core E1, E2, and E3 enzymes for ISG15 are Ube1L, UbcH8, and Herc5, respectively, and these are all also induced at the transcriptional level by IFN-α/β. We recently showed that Herc5 associates with polysomes and modifies target proteins in a cotranslational manner. Here, we describe the expression of the core conjugating enzymes in human cells, the detection of ISG15 conjugates, and the methods for fractionation of Herc5 with polysomes. PMID:22350882

  4. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  5. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  7. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  10. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  12. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  13. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  14. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  15. Metal filled porous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  16. Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Castillo, Aida C; Smalley, Preston R; Kittrell, Carter; James, Dustin K; Brinson, Bruce E; Rybolt, Thomas R; Johnson, Bruce R; Cherukuri, Tonya K; Cherukuri, Paul

    2016-04-26

    This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil's antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (>30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale. PMID:27074626

  17. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  18. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  19. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Mangrove Wetlands of Southern of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkalingam, L.; Ponnambalam, K.; Ponnaiah, J. M.; Roy, P.; Sankar, S.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forest and the soil on which it grows are major sinks of atmospheric carbon. We present the results of a study on the carbon sequestration in the ground biomass of Avicennia marina including the organic carbon deposition, degradation and preservation in wetland sediments of Muthupet mangrove forest (southeast coast of India) in order to evaluate the influence of forests in the global carbon cycle. The inventory for estimating the ground biomass of Avicennia marina was carried out using random sampling technique (10 m × 10 m plot) with allometric regression equation. The carbon content in different vegetal parts (leaves, stem and root) of mangrove species and associated marshy vegetations was estimated using the combustion method. We observe that the organic carbon was higher (ca. 54.8%) recorded in the stems of Aegiceras corniculatum and Salicornia brachiata and lower (ca. 30.3%) in the Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves. The ground biomass and carbon sequestration of Avicennia marina are 58.56±12.65 t/ ha and 27.52±5.95 mg C/ha, respectively. The depth integrated organic carbon model profiles indicate an average accumulation rate of 149.75gC/m2.yr and an average remineralization rate of 32.89gC/m2.yr. We estimate an oxidation of ca. 21.85% of organic carbon and preservation of ca. 78.15% of organic carbon in the wetland sediments. Keywords: Above ground biomass, organic carbon, sequestration, mangrove, wetland sediments, Muthupet.

  20. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  1. Laser interaction with low-density carbon foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chaurasia; S Tripathi; D S Munda; G Mishra; C G Murali; N K Gupta; L J Dhareshwar; A K Rossall; G J Tallents; Rashmi Singh; D K Kohli; R K Khardekar

    2010-12-01

    Experiments were performed with a 15 J/500 ps Nd:glass laser ( = 1064 nm) focussed to an intensity > 1014 W/cm2 . X-ray emissions from carbon foam and 5 % Pt-doped carbon foam of density 150–300 mg/cc were compared with that of the solid carbon targets. The thickness of the carbon foam was 15 m on a graphite substrate. X-ray emission was measured using semiconductor X-ray diodes covered with various filters having transmissions in different X-ray spectral ranges. It covered X-ray spectrum of 0.8–8.5 keV range. The X-ray emission in the soft X-ray region was observed to increase to about 1.8 times and 2.3 times in carbon foam and Pt-doped foam, respectively with respect to solid carbon. In hard X-rays, there was no measurable difference amongst the carbon foam, Pt-doped carbon foam and solid carbon. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis demonstrates that foam targets smoothens the crater formed by the laser irradiation.

  2. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  3. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

  4. Free IL-15 Is More Abundant Than IL-15 Complexed With Soluble IL-15 Receptor-α in Murine Serum: Implications for the Mechanism of IL-15 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barbara G; Quinn, LeBris S

    2016-03-01

    IL-15 is a cytokine that is part of the innate immune system, as well as a proposed myokine released from skeletal muscle during physical exercise that mediates many of the positive physiological effects of exercise. Many of the immune functions of IL-15 are mediated by juxtacrine signaling via externalized IL-15 bound to membrane-associated IL-15 receptor-α (IL-15Rα). Serum and plasma samples also contain measurable concentrations of IL-15, believed to arise from proteolytic cleavage of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to generate soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα species. Here, we validate commercial assays that can distinguish the free form of IL-15 and IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes. These assays showed that most (86%) IL-15 in mouse serum resides in the free state, with a minor proportion (14%) residing in complex with IL-15Rα. Given the much shorter half-life of free IL-15 compared with IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes, these findings cast doubt on the currently accepted model for IL-15 secretion from cleavage of membrane-bound IL-15/IL-15Rα and suggest that IL-15 is released as a free molecule by an unknown mechanism. PMID:26812159

  5. Seasonal dynamics of soil carbon dioxide flux in a restored young mangrove plantation at Gazi Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Kirui, B.; Huxham, M; Kairo, J.; Mencuccini, M.; Skov, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies to help mitigate atmospheric carbon emissions is afforestation. This has the potential to contribute to carbon storage directly through biomass and soil carbon accumulation. The little work that has been done on the potential of mangrove forests to sequester atmospheric carbon, estimated the rate of carbon sequestered in mangrove mud to be around 1.5 t C ha-1 yr-1 or a global total of 25.5 x106 tC yr-1. Several factors are responsible for the rate of carbon sequ...

  6. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  7. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  8. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-and-around the Cayapas-Mataje Ecological Reserve in northern Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador and certain stands of Rhizophora mangle in-and-around the Isla Corazon y Fragata Wildlife Refuge in central Manabi Province, Ecuador. Our field driven mangrove carbon estimate is higher than all but one of the comparison models evaluated. We find that basic latitudinal mangrove carbon models performed at least as well, if not better, than the more complex species based allometric models in predicting standing carbon levels. In additi...

  9. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  10. Preparation and study of ultra-low density carbon aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultra-low density resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) aerogel and carbon aerogel were prepared via a sol-gel route, which density are 10 mg/cm3 and 20 mg/cm3, respectively. The microstructures and properties of the carbon aerogel were investigated by using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, pore size distribution measurement, and so on. The ultra-low density products are some tortuous chains consisting of carbon nanospheres ranging from 10 to 15 nm. The carbon nanosphere consists of nanoparticles whose sizes are about several nanometers. The surface area of the low-density carbon aerogel is 1 783.7 m2/g. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the ultra-low density carbon aerogel is 4.4% (mass fraction) at liquid nitrogen temperature under atmospheric pressure. (authors)

  11. Soil Carbon Sequestration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a large land area and diverse ecoregions, there is a considerable potential of terrestrial/soil carbon sequestration in India. Of the total land area of 329 million hectares (Mha), 297 Mha is the land area comprising 162 Mha of arable land, 69 Mha of forest and woodland, 11 Mha of permanent pasture, 8 Mha of permanent crops and 58 Mha is other land uses. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is estimated at 21 Pg (petagram = Pg = 1 x 1015 g billion ton) to 30-cm depth and 63 Pg to 150-cm depth. The soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool is estimated at 196 Pg to 1-m depth. The SOC concentration in most cultivated soils is less than 5 g/kg compared with 15 to 20 g/kg in uncultivated soils. Low SOC concentration is attributed to plowing, removal of crop residue and other biosolids, and mining of soil fertility. Accelerated soil erosion by water leads to emission of 6 Tg C/y. Important strategies of soil C sequestration include restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs) of agricultural and forestry soils. Potential of soil C sequestration in India is estimated at 7 to 10 Tg C/y for restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems, 5 to 7 Tg C/y for erosion control, 6 to 7 Tg C/y for adoption of RMPs on agricultural soils, and 22 to 26 Tg C/y for secondary carbonates. Thus, total potential of soil C sequestration is 39 to 49 (44± 5) Tg C/y

  12. 15.KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    15.2.Renal failure930714 Histological classification of uremic bone dis-ease and clinical significance of bone biopsy.ZHUJianmin.Dept Med,2nd Affil Hosp,XianMed Univ,Xian,710061.Chin J Intern Med 1993;32(7):444—447.Bone biopsy was performed in 429 cases of uremicbone disease and they were classified histologically into3 groups——high turnover 129(30%),lowturnover 102(24%)and mixed type 198(46%)cases.

  13. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  14. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  15. Experiment R276-15 (MANIA 15). Activity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the irradiation experiment MANIA 15 austenitic stainless steel for advanced nuclear systems will be irradiated at a temperature of 325 C up to a dpa (displacements per atom) level of 2.0 dpa. In this report the results of the activity calculations of the sample holder material and of the steel sample material are presented. The activities of the streel sample material are given for the vertical maximum of the irradiation position. A relation is given to convert these data to any vertical sample position. Also the change in chemical composition of the sample material due to nuclide transmutation, is given in this report. (orig.)

  16. Mechanisms of soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeiss, S.; Temperton, V. M.; Gleixner, G.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the fate of root and litter derived carbon into soil organic matter and dissolved organic matter in soil profiles, in order to explain unexpected positive effects of plant diversity on carbon storage. A time series of soil and soil solution samples was investigated at the field site of The Jena Experiment. In addition to the main biodiversity experiment with C3 plants, a C4 species (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) naturally labeled with 13C was grown on an extra plot. Changes in organic carbon concentration in soil and soil solution were combined with stable isotope measurements to follow the fate of plant carbon into the soil and soil solution. A split plot design with plant litter removal versus double litter input simulated differences in biomass input. After 2 years, the no litter and double litter treatment, respectively, showed an increase of 381 g C m-2 and 263 g C m-2 to 20 cm depth, while 71 g C m-2 and 393 g C m-2 were lost between 20 and 30 cm depth. The isotopic label in the top 5 cm indicated that 11 and 15% of soil organic carbon were derived from plant material on the no litter and the double litter treatment, respectively. Without litter, this equals the total amount of carbon newly stored in soil, whereas with double litter this corresponds to twice the amount of stored carbon. Our results indicate that litter input resulted in lower carbon storage and larger carbon losses and consequently accelerated turnover of soil organic carbon. Isotopic evidence showed that inherited soil organic carbon was replaced by fresh plant carbon near the soil surface. Our results suggest that primarily carbon released from soil organic matter, not newly introduced plant organic matter, was transported in the soil solution and contributed to the observed carbon storage in deeper horizons.

