WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 14 target

  1. Synthesis of carbon-13 and carbon-14 labelled triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.R.; Hawi, A.A.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). College of Pharmacy)

    1989-04-01

    An efficient two-step synthesis of 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (alprazolam) and 8-chloro-6-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (triazolam) labelled with carbon-13 or carbon-14 from their corresponding hydrazines is reported. The method involved acylation of the appropriate hydrazine using the mixed carbonic anhydride of sodium ({sup 13}C) or ({sup 14}C) acetate and isobutylchloroformate under mild conditions. Thermolysis of the resulting acetylhydrazides gave the target carbon-14 and carbon-13 labelled compounds in good yields. (author).

  2. Carbon 14 dating; La datation par le carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laj, C.; Mazaud, A.; Duplessy, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-03-01

    In this article time dating based on carbon 14 method is reviewed, its limits are explained and recent improvements are presented. Carbon 14 is a by-product of the interactions of cosmic protons with air molecules. The fluctuations of the quantity of carbon 14 present in the atmosphere are responsible for the shift observed between the result given by the method and the real age. This shift appears for ages greater than 2000 years and is estimated to 1000 years for an age of 10.000 years. As a consequence carbon 14 dating method requires calibration by comparing with other methods like dendrochronology (till 11.000 years) and time dating of fossil corals (till 26.000 years and soon till 50.000 years). It is assumed that the fluctuations of carbon 14 in the atmosphere are due to: - the changes in the intensity and composition of cosmic radiations itself (due to the motion of the sun system through the galaxy or due to the explosion of a super-novae in the surroundings of the sun system); - the changes of the earth magnetic field that diverts cosmic rays; and - the changes in the interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans knowing that 40 tons of carbon 14 are dissolved in seas while only 1 ton belongs to the atmosphere. (A.C.)

  3. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  4. The carbon 14 and environment; Le carbone 14 et l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This article resume the history and the properties of the carbon 14 ({sup 14}C). We also find the different origins and the produced quantities. The carbon transfers in environment are explained and so the {sup 14}C. The biological effects and the sanitary aspects are clarified. The measurements of carbon 14 are given as well its application through the dating. The waste management is tackled. (N.C.)

  5. MODIFYING V-14 RUBBER WITH CARBON FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrinov N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbon fibers and modified carbon fibers on properties of industrially produced V-14 rubber is examined. The dependences of physical and mechanical properties, hardness, abrasion resistance and resistance in aggressive environment on few amount of filled fiber are established. Structural properties of reinforced elastomeric composites are studied by scanning electron microscopy. Elastomeric layer on the surface of modified carbon fiber, confirmed with high adhesion is identified

  6. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin. [Antieplileptic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, A.J.; Wagner, E.R. (Marion Merrell Dow Inc, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Carbon-14 labeled vigabatrin was synthesized in 5 steps from 5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrrolidone tosylate and NaCN-[[sup 14]C]. A key step involved reduction of the resulting nitrile in the presence of excess dimethylamine to give the dimethylamino-ethyl 2-pyrrolidone derivative in one step. This afforded an overall radiochemical yield of 22% and radiochemical purity greater than 98%. (Author).

  7. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M.

    1986-05-01

    Doxylamine succinate, N,N-dimethyl-2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy)ethanamine succinate is an antihistamine used primarily as a sedative. Carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate, required for toxicological studies, was synthesized in two steps starting from 2-benzoyl pyridine.

  8. Removal of carbon-14 from irradiated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Smith, Tara E.

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. On of the isotopes of great concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (14C), with a half-life of 5730 years. Study of irradiated graphite from some nuclear reactors indicates 14C is concentrated on the outer 5 mm of the graphite structure. The aim of the research presented here is to develop a practical method by which 14C can be removed. In parallel with these efforts, the same irradiated graphite material is being characterized to identify the chemical form of 14C in irradiated graphite. A nuclear-grade graphite, NBG-18, and a high-surface-area graphite foam, POCOFoam®, were exposed to liquid nitrogen (to increase the quantity of 14C precursor) and neutron-irradiated (1013 neutrons/cm2/s). During post-irradiation thermal treatment, graphite samples were heated in the presence of an inert carrier gas (with or without the addition of an oxidant gas), which carries off gaseous products released during treatment. Graphite gasification occurs via interaction with adsorbed oxygen complexes. Experiments in argon only were performed at 900 °C and 1400 °C to evaluate the selective removal of 14C. Thermal treatment also was performed with the addition of 3 and 5 vol% oxygen at temperatures 700 °C and 1400 °C. Thermal treatment experiments were evaluated for the effective selective removal of 14C. Lower temperatures and oxygen levels correlated to more efficient 14C removal.

  9. LDEO Carbon 14 Data from Selected Sea floor Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Carbon-14 data in this file were compiled by W.F. Ruddiman and staff at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. Data include 974 carbon-14 dates...

  10. Quality of Graphite Target for Biological/Biomedical/Environmental Applications of 14C-Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B.; Ortalan, Volkan; Browning, Nigel D.; Clifford, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic graphitization for 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry (14C-AMS) produced various forms of elemental carbon. Our high-throughput Zn reduction method (C/Fe = 1:5, 500 °C, 3 h) produced the AMS target of graphite-coated iron powder (GCIP), a mix of nongraphitic carbon and Fe3C. Crystallinity of the AMS targets of GCIP (nongraphitic carbon) was increased to turbostratic carbon by raising the C/Fe ratio from 1:5 to 1:1 and the graphitization temperature from 500 to 585 °C. The AMS target ...

  11. Quality of graphite target for biological/biomedical/environmental applications of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Ortalan, Volkan; Browning, Nigel D; Clifford, Andrew J

    2010-03-15

    Catalytic graphitization for (14)C-accelerator mass spectrometry ((14)C-AMS) produced various forms of elemental carbon. Our high-throughput Zn reduction method (C/Fe = 1:5, 500 degrees C, 3 h) produced the AMS target of graphite-coated iron powder (GCIP), a mix of nongraphitic carbon and Fe(3)C. Crystallinity of the AMS targets of GCIP (nongraphitic carbon) was increased to turbostratic carbon by raising the C/Fe ratio from 1:5 to 1:1 and the graphitization temperature from 500 to 585 degrees C. The AMS target of GCIP containing turbostratic carbon had a large isotopic fractionation and a low AMS ion current. The AMS target of GCIP containing turbostratic carbon also yielded less accurate/precise (14)C-AMS measurements because of the lower graphitization yield and lower thermal conductivity that were caused by the higher C/Fe ratio of 1:1. On the other hand, the AMS target of GCIP containing nongraphitic carbon had higher graphitization yield and better thermal conductivity over the AMS target of GCIP containing turbostratic carbon due to optimal surface area provided by the iron powder. Finally, graphitization yield and thermal conductivity were stronger determinants (over graphite crystallinity) for accurate/precise/high-throughput biological, biomedical, and environmental (14)C-AMS applications such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination (ADME), and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) of nutrients, drugs, phytochemicals, and environmental chemicals.

  12. The lichens, tritium and carbon 14 integrators; Les lichens, integrateurs de tritium et de carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daillant, O

    2007-07-01

    The present report concerns a research for the tritium and for the carbon 14 in lichens in a spirit of bio-indication: the first results appear in Daillant and al (2004 ) and additional results were presented to the congress B.I.O.M.A.P. in Slovenia, organized collectively by the institute Josef Stefan from Ljubljana and the international atomic energy agency from Vienna (Daillant and al 2003). (N.C.)

  13. Quantifying Carbon-14 for Biology Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    McCartt, A. Daniel; Ognibene, Ted J.; Bench, Graham; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument was developed using mature, robust hardware for the measurement of carbon-14 in biological studies. The system was characterized using carbon-14 elevated glucose samples and returned a linear response up to 387 times contemporary carbon-14 concentrations. Carbon-14 free and contemporary carbon-14 samples with varying carbon-13 concentrations were used to assess the method detection limit of approximately one-third contemporary carbon-14 levels...

  14. Photoluminescent carbon dots from 1,4-addition polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Nolan, Andrew; Walton, Jeffrey G A; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Zhang, Rong; Bradley, Mark

    2014-08-25

    Photoluminescent carbon dots were synthesised directly by thermopyrolysis of 1,4-addition polymers, allowing precise control of their properties. The effect of polymer composition on the properties of the carbon dots was investigated by TEM, IR, XPS, elemental analysis and fluorescence analysis, with carbon dots synthesised from nitrogen-containing polymers showing the highest fluorescence. The carbon dots with high nitrogen content were observed to have strong fluorescence in the visible region, and culture with cells showed that the carbon dots were non-cytotoxic and readily taken up by three different cell lines.

  15. Carbon-14 production in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-09-01

    Calculations based on existing composition data were performed to estimate the order of magnitude and the final location of /sup 14/C in fusion reactors. These calculations indicate that approximately 8 Ci/day, formed principally by /sup 14/N activation, will be produced in the UWMAK-II reference reactor (5,000 MWth). If Nb-1 percent Zr is used as the structural material instead of stainless steel 316 this quantity will be more than doubled. No information is available on the form of the /sup 14/C produced, but reduced forms such as carbides, hydrocarbons and perhaps CO may be produced. Most of the /sup 14/C may remain fixed in structural and other reactor materials until the material is reclaimed. Activation of air in the plasma chamber would be an immediate concern.

  16. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2016-11-29

    Compositions for detecting and/or destroying cancer tumors and/or cancer cells via photodynamic therapy are disclosed, as well as methods of use thereof. The compositions comprise a linking protein or peptide attached to or otherwise physically associated with a carbon nanotube to form a targeted protein-carbon nanotube complex.

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 3, Carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  18. Carbon-14 background, pathway, and dose optimization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, E.; Higley, K. [Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Carbon-14 is radiologically relevant due to its long half-life coupled with its ease of incorporation into the global carbon cycle. The majority of carbon-14 releases from nuclear power plants in the United States are gaseous, and terrestrial samples constitute the primary indicator of increased environmental levels, and thus represent an important pathway for the incorporation of the radionuclide into both human and nonhuman populations. This project was broken into three phases: In phase one, information was summarized on background quantities and production mechanisms of carbon-14 in the general environment and adjacent to nuclear power plants. The second phase involved the review and analysis of nuclear power plant carbon-14 pathways to humans as compared to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.109 methodologies (based on ICRP 2), and identified areas where dose calculations could be optimized. Alternative models for calculating plant uptake from atmosphere and transfer in the food chain were investigated, with particular emphasis on models used by countries in the European Union. In phase three, collard green samples grown at three different locations relative to a nuclear power plant (one control garden and two downwind gardens) were evaluated using a Perkin Elmer TriCarb 3180 TR/SL Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC). Samples were first oven dried and combusted using a Perkin Elmer Model 307 Oxidizer, and activity concentrations were calculated based on the LSC count data. These data were compared to samples analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry. There was no statistically significant difference in carbon-14 concentrations at the two downwind gardens as compared to the control garden. This research is based on work supported, in part, by the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI). The opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent

  19. Quantifying Carbon-14 for Biology Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A Daniel; Ognibene, Ted J; Bench, Graham; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2016-09-06

    A cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument was developed using mature, robust hardware for the measurement of carbon-14 in biological studies. The system was characterized using carbon-14 elevated glucose samples and returned a linear response up to 387 times contemporary carbon-14 concentrations. Carbon-14 free and contemporary carbon-14 samples with varying carbon-13 concentrations were used to assess the method detection limit of approximately one-third contemporary carbon-14 levels. Sources of inaccuracies are presented and discussed, and the capability to measure carbon-14 in biological samples is demonstrated by comparing pharmacokinetics from carbon-14 dosed guinea pigs analyzed by both CRDS and accelerator mass spectrometry. The CRDS approach presented affords easy access to powerful carbon-14 tracer techniques that can characterize complex biochemical systems.

  20. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  1. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  2. Determination of tritium and carbon-14 in accelerator waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentini, M.; Weinreich, R. [Lab. of Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In dismounted parts of the accelerator facilities of paul scherrer institute, tritium and {sup 14}C were determined by low-level counting after chemical separation. In graphite targets used for the production of {pi}-mesons, tritium amounts from 1.7.10{sup 8} to 6.10{sup 8} Bq/g were found; the corresponding {sup 14}C data were 6 and 9 Ci/g, respectively. In the dismantled copper beam dump of Target E, the tritium content extended up to 2.8.10{sup 6} Bq/g, but no {sup 14}C could be detected. In mechanical parts of the beam dump, consisting of iron and stainless steel, respectively, the tritium amount ranged up to 5.3.10{sup 3} Bq/g, the {sup 14}C amount from 1 to 800 Bq/g. The separation procedures are described in detail. (orig.)

  3. Carbon-14 as a tracer of groundwater discharge to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah; Harrington, Glenn; Cook, Peter; Post, Vincent; Dogramaci, Shawan

    2014-05-01

    The provenance of groundwater discharge to a stream can be determined by measuring the response of multiple groundwater age tracers within the stream across the discharge zone. The sampling interval required to detect groundwater discharge is limited by the rate of equilibration with the atmosphere downstream of the discharge zone, which is determined by the gas transfer velocity. Carbon-14 (14C) equilibration is driven by CO2 exchange, which is a small component of the dissolved inorganic carbon in most stream systems, and therefore the rate of equilibration is slower than for other gaseous age tracers. In this paper we use a step-wise approach to develop and demonstrate the use of 14C as a tracer in streams receiving groundwater discharge. Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) in the emerging groundwater degasses until equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is reached; increasing pH and enriching the residual 14C by fractionation. In addition, the 14C gradient between groundwater and the atmosphere drives a slower process of isotopic equilibration. We have measured the rates of this chemical and isotopic equilibration experimentally by exposing 250 L of old groundwater to the atmosphere in an evaporation pan. Chemical equilibrium was achieved within 2 days, during which the 14C increased from 6 to 16 pMC. The influence of fractionation during the initial CO2 degassing on isotopic equilibrium rates was negligible. Isotopic equilibrium took over 2 months, with 14C in the evaporation pan increasing to 108 pMC over 71 days. This increase in 14C was simulated using a mass balance model with an effective 14C gas transfer velocity of 0.013 m d-1. Field testing of the method was conducted at two sites. Firstly, we measured the evolution of 14C in dewatering discharge as it flows along an ephemeral creek channel in the Pilbara, Western Australia. Measured 14C increased from 11 to 31 pMC along the 10km reach, which corresponds to a travel time of about 2 days. The measured increase was

  4. Carbon 14 dating method; Methode de datation par le carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Ph

    2000-07-01

    This document gives a first introduction to {sup 14}C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the {sup 14}C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of {sup 14}C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  5. Synthesis of pentamidine labelled with tritium and carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesk, D.; Jones, J.R. (Surrey Univ., Guildford (UK). Dept. of Chemistry); Lockley, W.J.S.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1990-11-01

    Tritium labelled pentamidine has been prepared with a specific activity of 90 mCi mmol{sup -1} using a one-step exchange reaction between the unlabelled drug and tritiated water. The labelling utilised a homogeneous rhodium trichloride catalyst and yielded pentamidine regiospecifically labelled in the positions ortho to the amidine groups. Carbon-14 labelled pentamidine was prepared via a seven-step procedure in which the isotope was introduced via a nucleophilic substitution of 4-bromo-phenol with copper(I) ({sup 14}C)cyanide. (author).

  6. Measurements of carbon-14 with cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A. D.; Ognibene, T.; Bench, G.; Turteltaub, K.

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method for quantitation of 14C in biological samples. This technology has been used in a variety of low dose, human health related studies over the last 20 years when very high sensitivity was needed. AMS helped pioneer these scientific methods, but its expensive facilities and requirements for highly trained technical staff have limited their proliferation. Quantification of 14C by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) offers an approach that eliminates many of the shortcomings of an accelerator-based system and would supplement the use of AMS in biomedical research. Our initial prototype, using a non-ideal wavelength laser and under suboptimal experimental conditions, has a 3.5-modern, 1- σ precision for detection of milligram-sized, carbon-14-elevated samples. These results demonstrate proof of principle and provided a starting point for the development of a spectrometer capable of biologically relevant sensitivities.

  7. Carbon-14 activities in recently fallen meteorites and Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Linick, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports C-14 measurements in meteorites using an extraction method which employs RF melting of samples as small as 0.1 g. A study of extraction of cosmic-ray-produced C-14 in samples of Bruderheim gave C-14 levels between 38 and 60 dpm/kg for samples which had been preheated in air between 250 and 700 C, with a mean value of 46.8 + or - 1.4 dpm/kg. A range of values between 35 and 59 dpm/kg was found for other falls of saturated meteorites preheated to 500 C. The preheating step is shown to be effective in removing terrestrial carbon contamination. A series of samples previously dated by Kr-81 as having ages of 120-310 kyr gave C-14 levels of between less than 0.16 and 0.37 + or - 0.10 dpm/kg. These levels are consistent with levels of in situ production by cosmic rays at the earth's surface.

  8. Synthesis of carbon-14 analogue of 1,5 diaryl-5-[{sup 14}C]-1,2,3-triazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloubi, Hojatollah E-mail: hmatloubi@aeoi.org.ir; Shafiee, Abbas; Saemian, Nader; Shirvani, Gholamhossein; Daha, Fariba Johari

    2004-05-01

    Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-methyl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-tolunitrile-[cyano-{sup 14}C] and benzonitrile-[cyano-{sup 14}C], respectively.

  9. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 (14C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. Afte...

  10. The preparation of glucose uniformly labelled with carbon-14; Preparacion de glucosa uniformemente marcada con carbono-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. D.; Suarez, C.; Rodrigo, M. E.

    1978-07-01

    The plant, (Zea mais, L) and culture conditions for an optimum production of glucose has been chosen. To achieve the labelling of glucose, photosynthesis and carboxylation are carried on, under an artificial atmosphere of 14CO{sub 2} produced from 14{sup C}-barium carbonate. Following photosynthesis the sugars are extracted, and then the extract purified by several methods. The purified glucose is finally, degraded and the specific radioactivity is determined in each of its carbon atoms. (Author) 37 refs.

  11. S14 as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    tumor lipogenesis and the availability of LPL in the breast cancer cell “metabolic microenvironment”. Box upper right: Hydrolysis of triglyceride by...metastases prompted a new hypothesis regarding the interaction of tumor lipogenesis, the availability of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase in the tumor...hitchcock.org (W.B. Kinlaw). 1 Currently Walter Reed U.S. Army Medical Center.expression of S14 and acetyl CoA-carboxylase, the rate- determining enzyme of long

  12. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu T. Supuran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3 × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5 × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM. The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM. Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets.

  13. Preparation of {sup 14}C-Labeled Multi-walled Carbon Nano-tubes for Biodistribution Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgin, D.; Czarny, B.; Botquin, M.; Mayne-L' Hermite, M.; Pinault, M.; Bouchet-Fabre, B.; Carriere, M.; Poncy, J.L.; Chau, Q.; Maximilien, R.; Dive, V.; Taran, F. [CEA, IBITECS, SCBM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); CEA, IBITECS, SIMOPRO, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (FR); CEA, IRAMIS, SPAM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (FR); CEA, IRAMIS, SCM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (FR); CEA, IRCM, SREIT, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (FR)

    2009-07-01

    A new method allowing the {sup 14}C-labeling of carboxylic acid functions of carbon nano-tubes is described. The key step of the labeling process is a de-carbonylation reaction that has been developed and optimized with the help of a screening method. The optimized process has been successfully applied to multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWNTs), and the corresponding {sup 14}C-labeled nano-tubes were used to investigate their in vivo behavior. Preliminary results obtained after i.v. contamination of rats revealed liver as the main target organ. Radiolabeling of NTs with a long-life radioactive nucleus like {sup 14}C, coupled to a highly sensitive autoradiographic method, that provides a unique detection threshold, will make it possible to determine for a long time period whether or not NTs remain in any organs after animal exposure. (authors)

  14. Wake potential of swift ion in amorphous carbon target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahnam, Nabil janan; Ahmad, Khalid A.; Aboo Al-Numan, Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    The wake potential and wake phenomena for swift proton in an amorphous carbon target were studied by utilising various dielectric function formalisms, including the Drude dielectric function, the Drude-Lorentz dielectric function and quantum dielectric function. The Drude model results exhibited a damped oscillatory behaviour in the longitudinal direction behind the projectile; the pattern of these oscillations decreases exponentially in the transverse direction. In addition, the wake potential extends slightly ahead of the projectile which also depends on the proton coordinate and velocity. The effect of electron binding on the wake potential, characterised by the ratio ωp2 / ω02 = 10 to 0.1, has been studied alongside the Drude-Lorentz dielectric function and quantum dielectric function formalisms; the results evidently show that the wake potential dip depth decreases with more oscillations when the electron density ratio ωp2 / ω02 decreases from 10 to 0.1. One of the primary objectives of the present work is to construct a reasonably realistic procedure for simulating the response of target to swift ions by combining an expression for the induced wake potential along with several important dielectric function models; the aim of this research is to reduce computational complexity without sacrificing accuracy. This is regarded as being an efficient strategy in that it creates suitable computer simulation procedures which are relevant to actual solids. After comparing this method with other models, the main differences and similarities have been noted while the end results have proved encouraging.

  15. Effect of dead carbon on the 14C dating of the speleothem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yanjun; Warren Beck; PENG Zicheng; ZHANG Zhaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the comparison of dating results among high-precision TIMS U-series and AMS 14C as well as the published 14C dating results and their band counting ages (i.e. calendar ages), this paper discusses the effect of dead carbon on the speleothem 14C dating. The result shows that the fraction of incorporated dead carbon during the formation of speleothem varies. The change in the fraction of dead carbon would result in big deviation in the 14C age of the speleothem. It is indispensable to take the dead carbon into consideration when dating the speleothem using the 14C method or studying the atmospheric 14C concentration during the past with the speleothem.

  16. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Matrix Diffusion of Dissolved Organic Carbon Carbon-14 in Southern Nevada Fractured-rock Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyatt [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) is used to estimate groundwater ages by comparing the DIC 14C content in groundwater in the recharge area to the DIC 14C content in the downgradient sampling point. However, because of chemical reactions and physical processes between groundwater and aquifer rocks, the amount of DIC 14C in groundwater can change and result in 14C loss that is not because of radioactive decay. This loss of DIC 14C results in groundwater ages that are older than the actual groundwater ages. Alternatively, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C in groundwater does not react chemically with aquifer rocks, so DOC 14C ages are generally younger than DIC 14C ages. In addition to chemical reactions, 14C ages may also be altered by the physical process of matrix diffusion. The net effect of a continuous loss of 14C to the aquifer matrix by matrix diffusion and then radioactive decay is that groundwater appears to be older than it actually is. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure matrix diffusion coefficients for DOC 14C in volcanic and carbonate aquifer rocks from southern Nevada. Experiments were conducted using bromide (Br-) as a conservative tracer and 14C-labeled trimesic acid (TMA) as a surrogate for groundwater DOC. Outcrop samples from six volcanic aquifers and five carbonate aquifers in southern Nevada were used. The average DOC 14C matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 2.9 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was approximately the same at 1.7 x 10-7 cm2/s. The average Br- matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 10.4 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was less at 6.5 x 10-7 cm2/s. Carbonate rocks exhibited greater variability in

  17. Global gene expression profiling of human pleural mesotheliomas: identification of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14 as potential tumour target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Crispi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to molecularly dissect mesothelioma tumour pathways by mean of microarray technologies in order to identify new tumour biomarkers that could be used as early diagnostic markers and possibly as specific molecular therapeutic targets. METHODOLOGY: We performed Affymetrix HGU133A plus 2.0 microarray analysis, containing probes for about 39,000 human transcripts, comparing 9 human pleural mesotheliomas with 4 normal pleural specimens. Stringent statistical feature selection detected a set of differentially expressed genes that have been further evaluated to identify potential biomarkers to be used in early diagnostics. Selected genes were confirmed by RT-PCR. As reported by other mesothelioma profiling studies, most of genes are involved in G2/M transition. Our list contains several genes previously described as prognostic classifier. Furthermore, we found novel genes, never associated before to mesotheliom that could be involved in tumour progression. Notable is the identification of MMP-14, a member of matrix metalloproteinase family. In a cohort of 70 mesothelioma patients, we found by a multivariate Cox regression analysis, that the only parameter influencing overall survival was expression of MMP14. The calculated relative risk of death in MM patients with low MMP14 expression was significantly lower than patients with high MMp14 expression (P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results provided, this molecule could be viewed as a new and effective therapeutic target to test for the cure of mesothelioma.

  18. Global Gene Expression Profiling Of Human Pleural Mesotheliomas: Identification of Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) as Potential Tumour Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispi, Stefania; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Santini, Mario; Mellone, Pasquale; Vincenzi, Bruno; Citro, Gennaro; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Fasano, Silvia; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda; Menegozzo, Simona; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Facciolo, Francesco; Baldi, Alfonso; Menegozzo, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to molecularly dissect mesothelioma tumour pathways by mean of microarray technologies in order to identify new tumour biomarkers that could be used as early diagnostic markers and possibly as specific molecular therapeutic targets. Methodology We performed Affymetrix HGU133A plus 2.0 microarray analysis, containing probes for about 39,000 human transcripts, comparing 9 human pleural mesotheliomas with 4 normal pleural specimens. Stringent statistical feature selection detected a set of differentially expressed genes that have been further evaluated to identify potential biomarkers to be used in early diagnostics. Selected genes were confirmed by RT-PCR. As reported by other mesothelioma profiling studies, most of genes are involved in G2/M transition. Our list contains several genes previously described as prognostic classifier. Furthermore, we found novel genes, never associated before to mesotheliom that could be involved in tumour progression. Notable is the identification of MMP-14, a member of matrix metalloproteinase family. In a cohort of 70 mesothelioma patients, we found by a multivariate Cox regression analysis, that the only parameter influencing overall survival was expression of MMP14. The calculated relative risk of death in MM patients with low MMP14 expression was significantly lower than patients with high MMp14 expression (P = 0.002). Conclusions Based on the results provided, this molecule could be viewed as a new and effective therapeutic target to test for the cure of mesothelioma. PMID:19753302

  19. Measurement of pion double charge exchange on carbon-13, carbon-14, magnesium-26, and iron-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    Cross sections for the /sup 13,14/C,/sup 26/Mg,/sup 56/Fe(..pi../sup +/,..pi../sup -/)/sup 13,14/O,/sup 26/Si,/sup 56/Ni reactions were measured with the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility for 120 less than or equal to T/sub ..pi../ less than or equal to 292 MeV and 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 50. The double isobaric analog states (DIAS) are of primary interest. In addition, cross sections for transitions to /sup 14/O(0/sup +/, 5.92 MeV), /sup 14/O(2/sup +/, 7.77 MeV), /sup 56/Ni(gs), /sup 13/O(gs), and /sup 13/O(4.21 MeV) are presented. The /sup 13/O(4.21 MeV) state is postulated to have J/sup ..pi../ = 1/2/sup -/. The data are compared to previously measured double-charge-exchange cross sections on other nuclei, and the systematics of double charge exchange on T greater than or equal to 1 target nuclei leading to the DIAS are studied. Near the ..delta../sub 33/ resonance, cross sections for the DIAS transitions are in disagreement with calculations in which the reaction is treated as sequential charge exchange through the free pion-nucleon amplitude, while for T/sub ..pi../ > 200 MeV the anomalous features of the 164 MeV data are not apparent. This is evidence for significant higher order contributions to the double-charge-exchange amplitude near the reasonable energy. Two theoretical approaches that include two nucleon processes are applied to the DIAS data. 64 references.

  20. An efficient synthesis of carbon-14 labelled vigabatrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, H.S. [Marion Merrell Dow Research Inst., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Vigabatrin-[6-{sup 14}C] ((R,S)-4-amino-5-hexenoic-[6-{sup 14}C] acid) was synthesized by employing Wittig condensation of 1-(1-butenyl) -2-oxo-5-pyrrolidinecarboxaldehyde with methyl-[{sup 14}C]-triphenyl-phosphonium iodide as the key step. The synthetic sequence involved 3 steps and produced the title compound in 70% overall yield with a radiochemical purity of 100%. (author).

  1. SCP06F6: A carbon-rich extragalactic transient at redshift z~0.14

    CERN Document Server

    Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Wheatley, P J

    2008-01-01

    We show that the spectrum of the unusual transient SCP06F6 is consistent with emission from a cool, carbon-rich atmosphere at a redshift of z~0.14. The extragalactic nature of the transient rules out novae, shell flashes, and V838 Mon-like events as cause of the observed brightening. The distance to SCP 06F6 implies a peak magnitude of M_I~-18, in the regime of supernovae. The morphology of the light curve of SCP 06F6 around the peak in brightness resembles the slowly evolving TypeII supernovae SN 1994Y and SN 2006 gy. We further report the detection of an X-ray source co-incident with SCP 06F6 in a target of opportunity XMM-Newton observation made during the declining phase of the transient. The X-ray luminosity of L_X~(5+-1)x10^42 erg/s is two orders of magnitude higher than observed to date from supernovae. If related to a supernova event, SCP 06F6 would define a new class. An alternative, though less likely, scenario is the tidal disruption of a carbon-rich star.

  2. Tracing terrestrial carbon: a novel application of ∆14C in a humic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Evelyn; Reimer, Paula J.; Foy, Robert H.