  17. Reinforcement of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube in Nitrile Rubber: In Comparison with Carbon Black, Conductive Carbon Black, and Precipitated Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Boonbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nitrile rubber (NBR reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT, conductive carbon black (CCB, carbon black (CB, and precipitated silica (PSi were investigated via viscoelastic behavior, bound rubber content, electrical properties, cross-link density, and mechanical properties. The filler content was varied from 0 to 15 phr. MWCNT shows the greatest magnitude of reinforcement considered in terms of tensile strength, modulus, hardness, and abrasion resistance followed by CCB, CB, and PSi. The MWCNT filled system also exhibits extremely high levels of filler network and trapped rubber even at relatively low loading (5 phr leading to high electrical properties and poor dynamic mechanical properties. Although CCB possesses the highest specific surface area, it gives lower level of filler network than MWCNT and also gives the highest elongation at break among all fillers. Both CB and PSi show comparable degree of reinforcement which is considerably lower than CCB and MWCNT.

  18. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  19. The role of urbanization in the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eChurkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas account for more than 70% of CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. Urban expansion in tropics is responsible for 5% of the annual emissions from land use change. Here I show that the effect of urbanization on the global carbon cycle extends beyond these emissions. I quantify the contribution of urbanization to the major carbon fluxes and pools globally and identify gaps crucial for predicting the evolution of the carbon cycle in the future. Urban residents currently control ~22 (12-40 % of the land carbon uptake (112 PgC/yr and ~24 (15-39 % of the carbon emissions (117 PgC/yr from land globally. Urbanization resulted in the creation of new carbon pools on land such as buildings (~6.7 PgC and landfills (~30 PgC. Together these pools store 1.6 (±0.3 % of the total vegetation and soil carbon pools globally. The creation and maintenance of these new pools has been associated with high emissions of CO2, which are currently better understood than the processes associated with the dynamics of these pools and accompanying uptake of carbon. Predictions of the future trajectories of the global carbon cycle will require a much better understanding of how urban development affects the carbon cycle over the long term.

  20. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  1. Process synthesis and optimization for the production of carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A swirled fluidized bed chemical vapour deposition (SFCVD) reactor has been manufactured and optimized to produce carbon nanostructures on a continuous basis using in situ formation of floating catalyst particles by thermal decomposition of organometallic ferrocene. During the process optimization, carbon nanoballs were produced in the absence of a catalyst at temperatures higher than 1000 0C, while carbon nanofibres, single-walled carbon nanotubes, helical carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs) were produced in the presence of a catalyst at lower temperatures of between 750 and 900 0C. The optimum conditions for producing carbon nanostructures were a temperature of 850 0C, acetylene flow rate of 100 ml min-1, and acetylene gas was used as the carbon source. All carbon nanostructures produced have morphologies and diameters ranging from 15 to 200 nm and wall thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.8 nm. In comparison to the quantity of MWCNTs produced with other methods described in the literature, the SFCVD technique was superior to floating catalytic CVD (horizontal fixed bed) and microwave CVD but inferior to rotary tube CVD.

  2. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a polar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν3 band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO2 band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H2O)-carbon dioxide (CO2) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν3 band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  3. Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, F. M.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.

    We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14), and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

  4. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  5. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  6. Biosynthetic uniform 13C,15N-labelling of zervamicin IIB. Complete 13C and 15N NMR assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Yakimenko, Zoya A; Svishcheva, Natalia V; Tagaev, Andrey A; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2003-01-01

    Zervamicin IIB is a member of the alpha-aminoisobutyric acid containing peptaibol antibiotics. A new procedure for the biosynthetic preparation of the uniformly 13C- and 15N-enriched peptaibol is described This compound was isolated from the biomass of the fungus-producer Emericellopsis salmosynnemata strain 336 IMI 58330 obtained upon cultivation in the totally 13C, 15N-labelled complete medium. To prepare such a medium the autolysed biomass and the exopolysaccharides of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatus KT were used. This microorganism was grown in totally 13C, 15N-labelled minimal medium containing 13C-methanol and 15N-ammonium chloride as the only carbon and nitrogen sources. Preliminary NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated a high extent of isotope incorporation (> 90%) and led to the complete 13C- and 15N-NMR assignment including the stereospecific assignment of Aib residues methyl groups. The observed pattern of the structurally important secondary chemical shifts of 1H(alpha), 13C=O and 13C(alpha) agrees well with the previously determined structure of zervamicin IIB in methanol solution. PMID:14658801

  7. Family unification within SO(15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model for the unification of fermion families based on the gauge symmetry SO(15). It is a minimal SO(n) model which can accommodate the known fermions within a single irreducible representation. The model predicts four ordinary fermion families and four families of mirror fermions. The latter have V + A weak interactions, and their mass scale is predicted to be 102 GeV/c2. We argue that radiative corrections to the fermion masses can cause non-negligible mixing between ordinary and mirror fermions. The implications of these mixings for the weak interaction phenomenology and solar neutrinos are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Strict Regiospecificity of Human Epithelial 15-Lipoxygenase-2 Delineates Its Transcellular Synthesis Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Abigail R; Barbour, Shannon; Horn, Thomas; Carlos, Jose; Raskatov, Jevgenij A; Holman, Theodore R

    2016-05-24

    Lipoxins are an important class of lipid mediators that induce the resolution of inflammation and arise from transcellular exchange of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived lipoxygenase products. Human epithelial 15-lipoxygenase-2 (h15-LOX-2), the major lipoxygenase in macrophages, has exhibited strict regiospecificity, catalyzing only the hydroperoxidation of carbon 15 of AA. To determine the catalytic potential of h15-LOX-2 in transcellular synthesis events, we reacted it with the three lipoxygenase-derived monohydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HPETE) in humans: 5-HPETE, 12-HPETE, and 15-HPETE. Only 5-HPETE was a substrate for h15-LOX-2, and the steady-state catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of this reaction was 31% of the kcat/Km of AA. The only major product of h15-LOX-2's reaction with 5-HPETE was the proposed lipoxin intermediate, 5,15-dihydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5,15-diHPETE). However, h15-LOX-2 did not react further with 5,15-diHPETE to produce lipoxins. This result is consistent with the specificity of h15-LOX-2 despite the increased reactivity of 5,15-diHPETE. Density functional theory calculations determined that the radical, after abstracting the C10 hydrogen atom from 5,15-diHPETE, had an energy 5.4 kJ/mol lower than that of the same radical generated from AA, demonstrating the facility of 5,15-diHPETE to form lipoxins. Interestingly, h15-LOX-2 does react with 5S,6R-diHETE, forming LipoxinA4, indicating the gemdiol does not prohibit h15-LOX-2 reactivity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the strict regiospecificity of h15-LOX-2 that circumscribes its role in transcellular synthesis. PMID:27145229

  9. Carbon disulphide promotes sprouting of potato minitubers

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Kh.; Hosseini, M.B.; Struik, P.C.; Tavakkol Afshari, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of postharvest application of carbon disulphide (CS2) in various concentrations (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml m-3) and with different exposure duration (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on breaking of dormancy and sprouting of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Marfona) minitubers of two ages (freshly harvested and one week after harvest) and two weight classes (1.5 and 12 g). In comparison with the control minitubers, CS2 treated minitubers showed significantly shorter dormancy...

  10. IEC SC15E: Report on liaison activities of CIGRÉ-SC15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    WG’s activities under CIGRÉ SC15:WG 15.01 - Fluid impregnated systems.WG 15.02 - Dielectric Liquids.WG 15.03 - Gas Insulation.WG 15.04 - Outdoor Insulation.WG 15.05 - Capacitors.WG 15.07 - Solid Insulating Materials for Rotating Machines.WG 15/33.08 - Insulation Monitoring and Life Estimation. WG...... 15.09 - Advanced Materials.WG 15.10 - Internal Insulation and Interfaces.WG 15.11 - Service-Aged Materials.WG 15.12 - DC Insulation/Space Charge Measurements....

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  12. The carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  14. Carbon nanotubes decorating methods

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz; D. Łukowiec; D. Cichock; W. Wolany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studie...

  15. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have an enormous potential due to their outstanding electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. However, any technological application is still hindered due to problems regarding the processibility of the pristine carbon nanotubes. In the past few years, it has been shown that the chemical modification of the carbon nanotubes is an inevitable step prior to their application. The first part of this work (chapter 3.1) was focused on the purification of pristine laser ablati...

  16. Physics of carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon is a prominent element that appears in various structures with new promising technological applications. The physics of carbon nanostructures is one of the hot topics in modern condensed matter theory. I plan to present a brief introduction into the theory of variously shaped carbon nanostructures paying special attention to generic field-theory models. The preliminary plan is the following: (1) a brief historical excursus, (2) the most interesting experimental observations, (3) generic models for the description of electronic states in carbon nanoparticles (Dirac-type equations, defects, geometry, etc.), (4) open problems. (author)

  17. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  18. Nanoindentation of Carbon Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Karamjit; Verma, Veena; Bhatti, H S

    2016-06-01

    In the present research paper carbon nanostructures viz. single walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nanohorns and graphene nanoplatelets have been synthesized by CVD technique, hydrothermal method, DC arc discharge method in liquid nitrogen and microwave technique respectively. After synthesis 5 mm thick pallets of given nanomaterial are prepared by making a paste in isopropyl alcohol and using polyvinylidene difluoride as a binder and then these pallets were used for nanoindentation measurements. Hardness, reduced modulus, stiffness, contact height and contact area have been measured using nanoindenter. PMID:27427726

  19. Global Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Jean-Luc; Faure, Hugues; Veizer, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The European Union of Geosciences held its 9th biannual meeting in Strasbourg, March 23–27, 1997. During this meeting, Symposium N8 18, Global carbon Cycle, was held under the sponsorship of the IGCP 1 n8404 on the «Terrestrial Carbon in the past 125 Ka», the INQUA 2 Carbon Commission and the ESCOBA-Biosphere 3 project of the EC Environment and Climate Programme. The «Global Carbon Cycle» Symposium attracted 28 oral and poster presentations and about one hundred par...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  1. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  2. Dynamic response of porous calcium carbonate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of the shock-loaded response of calcium carbonate materials is presented in which both dry and water-saturated samples with porosities up to 50 percent are considered. Data are presented for the unloading response from 15.0 and 18.5 GPa, and calculations from a mixture model using a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state with volume-dependent parameters are compared to both the Hugoniot and the isentropic unloading response

  3. Carborane-based inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brynda, Jiří; Pachl, Petr; Šícha, Václav; Fábry, Milan; Grüner, Bohumír; Cígler, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 3. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology . Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05677S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : carboranes * carbonic anhydrase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  4. Synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles from graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Xiaobo; Li Dianhong; Zhang Yuanming, E-mail: tzhangymjnu@163.com [School of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-04-15

    Photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 6.5 nm were synthesized from raw graphite without surface passivation. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra illustrate that both excitation wavelength and solution pH can significantly influence the maximum emission wavelength and PL intensity of the CNP solution. As the excitation wavelength decreases and solution pH increases, a blue shift in the maximum PL emission wavelength occurs.