    2016-04-01

    Lakes play an important yet underrated role in global carbon cycles. Terrestrial carbon (C) is buried and/or remineralised in significant quantities, and lake function may also be affected by catchment inputs with potential feedbacks for regional and global C cycling. Changing deposition chemistry, land use and climate induced impacts on hydrology will affect soil biogeochemistry, terrestrial C export, and hence lake ecology. Autochthonous production in lakes is based on dissolved inorganic C (DIC). DIC in alkaline lakes is partially derived from weathering of carbonaceous bedrock, a proportion of which is 14C-free. The low 14C activity yields an artificial age offset leading samples to appear hundreds to thousands of years older than their actual age. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can contain terrestrial inputs. The terrestrial inputs can be labile or detrital and their age depends to a first order on their depth in catchment soil/peat stocks. We present a pilot study that uses the radiocarbon (∆14C) method to determine the source of carbon buried in the surface sediment of Lower Lough Erne, a humic, alkaline lake in northwest Ireland. ∆14C, δ13C and δ15N values were measured from phytoplankton and other biota, dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon. A novel radiocarbon method, Stepped Combustion1 was used to estimate the degree of the burial of terrestrial carbon in surface sediment, collected in 2011. The ∆14C values of the low temperature fractions were comparable to algal ∆14C, while the high temperature fractions were 14C-depleted (older than bulk sediment). The ∆14C end-member model indicated that ~64% of carbon in surface sediment was derived from detrital terrestrial carbon. The same proportion of detrital/labile carbon was found in surface sediment of Upper Lough Erne in 2014, despite the differences in lake type and collection date. The use of ∆14C in conjunction with

  3. Profound parental bias associated with chromosome 14 acquired uniparental disomy indicates targeting of an imprinted locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, A; Leung, W; Tapper, W; Jones, A V; Knoops, L; Rasi, C; Forsberg, L A; Guglielmelli, P; Zoi, K; Hall, V; Chiecchio, L; Eder-Azanza, L; Bryant, C; Lannfelt, L; Docherty, L; White, H E; Score, J; Mackay, D J G; Vannucchi, A M; Dumanski, J P; Cross, N C P

    2015-10-01

    Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a common finding in myeloid malignancies and typically acts to convert a somatically acquired heterozygous mutation to homozygosity. We sought to identify the target of chromosome 14 aUPD (aUPD14), a recurrent abnormality in myeloid neoplasms and population cohorts of elderly individuals. We identified 29 cases with aUPD14q that defined a minimal affected region (MAR) of 11.2 Mb running from 14q32.12 to the telomere. Exome sequencing (n=7) did not identify recurrently mutated genes, but methylation-specific PCR at the imprinted MEG3-DLK1 locus located within the MAR demonstrated loss of maternal chromosome 14 and gain of paternal chromosome 14 (P<0.0001), with the degree of methylation imbalance correlating with the level of aUPD (r=0.76; P=0.0001). The absence of driver gene mutations in the exomes of three individuals with aUPD14q but no known haematological disorder suggests that aUPD14q may be sufficient to drive clonal haemopoiesis. Analysis of cases with both aUPD14q and JAK2 V617F (n=11) indicated that aUPD14q may be an early event in some cases but a late event in others. We conclude that aUPD14q is a recurrent abnormality that targets an imprinted locus and may promote clonal haemopoiesis either as an initiating event or as a secondary change.

  4. [Quantifying soil autotrophic microbes-assimilated carbon input into soil organic carbon pools following continuous 14C labeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ran; Chen, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Jian, Yan; Yuan, Hong-Zhao; Ge, Ti-Da; Sui, Fang-Gong; Tong, Cheng-Li; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2013-07-01

    Soil autotrophic microbe has been found numerous and widespread. However, roles of microbial autotrophic processes and the mechanisms of that in the soil carbon sequestration remain poorly understood. Here, we used soils incubated for 110 days in a closed, continuously labeled 14C-CO2 atmosphere to measure the amount of labeled C incorporated into the microbial biomass. The allocation of 14C-labeled assimilated carbon in variable soil C pools such as dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) were also examined over the 14C labeling span. The results showed that significant amounts of 14C-SOC were measured in paddy soils, which ranged from 69.06-133.81 mg x kg(-1), accounting for 0.58% to 0.92% of the total soil organic carbon (SOC). The amounts of 14C in the dissolved organic C (14C-DOC) and in the microbial biomass C (14C-MBC) were dependent on the soils, ranged from 2.54 to 8.10 mg x kg(-1), 19.50 to 49.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between concentrations of 14C-SOC and 14C-MBC (R2 = 0.957**, P < 0.01). The 14C-DOC and 14C-MBC as proportions of total DOC, MBC, were 5.65%-24.91% and 4.23%-20.02%, respectively. Moreover, the distribution and transformation of microbes-assimilated-derived C had a greater influence on the dynamics of DOC and MBC than that on the dynamics of SOC. These data provide new insights into the importance of microorganisms in the fixation of atmospheric CO2 and of the potentially significant contributions made by microbial autotrophy to terrestrial C cycling.

  5. A novel llama antibody targeting Fn14 exhibits anti-metastatic activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebing, Johannes; Lang, Isabell; Chopra, Martin; Salzmann, Steffen; Moshir, Mahan; Silence, Karen; Riedel, Simone S; Siegmund, Daniela; Beilhack, Andreas; Otto, Christoph; Wajant, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is typically low in healthy adult organisms, but strong Fn14 expression is induced in tissue injury and tissue remodeling. High Fn14 expression is also observed in solid tumors, which is why this receptor is under consideration as a therapeutic target in oncology. Here, we describe various novel mouse-human cross-reactive llama-derived recombinant Fn14-specific antibodies (5B6, 18D1, 4G5) harboring the human IgG1 Fc domain. In contrast to recombinant variants of the established Fn14-specific antibodies PDL192 and P4A8, all three llama-derived antibodies efficiently bound to the W42A and R56P mutants of human Fn14. 18D1 and 4G5, but not 5B6, efficiently blocked TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis(TWEA K) binding at low concentrations (0.2–2 μg/ml). Oligomerization and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding converted all antibodies into strong Fn14 agonists. Variants of 18D1 with enhanced and reduced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity were further analyzed in vivo with respect to their effect on metastasis. In a xenogeneic model using human colon carcinoma cancer cells, both antibody variants were effective in reducing metastasis to the liver. In contrast, only the 18D1 variant with enhanced ADCC activity, but not its ADCC-defective counterpart, suppressed lung metastasis in the RE NCA model. In sum, this suggests that Fn14 targeting might primarily act by triggering of antibody effector functions, but also by blockade of TWEA K-Fn14 interaction in some cases

  6. Consideration of R2Fe14B layers as targets with polarized electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, JM; van Klinken, J

    1998-01-01

    Thin layers of R2Fe14B magnets (R = rare earth) can be magnetized perpendicularly to their planes and can be used as targets of polarized electrons with polarization of approximate to 4% to facilitate Moller/Bhabha and Compton polarimetry of electrons/positrons and photons, respectively. (C) 1998 El

  7. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues-Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  8. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrida Velena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA. Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL, mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  9. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

  10. Determination of Carbon-14 in environmental samples by mixing 14CO{sub 2} with a liquid scintillator; Determinacion de carbono-14 en muestras ambientales por incorporacion de 14CO{sub 2} a un centelleador liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, V.; Heras, M. C.; Beltran, M. A.

    1990-07-01

    A method for the determination of Carbon-14 (14CO2) in environmental samples has been developed. The method use the direct absorption of the carbon dioxide into Carbosorb, followed with incorporation of the mixture (Carbosorb-CO2) to the liquid scintillator. The results obtained to apply this method and the benzene synthesis, usual in our laboratory, are discussed and compared. The method of collection of atmospheric samples is also described. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Characteristics of 14C and 13C of carbonate aerosols in dust storm events in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Jie, Dongmei; Shi, Meinan; Gao, Pan; Shen, Zhenxing; Uchida, Masao; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Kexin; Hu, Ke; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    In contrast with its decrease in western China deserts, the dust storm event in eastern China, Korea, and Japan shows an increase in frequency. Although the drylands in northeastern China have been recognized as an important dust source, the relative contributions of dust transport from the drylands and deserts are inconclusive, thus the quantification of dust storm sources in downwind area remains a challenge. We measured the 14C and 13C contents in carbonates of dust samples from six sites in China, which were collected for the duration of dust storm events in drylands, deserts, and urban areas. The δ13C of the dryland dust samples considerably varied in a range of - 9.7 to - 5.0‰, which partly overlapped the desert dust carbonate δ13C ranges. The 14C content of the dryland dust carbonates showed a narrow range of 60.9 ± 4.0 (as an average and 1 SD of five samples) percent modern carbon (pMC), indicating the enrichment of modern carbonate. Dust samples in desert regions contained relatively aged carbonates with the depleting 14C showing of 28.8 ± 3.3 pMC. After the long-range transport of the western China desert dust plume, the carbonates collected at the southern China remained the depletion of 14C (33.5 ± 5.3 pMC) as in the desert regions. On the other hand, the samples of dust storm events at the urban areas of eastern China showed an enrichment of 14C contents (46.2 ± 5.0 pMC, n = 7), which might be explained by the stronger contribution of modern-carbonate-rich dryland dust.

  12. Source and age of carbon in peatland surface waters: new insights from 14C analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Michael; Garnett, Mark; Dinsmore, Kerry; Leith, Fraser

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are a significant source of carbon to the aquatic environment which is increasingly being recognised as an important flux pathway (both lateral and vertical) in total landscape carbon budgets. Determining the source and age of the carbon (in its various forms) is a key step to understanding the stability of peatland systems as well as the connectivity between the soil carbon pool and the freshwater environment. Novel analytical and sampling methods using molecular sieves have been developed for (1) within-stream, in situ sampling of CO2 in the field and (2) for the removal/separation of CO2 in the laboratory prior to 14C analysis of CH4. Here we present dual isotope (δ13C and 14C) data from freshwater systems in UK and Finnish peatlands to show that significant differences exist in the source and age of CO2, DOC (dissolved organic carbon) and POC (particulate organic carbon). Individual peatlands clearly differ in terms of their isotopic freshwater signature, suggesting that carbon cycling may be "tighter" in some systems compared to others. We have also measured the isotopic signature of different C species in peatland pipes, which appear to be able to tap carbon from different peat depths. This suggests that carbon cycling and transport within "piped-peatlands" may be more complex than previously thought. Some of our most recent work has focussed on the development of a method to measure the 14C component of CH4 in freshwaters. Initial results suggest that CH4 in peatland streams is significantly older than CO2 and derived from a much deeper source. We have also shown that the age (but not the source) of dissolved CO2 changes over the hydrological year in response to seasonal changes in discharge and temperature. Radiocarbon measurements in the peat-riparian-stream system suggest that a significant degree of connectivity exists in terms of C transport and cycling, although the degree of connectivity differs for individual C species. In summary, 14C

  13. Uranium targets sandwiched between carbon layers for use on target wheels and on a Wobbler in heavy-ion bombardments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folger, H.; Hartmann, W.; Klemm, J.; Thalheimer, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung m.b.H., Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    Uranium layers of {approx equal} 0.4 mg/cm{sup 2} are evaporated by means of a 6 kW electron-beam gun onto 0.04 mg/cm{sup 2} thick carbon films in a high-vacuum process; a protecting layer of {approx equal} 0.01 mg/cm{sup 2} of carbon is added in the same vacuum cycle. The evaporation- and deposition yields are discussed and measurements of target characteristics are described. C/U/C sandwich targets in the shape of a sector of an annulus are prepared for use on rotating target wheels of 155 mm radius to be bombarded with a pulsed beam of heavy ions. One type of circular targets of 20 mm in diameter is mounted to a target wobbler. Both, wheel and wobbler, distribute the intensity of the heavy-ion beam to a larger area to reduce radiation damages. Examples of target applications will be mentioned. (orig.).

  14. Study of a method of detection for natural carbon-14 using a liquid scintillator, recent variations in the natural radio-activity due to artificial carbon-14 (1963); Etude d'une methode de detection du carrons 14 naturel, utilisant un scintillateur liquide - variations recentes de l'activite naturelle dues au carbone 14 artificiel (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    Among the various natural isotopes of carbon, a radioactive isotope, carbon-14, is formed by the action of secondary neutrons from cosmic rays on nitrogen in the air. Until 1950, the concentration of this isotope in ordinary carbon underwent weak fluctuations of about 2-3 per cent. The exact measurement of this concentration 6 X 10{sup 12} Ci/gm of carbon, and of its fluctuations, are difficult and in the first part of this report a highly sensitive method is given using a liquid scintillator. Since 1950 this natural activity has shown large fluctuations because of the carbon-14 formed during nuclear explosions, and in the second part, the evolution in France of this specific activity of carbon in the atmosphere and biosphere is examined. In the last part is studied the local increase in carbon activity in the atmosphere around the Saclay site, an increase caused by the carbon-14 given off as C{sup 14}O{sub 2}, by the reactors cooled partially with exterior air. (author) [French] Parmi les differents isotopes naturels du carbone, un isotope radioactif, le carbone 14, est forme par l'action de neutrons secondaires due aux rayons cosmiques sir l'azote de l'air. Jusqu'en 1950, la concentration de cet isotope dans le carbone ordinaire est soumise a des fluctuations de faible amplitude, de l'ordre de 2 a 3 pour cent. Les mesures precises de cette concentration, 6. 10{sup -12} Ci/g de carbone, et de ses fluctuations sont delicates, et dans la premiere partie de ce rapport, on decrit une methode de detection a grande sensibilite utilisant un scintillateur liquide. Depuis 1950, cette activite naturelle subit des fluctuations importantes dues au carbone 14 forme lors des explosions nucleaires, et dans la seconde partie, on examine l'evolution en France de l'activite specifique du carbone de l'atmosphere et ce la biosphere. Dans la derniere partie, on etudie l'accroissement local de l'activite du carbone de l'air aux

  15. Biobased carbon content of resin extracted from polyethylene composite by carbon-14 concentration measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Kunioka, Masao; Funabashi, Masahiro; Ninomiya, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    An estimation procedure for biobased carbon content of polyethylene composite was studied using carbon-14 ((14)C) concentration ratios as measured by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS). Prior to the measurement, additives and fillers in composites should be removed because they often contain a large amount of biobased carbon and may shift the estimation. Samples of resin with purity suitable for measurement were isolated from composites with a Soxhlet extractor using heated cyclohexanone. After cooling of extraction solutions, the resin was recovered as a fine semi-crystalline precipitate, which was easily filtered. Recovery rates were almost identical (99%), even for low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene, which may have lower crystallinity. This procedure could provide a suitable approach for estimation of biobased carbon content by AMS on the basis of the standard ASTM D 6866. The biobased carbon content for resin extracted from polyethylene composites allow for the calculation of biosynthetic polymer content, which is an indicator of mass percentage of the biobased plastic resin in the composite.

  16. Dissolved Organic Carbon 14C in Southern Nevada Groundwater and Implications for Groundwater Travel Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyall [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Thomas, James M [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) ages must be corrected for complex chemical and physical reactions and processes that change the amount of 14C in groundwater as it flows from recharge to downgradient areas. Because of these reactions, DIC 14C can produce unrealistically old ages and long groundwater travel times that may, or may not, agree with travel times estimated by other methods. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C ages are often younger than DIC 14C ages because there are few chemical reactions or physical processes that change the amount of DOC 14C in groundwater. However, there are several issues that create uncertainty in DOC 14C groundwater ages including limited knowledge of the initial (A0) DOC 14C in groundwater recharge and potential changes in DOC composition as water moves through an aquifer. This study examines these issues by quantifying A0 DOC 14C in recharge areas of southern Nevada groundwater flow systems and by evaluating changes in DOC composition as water flows from recharge areas to downgradient areas. The effect of these processes on DOC 14C groundwater ages is evaluated and DOC and DIC 14C ages are then compared along several southern Nevada groundwater flow paths. Twenty-seven groundwater samples were collected from springs and wells in southern Nevada in upgradient, midgradient, and downgradient locations. DOC 14C for upgradient samples ranged from 96 to 120 percent modern carbon (pmc) with an average of 106 pmc, verifying modern DOC 14C ages in recharge areas, which decreases uncertainty in DOC 14C A0 values, groundwater ages, and travel times. The HPLC spectra of groundwater along a flow path in the Spring Mountains show the same general pattern indicating that the DOC compound composition does not change along this flow path

  17. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G; Resasco, Daniel E; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2013-08-27

    The present invention is a method for detecting and destroying cancer tumors. The method is based on the concept of associating a linking protein or linking peptide such as, but not limited to, annexin V or other annexins to carbon nanotubes such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form a protein-CNT complex. Said linking protein or peptide can selectively bind to cancerous cells, especially tumor vasculature endothelial cells, rather than to healthy ones by binding to cancer-specific external receptors such as anionic phospholipids including phosphatidylserine expressed on the outer surfaces of cancer cells only. Irradiation of bound CNTs with one or more specific electromagnetic wavelengths is then used to detect and destroy those cells to which the CNTs are bound via the linking protein or peptide thereby destroying the tumor or cancer cells and preferably an immunostimulant is provided to the patient to enhance the immune response against antigens released from the tumor or cancer cells.

  18. Design of an Intense Muon Source with a Carbon and Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven; Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Ding, Xiaoping [UCLA

    2015-06-01

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  19. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  20. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  1. Land-Based Mitigation Strategies under the Mid-Term Carbon Reduction Targets in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Hasegawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the key mitigation options for achieving the mid-term target for carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. A computable general equilibrium model coupled with a land-based mitigation technology model was used to evaluate specific mitigation options within the whole economic framework. The results revealed three primary findings: (1 If no climate policy were implemented, Indonesia’s total greenhouse gas emissions would reach 3.0 GtCO2eq by 2030; (2 To reduce carbon emissions to meet the latest Intended Nationally-Determined Contributions (INDC target, ~58% of total reductions should come from the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors by implementing forest protection, afforestation and plantation efforts; (3 A higher carbon price in 2020 suggests that meeting the 2020 target would be economically challenging, whereas the INDC target for 2030 would be more economically realistic in Indonesia.

  2. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours t

  3. Recharge in northern clime calcareous sandy soils: soil water chemical and carbon-14 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, E. J.; Mozeto, A. A.; Fritz, P.

    1980-11-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on soil water extracted from two cores taken from a sandy calcareous soil near Delhi, Ontario. Calcite saturation is attained within the unsaturated zone over short distances and short periods of time, whereas dolomite undersaturation persists to the groundwater table. The progressive dissolution of dolomite by soil water, within the unsaturated zone, after calcite saturation is reached results in calcite supersaturation. Deposition of iron and manganese oxyhydroxide phases occurs at the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary. This is a result of soil water neutralization due to carbonate dissolution during infiltration but may also reflect the increased rate of oxidation of dissolved ferrous and manganous ions at higher pH's. The role of bacteria in this process has not been investigated. The depth of the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary in a calcareous soil has important implications for 14C groundwater dating. The depth of this interface at the study site (-2 m) does not appear to limit 14C diffusion from the root zone to the depth at which carbonate dissolution occurs. Thus, soil water achieves open system isotopic equilibrium with the soil CO 2 gas phase. It is calculated that in soils with similar physical properties to the study soil but with depths of leaching of 5 m or more, complete 14C isotopic equilibration of soil water with soil gas would not occur. Soil water, under these conditions would recharge to the groundwater exhibiting some degree of closed system 14C isotopic evolution.

  4. Targeted carbon conservation at national scales with high-resolution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Mascaro, Joseph; Sinca, Felipe; Chadwick, K Dana; Higgins, Mark; Farfan, William; Llactayo, William; Silman, Miles R

    2014-11-25

    Terrestrial carbon conservation can provide critical environmental, social, and climate benefits. Yet, the geographically complex mosaic of threats to, and opportunities for, conserving carbon in landscapes remain largely unresolved at national scales. Using a new high-resolution carbon mapping approach applied to Perú, a megadiverse country undergoing rapid land use change, we found that at least 0.8 Pg of aboveground carbon stocks are at imminent risk of emission from land use activities. Map-based information on the natural controls over carbon density, as well as current ecosystem threats and protections, revealed three biogeographically explicit strategies that fully offset forthcoming land-use emissions. High-resolution carbon mapping affords targeted interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in rapidly developing tropical nations.

  5. A Brief Review of the Application of 14C in Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T; Mcfarlane, K

    2009-10-22

    An over-arching goal of the DOE TCP program is to understand the mechanistic controls over the fate, transport, and residence time of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. Many of the modern process and modeling studies focus on seasonal to interannual variability. However, much of the carbon on the landscape and in soils is in separate reservoirs with turnover times that are multi-decadal to millennial. It is the controls on these longer term pools or reservoirs that is a critical unknown in the face of rising GHGs and climate change and uncertainties of the terrestrial biosphere as a future global sink or source of atmospheric CO{sub 2} [eg., Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al., 2005; Thompson et al., 2004]. Radiocarbon measurements, in combination with other data, can provide insight into, and constraints on, terrestrial carbon cycling. Radiocarbon (t{sub 1/2} 5730yrs) is produced naturally in the stratosphere when secondary neutrons generated by cosmic rays collide with {sup 14}N atoms [Libby 1946; Arnold and Libby, 1949]. Upon formation, {sup 14}C is rapidly oxidized to CO and then to CO{sub 2}, and is incorporated into the carbon cycle. Due to anthropogenic activities, the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere doubled in the mid/late 1950s and early 1960s from its preindustrial value of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of 1.18 x 10{sup -12} [eg., Nydal and Lovseth, 1983]. Following the atmospheric weapons test ban in 1963, the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio, has decreased due to the net isotopic exchange between the ocean and terrestrial biosphere [eg., Levin and Hessheimer, 2000] and a dilution effect due to the burning of {sup 14}C-free fossil fuel carbon, the 'Suess Effect' [Suess, 1955]. In the carbon cycle literature, radiocarbon measurements are generally reported as {Delta}{sup 14}C, which includes a correction for mass dependent fractionation [Stuiver and Polach, 1977]. In the context of carbon cycle studies radiocarbon measurements can be

  6. TWEAK/Fn14, a pathway and novel therapeutic target in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Ramesh S; Foff, Erin P; Yu, Qing; Gladman, Jordan T; Kim, Yun K; Bhatt, Kirti S; Thornton, Charles A; Zheng, Timothy S; Mahadevan, Mani S

    2015-04-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most prevalent muscular dystrophy in adults, is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and multi-systemic complications. DM1 is the prototype for disorders caused by RNA toxicity. Currently, no therapies exist. Here, we identify that fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor super-family, is induced in skeletal muscles and hearts of mouse models of RNA toxicity and in tissues from DM1 patients, and that its expression correlates with severity of muscle pathology. This is associated with downstream signaling through the NF-κB pathways. In mice with RNA toxicity, genetic deletion of Fn14 results in reduced muscle pathology and better function. Importantly, blocking TWEAK/Fn14 signaling with an anti-TWEAK antibody likewise improves muscle histopathology and functional outcomes in affected mice. These results reveal new avenues for therapeutic development and provide proof of concept for a novel therapeutic target for which clinically available therapy exists to potentially treat muscular dystrophy in DM1.

  7. The Allocation of Carbon Intensity Reduction Target by 2020 among Industrial Sectors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baochen Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the national carbon intensity reduction target, China has decided to establish a unified national carbon emissions trading market in 2017. At the initial stage, eight industrial sectors will be covered in the carbon market and the other industrial sectors will be included gradually. The aim of this paper is to study the issue of how to allocate the carbon emissions quotas among different industrial sectors fairly and effectively. We try to provide theoretical support for how to determine the coverage scope and access order of the carbon market. In this paper, we construct a comprehensive reduction index based on indicators of equity and efficiency principle. We adopt entropy method to get the objective weights of the three indicators. Then, an allocation model is developed to determine each sector’s reduction target for the year of 2020. The result shows that our allocation scheme based on entropy method is more reasonable, and our allocation method will promote the equity of carbon quotas allocation and the efficiency of carbon emissions. With consideration of China’s current economic situation and industrial background, we discuss some policy implications regarding the construction of carbon market.

  8. Divertor performance on carbon and beryllium targets in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeschitz, G.; Koenig, R.; Lauro-Taroni, L.; Lingertat, J.; Matthews, G.; Stamp, M.; Vlases, G.; Campbell, D.; Clement, S.; De Kock, L.; Ehrenberg, J.; Gottardi, N.; Harbour, P.; Horton, L.; Jaeckel, H.; Lesourd, M.; Loarte, A.; Lowry, C.; Saibene, G.; Summers, D.; Tagle, J.A.; Thomas, P.R.; Von Hellerman, M. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)); Eckstein, W.; Roth, J. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany))

    1992-12-01

    The dependence of impurity production and retention on the divertor density, on the power flow into this region as well as on the X-point to target distance are investigated. Model predictions suggest a good impurity retention above a certain divertor (scrape-off) density threshold, which is dependent on heating power. In our experiments pre-programmed midplane or X-point gas puffs were used to scan the density, as well as to avoid the depletion of particles from the divertor and the scrape-off during H-models. The gas puffs reduce T[sub e] and increase N[sub e] in particular at the outer strike zone. In general the Be as well as the C influx increases with density, which is understood from the T[sub e] (T[sub i]) dependence of the sputtering yields. The impurity retention shows the expected improvement with increasing scrape-off (divertor) density as well as with increasing X-point to target distance (connection length). (orig.).

  9. Drug loading, dispersion stability, and therapeutic efficacy in targeted drug delivery with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Heister, E; Neves, V.; Lamprecht, C.; Silva, SRP; Coley, HM; Mcfadden, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have designed a drug delivery system for the anti-cancer drugs doxorubicin and mitoxantrone based on carbon nanotubes, which is stable under biological conditions, allows for sustained release, and promotes selectivity through an active targeting scheme. Carbon nanotubes are particularly promising for this area of application due to their high surface area, allowing for high drug loading, and their unique interaction with cellular membranes. We have taken a systematic approach to PEG conju...

  10. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  11. Multiphase Carbon-14 Transport in a Near-Field-Scale Unsaturated Column of Natural Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. T. Fox; Mitchell A. Plummer; Larry C. Hull; D. Craig Cooper

    2004-03-01

    Wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory include activated metals that release radioactive carbon-14 (14C) as they corrode. To better understand 14C phase partitioning and transport in the SDA sediments, we conducted a series of transport experiments using 14C (radio-labeled sodium carbonate) and nonreactive gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and aqueous (bromide and tritiated water) tracers in a large (2.6-m high by 0.9-m diameter) column of sediments similar to those used as cover material at the SDA. We established steady-state unsaturated flow prior to injecting tracers into the column. Tracer migration was monitored using pore-water and pore-gas samples taken from co-located suction lysimeters and gas ports inserted at ~0.3-m intervals along the column’s length. Measurements of 14C discharged from the sediment to the atmosphere (i.e., 14CO2 flux) indicate a positive correlation between CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the column and changes in 14CO2 flux. Though 14CO2 diffusion is expected to be independent of pCO2, changes of pCO2 affect pore water chemistry sufficiently to affect aqueous/gas phase 14C partitioning and consequently 14C2 flux. Pore-water and -gas 14C activity measurements provide an average aqueous/gas partitioning ratio, Kag, of 4.5 (±0.3). This value is consistent with that calculated using standard carbonate equilibrium expressions with measured pH, suggesting the ability to estimate Kag from carbonate equilibrium. One year after the 14C injection, the column was cored and solid-phase 14C activity was measured. The average aqueous/solid partition coefficient, Kd, (1.6 L kg-1) was consistent with those derived from small-scale and short-term batch and column experiments using SDA sediments, suggesting that bench-scale measurements are a valid means of estimating aqueous/solid partitioning at the much larger spatial scale considered in these meso-scale experiments. However

  12. Fabrication of 14 different RNA nanoparticles for specific tumor targeting without accumulation in normal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yi; Haque, Farzin; Shu, Dan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Zhenqi; Kotb, Malak; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-06-01

    Due to structural flexibility, RNase sensitivity, and serum instability, RNA nanoparticles with concrete shapes for in vivo application remain challenging to construct. Here we report the construction of 14 RNA nanoparticles with solid shapes for targeting cancers specifically. These RNA nanoparticles were resistant to RNase degradation, stable in serum for >36 h, and stable in vivo after systemic injection. By applying RNA nanotechnology and exemplifying with these 14 RNA nanoparticles, we have established the technology and developed "toolkits" utilizing a variety of principles to construct RNA architectures with diverse shapes and angles. The structure elements of phi29 motor pRNA were utilized for fabrication of dimers, twins, trimers, triplets, tetramers, quadruplets, pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and other higher-order oligomers, as well as branched diverse architectures via hand-in-hand, foot-to-foot, and arm-on-arm interactions. These novel RNA nanostructures harbor resourceful functionalities for numerous applications in nanotechnology and medicine. It was found that all incorporated functional modules, such as siRNA, ribozymes, aptamers, and other functionalities, folded correctly and functioned independently within the nanoparticles. The incorporation of all functionalities was achieved prior, but not subsequent, to the assembly of the RNA nanoparticles, thus ensuring the production of homogeneous therapeutic nanoparticles. More importantly, upon systemic injection, these RNA nanoparticles targeted cancer exclusively in vivo without accumulation in normal organs and tissues. These findings open a new territory for cancer targeting and treatment. The versatility and diversity in structure and function derived from one biological RNA molecule implies immense potential concealed within the RNA nanotechnology field.

  13. Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis ubiquitin ligase ATL31 is critical for plant carbon/nitrogen nutrient balance response and controls the stability of 14-3-3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shigetaka; Sato, Takeo; Maekawa, Shugo; Aoyama, Shoki; Fukao, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Junji

    2014-05-30

    Ubiquitin ligase plays a fundamental role in regulating multiple cellular events in eukaryotes by fine-tuning the stability and activity of specific target proteins. We have previously shown that ubiquitin ligase ATL31 regulates plant growth in response to nutrient balance between carbon and nitrogen (C/N) in Arabidopsis. Subsequent study demonstrated that ATL31 targets 14-3-3 proteins for ubiquitination and modulates the protein abundance in response to C/N-nutrient status. However, the underlying mechanism for the targeting of ATL31 to 14-3-3 proteins remains unclear. Here, we show that ATL31 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We identified Thr(209), Ser(247), Ser(270), and Ser(303) as putative 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 by motif analysis. Mutation of these Ser/Thr residues to Ala in ATL31 inhibited the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, as demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Additionally, we identified in vivo phosphorylation of Thr(209) and Ser(247) on ATL31 by MS analysis. A peptide competition assay showed that the application of synthetic phospho-Thr(209) peptide, but not the corresponding unphosphorylated peptide, suppresses the interaction between ATL31 and 14-3-3 proteins. Moreover, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing mutated ATL31, which could not bind to 14-3-3 proteins, showed accumulation of 14-3-3 proteins and growth arrest in disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions similar to wild-type plants, although overexpression of intact ATL31 resulted in repression of 14-3-3 accumulation and tolerance to the conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that the physiological role of phosphorylation at 14-3-3 binding sites on ATL31 is to modulate the binding ability and stability of 14-3-3 proteins to control plant C/N-nutrient response.

  14. Carbon-14 in neutron-irradiated graphite for graphite-moderated reactors. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Kimio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsuo, Hideto [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The graphite moderated gas cooled reactor operated by the Japan Atomic Power Company was stopped its commercial operation on March 1998, and the decommissioning process has been started. Graphite material is often used as the moderator and the reflector materials in the core of the gas cooled reactor. During the operation, a long life nuclide of {sup 14}C is generated in the graphite by several transmutation reactions. Separation of {sup 14}C isotope and the development of the separation method have been recognized to be critical issues for the decommissioning of the reactor core. To understand the current methodologies for the carbon isotope separation, literature on the subject was surveyed. Also, those on the physical and chemical behavior of {sup 14}C were surveyed. This is because the larger part of the nuclides in the graphite is produced from {sup 14}N by (n,p) reaction, and the location of them in the material tends to be different from those of the other carbon atoms. This report summarizes the result of survey on the open literature about the behavior of {sup 14}C and the separation methods, including the list of the literature on these subjects. (author)

  15. A quartz-lined carbon-11 target: striving for increased yield and specific activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, Jacek; Larsen, Peter; Gillings, Nic

    2010-01-01

    The increased demand for high specific radioactivity neuroreceptor ligands for positron emission tomography (PET) requires the production of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 in high yields. We have attempted to address this issue with the development of a new quartz-lined aluminium target fo...

  16. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  17. Impact of carbon nanomaterials on the behaviour of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-benzo-[a] pyrene in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towell, Marcie G.; Browne, Lesley A. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Paton, Graeme I. [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The impact of fullerene soot (FS), single-walled (SWCNTs) and multi-walled (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes on the behaviour of two {sup 14}C-PAHs in sterile soil was investigated. Different concentrations of carbon nanomaterials (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%) were added to soil, and {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-benzo[a]pyrene extractability assessed over 80 d through dichloromethane (DCM) and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) shake extractions. Total {sup 14}C-PAH activity in soils was determined by combustion, and mineralisation of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene was monitored over 14 d, using a catabolically active pseudomonad inoculum. No significant loss of {sup 14}C-PAH-associated activity from CNM-amended soils was observed over the 'aging' period. CNMs had a significant impact on HPCD-extractability of {sup 14}C-PAHS; extractability decreased with increasing CNM concentration. Additionally, {sup 14}C-phenanthrene mineralisation was inhibited by the presence of CNMs at concentrations of {>=}0.05%. Differences in overall extents of {sup 14}C-mineralisation were also apparent between CNM types. It is suggested the addition of CNMs to soil can reduce PAH extractability and bioaccessibility, with PAH sorption to CNMs influenced by CNM type and concentration. - Research highlights: > Carbon nanoparticles reduce the extractability of PAHs in soil. > Carbon nanoparticles reduce the bioaccessibility of PAHs in soil. > Nanoparticle type is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil. > Nanoparticle concentration is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil - Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) can alter the extractability, bioaccessibility and microbial mineralisation of PAHs in soil.

  18. Modelling of dead carbon fraction in speleothems: a step towards reliable speleothem 14C-chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Jamieson, Robert A.; McIntyre, Cameron; Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U. L.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past two decades, speleothems have become one of the most versatile and promising archives for the study of past continental climate. Very precise absolute dating is often possible using the U-Th method, resulting in paleoclimate records of exceptional resolution and accuracy. However, not all speleothems are amenable to this dating method for a variety of reasons (e.g. low U concentrations, high detrital Th etc). This has lead researchers to exclude many otherwise suitable speleothems and cave sites from further investigation. 14C-dating of speleothems has so far not been applicable, due to the 'dead carbon' problem. As drip water percolates through the karst, dissolving CaCO3, a variable amount of 14C-dead carbon is added to the solution. This results in a temporally variable and site-specific reservoir effect, ultimately undermining the development of speleothem 14C -chronologies. However, a number of recent studies have shown a clear link between karst hydrology and associated proxies (e.g., Mg/Ca and δ13C) and this 'dead carbon fraction' (DCF). We take advantage of this relationship to model DCF and its changes using Mg/Ca, δ13C and 14C data from published speleothem records. Using one record for calibration purposes, we build a transfer function for the DCF in relation to δ13C and Mg/Ca, which we then apply to other 14C records. Initial model results are promising; we are able to reconstruct general long-term average DCF within uncertainties of the calculated DCF from the U-Th chronology. Large shifts in DCF related to hydrology are also often detected. In a second step, we apply the model to a speleothem from southern Poland, which so far could not be dated, due to very low U-concentrations. To construct a 14C chronology, the stalagmite was sampled at 5 mm intervals. CaCO3 powders were graphitized and measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (MICADAS) at ETH Zurich. Additional high-resolution (0.1 mm/sample) 14C measurements were performed on

  19. LIMITED OXIDATION OF IRRADIATED GRAPHITE WASTE TO REMOVE SURFACE CARBON-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARA E. SMITH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of irradiated graphite waste from graphite-moderated nuclear reactors exist and are expected to increase in the case of High Temperature Reactor (HTR deployment [1,2]. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy. Of greatest concern for long-term disposal of irradiated graphite is carbon-14 (14C, with a half-life of 5730 years. Fachinger et al. [2] have demonstrated that thermal treatment of irradiated graphite removes a significant fraction of the 14C, which tends to be concentrated on the graphite surface. During thermal treatment, graphite surface carbon atoms interact with naturally adsorbed oxygen complexes to create COx gases, i.e. “gasify” graphite. The effectiveness of this process is highly dependent on the availability of adsorbed oxygen compounds. The quantity and form of adsorbed oxygen complexes in pre- and post-irradiated graphite were studied using Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS in an effort to better understand the gasification process and to apply that understanding to process optimization. Adsorbed oxygen fragments were detected on both irradiated and unirradiated graphite; however, carbon-oxygen bonds were identified only on the irradiated material. This difference is likely due to a large number of carbon active sites associated with the higher lattice disorder resulting from irradiation. Results of XPS analysis also indicated the potential bonding structures of the oxygen fragments removed during surface impingement. Ester- and carboxyl- like structures were predominant among the identified oxygen-containing fragments. The indicated structures are consistent with those characterized by Fanning and Vannice [3] and later incorporated into an oxidation kinetics model by El-Genk and Tournier [4]. Based on the predicted desorption mechanisms of carbon oxides from the identified compounds, it is expected that a

  20. Targeting patterns: A path forward for uncertainty quantification in carbon cycle science? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, A. M.; Fang, Y.; Miller, S. M.; Ray, J.; Shiga, Y. P.; Yadav, V.; Zscheischler, J.

    2013-12-01

    focus from the fluxes themselves to patterns of fluxes, where patterns are defined broadly and could include spatial heterogeneity, anomalies, extremes, trends, sensitivities to environmental parameters, etc. This presentation will describe examples of such applications, using methods that target the spatiotemporal patterns in carbon fluxes, either in addition to or instead of, targeting the net fluxes themselves. Rather than quantifying the uncertainty associated with aggregated fluxes, therefore, the applications focus on characterizing the uncertainty associated with the spatiotemporal signatures of carbon fluxes, which arguably can provide a more direct link to understanding underlying processes. Examples will include carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux characterization, from both anthropogenic and natural processes.

  1. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  2. Synthesis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon marked with carbon-14: (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene {sup 14}C-7,14; Synthese d'un hydrocarbure aromatique polycyclique marque au carbone 14: le dibenzo (b, d e f) chrysene {sup 14}C-7,14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene C-7,14 has been synthesized from radioactive carbon dioxide and the organic magnesium compound derived from 1,5 dibromo naphthalene. The product has been purified by a very precise series of fractionated chromatographs on alumina having a chromatographic activity. This has necessitated the development of a special technique. (author) [French] Le dibenzo (b, d e f) chrysene 14C-7,14 a ete synthetise au depart de gaz carbonique radioactif et de bis-organomagnesien derive du dibromo-1,5 naphtalene. Le produit a ete purifie par une serie de chromatographies fractionnees sur alumine d'activite chromatographique tres precise. Ceci a fait l'objet d'une mise au point de technique. (auteur)

  3. Multimolecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic : 14C characteristics of sedimentary carbon components and their environmental controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Gustafsson, Örjan; Holmes, R. Max; Vonk, Jorien E.; Van Dongen, Bart E.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Yunker, Mark B.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Wacker, Lukas; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing the sources, ages, and fate of various terrestrial organic carbon (OC) pools mobilized from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes is key to assessing climatic impacts on the fluvial release of carbon from permafrost. Through molecular 14C measurements, including novel analyses of suberin- a

  4. Tumor imaging and targeting potential of an Hsp70-derived 14-mer peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Gehrmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously used a unique mouse monoclonal antibody cmHsp70.1 to demonstrate the selective presence of a membrane-bound form of Hsp70 (memHsp70 on a variety of leukemia cells and on single cell suspensions derived from solid tumors of different entities, but not on non-transformed cells or cells from corresponding 'healthy' tissue. This antibody can be used to image tumors in vivo and target them for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Tumor-specific expression of memHsp70 therefore has the potential to be exploited for theranostic purposes. Given the advantages of peptides as imaging and targeting agents, this study assessed whether a 14-mer tumor penetrating peptide (TPP; TKDNNLLGRFELSG, the sequence of which is derived from the oligomerization domain of Hsp70 which is expressed on the cell surface of tumor cells, can also be used for targeting membrane Hsp70 positive (memHsp70+ tumor cells, in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The specificity of carboxy-fluorescein (CF- labeled TPP (TPP to Hsp70 was proven in an Hsp70 knockout mammary tumor cell system. TPP specifically binds to different memHsp70+ mouse and human tumor cell lines and is rapidly taken up via endosomes. Two to four-fold higher levels of CF-labeled TPP were detected in MCF7 (82% memHsp70+ and MDA-MB-231 (75% memHsp70+ cells compared to T47D cells (29% memHsp70+ that exhibit a lower Hsp70 membrane positivity. After 90 min incubation, TPP co-localized with mitochondrial membranes in memHsp70+ tumors. Although there was no evidence that any given vesicle population was specifically localized, fluorophore-labeled cmHsp70.1 antibody and TPP preferentially accumulated in the proximity of the adherent surface of cultured cells. These findings suggest a potential association between membrane Hsp70 expression and cytoskeletal elements that are involved in adherence, the establishment of intercellular synapses and/or membrane reorganization. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Bayoumi, Maged Fouad

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Balancing the carbon market. Analysing the international carbon market and abatement costs in 2020 for low-concentration targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Mendoza-Beltran, M.A.; Piris-Cabezas, P.; Van Vuuren, D.P.

    2009-08-15

    This report describes our analysis of the impact of various policy choices and scientific uncertainties on the price of tradable emission units on the global carbon market in 2020 and the associated abatement costs. Our analysis was done under the assumption that the overall goal is to stabilise long-term greenhouse gas concentrations at 450 ppm CO2-eq. To meet these stabilisation targets on the long-term, Annex I countries as a group need to reduce by 25-40% below 1990 levels by 2020, and non-Annex I countries as a group need to keep emissions substantially below baseline (about 15 to 30%). The integrated modelling framework FAIR 2.2 is used for our analysis. The main findings of this study are: the degree of ambition for reductions of Annex I and non-Annex I countries is the most important policy choice influencing the price and abatement costs. Other less important policy choices include the ambition of US climate policy and the participation of the developing countries in the global carbon market. By allowing the use of forest-based options - including avoiding deforestation - for compliance in a well-designed carbon trading system, the global abatement costs could be reduced by between 25% and 65%. This would also make ambitious mitigation targets more feasible. In addition to the policy choices, important scientific uncertainties, in particular the baseline emissions (i.e. emissions in the absence of climate policy) and the assumed marginal abatement costs, strongly influence the carbon market.

  7. Advances in cancer therapy through the use of carbon nanotube-mediated targeted hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cornel Iancu, Lucian Mocan3rd Surgery Clinic, Department of Nanomedicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging versatile tools in nanomedicine applications, particularly in the field of cancer targeting. Due to diverse surface chemistry and unique thermal properties, CNTs can act as strong optical absorbers in near infrared light where biological systems prove to be highly transparent. The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized CNTs is frequently termed “nanophotothermolysis.” This paper illustrates the potential of engineered CNTs as laser-activated photothermal agents for the selective nanophotothermolysis of cancer cells.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cancer targeting, functionalization, optical excitation, cancer treatment

  8. Study of facing target sputtered diamond-like carbon overcoats for hard disk drive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seet, H.L., E-mail: SEET_Hang_Li@dsi.a-star.edu.sg [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Ng, K.K.; Chen, X.Y. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Yang, P. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, 117603 (Singapore); Shen, L. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Ji, R.; Ng, H.X.; Lim, C.B. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore)

    2015-07-01

    The demand for higher areal density in the hard disk drive industry has fuelled extensive research efforts and focuses on magnetic spacing reduction. In the head–disk interface arena, one of the key focuses is to reduce the carbon overcoat thickness without compromising the overcoat protection performance. Thus, in the search for alternative methods to reduce the carbon overcoat thickness, the facing target sputtering (FTS) process for diamond-like carbon deposition has been investigated. The resulting properties have been presented in this paper, with comparison to conventional diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers by other processes such as chemical vapor deposition and reactive sputtering with nitrogen. X-ray reflectometry results showed that facing target sputtered DLC samples displayed significantly higher density, at 2.87 g/cm{sup 3}, as compared to hydrogenated and nitrogenated DLC samples. This was attributed to the higher sp{sup 3} content, as obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. As a result of the high sp{sup 3} content, hardness of the FTS deposited samples was higher than that of the hydrogenated and nitrogenated DLC samples. In addition, the surface energy of FTS samples was observed to be comparable, but lower, than that of nitrogenated DLC samples through contact angle measurements. Clearances comparable to that of conventional DLC samples were achieved and the sample disks were flyable. Wear performance tests also revealed more wear resistance for the FTS deposited DLC samples, but also higher head wear. - Highlights: • Facing target sputtered (FTS) diamond-like carbon (DLC) samples were studied. • FTS DLC samples possess higher density and hardness. • Surface conditions and flyability performances for FTS DLC samples were comparable. • Wear tests on FTS DLC samples showed lower media wear, but higher head wear.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Behavior of Carbon Dioxide Injected into Target Geologic Formations in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of thermo-hydrological numerical simulations was performed to predict and analyze behavior of carbon dioxide injected into target geologic formations in the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore basins for geologic carbon dioxide storage in Korea. The results of the numerical simulations for the two areas in the basin show that the spatial distribution, structure (layered structure), and hydrological properties (anisotropy of intrinsic permeability) of the target geologic formations have significant impacts on three-dimensional behavior of carbon dioxide injected. The horizontal movement of carbon dioxide along the spatial distribution of a target geologic formation (Unit C-4) is more dominant than the vertical movement. As the injection amount of carbon dioxide increases, carbon dioxide plume expands furthermore and reaches to the shallower depth region from the mean sea level. Even in case of the maximum injection amount of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide does not leak through the top boundary (sea floor) of the modeling domain for both areas. It indicates that carbon dioxide can be stored in the two areas up to their effective storage capacities of free fluid phase carbon dioxide, which was estimated in authors' previous study. As time progresses, carbon dioxide stored by hydrodynamic trapping decreases, while carbon dioxide stored by solubility trapping increases. The total mass of carbon dioxide stored by solubility trapping evaluated in this study is significantly greater than that estimated in authors' previous study. It indicates that the storage efficiency of aqueous phase carbon dioxide is greater than that of free fluid phase carbon dioxide. Therefore, this difference in the storage efficiencies of the free fluid and aqueous phases of carbon dioxide must be properly considered when more rigorous effective storage capacities of carbon dioxide are to be estimated on basin and even site scales. This work was supported by the

  10. Targeting Ergosterol biosynthesis in Leishmania donovani: essentiality of sterol 14 alpha-demethylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Isobel McCall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania protozoan parasites (Trypanosomatidae family are the causative agents of cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis worldwide. While these diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, there are few adequate treatments available. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51 in the parasite sterol biosynthesis pathway has been the focus of considerable interest as a novel drug target in Leishmania. However, its essentiality in Leishmania donovani has yet to be determined. Here, we use a dual biological and pharmacological approach to demonstrate that CYP51 is indispensable in L. donovani. We show via a facilitated knockout approach that chromosomal CYP51 genes can only be knocked out in the presence of episomal complementation and that this episome cannot be lost from the parasite even under negative selection. In addition, we treated wild-type L. donovani and CYP51-deficient strains with 4-aminopyridyl-based inhibitors designed specifically for Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51. While potency was lower than in T. cruzi, these inhibitors had increased efficacy in parasites lacking a CYP51 allele compared to complemented parasites, indicating inhibition of parasite growth via a CYP51-specific mechanism and confirming essentiality of CYP51 in L. donovani. Overall, these results provide support for further development of CYP51 inhibitors for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. The application of carbon nanotubes in target drug delivery systems for cancer therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhenzhong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among all cancer treatment options, chemotherapy continues to play a major role in killing free cancer cells and removing undetectable tumor micro-focuses. Although chemotherapies are successful in some cases, systemic toxicity may develop at the same time due to lack of selectivity of the drugs for cancer tissues and cells, which often leads to the failure of chemotherapies. Obviously, the therapeutic effects will be revolutionarily improved if human can deliver the anticancer drugs with high selectivity to cancer cells or cancer tissues. This selective delivery of the drugs has been called target treatment. To realize target treatment, the first step of the strategies is to build up effective target drug delivery systems. Generally speaking, such a system is often made up of the carriers and drugs, of which the carriers play the roles of target delivery. An ideal carrier for target drug delivery systems should have three pre-requisites for their functions: (1 they themselves have target effects; (2 they have sufficiently strong adsorptive effects for anticancer drugs to ensure they can transport the drugs to the effect-relevant sites; and (3 they can release the drugs from them in the effect-relevant sites, and only in this way can the treatment effects develop. The transporting capabilities of carbon nanotubes combined with appropriate surface modifications and their unique physicochemical properties show great promise to meet the three pre-requisites. Here, we review the progress in the study on the application of carbon nanotubes as target carriers in drug delivery systems for cancer therapies.

  12. Status and trends in global ecosystem services and natural capital: assessing progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 14

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, E.; Milner-Gulland, EJ; Knight, AT; Ling, Ma; Darrah, S; Soesbergen, A. van; Burgess, ND

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity uses six indicators to assess progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Target 14 (ecosystem services), leaving many elements of the target untracked. We identify 13 ecosystem services as directly essential for human well-being, and select a set of 21 datasets as indicators of the state of natural capital underpinning those services, the benefits derived from them, and distribution of access to those benefits. Analysis of these indicators supports previous con...

  13. Drug-loading capacity and nuclear targeting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grafted with anionic amphiphilic copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai HC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hsieh-Chih Tsai,1,* Jeng-Yee Lin,2,* Faiza Maryani,1 Chun-Chiang Huang,1 Toyoko Imae1,31Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In this study, three types of hybrid nanotubes (NTs, ie, oxidized multiwalled carbon NTs (COOH MWCNTs, heparin (Hep-conjugated MWCNTs (Hep MWCNTs, and diblock copolymer polyglycolic acid (PGA-co-heparin conjugated to MWCNTs (PGA MWCNTs, were synthesized with improved biocompatibility and drug-loading capacity. Hydrophilic Hep substituents on MWCNTs improved biocompatibility and acted as nucleus-sensitive segments on the CNT carrier, whereas the addition of PGA enhanced drug-loading capacity. In the PGA MWCNT system, the amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-Hep formed micelles on the side walls of CNTs, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The PGA system encapsulated the hydrophobic drug with high efficiency compared to the COOH MWCNT and Hep MWCNT systems. This is because the drug was loaded onto the PGA MWCNTs through hydrophobic forces and onto the CNTs by ∏–∏ stacking interactions. Additionally, most of the current drug-carrier designs that target cancer cells release the drug in the lysosome or cytoplasm. However, nuclear-targeted drug release is expected to kill cancer cells more directly and efficiently. In our study, PGA MWCNT carriers effectively delivered the active anticancer drug doxorubicin into targeted nuclei. This study may provide an effective strategy for the development of carbon-based drug carriers for nuclear-targeted drug delivery. Keywords: carbon nanotube, amphiphilic copolymer, drug loading, nucleus targeting, cancer therapy

  14. Synthesis of {delta}-aminolevulic acid. Application to the introduction of carbon-14 and of tritium; Syntheses de l'acide {delta} aminolevulique. Application a l'introduction de carbone 14 et de tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loheac, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    Several new syntheses of {delta} aminolevulic acid ({delta} A.L.A.) have been studied. {sup 14}C-4 {delta} - aminolevulic acid has been obtained from {sup 14}C allylacetic carboxylic acid with a yield of 30 per cent with respect to barium carbonate and with a specific activity of 32 mCi/mM. The {sup 14}C-1 or {sup 14}C-2 {delta}-A.L.A. has been prepared from the {sup 14}C-1 or {sup 14}C-2 acetate with a yield of 55 per cent with respect to the acetate. Finally the tritiated {delta}-A.L.A. has been obtained for the first time by tritiation of ethyl phthalimidodehydrolevulate. (author) [French] Plusieurs syntheses nouvelles de l'acide {delta}-aminolevulique ont ete etudiees. L'acide {delta}-aminolevulique {sup 14}C-4 a ete obtenu a partir d'acide allylacetique carboxylique {sup 14}C, avec un rendement global de 30 pour cent par rapport au carbonate de baryum a une activite specifique de 32 mCi/M. Le {delta}-A.A.L. {sup 14}C-1 ou {sup 14}C-2 a ete obtenu a partir d'acetate {sup 14}C-1 ou {sup 14}C-2 avec un rendement de 55 pour cent par rapport a l'acetate. Enfin le {delta}-A.A.L. tritie a ete obtenu pour la premiere fois par tritiation du phtalimidodehydrolevulate d'ethyle. (auteur)

  15. Target-plane deposition of diamond-like carbon in pulsed laser ablation of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, S.S. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my

    2007-10-15

    In pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at 10{sup -6} Torr, diamond-like carbon (DLC) are deposited at laser wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm on substrates placed in the target-plane. These target-plane samples are found to contain varying sp{sup 3} content and composed of nanostructures of 40-200 nm in size depending on the laser wavelength and laser fluence. The material and origin of sp{sup 3} in the target-plane samples is closely correlated to that in the laser-modified HOPG surface layer, and hardly from the backward deposition of ablated carbon plume. The surface morphology of the target-plane samples shows the columnar growth and with a tendency for agglomeration between nanograins, in particular for long laser wavelength at 1064 nm. It is also proposed that DLC formation mechanism at the laser-ablated HOPG is possibly via the laser-induced subsurface melting and resolidification.

  16. Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Dual-Target Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cui; LI Guo-Qing; GOU Wei; MU Zong-Xin; ZHANG Cheng-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Smooth, dense and uniform diamond-like carbon films (DLC films) for industrial applications have successfully been prepared by dual-target unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the DLC characteristics of the films are confirmed by Raman spectra. It is found that the sputtering current of target plays an important role in the DLC film deposition. Deposition rate of 3.5μm/h is obtained by using the sputtering current of 30 A. The friction coefficient of the films is 0.2-0.225 measured by using a pin-on-disc microtribometer. The structure of the films tends to have a growth of sp3 bonds content at high sputtering current. The compressive residual stress in the films increases with the increasing sputtering current of the target.

  17. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Carturan, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Vasquez, J.; Zanonato, P.; Colombo, P.; Jost, C. U.; Stracener, D. W.

    2013-05-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  18. Self-Targeting Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Diagnosis of Brain Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Ruan, Shaobo; Liu, Shi; Sun, Tingting; Qu, Dan; Zhao, Haifeng; Xie, Zhigang; Gao, Huile; Jing, Xiabin; Sun, Zaicheng

    2015-11-24

    A new type of carbon dots (CD-Asp) with targeting function toward brain cancer glioma was synthesized via a straightforward pyrolysis route by using D-glucose and L-aspartic acid as starting materials. The as-prepared CD-Asp exhibits not only excellent biocompatibility and tunable full-color emission, but also significant capability of targeting C6 glioma cells without the aid of any extra targeting molecules. In vivo fluorescence images showed high-contrast biodistribution of CD-Asp 15 min after tail vein injection. A much stronger fluorescent signal was detected in the glioma site than that in normal brain, indicating their ability to freely penetrate the blood-brain barrier and precisely targeting glioma tissue. However, its counterparts, the CDs synthesized from D-glucose (CD-G), L-asparic acid (CD-A), or D-glucose and L-glutamic acid (CD-Glu) have no or low selectivity for glioma. Therefore, CD-Asp could act as a fluorescence imaging and targeting agent for noninvasive glioma diagnosis. This work highlights the potential application of CDs for constructing an intelligent nanomedicine with integration of diagnostic, targeting, and therapeutic functions.

  19. Targeting of Fn14 Prevents Cancer-Induced Cachexia and Prolongs Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Amelia J; Murphy, Kate T; Jenkinson, Laura; Laine, David; Emmrich, Kerstin; Faou, Pierre; Weston, Ross; Jayatilleke, Krishnath M; Schloegel, Jessie; Talbo, Gert; Casey, Joanne L; Levina, Vita; Wong, W Wei-Lynn; Dillon, Helen; Sahay, Tushar; Hoogenraad, Joan; Anderton, Holly; Hall, Cathrine; Schneider, Pascal; Tanzer, Maria; Foley, Michael; Scott, Andrew M; Gregorevic, Paul; Liu, Spring Yingchun; Burkly, Linda C; Lynch, Gordon S; Silke, John; Hoogenraad, Nicholas J

    2015-09-10

    The cytokine TWEAK and its cognate receptor Fn14 are members of the TNF/TNFR superfamily and are upregulated in tumors. We found that Fn14, when expressed in tumors, causes cachexia and that antibodies against Fn14 dramatically extended lifespan by inhibiting tumor-induced weight loss although having only moderate inhibitory effects on tumor growth. Anti-Fn14 antibodies prevented tumor-induced inflammation and loss of fat and muscle mass. Fn14 signaling in the tumor, rather than host, is responsible for inducing this cachexia because tumors in Fn14- and TWEAK-deficient hosts developed cachexia that was comparable to that of wild-type mice. These results extend the role of Fn14 in wound repair and muscle development to involvement in the etiology of cachexia and indicate that Fn14 antibodies may be a promising approach to treat cachexia, thereby extending lifespan and improving quality of life for cancer patients.

  20. Protein kinase C gamma mutations in spinocerebellar ataxia 14 increase kinase activity and alter membrane targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, D. S.; Knight, M. A.; Harmison, G. G.; Fischbeck, K. H.; Howell, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) gene is mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, we investigated the effects of two SCA14 missense mutations, G118D and C150F, on PKCgamma function. We found that these mutations increase the intrinsic activity of PKCgamma. Direct visual

  1. An abundance of rare functional variants in 202 drug target genes sequenced in 14.002 people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Matthew R.; Wegmann, Daniel; Ehm, Margaret G.;

    2012-01-01

    Rare genetic variants contribute to complex disease risk; however, the abundance of rare variants in human populations remains unknown. We explored this spectrum of variation by sequencing 202 genes encoding drug targets in 14,002 individuals. We find rare variants are abundant (1 every 17 bases)...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biodegradation Studies of Poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene-adipate-carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay S. Chandure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic/alicyclic poly(1,4-cyclohexanedimethylene-adipate-carbonates (PCACs were synthesized by a transesterification from 1,4-cyclohexamethylendimethanol (1,4-CHDM, adipic acid (AA, diethyl carbonate (DEC, and titanium butoxide Ti(OBu4 as a transesterification catalyst. The synthesized PCACs were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, solubility, solution viscosity, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM for their structural, physical, thermal, and morphological investigation. The structure of synthesized PCACs was confirmed by FTIR. All TGA curves of PCACs shows 10% weight loss above 270°C, and they reveal good thermal stability. Biodegradability of PCACs was investigated by hydrolytic degradation at (pH 7.2 and 11.5, enzymatic degradation using Rhizopus delemar lips at 37°C in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, and soil burial degradation at 30°C. The hydrolytic degradation shows the greater rate of weight loss in PBS at pH-11.5 than pH-7.2. The hydrolytic and soil burial degradation shows faster rate of weight loss as compared to enzymatic degradation. Biodegradation rate of PCACs follows the order: PCAC-20 > PCAC-40 > PCAC-60. SEM images show that degradation occurred all over the film surface, creating holes and cracks. These biodegradable PCACs may be able to replace conventional polymer in the fabrication of packaging film in near future.

  3. A study of the carbon dynamics of Japanese grassland and forest using 14C and 13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Kazumi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Tamura, Kenji; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    We quantified the carbon contents of grassland and forest soil using conventional methods and studied the changes in their dynamics by measuring δ 13C and Δ 14C. Soil samples were taken from a neighboring Miscanthus sinensis grassland and Pinus densiflora forest in central Japan. Both had been maintained as grassland until the 1960s, when the latter was abandoned and became a pine forest by natural succession. The soil carbon content of the forest was much lower than that of the grassland, implying that the soil carbon decreased as the grassland became forest. The δ 13C values were very similar in the grassland and forest, at approximately -20‰, suggesting that M. sinensis (a C4 plant) contributed to carbon storage, whereas there was little carbon accumulation from P. densiflora (a C3 plant) in forest soil. The Δ 14C values and calculated soil carbon mean residence time (MRT) showed that the soil carbon in the upper A horizon was older, and that in the lower A horizon was younger in forest than in grassland. From these results, we conclude that young, fast-MRT soil carbon is decomposed in the upper A horizon, and old, stable soil carbon was decomposed in the lower A horizon after the pine invasion.