  5. Synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles from graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 6.5 nm were synthesized from raw graphite without surface passivation. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra illustrate that both excitation wavelength and solution pH can significantly influence the maximum emission wavelength and PL intensity of the CNP solution. As the excitation wavelength decreases and solution pH increases, a blue shift in the maximum PL emission wavelength occurs.

  6. Mitral stenosis in 15 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age

  7. Al current collector surface treatment and carbon nano tubes influences on Carbon / Carbon super-capacitors performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portet, C.; Taberna, P.L.; Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2004-07-01

    Performances of 4 cm{sup 2} carbon/carbon super-capacitors cells using Al current collectors foils in organic electrolyte are presented; the improvement of electrode material has been investigated. In a first part, a surface treatment of the Al current collector is proposed in order to improve contact surface between the current collector and the active material leading to an internal resistance decrease. The process consists in an etching of the Al foil and is followed by a carbonaceous sol-gel deposit. Galvano-static cycling and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements of super-capacitors all assembled with treated Al foil were tested over 10,000 cycles: an ESR of 0.5 {omega} cm{sup 2} and a capacitance of 95 F g{sup -1} of activated carbon are obtained and performances remain stable during cycling. The second part is devoted to the study of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) adding into the active material on the performances of super-capacitors. A content of 15% of CNTs appears to be the best composition; the ESR is 0.4 {omega} cm{sup 2} (20% lowered as compared to a cell using activated carbon based electrode) and the capacitance remain high 93 F g{sup -1} of carbonaceous active material. (authors)

  8. On the quantification of atmospheric carbonate carbon by thermal/optical analysis protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karanasiou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous species, usually classified into two categories, organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC, constitute an important component of the atmospheric aerosol. Carbonate carbon (CC, or inorganic carbon, another constituent of carbonaceous material, is often not considered in many atmospheric chemistry studies. The reason for this may be its low contribution to fine particle mass in most areas studied, along with the difficulties in its analytical determination in atmospheric aerosols. The objective of this study was the quantification of atmospheric carbonate concentrations using the thermal optical transmittance method (Sunset Laboratory, Inc.. Three different temperature protocols (two modified NIOSH protocols and the EUSAAR-2 protocol were tested on filter samples containing known amounts of CC. Moreover, the performance of the two most widely used protocols across European countries (NIOSH and EUSAAR-2 was also checked on two different instruments namely the semi-continuous OCEC analyzer and the laboratory OCEC analyzer. NIOSH-840 thermal protocol (NIOSH protocol with a maximum temperature of 840 °C in the He-mode can be used for the detection and quantification of atmospheric carbonate concentrations. CC was determined in ambient PM10 and PM2.5 samples From Athens and Barcelona by using the NIOSH-840 thermal protocol. The results confirm that in South European countries CC may constitute a significant fraction of carbonaceous aerosols (~15%, thus it should not be neglected. However, the NIOSH-840 protocol seems to overestimate the OC concentrations when compared to the EUSAAR-2 protocol. The results suggest that during dust episodes, common for the Southern Europe, the analytical laboratories could use the NIOSH-840 protocol as a suitable method for the carbonate determination and manually integrate the sharp peak that appears in the maximum temperature step in the inert mode. Afterwards, carbonate should be

  9. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  10. Composition and origin of authigenic carbonates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Teichert, B.M.A.; Johnson, J.E.; Solomon, E.A.; Giosan, L.; Rose, K.; Kocherla, M.; Connolly, E.C.; Torres, M.E.

    Basin) and 19 (Mahanadi Basin). These methane-derived carbonates display typical paragenetic carbonate mineralogies (aragonite, high-Mg calcite with >15 Mol% MgCO3, Ca-rich dolomite). Two separate horizons of methane derived-carbonates are correlated...

  11. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ..., 75 FR 69626, 69627 (November 15, 2010). Thailand--Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (A-549-502) The.... See Scope Rulings, 58 FR 27542, (May 10, 1993). Turkey--Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (A-489-501... Tubes from India, 51 FR 17384 (May 12, 1986); Antidumping Duty Order; Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  12. 76 FR 33204 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986... Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube from Turkey, 71 FR 26043 (May 3, 2006), unchanged in Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review: Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey, 71...

  13. Novel carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 opened up a challenging new area of research, because they are expected to be ideal building blocks for nanoscale applications due to their extraordinary mechanical and electronic properties. Various production methods have been developed, however precise control of nanotube morphology (e.g. length, diameter) has yet to be realised, a fact which has delayed industrial exploitation. Thus a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growth is essential, and this thesis is concerned with this important problem, i.e. the controlled production of novel carbon nanomaterials. Chapter 1 surveys production methods for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and other carbon-based materials, such as fibres, particles etc. The sophisticated tools required for this work, e.g. high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), etc. are reviewed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes a novel approach to carbon nanotubes, using laser etching techniques, which generates aligned tubes of uniform diameter and length. The mode of catalyst preparation, as well as the nature of the precursor, play crucial roles in this process. The preparation of modified carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of metallocene, e.g. ferrocene in conjunction with various hydrocarbons, is discussed in Chapter 4. Superconducting interference device measurements (SQUID) show that Fe-filled carbon nanotubes exhibit enhanced coercivities in the 430-1070 Oe range, i.e. greater than those reported for Ni and Co nanowires. Carbon nanotubes can be also modified by replacing atoms of the carbon network with nitrogen, boron or both. The creation of large arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, for example CNx nanofibres, as well as the formation of BxCyNz onions is described in Chapter 5. Electron irradiation of these onions generates pure carbon onions. Finally (Chapter 6), the catalytic behaviour of metal particles in different

  14. The investment funds in carbon actives: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning in 1999 of the first funds by the World Bank, the purchase mechanisms of carbon actives, developed and reached today more than 1,5 milliards of euros. The landscape is relatively concentrated, in spite of the numerous initiatives. The author presents the situation since 1999, the importance of the european governmental investors, the purchase mechanisms management and an inventory of the carbon actives purchases. (A.L.B.)

  15. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  16. Method for Making a Carbon-Carbon Cylinder Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, Phillip O. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for making a lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials. such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  17. Carbon dioxide capture using polyethylenimine-loaded mesoporous carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitong Wang; Huichao Chen; Huanhuan Zhou; Xiaojun Liu; Wenming Qiao; Donghui Long; Licheng Ling

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency sorbent for CO2 capture was developed by loading polyethylenimine (PEI) on mesoporous carbons which possessed well-developed mesoporous structures and large pore volume.The physicochemical properties of the sorbent were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption,scanning electron microscopy (SEM),thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques followed by testing for CO2 capture.Factors that affected the sorption capacity of the sorbent were studied.The sorbent exhibited extraordinary capture capacity with CO2 concentration ranging from 5% to 80%.The optimal PEI loading was determined to be 65 wt.% with a CO2 sorption capacity of 4.82 mmol-CO2/g-sorbent in 15% CO2/N2 at 75℃,owing to low mass-transfer resistance and a high utilization ratio of the amine compound (63%).Moisture had a promoting effect on the sorption separation of CO2.In addition,the developed sorbent could be regenerated easily at 100℃,and it exhibited excellent regenerability and stability.These results indicate that this PEI-loaded mesoporous carbon sorbent should have a good potential for CO2 capture in the future.

  18. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author)

  19. 47 CFR 15.315 - Conducted limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conducted limits. 15.315 Section 15.315... Communications Service Devices § 15.315 Conducted limits. An unlicensed PCS device that is designed to be connected to the public utility (AC) power line must meet the limits specified in § 15.207....

  20. 7 CFR 3411.15 - Evaluation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.15 Evaluation factors. Subject to the... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation factors. 3411.15 Section 3411.15... health. Therefore, in carrying out its review under § 3411.14, the peer review group shall take...

  1. 40 CFR 68.15 - Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management. 68.15 Section 68.15... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS General § 68.15 Management. (a) The owner or operator of a stationary source with processes subject to Program 2 or Program 3 shall develop a management system to oversee...

  2. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhangquan; Zhang, Canming; LI, JIAO; Yang, Nan; Li, Xiquan; Niu, Yandong; Wu, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the relationshi...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , 中文 , Tiếng Việt Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube ... Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon ...

  4. Carbon dioxide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  6. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  7. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  8. The carbon cycle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  9. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  10. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another ...

  12. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  14. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  15. COMMITTED TO CARBON REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese efforts to lower carbon emissions through environmentally friendly means begin gaining momentum Efforts to curb carbon emissions continue to take shape as China adheres to its pledge for a brighter, greener future. More importantly, as environmental measures take hold and develop

  16. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  17. Mesoporous Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Sharma, Ms. Ketki [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration.

  18. Mesoporous carbon for capacitive deionization of saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouris, C; Mayes, R; Kiggans, J; Sharma, K; Yiacoumi, S; DePaoli, D; Dai, S

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration. PMID:22032802

  19. The Formation of Ethane from Carbon Dioxide under Cold Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed-corona plasma has been used as a new method for ethane dehydrogenation at low temperature and normal pressure using carbon dioxide as an oxidant in this paper. The effect of carbon dioxide content in the feed, power input, and flow rate of the reactants on the ethane dehydrogenation has been investigated. The experimental results show that the conversion of ethane increases with the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the feed. The yield of ethylene and acetylene decreases with the increase in the yield of carbon monoxide, indicating that the increased carbon dioxide leads to the part of ethylene and acetylene being oxidized to carbon monoxide. Power input is primarily an electrical parameter in pulsed-corona plasma, which plays an important role in reactant conversion and product formation. When the power input reaches 16 W, ethane conversion is 41.0% and carbon dioxide conversion is 26.3%. The total yield of ethylene and acetylene is 15.6%. The reduced flow rate of feed improves the conversion of ethane,carbon dioxide and the yield of acetylene, and induces carbon deposit as well.

  20. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycomb

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yan; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotropes, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks are constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are calculated by using first principles methods. All networks are porous metal with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channels is originated from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channels is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m/s. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capa...