  4. A study of the carbon dynamics of Japanese grassland and forest using {sup 14}C and {sup 13}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuno, Kazumi, E-mail: katsuno@nenv.k.u-tokyo.ac.j [University of Tokyo, Department of Natural Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Miyairi, Yosuke [University of Tokyo, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tamura, Kenji [University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, 1-1-1 Tennnodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [University of Tokyo, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Fukuda, Kenji [University of Tokyo, Department of Natural Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    We quantified the carbon contents of grassland and forest soil using conventional methods and studied the changes in their dynamics by measuring delta{sup 13}C and DELTA{sup 14}C. Soil samples were taken from a neighboring Miscanthus sinensis grassland and Pinus densiflora forest in central Japan. Both had been maintained as grassland until the 1960s, when the latter was abandoned and became a pine forest by natural succession. The soil carbon content of the forest was much lower than that of the grassland, implying that the soil carbon decreased as the grassland became forest. The delta{sup 13}C values were very similar in the grassland and forest, at approximately -20 per mille , suggesting that M. sinensis (a C4 plant) contributed to carbon storage, whereas there was little carbon accumulation from P. densiflora (a C3 plant) in forest soil. The DELTA{sup 14}C values and calculated soil carbon mean residence time (MRT) showed that the soil carbon in the upper A horizon was older, and that in the lower A horizon was younger in forest than in grassland. From these results, we conclude that young, fast-MRT soil carbon is decomposed in the upper A horizon, and old, stable soil carbon was decomposed in the lower A horizon after the pine invasion.

  5. First observation of spin dichroism with deuterons up to 20 MeV in a carbon target

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V; Engels, R; Rathmann, F; Seyfarth, H; Ströher, H; Ullrich, T; D"uweke, C; Emmerich, R; Imig, A; Ley, J; Schieck, H P; Schulze, R; Tenckhoff, G; Weske, C; Mikirtytchiants, M; Vasilev, A

    2005-01-01

    The first observation of the phenomenom of deuteron spin dichroism in the energy region of 6-20 MeV is described. Experimental values of this effect for deuterons after passage of an unpolarized carbon target are reported.

  6. Nuclear Structure Studies in the 132Sn Region: Safe Coulex with Carbon Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmond, James M [ORNL; Stuchbery, Andrew E [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Radford, David C [ORNL; Batchelder, J. C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Stone, N. J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Varner, Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The collective and single-particle structure of nuclei in the 132Sn region was recently studied by Coulomb excitation and heavy-ion induced transfer reactions using carbon, beryllium, and titanium targets. In particular, Coulomb excitation was used determine a complete set of electromagnetic moments for the first 2+ states and one-neutron transfer was used to probe the purity and evolution of single-neutron states. These recent experiments were conducted at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL using a CsI-HPGe detector array (BareBall- CLARION) to detect scattered particles and emitted gamma rays from the in-beam reactions. A Bragg-curve detector was used to measure the energy loss of the various beams through the targets and to measure the radioactive beam compositions. A sample of the Coulomb excitation results is presented here with an emphasis placed on 116Sn. In particular, the safe Coulex criterion for carbon targets will be analyzed and discussed.

  7. Prospects for Meeting Australia’s 2020 Carbon Targets, given a Growing Economy, Uncertain International Carbon Markets and the Slow Emergence of Renewable Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hunt

    2011-01-01

    The carbon emissions of Australia’s future energy consumption are compared with the emissions targets implied by the cuts in carbon emissions committed to by the Australian government for 2020 and 2050. Analysis shows that even the seemingly modest cut of 5% of carbon emissions by 2020 cannot be met without substantial contributions by low carbon sources that are in addition to the contribution of 20% of electricity supply mandated by the government. The choices in renewable energy are cons...

  8. Targeting head and neck cancer stem cells to overcome resistance to photon and carbon ion radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Gérald; Maalouf, Mira; Boivin, Antony; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Beuve, Michael; Levy, Antonin; Jalade, Patrice; Fournier, Claudia; Ardail, Dominique; Magné, Nicolas; Alphonse, Gersende; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2014-02-01

    Although promising new radiation therapy techniques such as hadrontherapy are currently being evaluated in the treatment of head and neck malignancies, local control of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains low. Here, we investigated the involvement of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in a radioresistant HNSCC cell line (SQ20B). Stem-like cells SQ20B/SidePopulation(SP)/CD44(+)/ALDH(high) were more resistant to both photon and carbon ion irradiation compared with non-CSCs. This was confirmed by a BrdU labeling experiment, which suggests that CSCs were able to proliferate and to induce tumorigenicity after irradiation. SQ20B/SP/CD44(+)/ALDH(high) were capable of an extended G2/M arrest phase in response to photon or carbon ion irradiation compared with non-CSCs. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that resistance of CSCs may result from an imbalance between exacerbated self-renewal and proliferative capacities and the decrease in apoptotic cell death triggering. In order to modulate these processes, two targeted pharmacological strategies were tested. Firstly, UCN-01, a checkpoint kinase (Chk1) inhibitor, induced the relapse of G2/M arrest and radiosensitization of SQ20B-CSCs. Secondly, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resulted in an inhibition of ALDH activity, and induction of the differentiation and radiosensitization of SQ20B/SP/CD44(+)/ALDH(high) cells. The combination of ATRA and UCN-01 treatments with irradiation drastically decreased the surviving fraction at 2Gy of SQ20B-CSCs from 0.85 to 0.38 after photon irradiation, and from 0.45 to 0.21 in response to carbon ions. Taken together, our results suggest that the combination of UCN-01 and ATRA represent a promising pharmacological-targeted strategy that significantly sensitizes CSCs to photon or carbon ion radiation.

  9. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  10. The application of carbon-14 analyses to the source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particulate matter: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) together constitute a substantial proportion of airborne particulate matter (PM). Insight into the sources of this major contributor to PM is important for policies to mitigate the impact of PM on human health and climate change. In recent years measurement of the abundance of the radioisotope of carbon ((14)C) in samples of PM by accelerator mass spectrometry has been used to help quantify the relative contributions from sources of fossil carbon and contemporary carbon. This review provides an introduction to the different sources of carbon within PM and the role of (14)C measurements, a description of the preparation of PM samples and of the instrumentation used to quantify (14)C, and a summary of the results and source apportionment methods reported in published studies since 2004. All studies report a sizable fraction of the carbonaceous PM as of non-fossil origin. Even for PM collected in urban locations, the proportions of non-fossil carbon generally exceed 30%; typically the proportion in urban background locations is around 40-60% depending on the local influence of biomass burning. Where values have been measured directly, proportions of non-fossil carbon in EC are lower than in OC, reflecting the greater contribution of fossil-fuel combustion to EC and the generally small sources of contemporary EC. Detailed source apportionment studies point to important contributions from biogenic-derived secondary OC, consistent with other evidence of a ubiquitous presence of heavily oxidized background secondary OC. The review concludes with some comments on current issues and future prospects, including progress towards compound-class and individual-compound-specific (14)C analyses.

  11. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  12. China's Voluntary Mitigation Target and Road of Low-carbon Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jiankun

    2011-01-01

    China is going through a rapid development stage of industrialization and urbanization.Although tremendous achievements have been made in the aspects of energy conservation,improvement of energy effectiveness and development of new and renewable energies,because of the rapid development of economy,it is difficult to change the huge total amount and fast increase of CO2 emission in the near future.China has to confront the tough challenge to address global climate change.China plans to reduce carbon intensity,that is,CO2 emissions per unit GDP,by 40 to 45% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level.It is a strategic option to coordinate domestic sustainable development with coping with global climate change on the basis of China's national circumstances,representing the core content and key measures for transforming development pattern and realizing low-carbon development.To achieve the target,more capital and technology inputs are required for energy conservation and low-carbon development during the twelfth and Thirteenth Five Year Plan period than in the Eleventh Five Year Plan period.In addition,energy conservation achieved by structural adjustment,industrial upgrading and product value-added improvement is also expected to play a greater role.Therefore,China should strengthen technological innovation,make greater efforts to transform the development pattern,take advantage of the synergistic effect of policies and measures while coping with global climate change and building a domestic tow-oriented society.China should also establish an industrial system characterized by low-carbon emission.Then China will ultimately achieve a win-win situation in both domestic sustainable development and coping with global climate change.

  13. Measurement of proton-induced target fragmentation cross sections in carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K.; Nishio, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsuneda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Ieki, K.

    2016-02-01

    In proton therapy, positron emitter nuclei are generated via the target nuclear fragmentation reactions between irradiated proton and nuclei constituting a human body. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed with measurement of annihilation γ-rays from the generated positron emitter nuclei. To achieve the high accuracy of proton therapy, in vivo dosimetry, i.e., evaluation of the irradiated dose during the treatment is important. To convert the measured activity distribution to irradiated dose, cross-sectional data for positron emitter production is necessary, which is currently insufficient in the treatment area. The purpose of this study is to collect cross-sectional data of 12C (p , pn)11C and 12C (p , p 2 n)10C reactions between the incident proton and carbon nuclei, which are important target nuclear fragmentation reactions, to estimate the range and exposure dose distribution in the patient's body. Using planar-type PET capable of measuring annihilation γ-rays at high positional resolution and thick polyethylene target, we measured cross-sectional data in continuous wide energy range. The cross section of 12C (p , pn)11C is in good agreement with existing experimental data. The cross section of 12C (p , p 2 n)10C is reported for the first data in the low-energy range of 67.6-10.5 MeV near the Bragg peak of proton beam.

  14. Towards a global understanding of vertical soil carbon dynamics: meta-analysis of soil 14C data

    Science.gov (United States)

    hatte, C.; Balesdent, J.; Guiot, J.

    2012-12-01

    Soil represents the largest terrestrial storage mechanism for atmospheric carbon from photosynthesis, with estimates ranging from 1600 Pg C within the top 1 meter to 2350 Pg C for the top 3 meters. These values are at least 2.5 times greater than atmospheric C pools. Small changes in soil organic carbon storage could result in feedback to atmospheric CO2 and the sensitivity of soil organic matter to changes in temperature, and precipitation remains a critical area of research with respect to the global carbon cycle. As an intermediate storage mechanism for organic material through time, the vertical profile of carbon generally shows an age continuum with depth. Radiocarbon provides critical information for understanding carbon exchanges between soils and atmosphere, and within soil layers. Natural and "bomb" radiocarbon has been used to demonstrate the importance and nature of the soil carbon response to climatic and human impacts on decadal to millennial timescales. Radiocarbon signatures of bulk, or chemically or physically fractionated soil, or even of specific organic compounds, offer one of the only ways to infer terrestrial carbon turnover times or test ecosystem carbon models. We compiled data from the literature on radiocarbon distribution on soil profiles and characterized each study according to the following categories: soil type, analyzed organic fraction, location (latitude, longitude, elevation), climate (temperature, precipitation), land use and sampling year. Based on the compiled data, soil carbon 14C profiles were reconstructed for each of the 226 sites. We report here partial results obtained by statistical analyses of portion of this database, i.e. bulk and bulk-like organic matter and sampling year posterior to 1980. We highlight here 14C vertical pattern in relationship with external parameters (climate, location and land use).

  15. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting MRI contrast agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lin Hou,* Huijuan Zhang,* Yating Wang, Lili Wang, Xiaomin Yang, Zhenzhong ZhangSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A tumor-targeting carrier, hyaluronic acid (HA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, was explored to deliver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents (CAs targeting to the tumor cells specifically. In this system, HA surface modification for SWCNTs was simply accomplished by amidation process and could make this nanomaterial highly hydrophilic. Cellular uptake was performed to evaluate the intracellular transport capabilities of HA-SWCNTs for tumor cells and the uptake rank was HA-SWCNTs> SWCNTs owing to the presence of HA, which was also evidenced by flow cytometry. The safety evaluation of this MRI CAs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. It revealed that HA-SWCNTs could stand as a biocompatible nanocarrier and gadolinium (Gd/HA-SWCNTs demonstrated almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Moreover, GdCl3 bearing HA-SWCNTs could significantly increase the circulation time for MRI. Finally, to investigate the MRI contrast enhancing capabilities of Gd/HA-SWCNTs, T1-weighted MR images of tumor-bearing mice were acquired. The results suggested Gd/HA-SWCNTs had the highest tumor-targeting efficiency and T1-relaxivity enhancement, indicating HA-SWCNTs could be developed as a tumor-targeting carrier to deliver the CAs, GdCl3, for the identifiable diagnosis of tumor.Keywords: gadolinium, magnetic resonance, SWCNTs, hyaluronic acid, contrast agent

  16. Multimolecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic: 14C characteristics of sedimentary carbon components and their environmental controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Gustafsson, Örjan; Holmes, R. Max; Vonk, Jorien E.; Dongen, Bart E.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Yunker, Mark B.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Wacker, Lukas; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-11-01

    Distinguishing the sources, ages, and fate of various terrestrial organic carbon (OC) pools mobilized from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes is key to assessing climatic impacts on the fluvial release of carbon from permafrost. Through molecular 14C measurements, including novel analyses of suberin- and/or cutin-derived diacids (DAs) and hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), we compared the radiocarbon characteristics of a comprehensive suite of terrestrial markers (including plant wax lipids, cutin, suberin, lignin, and hydroxy phenols) in the sedimentary particles from nine major arctic and subarctic rivers in order to establish a benchmark assessment of the mobilization patterns of terrestrial OC pools across the pan-Arctic. Terrestrial lipids, including suberin-derived longer-chain DAs (C24,26,28), plant wax FAs (C24,26,28), and n-alkanes (C27,29,31), incorporated significant inputs of aged carbon, presumably from deeper soil horizons. Mobilization and translocation of these "old" terrestrial carbon components was dependent on nonlinear processes associated with permafrost distributions. By contrast, shorter-chain (C16,18) DAs and lignin phenols (as well as hydroxy phenols in rivers outside eastern Eurasian Arctic) were much more enriched in 14C, suggesting incorporation of relatively young carbon supplied by runoff processes from recent vegetation debris and surface layers. Furthermore, the radiocarbon content of terrestrial markers is heavily influenced by specific OC sources and degradation status. Overall, multitracer molecular 14C analysis sheds new light on the mobilization of terrestrial OC from arctic watersheds. Our findings of distinct ages for various terrestrial carbon components may aid in elucidating fate of different terrestrial OC pools in the face of increasing arctic permafrost thaw.

  17. Distribution and Biomarker of Carbon-14 Labeled Fullerene C60 ([14C(U)]C60) in Pregnant and Lactating Rats and their Offspring after Maternal Intravenous Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rodney W.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Wingard, Christopher J.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Holland, Nathan A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Lewin, Anita H.; Sumner, Susan C. J.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive distribution study was conducted in pregnant and lactating rats exposed to a suspension of uniformly carbon-14 labeled C60 ([14C(U)]C60). Rats were administered [14C(U)]C60 (~0.2 mg [14C(U)]C60/kg body weight) or 5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-saline vehicle via a single tail vein injection. Pregnant rats were injected on gestation day (GD) 11 (terminated with fetuses after either 24h or 8d), GD15 (terminated after 24h or 4d), or GD18 (terminated after 24h). Lactating rats were injected on postnatal day 8 and terminated after 24h, 3d or 11d. The distribution of radioactivity in pregnant dams was influenced by both the state of pregnancy and time of termination after exposure. The percentage of recovered radioactivity in pregnant and lactating rats was highest in liver and lungs. Radioactivity was quantitated in over 20 tissues. Radioactivity was found in placenta and in fetuses of pregnant dams, and in the milk of lactating rats and in pups. Elimination of radioactivity was <2% in urine and feces at each time point. Radioactivity remained in blood circulation up to 11 days after [14C(U)]C60 exposure. Biomarkers of inflammation, cardiovascular injury and oxidative stress were measured to study the biological impacts of [14C(U)]C60 exposure. Oxidative stress were elevated in female pups of exposed dams. Metabolomics analysis of urine showed that [14C(U)]C60 exposure to pregnant rats impacted the pathways of vitamin B, regulation of lipid and sugar metabolism and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that [14C(U)]C60 crosses the placenta at all stages of pregnancy examined, and is transferred to pups via milk. PMID:26081520

  18. Multifunctional hybrid-carbon nanotubes: new horizon in drug delivery and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as an intriguing nanotechnological tool for numerous biomedical applications including biocompatible modules for the bioactives delivery ascribed to their unique properties, such as greater loading efficiency, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high surface area and photoluminescence, that make them ideal candidate in pharmaceutical and biomedical science. The design of multifunctional hybrid-CNTs for drug delivery and targeting may differ from the conventional drug delivery system. The conventional nanocarriers have few limitations, such as inappropriate availability of surface-chemical functional groups for conjugation, low entrapment/loading efficiency as well as stability as per ICH guidelines with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) prominences. The multifunctional hybrid-CNTs will sparked and open a new door for researchers, scientist of the pharmaceutical and biomedical arena. This review summarizes the vivid aspects of CNTs like characterization, supramolecular chemistry of CNTs-dendrimer, CNTs-nanoparticles, CNTs-quantum dots conjugate for delivery of bioactives, not discussed so far.

  19. Single walled carbon nanotubes as drug delivery vehicles: targeting doxorubicin to tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjie; Zhang, Xiaoke; Lu, Qinghua; Fei, Zhaofu; Dyson, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are emerging as promising delivery vehicles for cancer diagnostics and chemotherapies due to their unique properties, including, remarkable cell membrane penetrability, high drug-carrying capacities, pH-dependent therapeutic unloading, prolonged circulating times and intrinsic fluorescent, photothermal, photoacoustic and Raman properties. In this leading opinion paper, we systemically discuss and evaluate the relationship of the biological safety of SWNTs with their physicochemical properties such as their length, purity, agglomeration state, concentration and surface functionalization. Other relevant issues, including the cellular uptake mechanism, biodistribution and metabolism of SWNTs are also reviewed. The design and preparation of SWNT-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) and their pharmacokinetic, cancer targeting and therapeutic properties both in vitro and in vivo are highlighted. Future opportunities and challenges of SWNT-based DDSs are also discussed.

  20. Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory%Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Gang

    2011-01-01

    Among all the emission reduction measures, carbon tax is recognized as the most effective way to protect our climate. That is why the Chinese government has recently taken it as a tax reform direction, In the current economic analysis, the design of carbon tax is mostly based on the target to maximize the efficiency However, based on the theory of tax system optimization, we should also consider other policy objectives, such as equity, revenue and cost, and then balance different objectives to achieve the suboptimum reform of carbon tax system in China.

  1. Robustness of target dose coverage to motion uncertainties for scanned carbon ion beam tracking therapy of moving tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, John Gordon; Newhauser, Wayne David; Richter, Daniel; Lüchtenborg, Robert; Saito, Nami; Bert, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Beam tracking with scanned carbon ion radiotherapy achieves highly conformal target dose by steering carbon pencil beams to follow moving tumors using real-time magnetic deflection and range modulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness of target dose coverage from beam tracking in light of positional uncertainties of moving targets and beams. To accomplish this, we simulated beam tracking for moving targets in both water phantoms and a sample of lung cancer patients using a research treatment planning system. We modeled various deviations from perfect tracking that could arise due to uncertainty in organ motion and limited precision of a scanned ion beam tracking system. We also investigated the effects of interfractional changes in organ motion on target dose coverage by simulating a complete course of treatment using serial (weekly) 4DCTs from six lung cancer patients. For perfect tracking of moving targets, we found that target dose coverage was high ({{\\overline{V}}95} was 94.8% for phantoms and 94.3% for lung cancer patients, respectively) but sensitive to changes in the phase of respiration at the start of treatment and to the respiratory period. Phase delays in tracking the moving targets led to large degradation of target dose coverage (up to 22% drop for a 15° delay). Sensitivity to technical uncertainties in beam tracking delivery was minimal for a lung cancer case. However, interfractional changes in anatomy and organ motion led to large decreases in target dose coverage (target coverage dropped approximately 8% due to anatomy and motion changes after 1 week). Our findings provide a better understand of the importance of each of these uncertainties for beam tracking with scanned carbon ion therapy and can be used to inform the design of future scanned ion beam tracking systems.

  2. Robustness of target dose coverage to motion uncertainties for scanned carbon ion beam tracking therapy of moving tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, John Gordon; Newhauser, Wayne David; Richter, Daniel; Lüchtenborg, Robert; Saito, Nami; Bert, Christoph

    2015-02-21

    Beam tracking with scanned carbon ion radiotherapy achieves highly conformal target dose by steering carbon pencil beams to follow moving tumors using real-time magnetic deflection and range modulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness of target dose coverage from beam tracking in light of positional uncertainties of moving targets and beams. To accomplish this, we simulated beam tracking for moving targets in both water phantoms and a sample of lung cancer patients using a research treatment planning system. We modeled various deviations from perfect tracking that could arise due to uncertainty in organ motion and limited precision of a scanned ion beam tracking system. We also investigated the effects of interfractional changes in organ motion on target dose coverage by simulating a complete course of treatment using serial (weekly) 4DCTs from six lung cancer patients. For perfect tracking of moving targets, we found that target dose coverage was high ([Formula: see text] was 94.8% for phantoms and 94.3% for lung cancer patients, respectively) but sensitive to changes in the phase of respiration at the start of treatment and to the respiratory period. Phase delays in tracking the moving targets led to large degradation of target dose coverage (up to 22% drop for a 15° delay). Sensitivity to technical uncertainties in beam tracking delivery was minimal for a lung cancer case. However, interfractional changes in anatomy and organ motion led to large decreases in target dose coverage (target coverage dropped approximately 8% due to anatomy and motion changes after 1 week). Our findings provide a better understand of the importance of each of these uncertainties for beam tracking with scanned carbon ion therapy and can be used to inform the design of future scanned ion beam tracking systems.

  3. Carbon 14 dating: recent progress and limits of the method; Le carbone 14: progres recents et limitations de la methode de datation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessy, J.C.; Arnold, M.; Cortijo, E.; Labeyrie, L.; Laj, C.; Lehman, B.; Mazaud, A.; Paterne, M.; Tisnerat, N.; Vidal, L. [Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA; Bard, E. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Cerese

    1998-12-31

    Significant progress has been made in calibrating the radiocarbon time scale. The increasing number and accuracy of {sup 14}C measurements has documented inconsistencies between the calendar age f an object and its {sup 14}C age. These inconsistencies are best explained by changes in {sup 14}C production due to variations of solar activity and/or changes of the geomagnetic field intensity. In this paper, we illustrate some recent results derived from the high resolution results of marine paleo-climatologists. Special emphasis will be made on two topics, abrupt climatic change and preliminary results of the extension of the radiocarbon time scale to 30,000 years before present, both of which open new research ways for the future. (author) 35 refs.

  4. Validation of a simplified carbon-14-urea breath test for routine use for detecting Helicobacter pylori noninvasively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, E.; Malfertheiner, P.; Clausen, M.; Burkhardt, H.; Adam, W.E. (Univ. of Ulm (West Germany))

    1990-12-01

    A carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) urea breath test for detecting Helicobacter pylori with multiple breath sampling was developed. Carbon-14-urea (110 kBq) administered orally to 18 normal subjects and to 82 patients with Helicobacter infection. The exhaled {sup 14}C-labeled CO{sub 2} was trapped at 10-min intervals for 90 min. The total {sup 14}C activity exhaled over 90 min was integrated and expressed in %activity of the total dose given. In normals, a mean of 0.59% +/- 0.24% was measured, resulting in an upper limit of normal of 1.07%. In 82 patients, a sensitivity of 90.2%, a specificity of 83.8%, and a positive predictive value of 90.2% was found. The single probes at intervals of 40-60 min correlated best with the integrated result, with r ranging from 0.986 to 0.990. The test's diagnostic accuracy did not change at all when reevaluated with the 40-, 50-, or 60-min sample data alone. Thus, the {sup 14}C-urea breath test can be applied routinely as a noninvasive, low-cost and one-sample test with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting Helicobacter pylori colonization.

  5. Evaluation of two decomposition schemes in Earth System Models against LIDET, C14 observations and global soil carbon maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuto, D. M.; Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soils contain the largest pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil carbon dynamics and associated nutrient dynamics play significant roles in regulating global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our capability to predict future climate change depends to a large extent on a well-constrained representation of soil carbon dynamics in ESMs. Here we evaluate two decomposition schemes - converging trophic cascade (CTC) and Century - in CLM4.5/ACME V0 using data from the long-term intersite decomposition experiment team (LIDET), radiocarbon (14C) observations, and Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). For the evaluation against LIDET, We exercise the full CLM4.5/ ACME V0 land model, including seasonal variability in nitrogen limitation and environmental scalars (temperature, moisture, O2), in order to represent LIDET experiment in a realistic way. We show that the proper design of model experiments is crucial to model evaluation using data from field experiments such as LIDET. We also use 14C profile data at 10 sites to evaluate the performance of CTC and CENTURY decomposition scheme. We find that the 14C profiles at these sites are most sensitive to the depth dependent decomposition parameters, consistent with previous studies.

  6. Automatic Focusing for a 675 GHz Imaging Radar with Target Standoff Distances from 14 to 34 Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Adrian; Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper dicusses the issue of limited focal depth for high-resolution imaging radar operating over a wide range of standoff distances. We describe a technique for automatically focusing a THz imaging radar system using translational optics combined with range estimation based on a reduced chirp bandwidth setting. The demonstarted focusing algorithm estimates the correct focal depth for desired targets in the field of view at unknown standoffs and in the presence of clutter to provide good imagery at 14 to 30 meters of standoff.

  7. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  8. Coprecipitation of {sup 14}C and Sr with carbonate precipitates: The importance of reaction kinetics and recrystallization pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodkin, David J. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Stewart, Douglas I. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Graham, James T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Burke, Ian T., E-mail: I.T.Burke@leeds.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of Sr{sup 2+} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} from pH > 12 Ca(OH){sub 2} solution by the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Initial Ca{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ratios ranged from 10:1 to 10:100 (mM:mM). Maximum removal of {sup 14}C and Sr{sup 2+} both occurred in the system containing 10 mM Ca{sup 2+} and 1 mM CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} (99.7% and 98.6% removal respectively). A kinetic model is provided that describes {sup 14}C and Sr removal in terms of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The removal of {sup 14}C was achieved during the depletion of the initial TIC in solution, and was subsequently significantly affected by recrystallization of the calcite precipitate from an elongate to isotropic morphology. This liberated > 46% of the {sup 14}C back to solution. Sr{sup 2+} removal occurred as Ca{sup 2+} became depleted in solution and was not significantly affected by the recrystallization process. The proposed reaction could form the basis for low cost remediation scheme for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 14}C in radioactively contaminated waters (<$0.25 reagent cost per m{sup 3} treated). - Highlights: • 99.7% of {sup 14}C and 98.6% of Sr removed from aqueous solution by CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. • Remobilization of {sup 14}C observed during calcium carbonate recrystallization. • Sr displayed variable distribution coefficient (possibly affected by Ca:Sr ratio). • Reagent cost of $0.22/m{sup 3} of treated groundwater.

  9. Biochar, activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes have different effects on fate of 14C-catechol and microbial community in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jun; Ji, Rong; Yu, Yongjie; Xie, Zubin; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of biochar, activated carbon (AC)-, and single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) in various concentrations (0, 0.2, 20, and 2,000 mg/kg dry soil) on the fate of 14C-catechol and microbial community in soil. The results showed that biochar had no effect on the mineralization of 14C-catechol, whereas AC at all amendment rates and SWCNTs at 2,000 mg/kg significantly reduced mineralization. Particularly, MWCNTs at 0.2 mg/kg significantly stimulated mineralization compared with the control soil. The inhibitory effects of AC and SWCNTs on the mineralization were attributed to the inhibited soil microbial activities and the shifts in microbial communities, as suggested by the reduced microbial biomass C and the separated phylogenetic distance. In contrast, the stimulatory effects of MWCNTs on the mineralization were attributed to the selective stimulation of specific catechol-degraders by MWCNTs at 0.2 mg/kg. Only MWCNTs amendments and AC at 2,000 mg/kg significantly changed the distribution of 14C residues within the fractions of humic substances. Our findings suggest biochar, AC, SWCNTs and MWCNTs have different effects on the fate of 14C-catechol and microbial community in soil.

  10. Biochar, activated carbon, and carbon nanotubes have different effects on fate of (14)C-catechol and microbial community in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jun; Ji, Rong; Yu, Yongjie; Xie, Zubin; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-30

    This study investigated the effects of biochar, activated carbon (AC)-, and single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) in various concentrations (0, 0.2, 20, and 2,000 mg/kg dry soil) on the fate of (14)C-catechol and microbial community in soil. The results showed that biochar had no effect on the mineralization of (14)C-catechol, whereas AC at all amendment rates and SWCNTs at 2,000 mg/kg significantly reduced mineralization. Particularly, MWCNTs at 0.2 mg/kg significantly stimulated mineralization compared with the control soil. The inhibitory effects of AC and SWCNTs on the mineralization were attributed to the inhibited soil microbial activities and the shifts in microbial communities, as suggested by the reduced microbial biomass C and the separated phylogenetic distance. In contrast, the stimulatory effects of MWCNTs on the mineralization were attributed to the selective stimulation of specific catechol-degraders by MWCNTs at 0.2 mg/kg. Only MWCNTs amendments and AC at 2,000 mg/kg significantly changed the distribution of (14)C residues within the fractions of humic substances. Our findings suggest biochar, AC, SWCNTs and MWCNTs have different effects on the fate of (14)C-catechol and microbial community in soil.