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content. PMID:24709539

  2. Determination of carbon and sulphur in boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbide is used in control rods of nuclear power reactors. The chemical specification for carbon in boron carbide ranges between 15 - 24 wt.% depending upon the grade of boron carbide. Hence carbon in boron carbide is to be determined accurately to find out the stoichiometry. Sulphur, which is present in trace quantities, is also to be determined to find out the purity of boron carbide. Carbon is determined by combustion followed by (i) thermal conductivity detection and (ii) infrared detection. Sulphur is determined by (i) combustion followed by infrared detection and (ii) vacuum combustion extraction - quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results are compared. (author)

  3. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Haijie; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0–15 cm and 15–25 cm) in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction or...

  4. Composite electrodes of activated carbon derived from cassava peel and carbon nanotubes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Iwantono, Yulita, M.; Taslim, R.; Subagio, A.; Salomo, Deraman, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a composite electrode was prepared from a mixture of activated carbon derived from precarbonization of cassava peel (CP) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The activated carbon was produced by pyrolysis process using ZnCl2 as an activation agent. A N2 adsorption-desorption analysis for the sample indicated that the BET surface area of the activated carbon was 1336 m2 g-1. Difference percentage of CNTs of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% with 5% of PVDF binder were added into CP based activated carbon in order to fabricate the composite electrodes. The morphology and structure of the composite electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The SEM image observed that the distribution of CNTs was homogeneous between carbon particles and the XRD pattern shown the amorphous structure of the sample. The electrodes were fabricated for supercapacitor cells with 316L stainless steel as current collector and 1 M sulfuric acid as electrolyte. An electrochemical characterization was performed by using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method using a Solatron 1286 instrument and the addition of CNTs revealed to improve the resistant and capacitive properties of supercapacitor cell.

  5. Behavior of carbon-14 in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 released from the nuclear facilities is an important radionuclide for the safety assessment, because it tends to accumulate in environment through food chain and has a significant impact to personal dose. Carbon-14 has been monitored routinely as one of the main gaseous radionuclides exhausted from the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) since October of 1991. Furthermore, behavior of carbon-14 in TRP has been investigated through the reprocessing operation and the literature survey. This report describes the result of investigation about the behavior of carbon-14 in TRP as followings. 1. Only a very small amount of carbon-14 in the fuel was liberated into the shear off-gas and most of it was liberated into the dissolver off-gas. Part of the carbon-14 was trapped at the caustic scrubber installed in the off-gas treatment process, and untrapped carbon-14 was released into the environment from the main stack. Amount of carbon-14 released from the main stack was about 4.1∼6.5 GBq every ton of uranium reprocessed. 2. Carbon-14 trapped at the caustic scrubbers installed in the dissolver off-gas and in the vessel off-gas treatment process is transferred to the low active waste vessel. Amount of carbon-14 transferred to the low active waste vessel was about 5.4∼9.6 GBq every ton of uranium reprocessed. 3. The total amount of carbon-14 input to TRP was summed up to about 11.9∼15.5 GBq every ton of uranium reprocessed considering the released amount from the main stack and the trapped amount in the off-gas treatment devices. The amount of nitrogen impurity in the initial fuel was calculated about 15∼22ppm of uranium metal based on the measured carbon-14. 4. The solution in the low active waste vessel is concentrated at the evaporator. Most of the carbon-14 in the solution was transferred into concentrated solution. 5. Total Vitrification Demonstration Facility (TVF) started to operate in 1994. Since then, carbon-14 has been measured in the second sub stack

  6. Effects of Carbonization Temperature and Component Ratio on Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of Woodceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Tao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Woodceramics were fabricated in a vacuum through carbonization of wood powder impregnated with phenol formaldehyde (PF resin. The effects of carbonization temperature and mass ratio of wood/resin on electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding effectiveness (SE and morphology of woodceramics were explored. The PF resin made wood cell walls have the characteristics of glassy carbon. Wood axial tracheid and ray cells were filled with more glassy carbon by increasing addition of PF resin. Moreover, the increase of carbonization temperature was beneficial to improving SE. Woodceramics (mass ratio 1:1 obtained at 1000 °C presented a medium SE level between 30 MHz and 1.5 GHz.

  7. Climate Constraints on the Carbon Intensity of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Narloch, U.

    2015-12-01

    Development and climate goals together constrain the carbon intensity of production. Using a simple and transparent model that represents committed CO2 emissions (i.e. those embedded in installed capital), we explore the carbon intensity of production related to new capital required for different temperature targets across several thousand scenarios. Future pathways consistent with the 2oC target which allow for continued GDP growth require early action to reduce carbon intensity of new production, and either (i) a short lifetime of energy and industry capital (e.g. early retrofit of coal power plants), or (ii) large negative emissions after 2050 (i.e. rapid development and dissemination of carbon capture and sequestration). To achieve the 2oC target, half of the scenarios indicate a carbon intensity of new production between 33 and 73 g CO2/ - much lower than the carbon intensities of the best performing countries today. The average lifespan of energy capital (especially power plants), and industry capital, are critical because they commit emissions far into the future and reduce the budget for new capital emissions. Each year of lifetime added to existing, carbon intensive capital, decreases the carbon intensity of new production required to meet a 2°C carbon budget by 1 to 1.5 g CO2/, and each year of delaying the start of mitigation decreases the required CO2 intensity of new production by 20 to 50 gCO2/$. Constraints on the carbon intensity of new production under a 3°C target are considerably relaxed relative to the 2°C target, but remain daunting in comparison to the carbon intensity of the global economy today. Figure Caption: The relationship between GDP per capita growth, lifetime of energy and industry capital and the required carbon intensity of new production 2013-2050 under a 2°C target.

  8. Anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon fluxes from land to ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Regnier, Pierre

    2013-06-09

    A substantial amount of the atmospheric carbon taken up on land through photosynthesis and chemical weathering is transported laterally along the aquatic continuum from upland terrestrial ecosystems to the ocean. So far, global carbon budget estimates have implicitly assumed that the transformation and lateral transport of carbon along this aquatic continuum has remained unchanged since pre-industrial times. A synthesis of published work reveals the magnitude of present-day lateral carbon fluxes from land to ocean, and the extent to which human activities have altered these fluxes. We show that anthropogenic perturbation may have increased the flux of carbon to inland waters by as much as 1.0 Pg C yr -1 since pre-industrial times, mainly owing to enhanced carbon export from soils. Most of this additional carbon input to upstream rivers is either emitted back to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (∼0.4 Pg C yr -1) or sequestered in sediments (∼0.5 Pg C yr -1) along the continuum of freshwater bodies, estuaries and coastal waters, leaving only a perturbation carbon input of ∼0.1 Pg C yr -1 to the open ocean. According to our analysis, terrestrial ecosystems store ∼0.9 Pg C yr -1 at present, which is in agreement with results from forest inventories but significantly differs from the figure of 1.5 Pg C yr -1 previously estimated when ignoring changes in lateral carbon fluxes. We suggest that carbon fluxes along the land-ocean aquatic continuum need to be included in global carbon dioxide budgets.

  9. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, Masataka

    2008-01-01

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the so...

  10. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 °C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 µm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 µm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm-1, increased to 0.7 S cm-1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  11. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  12. A global predictive model of carbon in mangrove soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Sunny L.; Siikamäki, Juha V.

    2014-10-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store carbon. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil carbon. Here, we use over 900 soil carbon measurements, collected in 28 countries by 61 independent studies, to develop a global predictive model for mangrove soil carbon. Using climatological and locational data as predictors, we explore several predictive modeling alternatives, including machine-learning methods. With our predictive model, we construct a global dataset of estimated soil carbon concentrations and stocks on a high-resolution grid (5 arc min). We estimate that the global mangrove soil carbon stock is 5.00 ± 0.94 Pg C (assuming a 1 meter soil depth) and find this stock is highly variable over space. The amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-rich mangroves (approximately 703 ± 38 Mg C ha-1) is roughly a 2.6 ± 0.14 times the amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-poor mangroves (approximately 272 ± 49 Mg C ha-1). Considerable within country variation in mangrove soil carbon also exists. In Indonesia, the country with the largest mangrove soil carbon stock, we estimate that the most carbon-rich mangroves contain 1.5 ± 0.12 times as much carbon per hectare as the most carbon-poor mangroves. Our results can aid in evaluating benefits from mangrove conservation and designing mangrove conservation policy. Additionally, the results can be used to project changes in mangrove soil carbon stocks based on changing climatological predictors, e.g. to

  13. A global predictive model of carbon in mangrove soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store carbon. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil carbon. Here, we use over 900 soil carbon measurements, collected in 28 countries by 61 independent studies, to develop a global predictive model for mangrove soil carbon. Using climatological and locational data as predictors, we explore several predictive modeling alternatives, including machine-learning methods. With our predictive model, we construct a global dataset of estimated soil carbon concentrations and stocks on a high-resolution grid (5 arc min). We estimate that the global mangrove soil carbon stock is 5.00 ± 0.94 Pg C (assuming a 1 meter soil depth) and find this stock is highly variable over space. The amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-rich mangroves (approximately 703 ± 38 Mg C ha−1) is roughly a 2.6 ± 0.14 times the amount of carbon per hectare in the world’s most carbon-poor mangroves (approximately 272 ± 49 Mg C ha−1). Considerable within country variation in mangrove soil carbon also exists. In Indonesia, the country with the largest mangrove soil carbon stock, we estimate that the most carbon-rich mangroves contain 1.5 ± 0.12 times as much carbon per hectare as the most carbon-poor mangroves. Our results can aid in evaluating benefits from mangrove conservation and designing mangrove conservation policy. Additionally, the results can be used to project changes in mangrove soil carbon stocks based on changing climatological predictors

  14. Hydrogen adsorption in doped porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    properties of doped microporous carbons (SWNTs and activated carbons). The raw nano-structured carbon materials are microporous activated carbons (BET specific surface area: 1600 m2/g), electric-arc closed-end single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWNTs), and HiPCO SWNTs. They have been doped in the vapor phase by K, and Li (in order to obtain KC7, KC10, LiC18 SWNTs and LiC6, LiC18, KC24 activated carbons). The hydrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of the doped activated carbons were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K, up to 3 MPa, by a volumetric method. The adsorption of D2 was studied in situ on doped nano-tubes and filaments by neutron diffraction on DIB experiment (ILL), at λ = 2.52 Angstroms, as a function of temperature [300-20 K] and pressure. Simultaneously the adsorption isotherms were recorded in the range 0-0.1 MPa [13]. Doping of microporous carbon by Li or K leads to an increase in the energy of adsorption of H2 or D2 molecules. Thus, the room temperature sorption capacities (at P≤3 MPa) can be higher than that of the raw materials after slight doping. However, the maximum H2 (or D2) storage measured at T≤ 77 K is lower than the one of pristine materials as the sites of adsorption are occupied by alkali ions inserted in the micropores [14]. The microporous adsorption sites of doped single-walled carbon nano-tubes, identified by neutron diffraction, are both the interstitial voids (in electric-arc or HiPCO tubes) in between the tubes and the central canals of the tubes (only in HiPCO tubes) [15]. We have also prepared nano-structured porous doped carbons by ball-milling carbon host materials with some dopant, such as alkali or alkaline earth metal. The new nano-porous carbons obtained by this method have been characterised and tested for their hydrogen-adsorption properties. [1] A. Chambers et al, J. Phys. Chem. B, 102, 4253, 1998; [2] A. C. Dillon et al, Nature, 386, 377, 1997; [3] J. Conard, Ann. Chim. Sci. Mat 26, 107, 2001; [4] A. Zuttel et al, Int

  15. Hydrogen adsorption in doped porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    properties of doped microporous carbons (SWNTs and activated carbons). The raw nano-structured carbon materials are microporous activated carbons (BET specific surface area: 1600 m2/g), electric-arc closed-end single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWNTs), and HiPCO SWNTs. They have been doped in the vapour phase by K, and Li (in order to obtain KC7, KC10, LiC18 SWNTs and LiC6, LiC18, KC24 activated carbons). The hydrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms of the doped activated carbons were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K, up to 3 MPa, by a volumetric method. The adsorption of D2 was studied in situ on doped nano-tubes and nano-filaments by neutron diffraction on D1B experiment (ILL), at λ=2.52 Angstroms, as a function of temperature [300 - 20 K] and pressure. Simultaneously the adsorption isotherms were recorded in the range 0 - 0.1 MPa [13]. Doping of microporous carbon by Li or K leads to an increase in the energy of adsorption of H2 or D2 Molecules. Thus, the room temperature sorption capacities (al P≤3 MPa) can be higher than that of the raw materials after slight doping. However, the maximum H2 (or D2) storage measured at T ≤ 77 K is lower than the one of pristine Materials as the sites of adsorption are occupied by alkali ions inserted in the micropores [14]. The microporous adsorption sites of doped single-walled carbon nano-tubes, identified by neutron diffraction, are both the interstitial voids (in electric-arc or HiPCO tubes) in between the tubes and the central canals of the tubes (only in HiPCO tubes) [15]. We have also prepared nano-structured porous doped carbons by ball-milling carbon host materials with some dopant, such as alkali or alkaline earth metal. The new nano-porous carbons obtained by this method have been characterised and tested for their hydrogen-adsorption properties. References: [1]A. Chambers et al, J. Phys. Chem. B, 102, 4253,1998. [2]A. C. Dillon et al, Nature, 386, 377,1997. [3]J. Conard, Ann. Chim. Sci. Mat 26, 107, 2001. [4]A

  16. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  17. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 deg. C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 deg. C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  18. Polypyrrole-derived mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons with intrinsic catalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Yu, Linghui; Fellinger, Tim Patrick; Fuertes Arias, Antonio Benito; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    [EN] N-doped mesoporous carbons containing small amounts of graphitic carbon have been successfully prepared using the nanocasting technique. Polypyrrole was used as N-dopant carbon precursor and SBA-15 or silica xerogel as templates. Graphitic carbon domains provide a good electronic conductivity of up to 0.33 S cm−1, a necessary property for electrochemical applications, while a mesoporous structure reduces mass transport limitations. These characteristics are further combined with a high N...

  19. Direct decomposition of methane over SBA-15 supported Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over SBA-15. • Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane over the SBA-15 supported bimetallic catalysts. • Enhanced catalytic efficiency of the bimetallic catalysts for the production of COx free hydrogen and nanocarbon. • Production of value added open tip hollow multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Crystalline characterization of carbon nanotubes by XRD, Raman and thermogravimetric analysis. - Abstract: Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane is an alternative route for the production of COx-free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a set of novel Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized by a facile wet impregnation route, characterized for their structural, textural and reduction properties and were successfully used for the methane decomposition. The fine dispersion of metal oxide particles on the surface of SBA-15, without affecting its mesoporous texture was clearly shown in the low angle X-ray diffraction patterns and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The nitrogen sorption analysis showed the reduced specific surface area and pore volume of SBA-15, after metal loading due to the partial filling of hexagonal mesopores by metal species. The results of methane decomposition experiments indicated that all of the bimetallic catalysts were highly active and stable for the reaction at 700 °C even after 300 min of time on stream (TOS). However, a maximum hydrogen yield of ∼56% was observed for the NiCo/SBA-15 catalyst within 30 min of TOS. A high catalytic stability was shown by the CoFe/SBA-15 catalyst with 51% of hydrogen yield during the course of reaction. The catalytic stability of the bimetallic catalysts was attributed to the formation of bimetallic alloys. Moreover, the deposited carbons were found to be in the form of a new set of hollow multi

  20. Direct decomposition of methane over SBA-15 supported Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudukudy, Manoj, E-mail: manojpudukudy@gmail.com [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaakob, Zahira, E-mail: zahirayaakob65@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Akmal, Zubair Shamsul [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over SBA-15. • Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane over the SBA-15 supported bimetallic catalysts. • Enhanced catalytic efficiency of the bimetallic catalysts for the production of CO{sub x} free hydrogen and nanocarbon. • Production of value added open tip hollow multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Crystalline characterization of carbon nanotubes by XRD, Raman and thermogravimetric analysis. - Abstract: Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane is an alternative route for the production of CO{sub x}-free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a set of novel Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized by a facile wet impregnation route, characterized for their structural, textural and reduction properties and were successfully used for the methane decomposition. The fine dispersion of metal oxide particles on the surface of SBA-15, without affecting its mesoporous texture was clearly shown in the low angle X-ray diffraction patterns and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The nitrogen sorption analysis showed the reduced specific surface area and pore volume of SBA-15, after metal loading due to the partial filling of hexagonal mesopores by metal species. The results of methane decomposition experiments indicated that all of the bimetallic catalysts were highly active and stable for the reaction at 700 °C even after 300 min of time on stream (TOS). However, a maximum hydrogen yield of ∼56% was observed for the NiCo/SBA-15 catalyst within 30 min of TOS. A high catalytic stability was shown by the CoFe/SBA-15 catalyst with 51% of hydrogen yield during the course of reaction. The catalytic stability of the bimetallic catalysts was attributed to the formation of bimetallic alloys. Moreover, the deposited carbons were found to be in the form of a new set of hollow

  1. Carbon isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a hands-on introduction to using carbon isotope tracers in experimental biology and ecology. It is a bench-top reference with protocols for the study of plants, animals, and soils. The 11C, 12C, 13C, and 14C carbon isotopes are considered and standard techniques are described by established authors. The compilation includes the following features: specific, well-established, user-oriented techniques; carbon cycles in plants, animals, soils, air, and water; isotopes in ecological research; examples and sample calculations

  2. A Binary Cyclic Carbonates-Based Electrolyte Containing Propylene Carbonate and Trifluoropropylene Carbonate for 5 V Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A binary cyclic carbonates-based electrolyte containing propylene carbonate and trifluoropropylene carbonate with an optimized volume ratio is successfully applied for 5 V lithium-ion batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A binary solvent electrolyte containing TFPC and PC is used for high-voltage LIBs. •Volume ratio of TFPC/PC is a crucial factor affecting the physical and electrochemical properties. •The binary solvent can maintain a stable liquid phase in a broad temperature range. •Graphite anode works well in the electrolyte of 1 mol dm−3 LiPF6-TFPC/PC (1:2). •The optimized electrolyte has good compatibility with 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. -- Abstract: To widen the operating potential window of electrolyte used for lithium-ion batteries, a binary cyclic carbonates-based electrolyte containing propylene carbonate (PC) and trifluoropropylene carbonate (TFPC) with an optimized volume ratio has been successfully proposed. The main function of additive TFPC is to establish a stable SEI layer on graphite electrode and suppress the intercalation reaction of PC molecules. Unlike the previous works, where the TFPC/PC involved electrolyte was simply estimated at a certain volume ration and recognized as an unfavorable system, in this work, the physical properties of the electrolyte solutions with a series of volume ratios of TFPC/PC and their electrochemical performances in a graphite/Li cell and 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cell have been systematically studied. The electrolyte of 1 mol dm−3 LiPF6-TFPC/PC (1:2) is adopted as the optimized system due to its high ionic conductivity, low viscosity, broad operating potential window, wide liquid temperature range (−50 ∼ 240 °C) and suitable film-forming property. Both the graphite and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes were found to exhibit high reversible capacity and superb rate performance in the optimized electrolyte, making us have a new recognition of this important binary solvent

  3. IMPORTANCE OF 15 LEAD ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Posterior wall myocardial infarction is not uncommon acute myocardial infarction and has got its own therapeutic and prognostic implications. Management of Posterior wall myocardial infarction differs from inferior wall myocardial infarction alone. The presence of posterior wall myocardial infarction is known to increase the incidence of cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias and conduction blocks in case of myocardial infarction. Hence the present study was taken up to find out the incidence, clinical profile and complications of posterior wall myocardial infarction in a rural hospital using simple non-invasive investigations like 15 lead electrocardiography and echocardiography. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 50 patients of inferior wall myocardial infarction out of 228 Acute Myocardial Infarction proved by ECG standard and posterior leads (v7, v8, v9 were taken at the time of admission and repeated as necessary. A detailed case history was taken and a detailed physical examination was done at the time of admission and during follow up. For recording ECG 12 lead (3 standard leads, 3 augmented limb leads, 6 precordial leads machine was used. The recordings were made at 25 mm/ sec. speed and 1mV=10mm. Posterior leads were taken by using 3 precordial leads fixing on the posterior axillary (v7, infrascapular (v8 and paraspinal (v9 regions all in a same line with the 5th ICS anteriorly. RESULTS: Out of 50 cases of inferior wall myocardial infarction (IWMI studied only 13 (26% had ST elevation in posterior leads indicating posterior wall myocardial infarction (PWMI. Our study showed that complications and mortality was higher in patients of IWMI with PWMI compared to IWMI without PWMI. Out of 50 patients 33 (66% were males indicating a male predominance. Syncope was present in 18% of PWMI and 14% in overall IWMI. Palpitation was seen in 53% of PWMI and 21% of IWMI without PWMI. Smoking history was present in 14% of