  11. Hypernuclear spectroscopy of products from Li-6 projectiles on a carbon target at 2 A GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappold, C.; Kim, E.; Nakajima, D.; Saito, T. R.; Bertini, O.; Bianchin, S.; Bozkurt, V.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Minami, S.; Oezel-Tashenov, B.; Yoshida, K.; Achenbach, P.; Ajimura, S.; Aumann, T.; Gayoso, C. Ayerbe; Bhang, H. C.; Caesar, C.; Erturk, S.; Fukuda, T.; Gokuzum, B.; Guliev, E.; Hiraiwa, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Ickert, G.; Ketenci, Z. S.; Khaneft, D.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Le Fevre, A.; Mizoi, Y.; Moritsu, M.; Nagae, T.; Nungesser, L.; Okamura, A.; Ott, W.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sako, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Sekimoto, M.; Simon, H.; Sugimura, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tambave, G. J.; Tamura, H.; Trautmann, W.; Voltz, S.; Yokota, N.; Yoon, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel experiment, aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of hypernuclear spectroscopy with heavy ion beams, was conducted. Using the invariant mass method, the spectroscopy of hypernuclear products of Li-6 projectiles on a carbon target at 2 A GeV was performed. Signals of the Lambda-hyperon and

  12. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Gastroenterology

    1996-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. Construction of magnetic-carbon-quantum-dots-probe-labeled apoferritin nanocages for bioimaging and targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao HC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanchun Yao,1,2 Li Su,1 Man Zeng,1 Li Cao,1 Weiwei Zhao,1 Chengqun Chen,3 Bin Du,1,2 Jie Zhou1,2 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center of Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, Henan Province, 3Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Carbon dots (CDs are one of the most highlighted carbon-based materials for biological applications, such as optical imaging nanoprobes, which are used for labeling cells in cancer treatment mainly due to their biocompatibility and unique optical properties. In this study, gadolinium (Gd-complex-containing CDs were obtained through a one-step microwave method to develop multimodal nanoprobes integrating the advantages of optical and magnetic imaging. The obtained Gd-CDs exhibited highly fluorescent properties with excellent water solubility and biological compatibility. Natural apoferritin (AFn nanocages, an excellent drug delivery carrier, are hollow in structure, with their pH-dependent, unfolding–refolding process at pH 2.0 and 7.4. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX can be highly effective and encapsulated into AFn cavity. A widely used tumor-targeting molecule, folic acid (FA, functionalized the surface of AFn to obtain an active tumor targeting effect on MCF-7 cells and malignant tumors in mice models. In this study, an AFn nanocarrier encapsulating high concentration of DOX labeled with magnetic and fluorescent Gd-CDs probe was developed. Gd-CDs exhibited a unique green photoluminescence and almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Furthermore, Gd-doped CDs significantly increased the circulation time and decreased the toxicity of Gd3+ in in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated that the AFn nanocages labeled with Gd-CD compounds could serve as an excellent T1 contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The self

  14. Spatiotemporal transfer of carbon-14-labelled photosynthate from ectomycorrhizal Pinus densiflora seedlings to extraradical mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bingyun; Nara, Kazuhide; Hogetsu, Taizo

    2002-04-01

    Seedlings of Pinus densiflora colonized by an unidentified ectomycorrhizal fungus (T01) were labelled photosynthetically with 14C. Movement of 14C-labelled photosynthates within the underground part of the seedlings was investigated by temporal autoradiography using an imaging plate. Within 1 day, 14C was transferred from the shoot to the underground part that included roots, mycorrhizae, and the extraradical mycelium; within 3 days, the 14C in the underground part reached its maximum density. Mycorrhizae and actively growing root tips were large C sinks. Three days after 14C labelling, counts of 14C radioactivity in the underground part of the mycorrhizal seedlings were 2.6 times those of nonmycorrhizal seedlings. The mycorrhizae of mycorrhizal plants accumulated 5.2 times the 14C counts in the short-root tips of nonmycorrhizal plants. 14C counts in various areas of the extraradical mycelium demonstrated that all 14C-photosynthate transfer from the host root to the extraradical mycelium occurred within 3 days after 14C labelling, and that there was only a short lag of < 1 day between 14C accumulation in the basal and distal parts of the mycelium. Although more 14C accumulated in the distal than in the basal parts, 14C counts per unit hyphal biomass were similar between the two. These results suggest that 14C spread rapidly throughout the entire mycelium. Thirteen days after 14C labelling, we estimated 14C allocation to extraradical mycelia by taking autoradiographs after removing host roots. About 24% of 14C counts in the underground part of the mycorrhizal seedlings had been allocated to extraradical mycelia in this system, indicating that the fugal mycelium is an important sink for photosynthates.

  15. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  16. Year-round probing of soot carbon and secondary organic carbon contributions and sources to the South Asian Atmospheric Brown Cloud using radiocarbon (14C) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Andersson, August; Krusâ, Martin; Safai, P. D.; Budhavant, Krishnakant; Rao, P. S. P.; Praveen, P. S.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2010-05-01

    South Asia is one region of vital importance for assessing human impact on radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols. Previous research in the region has indicated that black carbon is a significant component of the regional aerosol load. In contrast, there is more ambiguous information regarding the contribution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) to the total carbonaceous (TC) aerosol composition. Here we primarily address the SOA component of the South Asian Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) by a combination of measurements of SOA concentrations and the 14C signature of TC. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected during fourteen-month continuous sampling campaigns Jan 2008 - March 2009 at both the Maldives Climate Observatory at Hannimaadho (MCO-H) and at the Sinhagad hilltop sampling site of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (SIN) in central-western India. The radiocarbon method is an ideal approach to identify fossil sources (14C "dead") compared to biogenic and biomass combustion products (with a contemporary 14C signal). The radiocarbon source apportionment of TC revealed very similar contribution from biogenic/biomass combustion (60-70%) for Indian SIN site and the MCOH receptor regions for much of the year. However, during the summer monsoon season biomass contribution to TC at the Indian Ocean site increases to 70-80%, while it decreases to 40-50% at the Indian site. Source apportionment of a soot carbon (SC) isolate (CTO-375 method; a tracer of black carbon) shows a similar trend. According to preliminary data in summer biomass contribution is higher at the MCOH receptor site (70%) compared to the SIN background site (45%). These unique year-round 14C data will be interpreted in view of the SOA concentration and the varying origin of the air masses.

  17. Self-assembly of carbon nanotubes and antibodies on tumours for targeted amplified delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, J. Justin; Villa, Carlos H.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Escorcia, Freddy E.; Casey, Emily; Scheinberg, David A.

    2013-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can deliver imaging agents or drugs to tumours and offer significant advantages over approaches based on antibodies or other nanomaterials. In particular, the nanotubes can carry a substantial amount of cargo (100 times more than a monoclonal antibody), but can still be rapidly eliminated from the circulation by renal filtration, like a small molecule, due to their high aspect ratio. Here we show that SWNTs can target tumours in a two-step approach in which nanotubes modified with morpholino oligonucleotide sequences bind to cancer cells that have been pretargeted with antibodies modified with oligonucleotide strands complementary to those on the nanotubes. The nanotubes can carry fluorophores or radioisotopes, and are shown to selectively bind to cancer cells in vitro and in tumour-bearing xenografted mice. The binding process is also found to lead to antigen capping and internalization of the antibody-nanotube complexes. The nanotube conjugates were labelled with both alpha-particle and gamma-ray emitting isotopes, at high specific activities. Conjugates labelled with alpha-particle-generating 225Ac were found to clear rapidly, thus mitigating radioisotope toxicity, and were shown to be therapeutically effective in vivo.

  18. Gemcitabine-loaded smart carbon nanotubes for effective targeting to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Vikas; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the three-dimensional sp(2) hybridized nano-containers that have attracted considerable interest in drug delivery by offering potential advantages such as biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high loading efficiency, intrinsic stability and low toxicities. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the potential of gemcitabine-loaded folic acid (FA) conjugated multi-walled CNTs (GEM/FA-NT) for targeting to breast cancer cells. Pristine MWCNTs was functionalized by FA followed by carboxylation, acylation and amidation and characterized by electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, entrapment efficiency, cytotoxicity and in vivo studies. FDA-approved GEM was loaded to the purified (GEM-NT) and GEM/FA-NT, and % entrapment efficiency was found to be approximately 71.60 ± 0.25 and 79.60 ± 0.45, respectively. The developed formulation GEM/FA-NT was found to have significantly less hemolytic toxicity (8.23 ± 0.65) as compared to free GEM (17.34 ± 0.56). The in vitro release was found to be in sustained pattern at the lysosomal pH, which depicts more cytotoxic response on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). It may be interpreted that the GEM/FA-NT formulation is capable to carry drug and deliver it selectively at the tumor site while minimizing side effects and thus holds promise in chemotherapy.

  19. Inhibition of bacterial carbonic anhydrases and zinc proteases: from orphan targets to innovative new antibiotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, C T

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-containing enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and metalloproteases (MPs) play critical functions in bacteria, being involved in various steps of their life cycle, which are important for survival, colonization, acquisition of nutrients for growth and proliferation, facilitation of dissemination, invasion and pathogenicity. The development of resistance to many classes of clinically used antibiotics emphasizes the need of new antibacterial drug targets to be explored. There is a wealth of data regarding bacterial CAs and zinc MPs present in many pathogenic species, such as Neisseria spp., Helycobacter pylori Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria spp, Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Streptomyces spp., Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., etc. Some of these enzymes have been cloned, purified and characterized by crystallographic techniques. However, for the moment, few potent and specific inhibitors for bacterial MPs have been reported except for Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxin and anthrax lethal factor, which will be reviewed in this article. Bacteria encode α-,β-, and/or γ-CA families, but up to now only the first two classes have been investigated in some detail in different species. The α-CAs from Neisseria spp. and H. pylori as well as the β-class enzymes from E. coli, H. pylori, M. tuberculosis, Brucella spp., S. pneumoniae, S. enterica and H. influenzae have been cloned and characterized. The catalytic/inhibition mechanisms of these CAs are well understood as X-ray crystal structures are available for some of them, but no adducts of these enzymes with inhibitors have been characterized so far. In vitro and in vivo studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates have been reported. Only for Neisseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis and S

  20. MMP14 as a novel downstream target of VEGFR2 in migratory glioma-tropic neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita G. Alexiades

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC-based carriers have been presented as promising therapeutic tools for the treatment of infiltrative brain tumors due to their intrinsic tumor homing property. They have demonstrated the ability to migrate towards distant tumor microsatellites and effectively deliver the therapeutic payload, thus significantly improving survival in experimental animal models for brain tumor. Despite such optimistic results, the efficacy of NSC-based anti-cancer therapy has been limited due to the restricted tumor homing ability of NSCs. To examine this issue, we investigated the mechanisms of tumor-tropic migration of an FDA-approved NSC line, HB1.F3.CD, by performing a gene expression analysis. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA and membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14 as molecules whose expression are significantly elevated in migratory NSCs. We observed increased expression of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 in the focal adhesion complexes of migratory NSCs, with downstream activation of VEGFR2-dependent kinases such as p-PLCγ, p-FAK, and p-Akt, a signaling cascade reported to be required for cellular migration. In an in vivo orthotopic glioma xenograft model, analysis of the migratory trail showed that NSCs maintained expression of VEGFR2 and preferentially migrated within the perivascular space. Knockdown of VEGFR2 via shRNAs led to significant downregulation of MMP14 expression, which resulted in inhibited tumor-tropic migration. Overall, our results suggest, the involvement of VEGFR2-regulated MMP14 in the tumor-tropic migratory behavior of NSCs. Our data warrant investigation of MMP14 as a target for enhancing the migratory properties of NSC carriers and optimizing the delivery of therapeutic payloads to disseminated tumor burdens.

  1. Measurement of carbon deposit at to irradiate a target; Medicion del deposito de carbon al irradiar un blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales M, P.; Aguilera R, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Backscattering data obtained when bombarding a thin target of {sup 12} C deposited on a thick substrate of Ta are analyzed, with a ion beam of {sup 12} C for high fluences and different energy between 9.85 and 13 MeV. A variation in the thickness of the target is observed and is found its correlation with the fluence in the target. (Author)

  2. Coprecipitation of (14)C and Sr with carbonate precipitates: The importance of reaction kinetics and recrystallization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkin, David J; Stewart, Douglas I; Graham, James T; Burke, Ian T

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated the simultaneous removal of Sr(2+) and (14)CO3(2-) from pH>12 Ca(OH)2 solution by the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Initial Ca(2+):CO3(2-) ratios ranged from 10:1 to 10:100 (mM:mM). Maximum removal of (14)C and Sr(2+) both occurred in the system containing 10mM Ca(2+) and 1mM CO3(2-) (99.7% and 98.6% removal respectively). A kinetic model is provided that describes (14)C and Sr removal in terms of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The removal of (14)C was achieved during the depletion of the initial TIC in solution, and was subsequently significantly affected by recrystallization of the calcite precipitate from an elongate to isotropic morphology. This liberated >46% of the (14)C back to solution. Sr(2+) removal occurred as Ca(2+) became depleted in solution and was not significantly affected by the recrystallization process. The proposed reaction could form the basis for low cost remediation scheme for (90)Sr and (14)C in radioactively contaminated waters (<$0.25 reagent cost per m(3) treated).

  3. Towards the Aichi 2020 biodiversity targets – An assessment of Norway’s Nature Diversity Act in Light of Aichi Biodiversity Target 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platjouw, Froukje Maria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Nature Diversity Act of 2009 is the most important national legal act for the protection of nature in Norway. It was adopted to allow a better followup of the Convention on Biological Diversity and serves to implement the constitutional provision on the right to a natural environment in which productivity and diversity are maintained. This paper reviews the Nature Diversity Act in light of Aichi Biodiversity Target 14, which requires that “By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services […] are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable”. This review is part of a global IDLO initiative to evaluate a number of successful national biodiversity laws. The paper concludes that the Nature Diversity Act has great potential to safeguard ecosystems that provide essential services especially through its focus on ecosystem structures, functioning, productivity; its principle on the ecosystem approach and cumulative effects; and its provisions related to the designation of species, habitat types, and protected areas. Furthermore, the special mention of ‘Sami Culture’ under the Act may serve as a guideline to take into account the traditional agricultural and ecosystem based practices of indigenous tribes while providing for the safeguard or restoration of ecosystems that provide essential services.

  4. Estimation of groundwater residence time using environmental radioisotopes (14C,T) in carbonate aquifers, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Andrzej; Małoszewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Triassic carbonate aquifers in the Upper Silesia region, affected by intense withdrawal, have been investigated by means of isotopic analyses of (14)C, δ(13)C, δ(2)H, δ(18)O and (3)H. The isotopic examinations were carried out in the 1970s and in the early 1980s, and it was the first application of tracers to estimate age and vulnerability for the contamination of groundwater in this region. Similar isotopic analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008 with the same Triassic carbonate formation. The isotopic examinations were performed within the confined part of the carbonate formation, wherein aquifers are covered by semi-permeable deposits. The direct recharge of the aquifer occurs in the outcrop areas, but it mainly takes place due to percolation of the water through aquitards and erosional windows. The Triassic aquifer has been intensively drained by wells and by lead-zinc mines. Nowadays, the declining water demand and closure of some mines have induced a significant increase in the water table level. The detailed analysis of the results, including the radiocarbon age corrections and the comparison of radioisotope activities, has made it possible to estimate the range of residence time within the carbonate Triassic aquifer. This range from several tens to several tens of thousands indicates that the recharge of aquifers might have occurred between modern times and the Pleistocene. The apparent age of the water estimated on the basis of (14)C activity was corrected considering the carbon isotope exchange and the diffusion between mobile water in fractures and stagnant water in micropores. The obtained corrected period of recharge corresponds to the result of investigations of noble gases, which were carried out in the 1990s. In almost half of the cases, groundwater is a mixture of young and old water. The mixing processes occur mainly in areas of heavy exploitation of the aquifer.

  5. Comparison on the production of radionuclides in 1.4 GeV proton irradiated LBE targets of different thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Moumita; Mendonça, Tania M; Stora, Thierry; Lahiri, Susanta

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report on the inventory of radionuclides produced in 1.4 GeV proton induced reaction on Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) targets. LBE targets of 6 mm diameter and 1 to 8 mm lengths were irradiated with 1.4 GeV protons. The radionuclides ranging from Be-7 (53.12 days) to Po-207 (5.8 h) were identified in the samples with the help of time resolved gamma-ray spectroscopy. However, there is no signature of formation of At radioisotopes, which can be produced by the interaction of secondary particles, typical for thick targets.

  6. X-Ray Emission from Zr, Mo, In and Pb Targets Bombarded by Slow Highly Charged Arq+(q = 13, 14, 15, 16) Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-Hong; SHAO Jian-Xiong; CUI Ying; XU Xu; CHEN Xi-Meng; YU De-Yang; LU Rong-Chun; SHAO Cao-Jie; LU Jun; RUAN Fang-Fang; YANG Zhi-Hu; DING Bao-Wei; ZHANG Hong-Qiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study the L x-ray emission from Zr, Mo and In targets and M x-ray emission from Pb target under bombardment of low energy Arq+ (q = 13, 14, 15, 16) ions. The relative x-ray yields were measured in the projectile kinetic energy range 210-360keV. It is found that the relative x-ray yields from Zr, Mo and Pb targets increase with the increasing projectile kinetic energy for Ar14+ and Ar16+ projectiles and depend on the potential energy of the projectile remarkably.

  7. Facile Carbonization of Microporous Organic Polymers into Hierarchically Porous Carbons Targeted for Effective CO2 Uptake at Low Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; He, Jianqiao; Zhu, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Guipeng; Pan, Chunyue; Guan, Jianguo; Tao, Kai

    2016-07-20

    The advent of microporous organic polymers (MOPs) has delivered great potential in gas storage and separation (CCS). However, the presence of only micropores in these polymers often imposes diffusion limitations, which has resulted in the low utilization of MOPs in CCS. Herein, facile chemical activation of the single microporous organic polymers (MOPs) resulted in a series of hierarchically porous carbons with hierarchically meso-microporous structures and high CO2 uptake capacities at low pressures. The MOPs precursors (termed as MOP-7-10) with a simple narrow micropore structure obtained in this work possess moderate apparent BET surface areas ranging from 479 to 819 m(2) g(-1). By comparing different activating agents for the carbonization of these MOPs matrials, we found the optimized carbon matrials MOPs-C activated by KOH show unique hierarchically porous structures with a significant expansion of dominant pore size from micropores to mesopores, whereas their microporosity is also significantly improved, which was evidenced by a significant increase in the micropore volume (from 0.27 to 0.68 cm(3) g(-1)). This maybe related to the collapse and the structural rearrangement of the polymer farmeworks resulted from the activation of the activating agent KOH at high temperature. The as-made hierarchically porous carbons MOPs-C show an obvious increase in the BET surface area (from 819 to 1824 m(2) g(-1)). And the unique hierarchically porous structures of MOPs-C significantly contributed to the enhancement of the CO2 capture capacities, which are up to 214 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 1 bar) and 52 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 0.15 bar), superior to those of the most known MOPs and porous carbons. The high physicochemical stabilities and appropriate isosteric adsorption heats as well as high CO2/N2 ideal selectivities endow these hierarchically porous carbon materials great potential in gas sorption and separation.

  8. Biokinetics and radiation doses for carbon-14 urea in adults and children undergoing the Helicobacter pylori breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, S.; Olofsson, M.; Mattsson, S.; Nosslin, B.; Pau, K. [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, L. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Umeaa University, Umeaa University Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden); Skog, G. [Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    The long-term biokinetics and dosimetry of carbon-14 were studied in nine adults and eight children undergoing carbon-14 urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The elimination of {sup 14}C via exhaled air and urine was measured with the liquid scintillation counting technique and with accelerator mass spectrometry. After the subjects had been given 110 kBq {sup 14}C-urea (children: 55 kBq) orally, samples of exhaled air were taken up to 180 days after administration and samples of urine were collected up to 40 days. Sixteen of the subjects were found to be HP-negative. In these subjects a total of 91.1%{+-}3.9% (mean of adults and children {+-} standard error of the mean) of the administered {sup 14}C activity was recovered. The majority of the administered activity, 88.3%{+-}6.2% in adults and 87.7%{+-}5.0% in children, was excreted via the urine within 72 h after administration. A smaller fraction was exhaled. In adults 4.6%{+-}0.6% of the activity was exhaled within 20 days and in children 2.6%{+-}0.3%. Uncertainties in the biokinetic results are mainly due to assumptions concerning endogenous CO{sub 2} production and urinary excretion rate and are estimated to be less than 30%. The absorbed dose to various organs and the effective dose were calculated using the ICRP model for urea and CO{sub 2}. The urinary bladder received the highest absorbed dose: in adults, 0.15{+-}0.01 mGy/MBq and in children of various ages (7-14 years), 0.14-0.36 mGy/MBq. The findings indicate that an investigation with {sup 14}C-urea gives an effective dose to adults of 2.1{+-}0.1 {mu}Sv (for 110 kBq) and to children of 0.9-2.5 {mu}Sv (for 55 kBq). From a radiation protection point of view, there is thus no reason for restrictions on even repeated screening investigations with {sup 14}C-urea in whole families, including children. (orig.) With 5 figs., 4 tabs., 32 refs.

  9. Cambrian-lower Middle Ordovician passive carbonate margin, southern Appalachians: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J. Fred; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The southern Appalachian part of the Cambrian–Ordovician passive margin succession of the great American carbonate bank extends from the Lower Cambrian to the lower Middle Ordovician, is as much as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) thick, and has long-term subsidence rates exceeding 5 cm (2 in.)/k.y. Subsiding depocenters separated by arches controlled sediment thickness. The succession consists of five supersequences, each of which contains several third-order sequences, and numerous meter-scale parasequences. Siliciclastic-prone supersequence 1 (Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group fluvial rift clastics grading up into shelf siliciclastics) underlies the passive margin carbonates. Supersequence 2 consists of the Lower Cambrian Shady Dolomite–Rome-Waynesboro Formations. This is a shallowing-upward ramp succession of thinly bedded to nodular lime mudstones up into carbonate mud-mound facies, overlain by lowstand quartzose carbonates, and then a rimmed shelf succession capped by highly cyclic regressive carbonates and red beds (Rome-Waynesboro Formations). Foreslope facies include megabreccias, grainstone, and thin-bedded carbonate turbidites and deep-water rhythmites. Supersequence 3 rests on a major unconformity and consists of a Middle Cambrian differentiated rimmed shelf carbonate with highly cyclic facies (Elbrook Formation) extending in from the rim and passing via an oolitic ramp into a large structurally controlled intrashelf basin (Conasauga Shale). Filling of the intrashelf basin caused widespread deposition of thin quartz sandstones at the base of supersequence 4, overlain by widespread cyclic carbonates (Upper Cambrian lower Knox Group Copper Ridge Dolomite in the south; Conococheague Formation in the north). Supersequence 5 (Lower Ordovician upper Knox in the south; Lower to Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group in the north) has a basal quartz sandstone-prone unit, overlain by cyclic ramp carbonates, that grade downdip into thrombolite grainstone and then storm

  10. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Run, E-mail: rwang@iue.ac.c [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Wenjuan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiao Lishan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Jian; Kao, William [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: {yields} We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. {yields} Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. {yields} We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  11. Measurement of low level carbon-14 in biologic specimens by wet ashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucks, D.; Maibach, H.

    1981-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies of animal and human skin are often advantageously performed with low levels of C-14. We detail an efficient wet ashing mehtod capable of detecting 20 dpm per sample, equivalent to twice the background level, thus permitting complete kinetic assays with 1 ..mu..Ci or less of C-14 per subject.

  12. Differentiation of Pigment in Eggs Using Carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and Nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng M; Shi, Guang Y; Wang, Hui W

    2016-07-01

    Consumers prefer natural and healthy food, but artificial pigments are often abused in egg products. The study aimed at differentiating the origin of pigments in eggs by applying the technique of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) stable isotope analysis. Five hundred sixty laying hens were randomly distributed into 14 treatments, which were divided into four groups: maize, carophyll red pigment, carophyll yellow pigment, and a mixture of carophyll red and yellow pigments. Eggs were collected and pretreated to determe the values of the Roche Yolk Color Fan (RCF), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N. With increasing maize content, the RCF and δ(13)C values of yolks increased. Moreover, the RCF values in the three pigment groups were significantly influenced by the artificial colors, but δ(13)C values were not significantly different, regardless of the existence of pigment. The δ(15)N values in all treatments did not vary as regularly as the carbon stable isotope. A strong positive correlation was found between RCF and δ(13)C in the maize group, but no such correlation was be observed in the pigment groups. It is concluded that carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (δ(13)C) of the yolk can be used to differentiate the origin of the pigment added to eggs.

  13. Molecular targeting of carbonic anhydrase IX in mice with hypoxic HT29 colorectal tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Carlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a membrane spanning protein involved in the enzymatic regulation of tumor acid-base balance. CAIX has been shown to be elevated in a number of hypoxic tumor types. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of intact and IgG fragments of cG250 to target CAIX in vivo in a hypoxic tumor model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Conventional biodistribution studies were performed with (111In-DO3A-cG250, (111In-DO3A-F(ab'(2-cG250 and (111In-DO3A-Fab-cG250. Additional ex vivo analysis of the tumor was performed with markers for tumor hypoxia, blood perfusion and endogenous CAIX expression. All four data sets were digitally correlated to determine the optimal agent for determining hypoxia in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft. The HT29 human colorectal tumor xenografts show strong CAIX expression in hypoxic areas of poor blood perfusion. The intact IgG had an initial high focal uptake at the periphery of these hypoxic regions and penetration into the areas of highest CAIX expression over the 7-day study period. The lower molecular weight antibody fragments had a faster uptake into areas of high CAIX expression, but had a much lower absolute uptake at the optimal imaging times. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the clinical detection of hypoxia induced CAIX using cG250 antibody based agents, imaging with the intact IgG at 7 days post injection would allow for the most sensitive and accurate detection of CAIX.

  14. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium))

    1991-06-01

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration.

  15. Targeted mutagenesis of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases VA and VB implicates both enzymes in ammonia detoxification and glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Gul N.; Rubbelke, Timothy S.; Hendin, Joshua; Nguyen, Hien; Waheed, Abdul; Shoemaker, James D.; Sly, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies with carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors implicated mitochondrial CA in ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Subsequent studies identified two mitochondrial CAs. To distinguish the contribution of each enzyme, we studied the effects of targeted disruption of the murine CA genes, called Car5A and Car5B. The Car5A mutation had several deleterious consequences. Car5A null mice were smaller than wild-type littermates and bred poorly. However, on sodium–potassium citrate-supplemented wate...

  16. Spatial Distribution and Dynamics of Carbon-14 in a Wetland Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankovich, Tamara L. [International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Carr, James; King-Sharp, K.; Doug Killey, R.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Robertson, Erin [201 21st Street East, Saskatoon, SK S7K 0B8 (Canada); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Center, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA14AP (United Kingdom); School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M44WT (United Kingdom); Wood, Michael D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester, M44WT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    There is significant interest in assessing the impact of {sup 14}C releases from nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management areas, and geologic disposal facilities. As a result, there is a general need to gain understanding of {sup 14}C dynamics, especially in complex interface ecosystems, such as wetlands. This paper summarizes the key findings of two studies undertaken in Duke Swamp, a circa 0.1 km{sup 2} area of wetland consisting of marsh, fen and swamp habitats, on the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories Site. The swamp receives radionuclides, such as {sup 14}C and tritium, from an up-gradient waste management area. The first study was an extensive field sampling campaign, involving collection of surface vegetation at 69 locations on a 50 m x 50 m grid, to evaluate the spatial distribution of {sup 14}C in Duke Swamp. Representative receptor plants and animals, and corresponding environmental media (including air, soil, and plant) samples were then collected, as part of a second study, at a subset of six locations with {sup 14}C specific activities that spanned the range present in Duke Swamp and also represented the different wetland habitats occurring there. The highest specific activity concentrations in surface vegetation were highly localized, representing a surface area of only about 150 m{sup 2}. The spatial distribution of {sup 14}C in the swamp seemed to be at least partly accounted for by the physical attributes of the Duke Swamp habitat. In general, it was found that specific activities of {sup 14}C in biota tissues reflected those measured in surface vegetation collected from the same sampling location. Such information provides needed insight for biosphere assessments, as well as for the development of monitoring programs that demonstrate protection of biota in areas where exposure to {sup 14}C is elevated. (authors)

  17. Novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc carbon catabolite control system revealed by transcript abundance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sonnleitner

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to utilize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen compounds, allowing it to grow in vastly different environments. The uptake and catabolism of growth substrates are organized hierarchically by a mechanism termed catabolite repression control (Crc whereby the Crc protein establishes translational repression of target mRNAs at CA (catabolite activity motifs present in target mRNAs near ribosome binding sites. Poor carbon sources lead to activation of the CbrAB two-component system, which induces transcription of the small RNA (sRNA CrcZ. This sRNA relieves Crc-mediated repression of target mRNAs. In this study, we have identified novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc system in P. aeruginosa using transcriptome analysis in combination with a search for CA motifs. We characterized four target genes involved in the uptake and utilization of less preferred carbon sources: estA (secreted esterase, acsA (acetyl-CoA synthetase, bkdR (regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism and aroP2 (aromatic amino acid uptake protein. Evidence for regulation by CbrAB, CrcZ and Crc was obtained in vivo using appropriate reporter fusions, in which mutation of the CA motif resulted in loss of catabolite repression. CbrB and CrcZ were important for growth of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF sputum medium, suggesting that the CbrAB/Crc system may act as an important regulator during chronic infection of the CF lung.

  18. [Tritium- and carbon-14-contents of wines of different vintage from the northern and southern hemisphere (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, E; Möller, H; Rapp, A; Steffan, H

    1980-10-01

    The carbon-14 and tritium radioactivity contents of up to 19 vintages of German and South African wines were compared. A similar large dependence of the 14C- and of the 3H-activity in the German wine on the nuclear weapon tests of the years 1962/63 was found out. The radioactivity level is also 1977/78 still essential higher than before 1950. The South African wines have been influenced considerably smaller by nuclear explosions. The highest 3H-values were found in the vintage 1963 of the German wine with 5910 pCi/litre and in the vintage 1964 of the South African wine with 510 pCi/litre.

  19. Concentration and 14C Content of Total Organic Carbon and Black Carbon in Small (<100 ug C) Samples from Low-Latitude Alpine Ice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Czimczik, C. I.; Santos, G. M.; Thompson, L. G.; Ziolkowski, L.