  4. Carbonate concretions as a significant component of ancient marine carbon cycles: Insights from paired organic and inorganic carbon isotope analyses of a Cretaceous shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate concretions often occur within fine-grained, organic-rich sedimentary rocks. This association reflects the common production of diagenetic minerals through biologic cycling of organic matter. Chemical analysis of carbonate concretions provides the rare opportunity to explore ancient shallow diagenetic environments, which are inherently transient due to progressive burial but are an integral component of the marine carbon cycle. The late Cretaceous Holz Shale (~80 Ma) contains abundant calcite concretions that exhibit textural and geochemical characteristics indicative of relatively shallow formation (i.e., near the sediment-water interface). Sampled concretions contain between 5.4 and 9.8 wt.% total inorganic carbon (TIC), or ~45 and 82 wt.% CaCO3, compared to host shale values which average ~1.5 wt.% TIC. Organic carbon isotope compositions (δ13Corg) are relatively constant in host and concretion samples ranging from ­-26.3 to -24.0‰ (VPDB). Carbonate carbon isotope compositions (δ13Ccarb) range from -22.5 to -3.4‰, indicating a significant but not entirely organic source of carbon. Concretions of the lower Holz Shale exhibit considerably elevated δ13Ccarb values averaging -4.8‰, whereas upper Holz Shale concretions express an average δ13Ccarb value of -17.0‰. If the remaining carbonate for lower Holz Shale concretions is sourced from marine fluids and/or dissolved marine carbonate minerals (e.g., shells), a simple mass balance indicates that ~28% of concretion carbon was sourced from organic matter and ~72% from late Cretaceous marine inorganic carbon (with δ13C ~ +2.5‰). Upper Holz Shale calculations indicate a ~73% contribution from organic matter and a ~27% contribution from inorganic carbon. When normalized for carbonate, organic contents within the concretions are ~2-13 wt.% enriched compared to host contents. This potentially reflects the protective nature of cementation that acts to limit permeability and chemical destruction of

  5. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described.

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-41 - Carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide). 151.50-41 Section... CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-41 Carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide). (a) All openings shall be in the top of the tank. (b) Loading lines...

  7. Direct measurement of carbon enrichment in the incomplete bainite transformation in Mo added low carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall kinetics and carbon enrichment in austenite during the incomplete isothermal bainite transformation in Fe–0.1C–1.5Mn–(0, 0.03, 0.3, 0.5, 1)Mo (mass%) alloys were investigated with quantitative metallography and Electron Probe Microanalysis in the transformation temperature range of 773–873 K. The incomplete transformation appears at 823–873 K when Mo addition exceeds 0.3 mass%; at 773 K substantial carbide precipitation accompanies bainite transformation and no transformation stasis is observed. Transformed fractions in the stasis stage are hardly affected by prior austenite grain size. Carbon concentrations in austenite in the stasis stage are lower than T0 line and decrease with the increase of Mo addition and temperature. T0′ limit, solute drag and WBs limit theories are used to examine the experimentally measured carbon concentration limits in austenite, and their respective flaws are pointed out

  8. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    the surface area is essential. Mutual oxidizing agents are ozone, air, mixture of nitric oxide and air, and nitric acid. However, treatment with highly oxidizing agents in a gaseous phase or aqueous medium may highly increase the concentration of acid oxides on the surface area of the carbon black. Acid oxides on the surface area of carbon black decrease the pH value, which is closely connected to the vulcanization of rubber compounds. Furthermore, the afore-mentioned method has other disadvantages. In the case of nitrate acid, the major disadvantage is corrosion of plant equipment. The mixture of nitrite oxide and air demands a very complicated plant, and the same procedure is very time consuming. Ozone increases the oxygen content on the surface area of the carbon black by as much as 15 %, which creates carbon dioxide and reduces utilization. Air creates thermally unstable surface area oxides, since the process demands a temperature range between 450 and 700 °C. Due to all these reasons, an oxidation method was developed of eliminating non-reacted oil from the surface area of oil-furnace carbon black, which cannot be produced with the conventional production method. An aqueous solution of salt ammonium nitrate p.a. proved to be a very good oxidizing agent. Conventional soft grades of oil-furnace carbon blacks with very high contents of non-reacted oil on their surface area, were mixed with the appropriate mass weight of ammonium nitrate p. a. (1.25 to 10.00 g L-1 NH4NO3 p. a.. The obtained homogeneous mixture was dried at temperatures from 180 to 210 °C for a period of 30 to 120 min. Namely, oil-furnace carbon blacks are first produced in a "fluffy" form with exceptionally small mass density, which is why they are very unpractical for manipulation. The "fluffy" oil-furnace carbon black must be transformed to a greater weight density and have a smaller quantity of fines as possible. However, there are many industrial processes of transforming "fluffy" carbon black

  9. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANG; Jiao; LI; Nan; YANG; Xihao; LI; Yandong; NIU; Zijian; WU

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases,as well as the relationship between wetland and global climate changes. Finally,it made prospect on researches about carbon cycle of Dongting Lake.

  10. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  11. Effect of summer flood on carbon acquisition characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, H.; Bauer, V.; Czerný, Radek; Taufarová, Klára; Janouš, Dalibor

    Bratislava : Ústav hydrologie SAV, 2007, s. 79-83. ISBN 978-80-89139-13-2. [15th International Poster Day and Institute of Hydrology Open Day. Bratislava (SK), 15.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wetland * carbon acquisition * flood Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. 48 CFR 15.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.401 Definitions. As used in this... used in 15.407-2) also includes a transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries,...

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Carbon Dioxide in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Water: Structure and Diffusion Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, M; Brennan, J.K.; Lísal, M. (Martin)

    2016-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study on the structure and diffusion of carbon dioxide in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the presence of water. We consider (10,10) and (15,15) SWCNTs of nanotube diameter 13.6 and 20.3 angstrom, respectively, with amounts of pre-adsorbed water equal to 0, 0.025, 0.1, and 0.2 g/cm(3). The density of the carbon dioxide in the SWCNTs corresponds to the maximum amount adsorbed at 300 K and 37.6 bar, as previously determined by grand canonical Monte Car...

  14. Draw out Carbon Nanotube from Liquid Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, SHUANG; Hoshi, Takeo; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is expected for much more important and broader applications in the future, because of its amazing electrical and mechanical properties. However, today, the prospect is detained by the fact that the growth of CNTs cannot be well controlled. In particular, controlling the chirality of CNTs seems formidable to any existing growth method. In addition, a systematic method for a designed interconnected network has not been established yet, which is focused particularly in nan...

  15. High performance carbon-carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalit M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon-carbon composites rank first among ceramic composite materials with a spectrum of properties and applications in various sectors. These composites are made of fibres in various directions and carbonaceous polymers and hydrocarbons as matrix precursors. Their density and properties depend on the type and volume fraction of reinforcement, matrix precursor used and end heat treatment temperature. Composites made with thermosetting resins as matrix precursors possess low densities (1.55–1.75 g/cm3) and well-distributed microporosity whereas those made with pitch as the matrix precursor, after densification exhibit densities of 1.8–2.0 g/cm3 with some mesopores, and those made by the CVD technique with hydrocarbon gases, possess intermediate densities and matrices with close porosities. The former (resin-based) composites exhibit high flexural strength, low toughness and low thermal conductivity, whereas the latter (pitch- and CVD-based) can be made with very high thermal conductivity (400–700 W/MK) in the fibre direction. Carbon-carbon composites are used in a variety of sectors requiring high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, good frictional properties for brake pads in high speed vehicles or high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications. However, for extended life applications, these composites need to be protected against oxidation either through matrix modification with Si, Zr, Hf etc. or by multilayer oxidation protection coatings consisting of SiC, silica, zircon etc.

  16. Carbon aerogels; Les aerogels de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthon-Fabry, S.; Achard, P

    2003-06-15

    The carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material at open porosity, electrical conductor. The aerogels morphology is variable in function of the different synthesis parameters. This characteristic offers to the aerogels a better adaptability to many applications: electrodes (super condensers, fuel cells). The author presents the materials elaboration and their applications. It provides also the research programs: fundamental research, realization of super-condenser electrodes, fuel cells electrodes, gas storage materials and opaque materials for thermal insulation. (A.L.B.)

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  18. Carbon diffusion in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to find out the reasons for deviations in the literary data on carbon diffusion in niobium. Methods of layer-by-layer radiometric analysis and measuring the internal friction are applied for this purpose. It is shown that penetration curves can be presented as a sum of two exponents which describe the distribution of active carbon in the surface and depth layers. Carbon diffusion parameters calculated in the above two regions are noticeably different, which can be the reason for deviations in the literary data. The temperature dependence of carbon diffusion coefficients in niobium at 677-1300 deg C in found which corresponds to the interstitial diffusion coe icient

  19. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  20. The Carbon Emission Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Chinese President Hu Jintao attended the UN climate summit on September22,he made a solemn commitment that China will cut its per GDP unit carbon emission to a significant amount in 2020 compared with that of 2005.

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  2. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  3. FLUIDIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wei; Cang Huang; Yao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fluidized in the form of fluidlike agglomerates made of many three-dimensional sub-agglomerates, having a multi-stage agglomerate (MSA) structure and containing large amounts of twisting CNTs of micrometer magnitude.

  4. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Network Community Outreach Resource Center CO Poster Contest Toy Recall Statistics Pool Safely Home / Safety Education / ... VIDEO CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest View the blog SAFETY GUIDE Clues You Can ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning. Products that can produce deadly ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics March 09, 2016 Supplemental Memos Regarding Some of the Hazards Associated with Engine-Driven Generators, 2004-2014 January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other CO Topics Safety Tips Recalls and News Questions and Answers Charcoal Portable Heaters & Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources International Newsroom ...

  11. Understanding carbon compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, everyone can compensate its carbon emissions on the Internet in few mouse clicks. But what is the meaning of this compensation? What are the mechanisms of voluntary compensation in the framework of the Kyoto protocol? How to participate to this system and to what organisation a company or an individual can call in to reduce his carbon footprint? Carbon compensation is one of the numerous instruments invented to fight against global warming. When it is not possible to reduce our own emissions, we can compensate them by financing projects allowing to reduce the emissions of another company or collectivity. In this book, the authors answer the questions regarding the mechanisms, implementation and efficiency of carbon compensation. (J.S.)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics January 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates October 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  13. Carbon isotopes in tree rings of Norway spruce (Bohemian Forest, Central Europe) exposed to atmospheric pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, H.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Svoboda, M.