    2008-12-01

    Many low latitude glaciers are receding with consequences for the regional energy budget and hydrology. Ice loss has been linked to climate change and the deposition of organic aerosols such as black carbon (BC) which is formed during incomplete combustion. Little is known about how the contents of BC and total organic carbon (TOC) in aerosols change over time and how anthropogenic activities (e.g. land-use change) impact this variability. Low-latitude ice cores are located closer to population centers than polar ice caps and can provide a regional synthesis of TOC and BC variability. Radiocarbon (14C) may be used to partition BC aerosols into fossil (>50 kyrs) and modern sources (e.g. fossil-fuels vs. wildfires). We quantified TOC, BC, and their 14C content in three low-latitude ice cores: Naimona'nyi (30°27'N, 81°91'E) and Dasuopu (28°23'N, 85°43'E), Tibet, and Quelccaya (13°56'S; 70°50'W), Peru. Aerosols (52-256 g ice on filters) were separated into TOC and BC using thermal oxidation (CTO- 375). 14C was measured by AMS. TOC contents were 0.11-0.87, 0.05-0.43, and 0.06-0.19 μg C (g ice) -1 for Naimona'nyi, Dasuopu, and Quelccaya, respectively. BC contents were 18±8, 27±4, and 29±12 %TOC. Procedural blanks were 0.8 ± 0.4 μg C (TOC) and 1.2 ± 0.6 μg C (BC). In ice cores well dated through annual layer counting and/or independent ages (e.g. volcanic horizons) such as Quelccaya, the ability to separate BC from TOC, as well as partition BC into fossil and modern contributions has potential for reconstructing pre- and post-industrial changes in aerosol composition and their impact on the energy budget.

  20. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Zarzycki, Jan; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon (Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2) concentrations. Several uptake systems facilitate inorganic carbon accumulation in the cell, which can in turn be fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine (alpha) cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters. These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels. In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.

  1. Evaluation of carbon-14 (C{sup 14}) levels of terrestrial and marine food products of the environment of the site of Cogema La Hague; Evaluation des niveaux de carbone-14 ({sup 14}C) des denrees alimentaires terrestres et marines de l'environnement du site de COGEMA - La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    This evaluation has for object to inform about the levels in carbon 14 in the environment of the factories of La Hague. Two sectors were differentiated on one hand the terrestrial environment, and on the other hand the marine environment. The investigations concerned first and foremost food products stemming as the vegetable culture (vegetables) or individual breeding (milk, eggs) but also foodstuffs stemming from the local agriculture (cereal). In touch with the second sector, the marine environment, the sampling concerned the accessible products of the sea by all and those locally marketed (fishes, molluscs, shellfishes). The different results are presented in tables. (N.C.)

  2. Carbon and 14C distribution in tropical and subtropical agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, Erwin; Grootes, Pieter; Nadeau, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soil management affects, through the alternating anoxic and oxic conditions it creates, the transport and stabilisation of soil organic matter (SOM). Irrigation water may percolate more organic materials - dissolved (DOM) and colloidal - into the subsoil during anoxic conditions. Yet a developed ploughpan tends to prevent C from going deeper in the subsoil and partly decouple C distribution in top and sub soil. We investigate the influence of different soil type and environment. We observed the C and 14C distribution in paddy and non-paddy soil profiles in three different soil types from four different climatic regions of tropical Indonesia, and subtropical China. Locations were Sukabumi (Andosol, ca. 850 m a.s.l), Bogor (clayey Alisol, ca. 240 m a.s.l), and Ngawi (Vertisol, ca. 70 m a.s.l) in Jawa, Indonesia, and Cixi (Alisol(sandy), ca. 4 - 6 m a.s.l) in Zhejiang Province, China. We compared rice paddies with selected neighbouring non-paddy fields and employed AMS 14C as a tool to study C dynamics from bulk, alkali soluble-humic, and insoluble humin samples, and macrofossils (plant remains, charcoal). Our data suggest that vegetation type determines the quantity and quality of biomass introduced as litter and root material in top and subsoil, and thus contributes to the soil C content and profile, which fits the 14C signal distribution, as well as 13C in Ngawi with C4 sugar cane as upland crop. 14C concentrations for the mobile humic acid fraction were generally higher than for bulk samples from the same depth, except when recent plant and root debris led to high 14C levels in near-surface samples. The difference in sampling, - averaged layer for bulk sample and 1-cm layer thickness for point sample - shows gradients in C and 14C across the layers, which could be a reason for discrepancies between the two. High 14C concentrations - in Andosol Sukabumi up to 111 pMC - exceed the atmospheric 14CO2concentration in the sampling year in 2012 (˜ 103 pMC) and

  3. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    To develop a therapeutic system with cancer cell selectivity, the present study evaluated a possible specific and localized tumor treatment. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the external face of the cell membrane is almost completely exclusive to cancer cells and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. The human protein annexin V is known to have strong calcium-dependent binding to anionic phospholipids such as PS. This protein was studied for targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to the vasculature of breast tumors. The synthesis of the protein annexin V, by a pET vector in Escherichia coli, constitutes the first phase of this study. Recombinant annexin V was purified from the cell lysate supernatant by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The overall production of purified annexin V protein was 50 mg/L. The binding ability of the protein annexin V was evaluated by determining the dissociation constant when incubated with proliferating human endothelial cells in vitro. The dissociation constant, Kd, was measured to be 0.8 nM, indicating relatively strong binding. This value of Kd is within the range reported in the literature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were functionalized with annexin V using two intermediate linkers (containing FMOC and DSPE) resulting in stable suspensions. The SWNT and protein concentrations were 202 mg/L and 515 mg/L, respectively, using the linker with DSPE (average of nine preparations). The conjugation method that used the DSPE-PEG-maleimide linker allowed to successfully conjugate the SWNTs with final concentrations approximately five times higher than the linker containing FMOC. The conjugation method used has a non-covalent nature, and therefore the optical properties of the nanotubes were preserved. The conjugate was also visually observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), allowing to verify the presence of the protein annexin V on the surface of the nanotubes, with an height ranging between 2

  4. Evaluation of excess carbon 14 and strontium 90 data for suitability to test two-dimensional stratospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Harold

    1989-12-01

    From reports by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning the atmospheric distribution of radionucleides following the nuclear bomb tests of 1958-1959 and 1961-1962, excess carbon 14 data from the period 1959-1970 and strontium 90 data from 1963-1967 are reviewed for possible use as inert tracers to test two-dimensional stratospheric-tropospheric models. Contrary to some views expressed in the literature, it is concluded that the carbon 14 data are suitable to test (1) the altitude (at 4 latitudes) of the transition region between troposphere and stratosphere with respect to transport of an inert tracer, (2) some aspects of transport between the northern and southern hemispheres, (3) horizontal and vertical transport as the vertical profile between 4.5 and 33 km and at 31°N evolves from a skewed Gaussian in 1963 to an almost stair-step profile in 1966, and (4) the long-term one-dimensional aspect of a two-dimensional model over the period 1966-1970. More tentatively, it is concluded that the strontium 90 data may be used as a model for the distribution and gross settling rate of the natural stratospheric aerosol layer between 15 and 25 km. Data from difficultly obtained laboratory reports and suggested initial conditions and boundary conditions are included as a microfiche supplement to this paper.

  5. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO2 emissions : Application and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, S. W. L.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The C-14 method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO2 emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO2 samples that have been sampled in I-h intervals at

  6. Algal C-14 and total carbon metabolisms 2. Experimental observations with the diatom Skeletonema costatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, P.J.L.; Robinson, C.; Søndergaard, M.

    1996-01-01

    of 2-3), C-14 uptake into the particulate plus the dissolved fractions approximated to net photosynthesis. Rate constants derived from the chemically determined changes were used to parameterize models that accounted for the respiration of photosynthetic products and for the recycling of respiratory CO...

  7. Interactive effects between carbon allotropes on the mechanical reinforcement of nanocomposites based on poly(1,4-cis-isoprene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Sara; Cipolletti, Valeria; Barbera, Vincenzina; Agnelli, Silvia; Pandini, Stefano; Galimberti, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Interactive effects of carbon allotropes on the mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites were investigated by using, as the polymer matrix, poly(1,4-cis-isoprene) (PI) samples from industrial synthesis and from natural sources. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-graphite with high shape anisotropy (nanoG) were melt blended with PI, as the only fillers or in combination with carbon black (CB), measuring the shear modulus at low strain amplitudes. The nanofiller was found to increase the low amplitude storage modulus of the matrix, with or without CB, by a factor depending on nanofiller type and content. The filler-polymer interfacial area was able to correlate modulus data of composites with CNT, CB and with the hybrid filler system, leading to the construction of a common master curve. The filler networking phenomenon was found to be affected by type and amount of low molecular mass products of PI from natural sources. The correlation between chemical composition, dynamic mechanical and ultimate properties of nanocomposites was investigated. In particular, it was found that low molecular mass components control the ability of elastomeric nano-composites to store or dissipate energy.

  8. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiwei, Zhang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: taylorzww@gmail.com [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

  10. A synthetic approach to carbon-14 labeled anti-bacterial naphthyridine and quinolone carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekhato, I.V.; Huang, C.C. (Parke, Davis and Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Labeled versions of (S)-clinafloxacin (1) and two napththyridine carboxylic acid anti-bacterial compounds 2 and 3 which are currently in development were synthesized. Preparations started from hitherto unknown bromo compounds 22 and 10, from which the corresponding [sup 14]C-labeled aromatic carboxylic acids 23 and 12 were generated by metal-halogen exchange followed by carboxylation reaction. Details of these preparations are given. (author).

  11. Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.J.; Surveyor, I.

    1988-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of /sup 14/C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of /sup 14/C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of /sup 14/C in sample)/(mmol of CO/sub 2/ collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO/sub 2/ than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy.

  12. Accidental Drop of a Carbon Steel/Lead Shipping Cask (HFEF 14) at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian D. Hawkes; Michael E. Nitzel

    2007-08-01

    A shielded cask is used to transport radioactive materials between facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. The cask was fabricated with an outer and inner shell of A36 carbon steel with lead poured in the annular space between the shells to provide radiation shielding. Carbon steel is known to be susceptible to low-temperature brittle fracture under impact loading. This paper will present the analysis results representing postulated transportation accidents during on-site transfers of the cask at subzero temperatures. The accident scenarios were based on a series of cask drops onto a rigid surface from a height of 1.83m (6 ft.) Finite element models of the cask and its contents were solved and post processed using the ABAQUS software. Each model was examined for failure to contain radioactive materials and/or significant loss of radiation shielding. Results of these analyses show that the body of the cask exhibits considerable ruggedness and will remain largely intact after the impact. There will be deformation of the main cask body with localized brittle failure of the cask outer shell and door structure. The cask payload outer waste can remains in the cask but will experience some permanent plastic deformation in each drop. It will not be deformed to the point where it will rupture, thus maintaining confinement of the can contents.

  13. Proteomic identification of protein targets for 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14-prostaglandin J2 in neuronal plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14-prostaglandin J(2 (15d-PGJ(2 is one of factors contributed to the neurotoxicity of amyloid β (Aβ, a causative protein of Alzheimer's disease. Type 2 receptor for prostaglandin D(2 (DP2 and peroxysome-proliferator activated receptorγ (PPARγ are identified as the membrane receptor and the nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ(2, respectively. Previously, we reported that the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ(2 was independent of DP2 and PPARγ, and suggested that 15d-PGJ(2 induced apoptosis through the novel specific binding sites of 15d-PGJ(2 different from DP2 and PPARγ. To relate the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ(2 to amyloidoses, we performed binding assay [(3H]15d-PGJ(2 and specified targets for 15d-PGJ(2 associated with cytotoxicity. In the various cell lines, there was a close correlation between the susceptibilities to 15d-PGJ(2 and fibrillar Aβ. Specific binding sites of [(3H]15d-PGJ(2 were detected in rat cortical neurons and human bronchial smooth muscle cells. When the binding assay was performed in subcellular fractions of neurons, the specific binding sites of [(3H]15d-PGJ(2 were detected in plasma membrane, nuclear and cytosol, but not in microsome. A proteomic approach was used to identify protein targets for 15d-PGJ(2 in the plasma membrane. By using biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2, eleven proteins were identified as biotin-positive spots and classified into three different functional proteins: glycolytic enzymes (Enolase2, pyruvate kinase M1 (PKM1 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, molecular chaperones (heat shock protein 8 and T-complex protein 1 subunit α, cytoskeletal proteins (Actin β, F-actin-capping protein, Tubulin β and Internexin α. GAPDH, PKM1 and Tubulin β are Aβ-interacting proteins. Thus, the present study suggested that 15d-PGJ(2 plays an important role in amyloidoses not only in the central nervous system but also in the peripheral tissues.

  14. Construction of magnetic-carbon-quantum-dots-probe-labeled apoferritin nanocages for bioimaging and targeted therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Yao HC; Su L.; Zeng M; Cao L.; Zhao WW; Chen CQ; Du B; Zhou J

    2016-01-01

    Hanchun Yao,1,2 Li Su,1 Man Zeng,1 Li Cao,1 Weiwei Zhao,1 Chengqun Chen,3 Bin Du,1,2 Jie Zhou1,2 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center of Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, Henan Province, 3Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Carbon dots (CDs) are one of the most highlighted carbon-based materials for biological applications, such as opt...

  15. The evolutionary rewiring of ubiquitination targets has reprogrammed the regulation of carbon assimilation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandai, Doblin; Yin, Zhikang; Selway, Laura; Stead, David; Walker, Janet; Leach, Michelle D; Bohovych, Iryna; Ene, Iuliana V; Kastora, Stavroula; Budge, Susan; Munro, Carol A; Odds, Frank C; Gow, Neil A R; Brown, Alistair J P

    2012-12-11

    Microbes must assimilate carbon to grow and colonize their niches. Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans, a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. However, we show that there is significant dislocation between the proteome and transcriptome in C. albicans. Glucose triggers the degradation of the ICL1 and PCK1 transcripts in C. albicans, yet isocitrate lyase (Icl1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) are stable and are retained. Indeed, numerous enzymes required for the assimilation of carboxylic and fatty acids are not degraded in response to glucose. However, when expressed in C. albicans, S. cerevisiae Icl1 (ScIcl1) is subjected to glucose-accelerated degradation, indicating that like S. cerevisiae, this pathogen has the molecular apparatus required to execute ubiquitin-dependent catabolite inactivation. C. albicans Icl1 (CaIcl1) lacks analogous ubiquitination sites and is stable under these conditions, but the addition of a ubiquitination site programs glucose-accelerated degradation of CaIcl1. Also, catabolite inactivation is slowed in C. albicans ubi4 cells. Ubiquitination sites are present in gluconeogenic and glyoxylate cycle enzymes from S. cerevisiae but absent from their C. albicans homologues. We conclude that evolutionary rewiring of ubiquitination targets has meant that following glucose exposure, C. albicans retains key metabolic functions, allowing it to continue to assimilate alternative carbon sources. This metabolic flexibility may be critical during infection, facilitating the rapid colonization of dynamic host niches containing complex arrays of nutrients. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic microbes must assimilate a range of carbon sources to grow and colonize their hosts. Current views about carbon assimilation in the

  16. Targeted therapy of SMMC-7721 liver cancer in vitro and in vivo with carbon nanotubes based drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zongfei; Lin, Gaofeng; Lu, Qinghua; Meng, Lingjie; Shen, Xizhong; Dong, Ling; Fu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2012-01-01

    A new type of drug delivery system (DDS) involved chitosan (CHI) modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for controllable loading/release of anti-cancer doxorubicin (DOX) was constructed. CHI was non-covalently wrapped around SWNTs, imparting water-solubility and biocompatibility to the nanotubes. Folic acid (FA) was also bounded to the outer CHI layer to realize selective killing of tumor cells. The targeting DDS could effectively kill the HCC SMMC-7721 cell lines and depress the growth of liver cancer in nude mice, showing superior pharmaceutical efficiency to free DOX. The results of the blood routine and serum biochemical parameters, combined with the histological examinations of vital organs, demonstrating that the targeting DDS had negligible in vivo toxicity. Thus, this DDS is promising for high treatment efficacy and low side effects for future cancer therapy.

  17. Microbial characterization of basalt formation waters targeted for geological carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalleur, Heather J; Colwell, Frederick S

    2013-07-01

    Geological carbon sequestration in basalts is a promising solution to mitigate carbon emissions into the Earth's atmosphere. The Wallula pilot well in Eastern Washington State, USA provides an opportunity to investigate how native microbial communities in basalts are affected by the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep, alkaline formation waters of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Our objective was to characterize the microbial communities at five depth intervals in the Wallula pilot well prior to CO2 injection to establish a baseline community for comparison after the CO2 is injected. Microbial communities were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to enumerate bacterial cells and 454 pyrosequencing to compare and contrast the diversity of the native microbial communities. The deepest depth sampled contained the greatest amount of bacterial biomass, as well as the highest bacterial diversity. The shallowest depth sampled harbored the greatest archaeal diversity. Pyrosequencing revealed the well to be dominated by the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, with microorganisms related to hydrogen oxidizers (Hydrogenophaga), methylotrophs (Methylotenera), methanotrophs (Methylomonas), iron reducers (Geoalkalibacter), sulfur oxidizers (Thiovirga), and methanogens (Methermicocccus). Thus, the Wallula pilot well is composed of a unique microbial community in which hydrogen and single-carbon compounds may play a significant role in sustaining the deep biosphere.

  18. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with {sup 14}C and {sup 35}S; Syntheses de molecules organiques marquees par le carbone-14 et le soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the Frenchmic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alanines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (author)Fren. [French] Apres un bref historique du developpement de la Section des Molecules marquees du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique fran is, l'auteur donne un resume des syntheses des composes marques suivants: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alamines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, acide aminoethane sulfinique (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (auteur)

  19. Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro. Methods: The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (UV–Vis–NIR. Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29 and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7 lines were assessed in vitro. Results: TEM, FTIR, and UV–Vis–NIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTX–POSS–SWCNT, PTX–POSS–Ab–SWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT, POSS–SWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSS–SWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls. Conclusion: The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues.

  20. Targeted anti-cancer prodrug based on carbon nanotube with photodynamic therapeutic effect and pH-triggered drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jianquan; Zeng, Fang, E-mail: mcfzeng@scut.edu.cn; Xu, Jiangsheng; Wu, Shuizhu, E-mail: shzhwu@scut.edu.cn [South China University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (China)

    2013-09-15

    Herein, we describe a multifunctional anti-cancer prodrug system based on water-dispersible carbon nanotube (CNT); this prodrug system features active targeting, pH-triggered drug release, and photodynamic therapeutic properties. For this prodrug system (with the size of {approx}100-300 nm), an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was incorporated onto CNT via a cleavable hydrazone bond; and a targeting ligand (folic acid) was also coupled onto CNT. This prodrug can preferably enter folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells and undergo intracellular release of the drug triggered by the reduced pH. The targeted CNT-based prodrug system can cause lower cell viability toward FR-positive cells compared to the non-targeted ones. Moreover, the CNT carrier exhibits photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) action; and the cell viability of FR-positive cancer cells can be further reduced upon light irradiation. The dual effects of pH-triggered drug release and PDT increase the therapeutic efficacy of the DOX-CNT prodrug. This study may offer some useful insights on designing and improving the applicability of CNT for other drug delivery systems.

  1. Metabolism of carbon-14-labeled benzene and toluene in avocado fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.F.; Olson, A.C.

    1969-01-01

    The method of exposing avocado fruit to /sup 14/C labeled benzene or toluene was as follows. Fuerte variety avocado fruit was used. It was exposed to the vapor of the hydrocarbons which were circulated in a container. Three mature preclimacteric fruit were used in each experiment. The nonvolatile metabolites from both hydrocarbons were separated into classes of compounds by their solution in water, separation of lipids, and passage of the aqueous solution through ion exchange columns. The results indicate that in avocados the relatively inert hydrocarbons benzene and toluene are metabolized to a series of compounds, toluene to a greater extent than benzene. Both are metabolized to a small but significant extent to CO/sub 2/. 7 references, 2 tables.

  2. Functional carbo-butadienes: nonaromatic conjugation effects through a 14-carbon, 24-π-electron backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Arnaud; Maraval, Valérie; Saffon-Merceron, Nathalie; Chauvin, Remi

    2014-01-07

    A systematic study of carbo-butadiene motifs not embedded in an aromatic carbo-benzene ring is described. Dibutatrienylacetylene (DBA) targets R(1) C(R)CCC(Ph)C≡CC(Ph)CCC(R)R(2) are devised, in which R is C≡CSiiPr3 and R(1) and R(2) are R, H, or 4-X-C6 H4 , with the latter including three known representatives (X: H, NMe2 , or NH2 ). The synthesis method is based on the SnCl2 -mediated reduction of pentaynediols prepared by early or late divergent strategies; the latter allows access to a OMe-NO2 push-pull diaryl-DBA. If R(1) and R(2) are H, an over-reduced dialkynylbutatriene (DAB) with two allenyl caps was isolated instead of the unsubstituted DBA. If R(1) =R(2) =R, the tetraalkynyl-DBA target was obtained, along with an over-reduced DBA product with a 12-membered 1,2-alkylidene-1H2 ,2H2 -carbo-cyclobutadiene ring. X-ray crystallography shows that all of the acyclic DBAs adopt a planar trans-transoid-trans configuration. The maximum UV/Vis absorption wavelength is found to vary consistently with the overall π-conjugation extent and, more intriguingly, with the π-donor character of the aryl X substituents, which varies consistently with the first (reversible) reduction potential and first (irreversible) oxidation peak, as determined by voltammetry.

  3. Promotion of Water Channels for Enhanced Ion Transport in 14-nm-diameter Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiadong; Zhu, Qi; Zeng, Xian; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2017-03-06

    Ion transport plays an important role in solar-to-electricity conversion, drug delivery and a variety of biological processes. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a promising material as an ion transporter in the applications of the mimicking of natural ion channels, desalination and energy harvesting. Here, we demonstrate a unique, enhanced ion transport through a vertically aligned multiwall CNT membrane after the application of an electric potential across CNT membranes. Interestingly, electrowetting arising from the application of an electric potential is critical for the enhancement of overall ion transport rate through CNT membranes. The wettability of a liquid with high surface tension on the interior channel walls of CNTs increases during an electric potential treatment and promotes the formation of water channels in CNTs. The formation of water channels in CNTs induces an increase in overall ion diffusion through CNT membranes. This phenomenon is also related to a decrease in the charge transfer resistance of CNTs (Rct) after applying an electric potential. Correspondingly, the enhanced ion flow rate gives rise to an enhancement in the capacitive performance of CNT based membranes. Our observations might have profound impact on the development of CNT based energy storage devices as well as artificial ion channels.

  4. Carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C and (14)C activity) of plant samples in the vicinity of the Slovene nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Martina; Vreča, Polona; Krajcar Bronić, Ines

    2012-08-01

    δ(13)C values of various plants (apples, wheat, and maize) collected in the vicinity of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant (Slovenia) during 2008 and 2009 were determined. By measuring dried samples and their carbonized counterparts we showed that no significant isotopic fractionation occurs during the carbonization phase of the sample preparation process in the laboratory. The measured δ(13)C values of the plants were used for δ(13)C correction of their measured (14)C activities.

  5. Chemical investigations of isotope separation on line target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are of significant interest in a number of applications. Isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to CO/sub x/ and NOmaterials are potential construction materials for the above-mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermochromatography setup with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the production of tracers for atmospheric chemistry (PROTRAC) facility at the Paul Schener Institute in Villigen...

  6. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior.

  7. Targeted proteome analysis of single-gene deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking enzymes in the central carbon metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Syohei; Nishino, Shunsuke; Tomita, Atsumi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Central carbon metabolism is controlled by modulating the protein abundance profiles of enzymes that maintain the essential systems in living organisms. In this study, metabolic adaptation mechanisms in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated by direct determination of enzyme abundance levels in 30 wild type and mutant strains. We performed a targeted proteome analysis using S. cerevisiae strains that lack genes encoding the enzymes responsible for central carbon metabolism. Our analysis revealed that at least 30% of the observed variations in enzyme abundance levels could be explained by global regulatory mechanisms. A enzyme-enzyme co-abundance analysis revealed that the abundances of enzyme proteins involved in the trehalose metabolism and glycolysis changed in a coordinated manner under the control of the transcription factors for global regulation. The remaining variations were derived from local mechanisms such as a mutant-specific increase in the abundances of remote enzymes. The proteome data also suggested that, although the functional compensation of the deficient enzyme was attained by using more resources for protein biosynthesis, available resources for the biosynthesis of the enzymes responsible for central metabolism were not abundant in S. cerevisiae cells. These results showed that global and local regulation of enzyme abundance levels shape central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae by using a limited resource for protein biosynthesis. PMID:28241048

  8. Light-driven increase in carbon yield is linked to maintenance in the proteorhodopsin-containing Photobacterium angustum S14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eCourties

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A type of photoheterotrophic bacteria contain a transmembrane light-driven proton pump called proteorhodopsins (PRs. Due to the prevalence of these organisms in the upper water column of the World’s Ocean, and their potential for light driven ATP generation, they have been suggested to significantly influence energy and matter flows in the biosphere. To date, evidence for the significance of the light-driven metabolism of PR-containing prokaryotes has been obtained by comparing growth in batch culture, under light versus dark conditions, and it appears that responses to light are linked to unfavorable conditions, which so far have not been well parameterized. We studied light responses to carbon yields of the PR-containing Photobacterium angustum S14 using continuous culture conditions and light-dark cycles. We observed significant effects of light-dark cycles compared to dark controls, as well as significant differences between samples after 12 h illumination versus 12 h darkness. However these effects were only observed under higher cell counts and lower pH associated with higher substrate concentrations. Under these substrate levels Pirt’s maintenance coefficient was higher when compared to lower substrate dark controls, and decreased under light-dark cycles. It appears that light responses by Photobacterium angustum S14 are induced by the energetic status of the cells rather than by low substrate concentrations.

  9. Soil aggregate fraction-based 14C analysis and its application in the study of soil organic carbon turnover under forests of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN WenBing; ZHOU LiPing; LIU KeXin

    2013-01-01

    There still exist uncertainties in the trend,magnitude and efficiency of carbon sequestration with regard to the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after afforestation.In this study,SOC turnover times of the meadow steppe and planted forests at Saihanba Forest Station of Hebei Province,China are estimated by means of the radiocarbon (14C) method.Our results show that the SOC turnover times can be as long as from 70 to 250 years.After planting the Pinus sylvestri var.mongolica in the Leymus chinensis meadow steppe,the turnover times of organic carbon in both bulk samples and soil aggregate fractions of the topsoils are decreased with an increase of the stand age.Such a lowering of the turnover time would cause an increase in soil CO2 flux,implying that afforestation of grassland may reduce the capacity of topsoil to sequestrate organic carbon.Combined stable isotope and 14C analyses on soil aggregate fractions suggest that there are different responses to afforestation of grassland between young and old carbon pools in topsoils.In the young and middle-age planted forests,the proportion of CO2 emission from the older soil carbon pool shows an increasing trend.But in the mature planted forest,its proportion tends to decline,indicating that the stand age may influence the soil carbon sequestration mechanism.The CO2 emission from the topsoils estimated using the 14C method is relatively low compared to those by other methods and may be caused by the partial isolation of the young carbon component from the soil aggregates.For more accurate estimation of CO2 flux,future studies should therefore employ improved methodology for more effective separation of different soil carbon components before isotope analyses.

  10. Reaction dynamics of {sup 34-38}Mg projectile with carbon target using Glauber model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, Mahesh K., E-mail: maheshphy82@gmail.com [School of Physics and Material Sciences, Thapar University Patiala-147004 (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran Mohali-140307 (India); Panda, R. N. [Department of Physics, ITER, Shiksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar-751030 (India); Sharma, Manoj K. [School of Physics and Material Sciences, Thapar University Patiala-147004 (India); Patra, S. K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya marg Bhubneswar-751005 (India)

    2015-08-28

    We have studied nuclear reaction cross-sections for {sup 34-38}Mg isotopes as projectile with {sup 12}C target at projectile energy 240AMeV using Glauber model with the conjunction of densities from relativistic mean filed formalism. We found good agreement with the available experimental data. The halo status of {sup 37}Mg is also investigated.

  11. Using Carbon-14 Isotope Tracing to Investigate Molecular Structure Effects of the Oxygenate Dibutyl Maleate on Soot Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Upatnieks, A; Martin, G C; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2004-01-07

    The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot emissions from a DI diesel engine was examined using carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) isotope tracing. Carbon atoms in three distinct chemical structures within the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate (DBM) were labeled with {sup 14}C. The {sup 14}C from the labeled DBM was then detected in engine-out particulate matter (PM), in-cylinder deposits, and CO{sub 2} emissions using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The results indicate that molecular structure plays an important role in determining whether a specific carbon atom either does or does not form soot. Chemical-kinetic modeling results indicate that structures that produce CO{sub 2} directly from the fuel are less effective at reducing soot than structures that produce CO before producing CO{sub 2}. Because they can follow individual carbon atoms through a real combustion process, {sup 14}C isotope tracing studies help strengthen the connection between actual engine emissions and chemical-kinetic models of combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes.

  12. Recent results at the SIRa test bench Diffusion properties of carbon graphite and B sub 4 C targets

    CERN Document Server

    Landre-Pellemoine, F; Bajeat, O; Barue, C; Bennett, R; Clapier, F; Ducourtieux, M; Gaubert, G; Gibouin, S; Huguet, Y; Jardin, P; Kandri-Rody, S; Lau, C; Lecesne, N; Leroy, R; Lewitowicz, M; Lichtenthäler, R; Marry, C; Maunoury, L; Obert, J; Orr, N A; Pacquet, J Y; Saint-Laurent, M G; Stodel, C; Rataud, J P; Villari, A C C

    2002-01-01

    The diffusion properties of graphite targets with 1, 4 and 15 microns microstructure has been measured for He and Ar isotopes. An important enhancement of the diffusion efficiency for the smaller microstructure is observed. A releasing efficiency of the order of 100% was obtained for sup 6 He (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 =806 ms) at a temperature of 1600 K. The diffusion and production properties of He isotopes in a target of B sub 4 C (boron carbide) have also been studied. Yields of 1.4x10 sup 8 pps and 5.0x10 sup 5 pps for sup 6 He and sup 8 He has been obtained.