    Brno : ISBE CAS, 2006. s. 22. [15 Years of EU Supported Ecophysiological Research in the Czech Republic. 18.09.2006-21.09.2006, Olomouc] Keywords : Carbon isotopes * Norway spruce Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  15. Carbon and oxygen isotope microanalysis of carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velivetskaya, Tatiana A; Ignatiev, Alexander V; Gorbarenko, Sergey A

    2009-08-30

    Technical modification of the conventional method for the delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of 10-30 microg carbonate samples is described. The CO(2) extraction is carried out in vacuum using 105% phosphoric acid at 95 degrees C, and the isotopic composition of CO(2) is measured in a helium flow by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). The feed-motion of samples to the reaction vessel provides sequential dropping of only the samples (without the sample holder) into the acid, preventing the contamination of acid and allowing us to use the same acid to carry out very large numbers of analyses. The high accuracy and high reproducibility of the delta(13)C and delta(18)O analyses were demonstrated by measurements of international standards and comparison of results obtained by our method and by the conventional method. Our method allows us to analyze 10 microg of the carbonate with a standard deviation of +/-0.05 per thousand for delta(13)C and delta(18)O. The method has been used successfully for the analyses of the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of the planktonic and benthic foraminifera in detailed palaeotemperature reconstructions of the Okhotsk Sea. PMID:19603476

  16. Resonance strengths in the 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Marta, Michele; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Erhard, Martin; Fülöp, Zsolt; Grosse, Eckart; Gyürky, György; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R; Menegazzo, Roberto; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Vezzú, Simone; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction is the slowest reaction of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle of hydrogen burning in stars. As a consequence, it determines the rate of the cycle. The 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reaction is frequently used in inverse kinematics for hydrogen depth profiling in materials. The 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions have been studied simultaneously, using titanium nitride targets of natural isotopic composition and a proton beam. The strengths of the resonances at Ep = 1058 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O and at Ep = 897 and 430 keV in 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C have been determined with improved precision, relative to the well-known resonance at Ep = 278 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O. The new recommended values are \\omega\\gamma = 0.352$\\pm$0.018, 362$\\pm$20, and 22.0$\\pm$0.9\\,eV for their respective strengths. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the Ep = 1058 keV resonance in 14N(p,gamma)15O have been redetermined. The data reported here should facilitate future studies of off-resona...

  17. Surface State of Carbon Fibers Modified by Electrochemical Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxia GUO; Jie LIU; Jieying LIANG

    2005-01-01

    Surface of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers was modified by electrochemical oxidation. The modification effect on carbon fibers surface was explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that on the modified surface of carbon fibers, the carbon contents decreased by 9.7% and the oxygen and nitrogen contents increased by 53.8% and 7.5 times, respectively. The surface roughness and the hydroxyl and carbonyl contents also increased. The surface orientation index was reduced by 1.5%which decreased tensile strength of carbon fibers by 8.1%, and the microcrystalline dimension also decreased which increased the active sites of carbon fiber surface by 78%. The physical and chemical properties of carbon fibers surface were modified through the electrochemical oxidative method, which improved the cohesiveness between the fibers and resin matrix and increased the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fibers reinforced epoxy composite (CFRP) over 20%.

  18. Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Björn; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Riebesell, Ulf; Hansen, Per Juel

    2006-05-01

    Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom-forming dinollagellates-Prorocentrum minimum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum. In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O2 evolution, CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14C-disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K1/2) for photosynthetic O2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO3- uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affinity for HCO3- and maximum uptake rates increased under higher pH. The strong preference for HCO3- was also confirmed by the 14C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of carbon acquisition were consistent with the 13C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific difference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters. PMID:17087465

  19. Plant growth and physiology of vegetable plants as influenced by carbon dioxide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain basic knowledge on the increased giving of carbon dioxide to vegetables, the carbon dioxide environment in growing houses was analyzed, and the physiological and ecological properties of vegetables cultivated in carbon dioxide environment were elucidated. To improve the carbon dioxide environment, giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide, air flow, ventilation, and others were examined. The concentration of carbon dioxide began to decrease when the illumination intensity on growing layer reached 1 -- 1.5 lux, owing to the photo-synthetic activity of vegetables, and decreased rapidly at 3 -- 5 lux. The lowering of carbon dioxide concentration lowered the photo-synthesis of vegetables extremely, and the transfer of synthesized carbohydrate to roots was obstructed. The effect suffered in low carbon dioxide concentration left some aftereffect even after ventilation and the recovery of carbon dioxide concentration. But this aftereffect was not observed in case of cucumber. To improve carbon dioxide environment, the air flow or ventilation required for minimizing the concentration lowering was determined, but giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide was most effective. The interaction of carbon dioxide concentration and light was examined regarding the effect on photo-synthesis, and some knowledge of practical application was obtained. The effect of giving more carbon dioxide was more remarkable as the treatment was given to younger seedlings and in the period when the capacity of absorbing assimilation products was higher. (Kako, I.)

  20. Carbon Footprint of Thermowood

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to evaluate the carbon footprint of thermally modified wood and its manufacturing process and transportation cycle for several different ThermoWood producer. Research included the whole production cycle from harvesting raw wood to ThermoWood transportation in destination area. Carbon dioxide emissions from these areas were determined and calculated for every ThermoWood producer at first hand. Calculations were based on the PAS 2050:2011, which is ...

  1. States and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate challenge appeals to an unprecedented mutation of our societies. From north to south, all our life styles will have to be changed from dwelling, to transport and feeding. These changes will have sense only at a worldwide scale and will impact our way of development. How can we reduce our energy consumption and greenhouse impact with answering everyone's essential needs at the same time? How can we invent a carbon-free economy in the North and preserve the big socio-economical equilibria at the same time? How can we get rid of poverty in the South without compromising the well-being of the future generations with an increase of CO2 emissions? Such difficulties cannot be overcome without innovations in terms of public policies. This book takes stock of the new possible instruments and policies at the global scale and involving fiscality, standards, investments and social justice. Content: 1 - the carbon threat: a changing climate and energies becoming scarce (the climate threat, an increasing energy insecurity); carbon and modern economy (human greenhouse gas emissions, a carbon-free well-being); governments and carbon control (a global challenge requiring an international control, the experiments era from Rio to the present day, the challenge of the state in front of the carbon threat); 2 - the political instruments of environment: standards as first instruments of climate public policies (standards efficiency in some sectors, standards limitations, standards and innovation); emissions quotas and market instruments (Kyoto protocol and CO2 market, the future of 'cap and trade' and of individual and regional quotas); carbon tax, fiscal instruments and new regulations (carbon tax as an alternative or a complement, other fiscal and para-fiscal instruments, new regulation instruments); investing in climate (managing the transition, governments as transition administrators). (J.S)

  2. 7 CFR 927.15 - Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Process. 927.15 Section 927.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.15 Process. Process means to can, concentrate, freeze, dehydrate,...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  4. 34 CFR 300.15 - Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation. 300.15 Section 300.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.15 Evaluation. Evaluation means procedures used...

  5. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...

  6. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...

  7. 31 CFR 6.15 - Agency review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency review. 6.15 Section 6.15... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.15 Agency review. Either the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the...

  8. 16 CFR 1025.15 - Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time. 1025.15 Section 1025.15 Commercial... Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.15 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, the day of the act, event, or default from which...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.32 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 15a.32 Section 15a.32 Agriculture Office of... § 15a.32 Housing. (a) General. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.33 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 15b.33 Section 15b.33 Agriculture Office of... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.33 Housing. (a) Housing provided by the recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide...

  11. 14 CFR 47.15 - Identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Identification number. (a) Number required. An applicant for Aircraft Registration must place a U.S. identification number (registration mark) on his Aircraft Registration...

  12. 7 CFR 916.15 - Marketing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing season. 916.15 Section 916.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.15 Marketing season. Marketing season means the period beginning...

  13. 9 CFR 311.15 - Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis. 311.15 Section 311.15... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.15 Brucellosis. Carcasses affected with localized lesions of brucellosis may be passed for human food after the affected parts...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.28 - Private education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private education. 15b.28 Section 15b.28 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.28 Private education. (a) A recipient that provides private elementary or...

  15. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, Secondary, Adult, and Extension Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that...

  16. 10 CFR 60.15 - Site characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization. 60.15 Section 60.15 Energy NUCLEAR... Preapplication Review § 60.15 Site characterization. (a) Prior to submittal of an application for a license to be issued under this part DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the site...

  17. 10 CFR 63.15 - Site characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site characterization. 63.15 Section 63.15 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Preapplication Review § 63.15 Site characterization. (a) DOE shall conduct a program of site characterization with respect to the Yucca Mountain site before it submits an...

  18. 49 CFR 802.15 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees. 802.15 Section 802.15 Transportation Other... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Fees § 802.15 Fees. No fees shall be charged for providing the first copy of a record, or any portion thereof, to individuals to whom the record pertains. The fee schedule for...

  19. 19 CFR 102.15 - Disregarded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disregarded materials. 102.15 Section 102.15... TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.15 Disregarded materials. (a) The following materials shall...: (1) Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale that...

  20. 14 CFR 33.15 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials. 33.15 Section 33.15 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.15 Materials. The suitability and durability of materials used in the engine must— (a) Be established on the basis of experience or tests;...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND....15-3 Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master, the senior member of...

  2. 7 CFR 981.15 - Almond product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond product. 981.15 Section 981.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.15 Almond product. Almond product means any edible preparation...

  3. 48 CFR 15.406 - Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation. 15.406 Section 15.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.406 Documentation....

  4. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity. 548.15 Section 548.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious...

  5. 7 CFR 226.15 - Institution provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....15, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Institution provisions. 226.15 Section 226.15... Institution provisions. (a) Tax exempt status. Except for for-profit centers and sponsoring organizations...

  6. 14 CFR 35.15 - Safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety analysis. 35.15 Section 35.15... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.15 Safety analysis. (a)(1) The applicant must analyze the.... This analysis will take into account, if applicable: (i) The propeller system in a typical...

  7. 48 CFR 15.404 - Proposal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposal analysis. 15.404 Section 15.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.404 Proposal analysis....

  8. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  9. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  10. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  11. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.53 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  13. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 15a.23 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which this subpart applies...

  14. 7 CFR 800.15 - Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Services. 800.15 Section 800.15 Agriculture... ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Official Inspection and Class X Or Class Y Weighing Requirements § 800.15 Services. (a) General. These...

  15. 7 CFR 15.73 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 15.73 Section 15.73 Agriculture Office of the... Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Form, Execution, Filing and Service of Documents § 15.73 Service. Service shall be made by the Hearing Clerk by personal delivery of one copy to each person to...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  17. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  19. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  20. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (j) License Exception for exports of TAPS Crude Oil. (1... code “SS-SPR” or the equivalent code as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (i) License... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section...

  1. 44 CFR 15.8 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gambling. 15.8 Section 15.8... CENTER § 15.8 Gambling. We prohibit participating in games for money or other personal property, including the operation of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery or pool, or the sale or purchase...

  2. 7 CFR 3415.15 - Evaluation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.15 Evaluation factors. In carrying out its review under § 3415.14, the peer review group will take into account the following factors unless... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation factors. 3415.15 Section...

  3. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input...

  4. 30 CFR 15.8 - Quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 15.8 Section 15.8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 15.8 Quality assurance. (a) Applicants granted an approval or an extension of approval under...

  5. 12 CFR 1408.15 - Credit report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit report. 1408.15 Section 1408.15 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Collection of Claims § 1408.15 Credit report. In order to aid the Corporation in...

  6. 7 CFR 275.15 - Data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data management. 275.15 Section 275.15 Agriculture... § 275.15 Data management. (a) Analysis. Analysis is the process of classifying data, such as by areas of... management information sources available to: (1) Identify all deficiencies in program operations and...

  7. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to...

  8. 46 CFR 168.15-10 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 168.15-10 Section 168.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-10 Construction. (a) The accommodations provided must be securely constructed,...

  9. 46 CFR 168.15-20 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 168.15-20 Section 168.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-20 Equipment. (a) Each person shall have a separate berth and not more than 1 berth...

  10. 9 CFR 121.15 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 121.15 Section 121.15... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.15 Training. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must provide information and training on biosafety and security to each individual with access...

  11. 29 CFR 71.15 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training. 71.15 Section 71.15 Labor Office of the Secretary... § 71.15 Training. All DOL systems managers, disclosure officers, and employees with responsibilities under the Privacy Act shall periodically attend training offered by the Department on the Privacy Act....

  12. 7 CFR 331.15 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training. 331.15 Section 331.15 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.15 Training. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must provide information and training...

  13. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Sensitive Security Information that is controlled under 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. No part of this record may be disclosed to persons without a “need to know”, as defined in 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520, except with.... government agencies, public disclosure is governed by 5 U.S.C. 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d)...

  14. 24 CFR 206.15 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 206.15 Section 206.15... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement § 206.15 Insurance. Mortgages originated under...

  15. 12 CFR 583.15 - Parent company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company. 583.15 Section 583.15 Banks and... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.15 Parent company. The term parent company means any company which directly or indirectly controls any other company or companies....

  16. 7 CFR 15e.102 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 15e.102 Section 15e.102 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15e.102 Application....

  17. 1 CFR 15.1 - Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation. 15.1 Section 15.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.1 Cooperation. The Director of the Federal...

  18. 7 CFR 15a.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 15a.56 Section 15a.56 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.56 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of this...

  19. 46 CFR 97.15-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 97.15-1 Section 97.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-1 Application. (a) Except as specifically noted, the provisions of...

  20. 46 CFR 92.15-1 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 92.15-1 Section 92.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 92.15-1 Application. The provisions of this subpart, with the exception of §...

  1. 8 CFR 1244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 1244.15 Section 1244.15... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After... Status shall not constitute permission to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by...

  2. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the...

  3. 38 CFR 15.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 15.160 Section 15.160 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 15.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective...

  4. 7 CFR 15e.160 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 15e.160 Section 15e.160 Agriculture... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15e.160 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST....15-19 Electrical. (a) All electrical equipment located within 18 inches of the deck of the chemical laboratory shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of Subchapter J (Electrical...

  6. 46 CFR 168.15-55 - Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening. 168.15-55 Section 168.15-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-55 Screening. Provision must be made to protect the quarters against the admission...

  7. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  8. 21 CFR 1308.15 - Schedule V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule V. 1308.15 Section 1308.15 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.15 Schedule V. (a) Schedule V shall consist of the drugs and other substances, by...

  9. 29 CFR 15.6 - Administrative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative action. 15.6 Section 15.6 Labor Office of the... Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 15.6 Administrative action. (a) Investigation... such harm, it has the responsibility to fully investigate the incident and to take all...

  10. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided for... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.15 - Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.15 Market. Market... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market. 1221.15 Section 1221.15...

  12. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  13. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  14. 40 CFR 1502.15 - Affected environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affected environment. 1502.15 Section 1502.15 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.15 Affected environment. The environmental impact statement shall succinctly describe...

  15. 39 CFR 964.15 - Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions. 964.15 Section 964.15 Postal Service... DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.15 Decisions. (a) Initial decision by Administrative Law Judge. A written initial decision shall be rendered by an Administrative Law Judge with all due...

  16. 32 CFR 2400.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2400.15 Section 2400.15... Derivative Classification § 2400.15 Classification guides. (a) OSTP shall issue and maintain classification guides to facilitate the proper and uniform derivative classification of information. These guides...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides. (a) Preparation of classification guides. Originators of...

  18. 40 CFR 13.15 - Taxpayer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taxpayer information. 13.15 Section 13.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.15 Taxpayer information. (a) The Administrator may obtain a debtor's current mailing...

  19. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...

  20. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  1. 34 CFR 200.15 - Timeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timeline. 200.15 Section 200.15 Education Regulations... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.15 Timeline. (a) Each State must establish a timeline for making AYP that ensures that, not later than the 2013-2014...

  2. 7 CFR 215.15 - Withholding payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withholding payments. 215.15 Section 215.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.15 Withholding payments. In accordance with Departmental regulations...

  3. 47 CFR 15.613 - Measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement procedures. 15.613 Section 15.613 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.613 Measurement procedures. Compliance measurements for Access BPL shall be made...

  4. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 15.117 Section 15.117 Agriculture Office of... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded, and technical rules...

  5. 31 CFR 15.737-21 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 15.737-21 Section 15.737-21... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-21 Evidence. (a) In general. The rules of evidence prevailing in... exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b) Depositions. The...

  6. 39 CFR 963.15 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 963.15 Section 963.15 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.15 Evidence. (a) In general, admissibility will hinge on relevancy and materiality. However, relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value...

  7. 45 CFR 672.15 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 672.15 Section 672.15 Public Welfare... PROCEDURES § 672.15 Evidence. (a) General. The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not.... Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the...

  8. 7 CFR 1902.15 - Closing accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rural Development grant funds in accordance with 7 CFR part 1951, subpart B or (iv) For the return of... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Closing accounts. 1902.15 Section 1902.15 Agriculture... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds § 1902.15 Closing...

  9. 12 CFR 704.15 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIONS § 704.15 Audit requirements. (a) External audit. The corporate credit union supervisory committee... supervisory committee shall submit the audit report to the board of directors. A copy of the audit report, and... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 704.15 Section 704.15...

  10. 46 CFR 163.003-15 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 163.003-15 Section 163.003-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-15 Performance. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

  11. 46 CFR 163.002-15 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 163.002-15 Section 163.002-15 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Hoist § 163.002-15 Performance. (a) Each pilot hoist must have sufficient performance capability to pass the approval tests in § 163.002-21. (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 160.017-15 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 160.017-15 Section 160.017-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-15 Performance. (a) Each chain...

  13. 40 CFR 401.15 - Toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../Dieldrin 1 1 Effluent standard promulgated (40 CFR part 129). 5. Antimony and compounds 2 2 The term... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Toxic pollutants. 401.15 Section 401.15... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.15 Toxic pollutants. The following comprise the list of toxic...

  14. 11 CFR 9002.15 - Political party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political party. 9002.15 Section 9002.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.15 Political party. Political party means an association, committee, or organization which nominates or selects an...

  15. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) Each blower must have a non-sparking fan. (4) The power ventilation system must be interlocked... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 111.15-10 Section 111.15-10 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation....

  16. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  17. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for abo

  18. Nano-Carbons as Theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liu, Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbons, including fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nano-diamonds, are an important class of nanostructures attracting tremendous interests in the past two decades. In this special issue, seven review articles and research reports are collected, to summarize and present the latest progress in the exploration of various nano-carbons for theranostic applications.

  19. A study of the oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of thermophilic campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, F J; Coates, D.

    1983-01-01

    The oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of different biotypes of thermophilic campylobacters were investigated by means of (a) quantitative studies, and (b) total growth studies. Oxygen tolerance of the five test organisms differed markedly and varied with the carbon dioxide concentration. At most carbon dioxide concentrations tested, Campylobacter jejuni strains NCTC 11168 and NCTC 11392 tolerated 21% oxygen (growth reduced), C coli NCTC 11353 tolerated 15% oxygen (growth reduced), and C ...

  20. Myxoma virus expressing a fusion protein of interleukin-15 (IL15 and IL15 receptor alpha has enhanced antitumor activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tosic

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, can efficiently infect various types of mouse and human cancer cells. It is a strict rabbit-specific pathogen, and is thought to be safe as a therapeutic agent in all non-rabbit hosts tested including mice and humans. Interleukin-15 (IL15 is an immuno-modulatory cytokine with significant potential for stimulating anti-tumor T lymphocytes and NK cells. Co-expression of IL15 with the α subunit of IL15 receptor (IL15Rα greatly enhances IL15 stability and bioavailability. Therefore, we engineered a new recombinant myxoma virus (vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr, which expresses an IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein plus tdTomato red fluorescent reporter protein. Permissive rabbit kidney epithelial (RK-13 cells infected with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr expressed and secreted the IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein. Functional activity was confirmed by demonstrating that the secreted fusion protein stimulated proliferation of cytokine-dependent CTLL-2 cells. Multi-step growth curves showed that murine melanoma (B16-F10 and B16.SIY cell lines were permissive to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr infection. In vivo experiments in RAG1-/- mice showed that subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors treated with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr exhibited attenuated tumor growth and a significant survival benefit for the treated group compared to the PBS control and the control viruses (vMyx-IL15-tdTr and vMyx-tdTr. Immunohistological analysis of the subcutaneous tumors showed dramatically increased infiltration of NK cells in vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr treated tumors compared to the controls. In vivo experiments with immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice revealed a strong infiltrate of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells in response to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr, and prolonged survival. We conclude that delivery of IL15Rα-IL15 in a myxoma virus vector stimulates both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.