  13. Carbon cycling in primary production bottle incubations: inferences from grazing experiments and photosynthetic studies using 14C and 18O in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Edward A.; Landry, Michael R.; Barber, Richard T.; Campbell, Lisa; Dickson, Mary-Lynn; Marra, John

    Estimates of photosynthesis based on the incorporation of 14C-labeled inorganic carbon into particulate carbon were compared to estimates of gross photosynthesis based on net O 2 production and the production of 18O2 from H218O during the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) Arabian Sea process cruises. For samples incubated below the surface and at optical depthsphotorespiration, dark respiration, excretion, and grazing effects on the two estimates of photosynthesis. The 14C uptake : gross photosynthesis ratio was distinctly higher (0.62) for samples incubated at the surface. This result is likely due to UV light effects, since the O 2 and 14C incubations were done in quartz and polysulfone bottles, respectively. The 14C uptake : gross photosynthesis ratio was lower (0.31) for bottles incubated at optical depths>3. This result probably reflects an increase in the ratio of dark respiration to net photosynthesis in the vicinity of the compensation light level.

  14. The effect of local anatomy on the electric field induced by TMS: evaluation at 14 different target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Arno M; Oostendorp, Thom F; Stegeman, Dick F

    2014-10-01

    Many human cortical regions are targeted with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The stimulus intensity used for a certain region is generally based on the motor threshold stimulation intensity determined over the motor cortex (M1). However, it is well known that differences exist in coil-target distance and target site anatomy between cortical regions. These differences may well make the stimulation intensity derived from M1 sub-optimal for other regions. Our goal was to determine in what way the induced electric fields differ between cortical target regions. We used finite element method modeling to calculate the induced electric field for multiple target sites in a realistic head model. The effects on the electric field due to coil-target distance and target site anatomy have been quantified. The results show that a correction based on the distance alone does not correctly adjust the induced electric field for regions other than M1. In addition, a correction based solely on the TMS-induced electric field (primary field) does not suffice. A precise adjustment should include coil-target distance, the secondary field caused by charge accumulation at conductivity discontinuities and the direction of the field relative to the local cerebrospinal fluid-grey matter boundary.

  15. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  16. Efficiency Allocation of Provincial Carbon Reduction Target in China’s “13·5” Period: Based on Zero-Sum-Gains SBM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, we introduce the “Zero Sum Gains” game theory into the SBM (Slacks-based Measure model, and establish the ZSG-SBM model. Then, set up 4 development scenarios for the China’s economic system in “13·5” (The Chinese government formulates a Five-Year Planning for national economic and social development every five years, “13·5” means 2016 to 2020. period through two dimensions as economic growth and energy consumption structure, and make the efficient allocation in provincial level of carbon reduction target by using the above ZSG-SBM model based on the China’s overall carbon reduction constraint (18% which is set in “13·5” planning. Finally, we analyze the provincial development path of low-carbon economy by comparing the economic development status with the allocated result of carbon reduction target. Results show that: After the ZSG-SBM model being applied to the efficiency allocation of carbon emission, the input and output indicators of the 30 provinces realize the effective allocation, and the carbon emission efficiency reaches the efficiency frontier. The equity-oriented administrative allocation scheme of government will bring about efficiency loss in a certain degree, and the efficiency allocation scheme, based on the ZSG-SBM model, fits better with the long-term development requirement of low-carbon economy. On the basis of carbon intensity constraint, the re-constraint of energy intensity will force the provinces to optimize their energy consumption structure, thereby enhancing the overall carbon emission efficiency of China. Sixteen provinces’ allocation results of carbon reduction target are above China’s average (18% in “13·5” period, all the provinces should select appropriate development path of low-carbon economy according to the status of their resource endowment, economic level, industrial structure and energy consumption structure.

  17. Study of the behaviour of organic carbon in the soil, and carbon 14 study of podzols; Contribution a l'etude du comportement du carbone organique dans le sol et etude des podzols a l'aide du carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhla Shawki, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Using the penetration into soil of carbon 14 of thermo-nuclear origin, the behaviour and renewal rate were studied on different organic fractions of the soil. It was established that 18% of the total organic matter is renewed in about 400 years. In addition the formation of podzol-type fossil soils in France was dated from the first millenary B.C., i.e. the end of the sub-boreal period and the beginning of the atlantic period. (author) [French] En utilisant la penetration dans le sol du carbone 14 d'origine thermonucleaire, on a etudie le comportement et la vitesse de renouvellement des differentes fractions de la matiere organique du sol. On a pu preciser que 18% de la matiere organique globale se renouvelait en 400 ans environ. Par ailleurs, la formation en France des sols fossiles du type podzol a ete datee du premier millenaire avant J.C. c'est a dire a la fin de la periode subboreale et au debut de la periode atlantique. (auteur)

  18. Assessment of experimental d-PIGE γ-ray production cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O and comparison with absolute thick target yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csedreki, L.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Measured differential cross sections for deuteron induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 12C(d,pγ)13C, (Eγ = 3089 keV), 14N(d,pγ)15N (Eγ = 8310 keV) and 16O(d,pγ)17O (Eγ = 871 keV) available in the literature were assessed. In order to cross check the assessed γ-ray production cross section data, thick target γ-yields calculated from the differential cross sections were compared with available measured thick target yields. Recommended differential cross section data for each reaction were deduced for particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) applications.

  19. Prostate stem cell antigen antibody-conjugated multiwalled carbon nanotubes for targeted ultrasound imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Shi, Haili; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xue; Yang, Yan; Yu, Chao; Hao, Caiqin; Du, Jing; Hu, He; Yang, Shiping

    2014-07-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are cut short and grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI) for further covalent conjugation to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) monoclonal antibody (mAb). The in vitro and in vivo toxicity data reveal that the as-prepared CNT-PEI(FITC)-mAb has good biocompatibility. Combined flow cytometry and confocal luminescence imaging experiments confirm that the CNT-PEI(FITC)-mAb can specifically target the cancer cells which overexpress PSCA. The results of in vitro and in vivo ultrasound (US) imaging indicate that CNT-PEI(FITC)-mAb has great potential to be used as a targeted US contrast agent. The in vivo anti-cancer efficacy testing using PC-3 tumor-bearing mice as animal models demonstrates that CNT-PEI(FITC)-mAb can targetedly deliver drug to the tumors and suppress tumor growth. Findings from this study suggest that the CNT-PEI(FITC)-mAb could be used as a multifunctional platform for simultaneous US imaging and drug delivery applications.

  20. Chemical Investigations of ISOL target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) are of significant interest in a number of applications. ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to COx and NOx on Al2O3 and SiO2. These materials are potential construction materials for the above mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermo-chromatography set-up with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the PROTRAC facility at Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland.

  1. On the isolation of elemental carbon for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry; evaluation of alternative isolation procedures, and accuracy assurance using a hybrid isotopic particulate carbon reference material

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, L A; Kessler,J.D.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of an hybrid reference material (RM) to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC) isotopic (14C) speciation measurements. Such measurements are critically important for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of ''soot'' (EC), the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement qual...

  2. Distribution and biomarkers of Carbon-14 labeled fullerene C60 ([14C(U)]C60) in female rats and mice for up to 30 days after intravenous exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Susan C. J.; Snyder, Rodney W.; Wingard, Christopher; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Holland, Nathan A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Dhungana, Suraj; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Han, Li; Lewin, Anita H.; Fennell, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive distribution study was conducted in female rats and mice exposed to a suspension of uniformly carbon-14 labeled C60 ([14C(U)]C60). Rodents were administered [14C(U)]C60 (~0.9 mg /kg body weight) or 5% PVP-saline vehicle alone via a single tail vein injection. Tissues were collected at 1 hour, 1, 7, 14 and 30 days after administration. A separate group of rodents received 5 daily injections of suspensions of either [14C(U)]C60 or vehicle with tissue collection 14 days post exposure. Radioactivity was detected in over 20 tissues at all time period. The highest concentration of radioactivity in rodents at each time point was in liver, lungs and spleen. Elimination of [14C(U)]C60 was <2% in urine and feces at any 24 hour time points. [14C(U)]C60 and [14C(U)]C60-retinol were detected in liver of rats and together accounted for ~99% and ~56% of the total recovered at 1 and 30 days post exposure, respectively. The blood radioactivity at 1 hour after [14C(U)]C60 exposure was four-fold higher in rats than in mice; blood radioactivity was still in circulation at 30 days post [14C(U)]C60 exposure in both species (<1%). Levels of oxidative stress markers increased by 5 days after exposure and remained elevated, while levels of inflammation markers initially increased and then returned to control values. The level of cardiovascular marker vWF, increased in rats, but remained at control levels in mice. This study demonstrates that [14C(U)]C60 is retained in female rodents with little elimination by 30 days after i.v. exposure, and leads to systemic oxidative stress. PMID:25727383

  3. A graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere as a novel photochemical internalization agent for targeted and stimuli-responsive cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhaowei; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Wei; Ju, Enguo; Yan, Zhengqing; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    As a novel technique, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been employed as a new approach to overcome endo/lysosomal restriction, which is one of the main difficulties in both drug and gene delivery. However, the complicated synthesis procedure (usually requiring the self-assembly of polymers, photosensitizers and cargos) and payload specificity greatly limit its further application. In this paper, we employ a highly fluorescent graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (GHCNS) to simultaneously serve as a PCI photosensitizer, an imaging agent and a drug carrier. The surface modification of GHCNS with multifunctional polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) endows the system with colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cancer cell targeting ability. After CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis, the nanosystem is embedded in endo/lysosomal vesicles and HA could be specially degraded by hyaluronidase (Hyal), inducing open pores. In the following, with visible light illumination, GHCNS could produce ROS that effectively induced lipid peroxidation and caused endo/lysosomal membrane break, accelerating the cytoplasmic release of the drug in the targeted and irradiated cells. As a result, significantly increased therapeutic potency and specificity against cancer cells could be achieved.As a novel technique, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been employed as a new approach to overcome endo/lysosomal restriction, which is one of the main difficulties in both drug and gene delivery. However, the complicated synthesis procedure (usually requiring the self-assembly of polymers, photosensitizers and cargos) and payload specificity greatly limit its further application. In this paper, we employ a highly fluorescent graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (GHCNS) to simultaneously serve as a PCI photosensitizer, an imaging agent and a drug carrier. The surface modification of GHCNS with multifunctional polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) endows the system with colloidal

  4. Hypernuclear spectroscopy of products from 6Li projectiles on a carbon target at 2 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Rappold, C; Nakajima, D; Saito, T R; Bertini, O; Bianchin, S; Bozkurt, V; Kavatsyuk, M; Ma, Y; Maas, F; Minami, S; Özel-Tashenov, B; Yoshida, K; Achenbach, P; Ajimura, S; Aumann, T; Gayoso, C Ayerbe; Bhang, H C; Caesar, C; Erturk, S; Fukuda, T; Göküzüm, B; Guliev, E; Hiraiwa, T; Hoffmann, J; Ickert, G; Ketenci, Z S; Khaneft, D; Kim, M; Kim, S; Koch, K; Kurz, N; Fèvre, A Le; Mizoi, Y; Moritsu, M; Nagae, T; Nungesser, L; Okamura, A; Ott, W; Pochodzalla, J; Sakaguchi, A; Sako, M; Schmidt, C J; Sekimoto, M; Simon, H; Sugimura, H; Takahashi, T; Tambave, G J; Tamura, H; Trautmann, W; Voltz, S; Yokota, N; Yoon, C J

    2013-01-01

    A novel experiment, aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of hypernuclear spectroscopy with heavy-ion beams, was conducted. Using the invariant mass method, the spectroscopy of hypernuclear products of 6Li projectiles on a carbon target at 2 AGeV was performed. Signals of the \\Lambda-hyperon and 3\\Lambda H and 4\\Lambda H hypernuclei were observed for final states of p+\\pi^-, 3He+\\pi^- and 4He+\\pi^-, respectively, with significance values of 6.7, 4.7 and 4.9\\sigma. By analyzing the proper decay time from secondary vertex distribution with the unbinned maximum likelihood fitting method, their lifetime values were deduced to be $262 ^{+56}_{-43} \\pm 45$ ps for \\Lambda, $183 ^{+42}_{-32} \\pm 37$ ps for 3\\Lambda H, and $140 ^{+48}_{-33}\\pm 35 $ ps for 4\\Lambda H.

  5. Accuracy and precision of 14C-based source apportionment of organic and elemental carbon in aerosols using the Swiss_4S protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Mouteva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol source apportionment remains a critical challenge for understanding the transport and aging of aerosols, as well as for developing successful air pollution mitigation strategies. The contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources to organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC in carbonaceous aerosols can be quantified by measuring the radiocarbon (14C content of each carbon fraction. However, the use of 14C in studying OC and EC has been limited by technical challenges related to the physical separation of the two fractions and small sample sizes. There is no common procedure for OC/EC 14C analysis, and uncertainty studies have largely focused on the precision of yields. Here, we quantified the uncertainty in 14C measurement of aerosols associated with the isolation and analysis of each carbon fraction with the Swiss_4S thermal-optical analysis (TOA protocol. We used an OC/EC analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., OR, USA coupled to vacuum line to separate the two components. Each fraction was thermally desorbed and converted to carbon dioxide (CO2 in pure oxygen (O2. On average 91% of the evolving CO2 was then cryogenically trapped on the vacuum line, reduced to filamentous graphite, and measured for its 14C content via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. To test the accuracy of our set-up, we quantified the total amount of extraneous carbon introduced during the TOA sample processing and graphitization as the sum of modern and fossil (14C-depleted carbon introduced during the analysis of fossil reference materials (adipic acid for OC and coal for EC and contemporary standards (oxalic acid for OC and rice char for EC as a function of sample size. We further tested our methodology by analyzing five ambient airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 samples with a range of OC and EC concentrations and 14C contents in an interlaboratory comparison. The total modern and fossil carbon blanks of our set-up were 0.8 ± 0.4 and 0.67 ± 0.34 μg C

  6. Accuracy and precision of 14C-based source apportionment of organic and elemental carbon in aerosols using the Swiss_4S protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G. O.; Fahrni, S. M.; Santos, G. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Zhang, Y.-L.; Szidat, S.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol source apportionment remains a critical challenge for understanding the transport and aging of aerosols, as well as for developing successful air pollution mitigation strategies. The contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in carbonaceous aerosols can be quantified by measuring the radiocarbon (14C) content of each carbon fraction. However, the use of 14C in studying OC and EC has been limited by technical challenges related to the physical separation of the two fractions and small sample sizes. There is no common procedure for OC/EC 14C analysis, and uncertainty studies have largely focused on the precision of yields. Here, we quantified the uncertainty in 14C measurement of aerosols associated with the isolation and analysis of each carbon fraction with the Swiss_4S thermal-optical analysis (TOA) protocol. We used an OC/EC analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., OR, USA) coupled to a vacuum line to separate the two components. Each fraction was thermally desorbed and converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) in pure oxygen (O2). On average, 91 % of the evolving CO2 was then cryogenically trapped on the vacuum line, reduced to filamentous graphite, and measured for its 14C content via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To test the accuracy of our setup, we quantified the total amount of extraneous carbon introduced during the TOA sample processing and graphitization as the sum of modern and fossil (14C-depleted) carbon introduced during the analysis of fossil reference materials (adipic acid for OC and coal for EC) and contemporary standards (oxalic acid for OC and rice char for EC) as a function of sample size. We further tested our methodology by analyzing five ambient airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) samples with a range of OC and EC concentrations and 14C contents in an interlaboratory comparison. The total modern and fossil carbon blanks of our setup were 0.8 ± 0.4 and 0.67 ± 0.34 μg C, respectively

  7. Doxorubicin conjugated functionalizable carbon dots for nucleus targeted delivery and enhanced therapeutic efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Zheran; Wang, Ju; Jiang, Weihua; Jiang, Xuewei; Bai, Zhaoshi; He, Yunpeng; Jiang, Jianqi; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared with free DOX. Thus, the DOX-CD conjugates may be exploited as promising drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared

  8. Targeting Antibodies to Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors by Pyrene Hydrazide Modification of Heavy Chain Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET studies have used immobilized antibodies as the ligand binding moiety. However, antibodies are not optimal for CNT-FET detection due to their large size and charge. Their size can prevent ligands from reaching within the Debye length of the CNTs and a layer of charged antibodies on the circuits can drown out any ligand signal. In an attempt to minimize the antibody footprint on CNT-FETs, we examined whether pyrene hydrazide modification of antibody carbohydrates could reduce the concentration required to functionalize CNT circuits. The carbohydrates are almost exclusively on the antibody Fc region and this site-specific modification could mediate uniform antibody orientation on the CNTs. We compared the hydrazide modification of anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibodies to pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester-coated CNTs and carbodiimide-mediated antibody CNT attachment. Our results show that the pyrene hydrazide modification was superior to those methods with respect to bacteria detection and less than 1 nM labeled antibody was required to functionalize the circuits.

  9. A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Joseph D; Josef, Christopher S; Feldman, Michael J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2015-08-06

    The first descriptions of carbon monoxide (CO) and its toxic nature appeared in the literature over 100 years ago in separate publications by Drs. Douglas and Haldane. Both men ascribed the deleterious effects of this newly discovered gas to its strong interaction with hemoglobin. Since then the adverse sequelae of CO poisoning has been almost universally attributed to hypoxic injury secondary to CO occupation of oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin. Despite a mounting body of literature suggesting other mechanisms of injury, this pathophysiology and its associated oxygen centric therapies persists. This review attempts to elucidate the remarkably complex nature of CO as a gasotransmitter. While CO's affinity for hemoglobin remains undisputed, new research suggests that its role in nitric oxide release, reactive oxygen species formation, and its direct action on ion channels is much more significant. In the course of understanding the multifaceted character of this simple molecule it becomes apparent that current oxygen based therapies meant to displace CO from hemoglobin may be insufficient and possibly harmful. Approaching CO as a complex gasotransmitter will help guide understanding of the complex and poorly understood sequelae and illuminate potentials for new treatment modalities.

  10. Oesophageal heat exchangers with a diameter of 11mm or 14.7mm are equally effective and safe for targeted temperature management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guschlbauer, Maria; Maul, Alexandra C.; Cremer, Daniel A.; Becker, Ingrid; de la Puente Bethencourt, David; Paal, Peter; Padosch, Stephan A.; Wetsch, Wolfgang A.; Annecke, Thorsten; Böttiger, Bernd W.; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Herff, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Targeted temperature management (TTM) is widely used in critical care settings for conditions including hepatic encephalopathy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meningitis, myocardial infarction, paediatric cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and sepsis. Furthermore, TTM is a key treatment for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). However, the optimal cooling method, which is quick, safe and cost-effective still remains controversial. Since the oesophagus is adjacent to heart and aorta, fast heat-convection to the central blood-stream could be achieved with a minimally invasive oesophageal heat exchanger (OHE). To date, the optimal diameter of an OHE is still unknown. While larger diameters may cause thermal- or pressure-related tissue damage after long-term exposure to the oesophageal wall, smaller diameter (e.g., gastric tubes, up to 11mm) may not provide effective cooling rates. Thus, the objective of the study was to compare OHE-diameters of 11mm (OHE11) and 14.7mm (OHE14.7) and their effects on tissue and cooling capability. Methods Pigs were randomized to OHE11 (N = 8) or OHE14.7 (N = 8). After cooling, pigs were maintained at 33°C for 1 hour. After 10h rewarming, oesophagi were analyzed by means of histopathology. The oesophagus of four animals from a separate study that underwent exactly the identical preparation and cooling protocol described above but received a maintenance period of 24h were used as histopathological controls. Results Mean cooling rates were 2.8±0.4°C°C/h (OHE11) and 3.0±0.3°C °C/h (OHE14.7; p = 0.20). Occasional mild acute inflammatory transepithelial infiltrates were found in the cranial segment of the oesophagus in all groups including controls. Deviations from target temperature were 0.1±0.4°C (OHE11) and 0±0.1°C (OHE14.7; p = 0.91). Rewarming rates were 0.19±0.07°C °C/h (OHE11) and 0.20±0.05°C °C/h (OHE14.7; p = 0.75). Conclusions OHE with diameters

  11. SU-E-J-142: Prompt Gamma Emission Measurements From a Passively Scattered Proton Beam On Targets Containing 16O, 12C and 14N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyasugiththan, J [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Clinical Oncology, Teaching Hospital, Jeffna (Sri Lanka); Peterson, S [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure the prompt gamma emission from the important elements found in tissue ({sup 16}O,{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N) in a clinical passive-scatter treatment environment. Methods: The targets (composed of water, Perspex, graphite and liquid nitrogen) were irradiated with a 200 MeV passive-scatter proton beam and the discrete prompt gamma energy spectra was detected by a high resolution 2′ × 2′ LaBr. detector. In order to reduce the high level of radiation produced by the beam line elements, the detector was surrounded by 10 cm of lead to attenuate the scattered gamma-rays entering the detector with an extra 5 cm thick layer of lead added along the beam direction. A 10 cm thick collimator with a 5 cm × 10 cm rectangular opening was also used. Results: The prompt gamma peaks at 6.13 MeV and 4.44 MeV were clearly identified as a Result of the inelastic nuclear reaction between the protons and the 16O atoms found in the water target. The 6.13 MeV peak was 5% higher than the peak at 4.44 MeV for the water target. The 4.44 MeV peak was the only identified emission in the prompt gamma energy spectra from the graphite target ({sup 12}C). The expected 2.313 MeV peak form the{sup 14}N (liquid nitrogen target) was identified, but the other expected {sup 14}N peaks could not be resolved. Conclusion: Prompt gamma measurements with a passive-scatter proton beam are possible, but the presence of a high amount of background radiation from the patient final collimator presents a challenge at the treatment isocenter. The prominent prompt gamma peaks at 6.13 MeV and 4.44 MeV were identified from the water, Perspex and graphite targets. The prompt gammas from the liquid nitrogen target were difficult to see, but may not be significant in the in-vivo verification process.

  12. A quantitative 14-3-3 interaction screen connects the nuclear exosome targeting complex to the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasius, Melanie; Wagner, Sebastian A; Choudhary, Chuna Ram

    2014-01-01

    RNA metabolism is altered following DNA damage, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Through a 14-3-3 interaction screen for DNA damage-induced protein interactions in human cells, we identified protein complexes connected to RNA biology. These include the nuclear exosome...

  13. Correction of human phospholamban R14del mutation associated with cardiomyopathy using targeted nucleases and combination therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakikes, Ioannis; Stillitano, Francesca; Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; Tzimas, Christos; Sanoudou, Despina; Termglinchan, Vittavat; Kong, Chi-Wing; Rushing, Stephanie; Hansen, Jens; Ceholski, Delaine; Kolokathis, Fotis; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Katoulis, Alexandros; Ren, Lihuan; Cohen, Ninette; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Tsiapras, Dimitrios; Vink, Aryan; Wu, Joseph C.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Li, Ronald A.; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Kranias, Evangelia G.; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of genetic mutations is associated with cardiomyopathies. A mutation in the coding region of the phospholamban (PLN) gene (R14del) is identified in families with hereditary heart failure. Heterozygous patients exhibit left ventricular dilation and ventricular arrhythmias. Here we generate i

  14. Crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in controlling the translocation and toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Li, Yiping; Zhao, Yunli; Ge, Ling; Wang, Haifang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression of their translocation into secondary targeted organs through the primary targeted organs. A biological barrier at the primary targeted organs contributed greatly to the control of MWCNTs translocation into secondary targeted organs, as indicated by functions of Mn-SODs required for prevention of oxidative stress in the primary targeted organs. Over-expression of Mn-SODs in primary targeted organs effectively suppressed the translocation and toxicity of MWCNTs. Our work highlights the crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. Our data also shed light on the future development of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with improved biocompatibility and design of prevention strategies against ENMs toxicity.Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression

  15. Test of the suitability of ECOPATH/ECOSIM modelling software as a compliment to estimate flows of carbon, C-14 and radionuclides in the Oeregrundsgrepen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Johannes [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-04-01

    In this study it was evaluated whether the ECOPATH with ECOSIM software could be used as a standard platform to facilitate for radioecologists to construct and study transport and accumulation of radionuclides in aquatic food webs. The evaluation was based upon: 1) a previously published food web model of carbon/carbon-14 flow for the Oeregrundsgrepen area, Baltic Sea, 2) a generic model, 3) an ECOSIM model and 4) an ECOTRACE model. The results presented clearly shows that there is great potential for a successful development of this scientific approach in the future. The original carbon flows and assumptions was easily incorporated into the ECOPATH with ECOSIM modelling environment. The carbon flows differed only negligible between the two models, except for the benthic flows, which was more accurately described in this study. Further, by using ECOPATH it was easily discovered that the growth efficiencies used in the original model was quite high, being 47% for most of the heterotrophs, which are high from an ecological point of view. However, that is probably due to differences in how the carbon flows have been estimated in the original versus the present study. It is likely, however that the carbon demand has been underestimated in the original model. The generic model was parameterised from data available through the software as well from the diets and assumptions used in the original carbon model. The use of these parameters resulted in carbon flows, which was between 0.7 to 11 times the flows estimated by the ECOPATH model. The difference was greatest for primary producers being 3.7 to 11 times the original flows. Thus, depending on the question one is addressing it was suggested that the use of generic parameters is best for making test models of carbon and radionuclide flows in ecosystems, where the data set for validation is limited. Finally, the ECOPATH and ECOSIM model was well suited to drive a C-14 flow model, such as ECOTRACER for each of the

  16. Regional Decomposition of Carbon Reduction Target and Its Pattern of Surplus and Deficit in Guangdong Province%广东省碳减排总量目标的地区分解及其盈亏格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文声; 胡新艳

    2014-01-01

    Making a study on the accounting model of carbon emissions and dynamic optimal model of endogenous economic growth, this paper uses the data of carbon emissions from 1985 to 2020 in Guangdong Province and its cities, introduces the idea of “carbon budget” according to the set scenarios of the reduction targets of carbon emissions, which takes the principles of equitable distribution of per capita carbon emissions and historical responsibility for carbon emissions into account, decomposes carbon emission reduction targets regionally, calculates the carbon emissions quotas of the cities in the Province, and estimates the pattern of surplus and deficit of carbon emissions in future periods, preliminarily simulates the basis of “Trading the Rights of Carbon Emissions” among the cities. It shows that: Firstly, the cumulative quotas of carbon emissions in Guangdong Province for the period from 1985 to 2020 are between 5 246.591 9 million tons and 5 425.185 7 million tons, and per capita quotas of carbon emission are between 57.065 5 tons and 59.008 0 tons. Per capita quotas of carbon emission, population and the cumulative history of carbon emissions are the decisive factors in allocation result of carbon emission rights of the cities in the Province. Population movements will affect the number of regional carbon emissions. After the assessment year, the reducing of total regional population will ease the pressure of carbon emissions, and vice versa. Secondly, there are seven cities, which are mainly distributed in the economically developed Pearl River Delta region, emitting carbon beyond the carbon budget quota standards. Those cities can be ranked in order of their deficits from large to small:Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Huizhou. Meanwhile, there are 14 cities, mainly located in the east, west and the north areas of the Province, have carbon budget surpluses. According to their surpluses from large to small, those cities are

  17. {sup 14}C chronology of the oldest Scandinavian church in use. An AMS/PIXE study of lime lump carbonate in the mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Alf, E-mail: alf.lindroos@abo.fi [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University (Finland); Art History, Faculty of Art, Åbo Akademi University (Finland); Ranta, Heikki [Diocese of Lund, Church of Sweden (Sweden); Heinemeier, Jan [AMS " 1" 4C Dating Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Lill, Jan-Olof [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Mortar dating was applied to newly revealed, original mortar in the church of Dalby in Scania, southern Sweden which is considered to be the oldest still standing church in Scandinavia. Small white lime lumps were sampled by chipping from the supporting pillars in the interior of the church. Special emphasis was in sampling lime lumps because the church is situated in the Scania limestone area and aggregate limestone contamination was anticipated in the bulk mortars. Earlier studies have, however, shown that lime lumps do not contain aggregate material but only possible limestone rests from incomplete calcination. The sampled material was prepared for radiocarbon AMS dating. The carbonate in the lime lumps was hydrolyzed according to the sequential leaching technique developed for the Århus {sup 14}C laboratory in Denmark. Prior to the hydrolysis the lime lumps were examined for dead-carbon contamination using a stereo microscope and cathodoluminescence. The lime lumps displayed heterogeneous carbonate luminescence. This is, however, common and it was not considered a problem because carbonate growth in changing pH/Eh conditions often leads to changing luminescence colors. Two lumps had little dead carbon contamination and an early second millennium {sup 14}C signature. One lump, however, seemed to be heavily contaminated with dead carbon. Since the sample passed the microscopic screening, the leftovers of the lump was subjected to PIXE analysis and compared with the other two lumps. The well-defined, early 2nd millennium {sup 14}C age of the lime lumps of this particular church is an important contribution to the discussion on stone church chronology in Scandinavia.

  18. Target particle and heat loads in low-triangularity L-mode plasmas in JET with carbon and beryllium/tungsten walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Belo, P.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Wiesen, S.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Brix, M.; Clever, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Eich, T.; Flanagan, J.; Giroud, C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C. F.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Sergienko, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Stamp, M. F.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Divertor radiation profiles, and power and particle fluxes to the target have been measured in attached \\{JET\\} L-mode plasmas with carbon and beryllium/tungsten wall materials. In the beryllium/tungsten configuration, factors of 2–3 higher power loads and peak temperatures at the low field side tar

  19. Target particle and heat loads in low-triangularity L-mode plasmas in JET with carbon and beryllium/tungsten walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M., E-mail: mathias.groth@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Association EURATOM-Tekes, Espoo (Finland); Brezinsek, S. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ Jülich (Germany); Belo, P. [Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Association EURATOM-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Corrigan, G. [Culham Centre of Fusion Energy, EURATOM-Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Harting, D.; Wiesen, S. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ Jülich (Germany); Beurskens, M.N.A.; Brix, M. [Culham Centre of Fusion Energy, EURATOM-Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Clever, M.; Coenen, J.W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ Jülich (Germany); Eich, T. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM-Association, Garching (Germany); Flanagan, J.; Giroud, C. [Culham Centre of Fusion Energy, EURATOM-Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Huber, A. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ Jülich (Germany); Jachmich, S. [Association “EURATOM Belgium State”, Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Brussels (Belgium); Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Association EURATOM-FZJ Jülich (Germany); Lowry, C. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maggi, C.F. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM-Association, Garching (Germany); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut for Plasma Physics, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald (Germany); and others

    2013-07-15

    Divertor radiation profiles, and power and particle fluxes to the target have been measured in attached JET L-mode plasmas with carbon and beryllium/tungsten wall materials. In the beryllium/tungsten configuration, factors of 2–3 higher power loads and peak temperatures at the low field side target were observed in high-recycling scrape-off layer conditions, whilst in close-to-sheath-limited conditions almost identical plasmas were obtained. The 30% reduction in total radiation with the beryllium/tungsten wall is consistent with a reduction of carbon as the dominant impurity radiator; however similar ion current to the plates, emission from recycling neutrals and neutral pressures in the pumping plenum were measured. Simulations with the EDGDE2/EIRENE code of these plasmas indicate a reduction of the total divertor radiation when carbon is omitted, but significantly higher power loads in high-recycling and detached conditions are predicted than measured.

  20. AMS-{sup 14}C measurements for the carbonate platform of the offshore Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Melayne M. E-mail: melayne@onda.com.br; Barbosa, Catia F.; Soares-Gomes, Abilio; Silva, Cleverson G.; Rios-Netto, Aristoteles; Mueller, Ken A

    2000-10-01

    As part of our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) program in Brazil we prepared and measured some red algae carbonate crust samples from Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The measurements were performed at Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab), Purdue University, IN, USA. This carbonate material is interlaminated with foraminiferal lime mud reflecting recurrent intervals of carbonate development, which might be linked to outer-shelf oceanographic circulation.

  1. Nature and Origin of Variations in Late-Glacial and Holocene Atmospheric CARBON-14 as Revealed by Global Carbon Cycle Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braziunas, Thomas Frank

    1990-01-01

    Simulations with a global box-diffusion ^{14}C model indicate that the millennium- and century-scale atmospheric Delta ^{14}C variations during the Holocene are more likely explained by fluctuations in ^ {14}C production rate (Q) than by changes in air-sea CO_2 exchange rate (F) or internal ocean mixing (parameterized as an "eddy diffusivity" K_{rm z}. The ^{14}C reservoir model deconvolves histories for each of these three processes that are compatible with a 96-yr bi-decadal atmospheric (tree-ring)Delta^{14}C record assuming alternative pre-Holocene ^ {14}C conditions. Holocene microparticle concentrations in ice cores and dust grain sizes in marine sediment cores disagree with the model-derived global wind speeds necessary to explain (through F variations) the millennium-scale trends in atmospheric Delta ^{14}C. Alternately, foram ^{14}C data do not support the history in the oceanic ventilation index generated by millennium -scale K_{rm z} variations. Coral ^{14}C data for recent centuries conflict with the marine Delta ^{14}C history associated with century-scale variations in F or K_{ rm z} but are consistent with changes in ^{14}C production rate. The ^{14}C production rates derived theoretically from an 11,000-yr record of averaged global dipole moments strongly correlate with the Q history required to explain tree-ring Delta ^{14}C. Several pre-Holocene Q histories were calculated from limited dipole moment data available for the past 30,000 yrs and do not contradict ^{234}U/^ {230}Th-calibrated coral ^ {14}C measurements. Relative variations in Greenland ice-core ^{10}Be concentrations (reflecting changes in ^ {10}Be production) over the past 9000 yrs also correlate strongly with tree-ring Q fluctuations except for a 4500-3500 BC discrepancy. Simulations of transient variations in Q, F, and K_{rm z} supplement previous studies of alternative steady-state ^ {14}C situations. The modeling of combined climate and production rate scenarios (i.e. F + K _{rm z

  2. Study of the C-14-contamination potential of C-impurities in CuO and Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeputte, K; Moens, L; Dams, R; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The carbon concentration in CuO and iron was determined by isolating C. The values were in agreement with results reported in other studies. Contaminating carbon from CuO and Fe was transformed to AMS targets and measured for C-14. C-traces in CuO were shown to be the major contribution to the C-14

  3. Evaluation of the immunological profile of antibody-functionalized metal-filled single-walled carbon nanocapsules for targeted radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ruiz de Garibay, Aritz; Spinato, Cinzia; Klippstein, Rebecca; Bourgognon, Maxime; Martincic, Markus; Pach, Elzbieta; Ballesteros, Belén; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Tobias, Gerard; Bianco, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the immune responses induced by metal-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo settings. Either empty amino-functionalized CNTs [SWCNT-NH2 (1)] or samarium chloride-filled amino-functionalized CNTs with [SmCl3@SWCNT-mAb (3)] or without [SmCl3@SWCNT-NH2 (2)] Cetuximab functionalization were tested. Conjugates were added to RAW 264.7 or PBMC cells in a range of 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml for 24 h. Cell viability and IL-6/TNFα production were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. Additionally, the effect of SWCNTs on the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and monocytes within the PBMC subpopulations was evaluated by immunostaining and flow cytometry. The effect on monocyte number in living mice was assessed after tail vein injection (150 μg of each conjugate per mouse) at 1, 7 and 13 days post-injection. Overall, our study showed that all the conjugates had no significant effect on cell viability of RAW 264.7 but conjugates 1 and 3 led to a slight increase in IL-6/TNFα. All the conjugates resulted in significant reduction in monocyte/macrophage cell numbers within PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, monocyte depletion was not observed in vivo, suggesting their suitability for future testing in the field of targeted radiotherapy in mice.

  4. Magnetic carbon nanotubes: synthesis by a simple solvothermal process and application in magnetic targeted drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Deli; Dramou, Pierre; He Hua, E-mail: jcb315@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China); Pham-Huy, Lien Ai [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Pharmacy (United States); Li Hui; Yao Yuyang [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China); Pham-Huy, Chuong [University of Paris V, Faculty of Pharmacy (France)

    2012-07-15

    In this study, a new synthesis technique of magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MMWCNTs) was achieved and its application for drug-loading ability was assessed. MMWCNTs were prepared by a simple solvothermal process, which can easily alter the size (100-350 nm), location, and denseness of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} beads fixed on MWCNTs as well as the MWCNTs structure via controlling the reaction parameters. The characteristics of MMWCNTs obtained were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR. The MMWCNTs were used as a drug carrier to load an anticancer molecule, epirubicin hydrochloride. In addition, its adsorption ability was also evaluated. The Freundlich adsorption model was successfully used to describe the adsorption process. The kinetic data was well fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. Due to its magnetic properties, high adsorption surfaces, and excellent adsorption capacities, the MMWCNTs synthesized in this study are suitable to be applied to a magnetic targeted drug delivery system.

  5. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-23

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

  6. Hypernuclear spectroscopy of products from {sup 6}Li projectiles on a carbon target at 2A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappold, C., E-mail: c.rappold@gsi.de [Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kim, E. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Seoul National University, Gwanakro Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nakajima, D. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, T.R., E-mail: t.saito@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, J.J. Becherweg 40, 55099 Mainz (Germany); The Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), J.J. Becherweg 40, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bertini, O. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, J.J. Becherweg 40, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Bianchin, S. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bozkurt, V. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Kavatsyuk, M. [KVI, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Ma, Y. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, J.J. Becherweg 40, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Maas, F. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, J.J. Becherweg 40, 55099 Mainz (Germany); The Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), J.J. Becherweg 40, 55099 Mainz (Germany); and others

    2013-09-02

    A novel experiment, aiming at demonstrating the feasibility of hypernuclear spectroscopy with heavy ion beams, was conducted. Using the invariant mass method, the spectroscopy of hypernuclear products of {sup 6}Li projectiles on a carbon target at 2A GeV was performed. Signals of the Λ-hyperon and {sup 3}{sub Λ}H and {sup 4}{sub Λ}H hypernuclei were observed for final states of p+π{sup −}, {sup 3}He+π{sup −} and {sup 4}He+π{sup −}, respectively, with significance values of 6.7, 4.7 and 4.9σ. By analyzing the proper decay time from secondary vertex distribution with the unbinned maximum likelihood fitting method, their lifetime values were deduced to be 262{sub −43}{sup +56}±45 ps for Λ, 183{sub −32}{sup +42}±37 ps for {sup 3}{sub Λ}H, and 140{sub −33}{sup +48}±35 ps for {sup 4}{sub Λ}H.

  7. The impact of subcellular location on the near infrared-mediated thermal ablation of cells by targeted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Vasanth S.; Wang, Ruhung; Mikoryak, Carole A.; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are used in the near infrared (NIR)-mediated thermal ablation of tumor cells because they efficiently convert absorbed NIR light into heat. Despite the therapeutic potential of SWNTs, there have been no published studies that directly quantify how many SWNTs need be associated with a cell to achieve a desired efficiency of killing, or what is the most efficient subcellular location of SWNTs for killing cells. Herein we measured dose response curves for the efficiency of killing correlated to the measured amounts of folate-targeted SWNTs that were either on the surface or within the vacuolar compartment of normal rat kidney cells. Folate-targeted SWNTs on the cell surface were measured after different concentrations of SWNTs in medium were incubated with cells for 30 min at 4 °C. Folate-targeted SWNTs within the vacuolar compartments were measured after cells were incubated with different concentrations of SWNTs in medium for 6 h at 37 °C. It was observed that a SWNT load of ∼13 pg/cell when internalized was sufficient to kill 90% of the cells under standardized conditions of NIR light irradiation. When ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, ∼50% of the cells were killed, but when ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were confined to the cell surface only ∼5% of the cells were killed under the same NIR irradiation conditions. The SWNT subcellular locations were verified using Raman imaging of SWNTs merged with fluorescence images of known subcellular markers. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SWNT amounts at known subcellular locations have been correlated with a dose-normalized efficacy of thermal ablation and the results support the idea that SWNTs confined to the plasma membrane are not as effective in NIR-mediated cell killing as an equivalent amount of SWNTs when internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal vesicles.

  8. On 14C-based methods for measuring the biogenic carbon fraction in fuels and flue gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne Waltje Lieze

    2016-01-01

    Several international regulations distinguish between carbon from biomass and carbon from fossil raw materials for different materials and CO2 emissions. Due to these regulations it can be financially beneficial for companies to claim for instance their products to originate from 100% biomass, that

  9. Bio-Carbon Accounting for Bio-Oil Co-Processing: 14C and 13C/12C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Claudia I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Zhenghua [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vance, Zachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-21

    This is a powerpoint presentation on bio-carbon accounting for bio-oil co-processing. Because of the overlapping range in the stable C isotope compositions of fossil oils and biooils from C3-type feedstocks, it is widely thought that stable isotopes are not useful to track renewable carbon during co-production. In contrast, our study demonstrates the utility of stable isotopes to: • capture a record of renewable carbon allocation between FCC products of co-processing • record changes in carbon apportionments due to changes in reactor or feed temperature Stable isotope trends as a function of percent bio-oil in the feed are more pronounced when the δ13C of the bio-oil endmember differs greatly from the VGO (i.e., it has a C4 biomass source–corn stover, switch grass, Miscanthus, sugarcane– versus a C3 biomass source– pine, wheat, rice, potato), but trends on the latter case are significant for endmember differences of just a few permil. The correlation between measured 14C and δ13C may be useful as an alternative to carbon accounting, but the relationship must first be established for different bio-oil sources.

  10. Synthesizing the Use of Carbon Isotope (14C and 13C) Approaches to Understand Rates and Pathways for Permafrost C Mobilization and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estop-Aragones, C.; Olefeldt, D.; Schuur, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the permafrost carbon (C) feedback it is important to synthesize our current knowledge, and knowledge gaps, of how permafrost thaw can cause in situ mineralization or downstream mobilization of aged soil organic carbon (SOC) and the rate of this release. This potential loss of old SOC may occur via gaseous flux of CO2 and CH4 exchanged between soil and the atmosphere and via waterborne flux as DOC, POC (and their subsequent decomposition and release to the atmosphere). Carbon isotope (14C and 13C) approaches have been used to estimate both rates and pathways for permafrost C mobilization and mineralization. Radiocarbon (14C) has been used to estimate the contribution of aged C to overall respiration or waterborne C export. We aim to contrast results from radiocarbon studies, in order to assess differences between ecosystems (contrasting wet and dry ecosystems), thaw histories (active layer deepening or thermokarst landforms), greenhouse gas considered (CO2 and CH4) and seasons. We propose to also contrast methodologies used for assessing the contribution of aged C to overall C balance, and include studies using 13C data. Biological fractionation of 13C during both uptake and decomposition has been taken advantage of both in order to aid the interpretation of 14C data and on its own to assess sources and mineralization pathways. For example, 13C data has been used to differentiate between CH4 production pathways, and the relative contribution of anaerobic CO2 production to overall respiration. Overall, carbon isotope research is proving highly valuable for our understanding of permafrost C dynamics following thaw, and there is a current need to synthesize the available literature.

  11. Relocation of carbon from decomposition of {sup 14}C-labelled needle and fine root litter in peat soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domish, T.; Laine, J.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Drainage of peatlands promotes a shift of biomass and production from the ground vegetation to the trees. Thus, the above-ground (e.g. needles) and below-ground (roots) litter production of trees increases. Fine roots in particular are an important factor in the carbon and nutrient cycle in forest ecosystems. A major part of the annual net primary production of trees may be allocated below ground, the relative proportion being smaller on fertile sites than on less fertile ones. For modelling the carbon balance of drained peatlands, it is important to know the fate of carbon from newly introduced and decomposing litter. Newly added and fertilised tree litter material may be decomposed at a rate different than litter from the ground vegetation. The objectives of this study are to study the pathways of decomposing litter carbon in peat soil and to evaluate the use of the litterbag method in a controlled environment. (9 refs.)

  12. Targeted mutagenesis of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases VA and VB implicates both enzymes in ammonia detoxification and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gul N; Rubbelke, Timothy S; Hendin, Joshua; Nguyen, Hien; Waheed, Abdul; Shoemaker, James D; Sly, William S

    2013-04-30

    Prior studies with carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors implicated mitochondrial CA in ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Subsequent studies identified two mitochondrial CAs. To distinguish the contribution of each enzyme, we studied the effects of targeted disruption of the murine CA genes, called Car5A and Car5B. The Car5A mutation had several deleterious consequences. Car5A null mice were smaller than wild-type littermates and bred poorly. However, on sodium-potassium citrate-supplemented water, they produced offspring in expected numbers. Their blood ammonia concentrations were markedly elevated, but their fasting blood sugars were normal. By contrast, Car5B null mice showed normal growth and normal blood ammonia levels. They too had normal fasting blood sugars. Car5A/B double-knockout (DKO) mice showed additional abnormalities. Impaired growth was more severe than for Car5A null mice. Hyperammonemia was even greater as well. Although fertile, DKO animals were produced in less-than-predicted numbers even when supplemented with sodium-potassium citrate in their drinking water. Survival after weaning was also reduced, especially for males. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels for DKO mice were significantly lower than for controls (153 ± 33 vs. 230 ± 24 mg/dL). The enhanced hyperammonemia and lower fasting blood sugar, which are both seen in the DKO mice, indicate that both Car5A and Car5B contribute to both ammonia detoxification (ureagenesis) and regulation of fasting blood sugar (gluconeogenesis). Car5A, which is expressed mainly in liver, clearly has the predominant role in ammonia detoxification. The contribution of Car5B to ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis was evident only on a Car5A null background.

  13. On the isolation of elemental carbon for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry; evaluation of alternative isolation procedures, and accuracy assurance using a hybrid isotopic particulate carbon reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of an hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are critically important for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of ''soot'' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the ''truth'' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC. SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the hybrid RM, together with testing for conservation of its dominant soot fraction through the isolation procedure.

  14. Formation of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles in the surface layer of a silicon target during short-pulse carbon ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnev, G. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Naiden, E. P.; Saltymakov, M. S.; Stepanov, A. V.; Shtan'ko, V. F.

    2009-04-01

    Synthesis of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles is studied during short-pulse implantation of carbon ions and protons into a silicon target. The experiments are carried out using a TEMP source of pulsed powerful ion beams based on a magnetically insulated diode with radial magnetic field B r . The beam parameters are as follows: the ion energy is 300 keV, the pulse duration is 80 ns, the beam consists of carbon ions and protons, and the ion current density is 30 A/cm2. Single-crystal silicon wafers serve as a target. SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamonds form in the surface layer of silicon subjected to more than 100 pulses. The average coherent domain sizes in the SiC particles and nanodiamonds are 12-16 and 8-9 nm, respectively.

  15. Heavy residues following 5--10 MeV/nucleon /sup 12/C- and /sup 14/N- induced reactions on Sm and Pr targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, R.; Jastrzbski, J.; Rymuza, P.; Skulski, W.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Gizon, J.; Barci, V.

    1985-11-01

    The individual evaporation residue cross sections have been measured for /sup 12/C- and /sup 14/N-induced reactions on /sup 141/Pr and /sup 144,147,150,152,15/ 4Sm targets at incident energies of 5 to 10 MeV/nucleon. Gamma-ray detection techniques were used. The competition between neutron, charged particle, and gamma-ray emission was studied as a function of the excitation energy, angular momentum, and the distance of the compound nucleus from the stability line. The general behavior of the mass and charge distributions of the reaction residues is in agreement with complete fusion-evaporation calculations, but some aspects of the data point to a small contribution of other reaction mechanisms.

  16. Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (δ(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 μL) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean δ(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. δ(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted δ(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer.

  17. Relationships between Δ14C and the molecular quality of dissolved organic carbon in rivers draining to the coast from the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, David; Raymond, Peter A.; Butler, Kenna; Aiken, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters possesses chemical and molecular qualities indicative of its source and age. The apportionment of DOC by age into millennial and decadal pools is necessary to understand the temporal connection between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. We measured Δ14C-DOC and chemical composition indices (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254), fluorescence index (FI), hydrophobic organic acid fraction (HPOA) content) for 15 large river basins in the conterminous United States. Across all rivers the average proportion of HPOA in DOC correlated strongly with SUVA254 (r2 = 0.93 p Modern) in the Altamaha River for the year 2009. When adjusted by total discharge, these U.S. Rivers export modern carbon at between 34 and 46‰, a signal dominated by the Mississippi River. The variation in Δ14C correlates to indices of the aromaticity of the DOC measured by the SUVA254 (r2 = 0.87, p phenology estimated from the Enhanced Vegetation Index derived from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). We show that basins with high discharge, high proportions of vegetation cover, and low human population densities export DOC enriched in aromatic material that corresponds to recently fixed atmospheric CO2. Conversely old DOC is exported from low discharge watersheds draining arid regions, and watersheds more strongly impacted by humans. The potential influence from fossil carbon from human inputs to aquatic systems may be important and requires more research.

  18. The applicability of C-14 measurements in the soil gas for the assessment of leakage out of underground carbon dioxide reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałupnik Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, due to the ratification of the Kioto Protocol, is obliged to diminish the emission of greenhouse gases. One of the possible solutions of this problem is CO2 sequestration (CCS - carbon capture and storage. Such an option is a priority in the European Union. On the other hand, CO2 sequestration may be potentially risky in the case of gas leakage from underground reservoirs. The most dangerous event may be a sudden release of the gas onto the surface. Therefore, it is very important to know if there is any escape of CO2 from underground gas reservoirs, created as a result of sequestration. Such information is crucial to ensure safety of the population in areas located above geological reservoirs. It is possible to assess the origin of carbon dioxide, if the measurement of radiocarbon 14C concentration in this gas is done. If CO2 contains no 14C, it means, that the origin of the gas is either geological or the gas has been produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, like coal. A lot of efforts are focused on the development of monitoring methods to ensure safety of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. A radiometric method has been tested for such a purpose. The main goal of the investigations was to check the application possibility of such a method. The technique is based on the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The gas sample is at first bubbled through the carbon dioxide adsorbent, afterwards the adsorbent is mixed with a dedicated cocktail and measured in a low-background liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus. The described method enables measurements of 14C in mine and soil gas samples.

  19. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE OF RIVERINE CARBON IN THE GUIJIANG RIVER: TRACING WITH 14C AND 13C%桂江河流碳的生物地球化学循环:14C和13C示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶贞; 高全洲; 黄夏坤; 刘克新; 丁杏芳; 付东坡

    2012-01-01

    基于一个水文年度的月周期性采样分析,用河流悬浮颗粒物的有机碳(POC)和溶解无机碳(DIC)的同位素信号探讨了桂江径流中碳的生物地球化学循环.桂江悬浮颗粒物中POC含量多介于1.70%~14.27%之间,平均为(4.54±2.94)%;河流POC的Δ14C值介于-235.8‰~ -26.7%之间,平均为(-135.38±57.27)‰,没有检出“核爆14C”信号,揭示了较为强烈的流域地表扰动和土壤侵蚀状况.桂江POC的稳定同位素组成(δ13C)变化于-29.92% - -24.71‰之间,平均为(-26.86± 1.29)‰,这与以C3植物为主的流域生态系统的碳同位素组成一致.桂江颗粒有机质的C/N比多介于5.54 11.53之间,平均为7.97,低于全球河流的平均状况.一方面,土壤有机碳、岩石来源的地质碳及藻类生物量的混合比例决定了桂江河流颗粒有机质的C/N比和Δ14C值;另一方面,微生物群落对水体有机质的代谢分解作用也在一定程度上改变了有机质的元素和同位素比值.桂江河流DIC的δ13C值变化于-17.22‰~-10.65‰之间,平均为(- 12.95±1.94)‰.冬半年河流DIC(δ13C值平均为-11.47‰)几乎全部来自碳酸盐矿物的化学风化,夏半年土壤硅酸盐矿物的化学风化对DIC(δ13C值平均为- 14.73%)的贡献达28%.%The Guijiang River(GJR) is the first order tributary of the Xijiang River system, with the length of its main stream as 438km and drainage basin area as 18790km2. The GJR drainage basin is mostly mountainous and hilly. Carbonate rock (mainly of limestone) outcrops account for about 51% of the GJR drainage basin, most of which occur in the upper and middle parts of the drainage basin. Modern karst geomorphologic processes have been developed both on the surface and underground, and a deep layer of limestone red earth is distributed on the karst plain. The GJR drainage basin has a typical subtropical monsoon climate,with the average annual temperatures ranging from 19t to 21 °C ,and the

  20. Synthesis of carbon C-14 labelled 2-phenyl-4-alpha-alkylaminomethyl-quinolinemethanol: a potential anti-leishmaniasis agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Heertum, R.L.van [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons

    1995-07-01

    Using sodium acetate, [1-{sup 14}C] as a starting material, a total of seven steps were required to synthesize the title compound. This involved acylation of ortho-dichlorobenzene to form dichloroacetophenone, [2-{sup 14}C] (I). The 2-phenyl-4-quinoline carboxylic acid, [2-{sup 14}C] (II) was prepared by the Pfitzinger reaction from (1) and dichloroisatin. Compound 11 was converted to the acid chloride (III) by reaction with SOCl{sub 2} in benzene. Grignard condensation reaction of (III) yielded 4-quinolylmethylketone, [2-{sup 14}C] (IV) which was then converted to the bromomethylketone (V). Compound V was reacted with NaBH{sub 4} to form the ethylene oxide (VI). Alkylation of the oxide yielded the title compound (VII). The overall radiochemical yield was 10.1% and the specific activity was 3.0 mCi/mmol, with a radiochemical purity of >99.5%. (author).

  1. Carbon-14 in tree rings and other terrestrial samples in the vicinity of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Pukiene, Rutile

    2008-02-01

    The results of (14)C measurements in the annual tree rings from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) surroundings, Lithuania, for the period of its operation from 1984 to 2002 are presented. The terrestrial samples, mainly moss and related soil, are studied in places as well. The tree rings have shown slightly enhanced (14)C activity due to operation of the nuclear power plant. The maximal calculated normalized (14)C release of 11TBqGW(e)(-1)year(-1) and the maximal effective dose of 2.0x10(-3)mSvyear(-1) resulting from the (14)C were estimated for 1999. For other years of INPP operation these values are lower. The excess of (14)C specific activity measured in the moss and soil samples from moss-covered sites near the nuclear power plant (up to 0.5km) showed highly elevated (14)C contents (up to 813pMC), probably indicating releases of particulate material.

  2. Study of Target Fragmentation in the Interaction of 86 MeV/A $^{12}$Carbon with Tantalum, Bismuth and Uranium

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Using radiochemical techniques we will ; a)~~measure the target fragment mass and charge distributions from the interaction of 86~MeV/A |1|2C with Ta, Bi and U; ; b)~~measure the target fragment forward momentum and average kinetic energy using the thick target-thick catcher technique for the above reactions; and ; c)~~measure the target fragment angular and differential energy distributions using thin target-thin catcher techniques for the reactions with Ta and U. \\\\ \\\\ These measurements should allow us to better characterize the transition between low energy and realistic heavy ion reaction mechanisms.

  3. Dosimetric characterization and application of an imaging beam line with a carbon electron target for megavoltage cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Ryan T; Hartmann, Julia; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Nixon, Earl; Alfredo, R; Siochi, C; Pennington, Edward C; Bayouth, John E

    2009-06-01

    Imaging dose from megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) can be significantly reduced without loss of image quality by using an imaging beam line (IBL), with no flattening filter and a carbon, rather than tungsten, electron target. The IBL produces a greater keV-range x-ray fluence than the treatment beam line (TBL), which results in a more optimal detector response. The IBL imaging dose is not necessarily negligible, however. In this work an IBL was dosimetrically modeled with the Philips Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS), verified experimentally, and applied to clinical cases. The IBL acquisition dose for a 200 degrees gantry rotation was verified in a customized acrylic cylindrical phantom at multiple imaging field sizes with 196 ion chamber measurements. Agreement between the measured and calculated IBL dose was quantified with the 3D gamma index. Representative IBL and TBL imaging dose distributions were calculated for head and neck and prostate patients and included in treatment plans using the imaging dose incorporation (IDI) method. Surface dose was measured for the TBL and IBL for four head and neck cancer patients with MOSFETs. The IBL model, when compared to the percentage depth dose and profile measurements, had 97% passing gamma indices for dosimetric and distance acceptance criteria of 3%, 3 mm, and 100% passed for 5.2%, 5.2 mm. For the ion chamber measurements of phantom image acquisition dose, the IBL model had 93% passing gamma indices for acceptance criteria of 3%, 3 mm, and 100% passed for 4%, 4 mm. Differences between the IBL- and TBL-based IMRT treatment plans created with the IDI method were dosimetrically insignificant for both the prostate and head and neck cases. For IBL and TBL beams with monitor unit values that would result in the delivery of the same dose to the depth of maximum dose under standard calibration conditions, the IBL imaging surface dose was higher than the TBL imaging surface dose by an average of 18

  4. Syntheses of {gamma}-aminobutyric-1-{sup 14}C and of {alpha}-aminoadipic-6-{sup 14}C acid from methoxy-3 chloropropyl-magnesium and marked carbon dioxide; Syntheses de l'acide {gamma}-aminobutyrique{sup 14}C-1 et de l'acide {alpha}-aminoadipique {sup 14}C-6 a partir de methoxy-3 chloropropylmagnesium et d'anhydride carbonique marque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung Nhu Liem [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement des radioelements, Service des molecules marquees

    1967-04-01

    Carbonation of {gamma}-methoxypropyl-magnesium chloride by CO{sub 2} gives {gamma}-methoxy-butyric carboxylic-{sup 14}C acid with a yield of about 95 per cent. When the latter is treated successively with anhydrous HBr and with diazomethane, methyl carboxylic {gamma}-bromobutyrate-{sup 14}C is formed. This in turn gives {gamma}-amino-butyric carboxylic-{sup 14}C acid with an overall yield of 66 per cent with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}, when it is condensed with potassium phthalimide and hydrolyzed by acid. By reacting methyl-{gamma}-bromobutyrate-{sup 14}C with the sodium derivative of ethyl cyanacetamido-acetate in ethanol, followed by an acid hydrolysis, {alpha}-aminoadipic-6-{sup 14}C acid is obtained with an overall yield of 46 per cent with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. (author) [French] La carbonatation du chlorure de {gamma}-methoxypropylmagnesium par {sup 14}CO{sub 2} donne l'acide {gamma}-methoxybutyrique carboxyle {sup 14}C avec un rendement d'environ 95 pour cent. Ce dernier traite successivement par HBr anhydre et par le diazomethane conduit au {gamma}-bromobutyrate de methyle carboxyle {sup 14}C. Celui-ci condense avec le phtalimide de potassium suivi d'une hydrolyse acide fournit l'acide {gamma}-aminobutyrique carboxyle {sup 14}C avec un rendement global de 66 pour cent par rapport a Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. L'action du {gamma}-bromobutyrate de methyle {sup 14}C sur le derive sode du cyanacetamidoacetate d'ethyle dans l'ethanol suivie d'hydrolyse acide donne l'acide {alpha}-aminoadipique {sup 14}C-6 avec un rendement global de 46 pour cent par rapport a Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3}. (auteur)

  5. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA.

  6. Strong degassing at ridge crests: The behaviour of dissolved carbon and water in basalt glasses at 14°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, F.; Javoy, M.

    1994-05-01

    The popping rock 2πD43 dredged at 14°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge contains the largest gas content so far reported in MORB [11], with most of the gas preserved in vesicles (17 vol%). This gas has chemical ( CO 2/H 2O , C/He, C/N, He/Ar) and isotopic ( δ13C) characteristics that are remarkably constant throughout the dredge. We have taken this opportunity to study the behaviour and variability of dissolved species (carbon and water) against such a well-defined fluid. Sixteen new crushing experiments, carried out in steps and on much smaller (38-170 mg) fragments than in our previous study [11], have been conducted to investigate small-scale variations in vesicle carbon composition. The results confirm the overall constancy of δ13C ( -3.62 ± 0.05‰ vs. -3.68 ± 0.07‰ for the large fragments). However, variations of 0.5-3.5‰ occur in about one-third of the aliquots analyzed, reflecting outgassing effects on the smaller vesicles and a slight chemical evolution. δ18O variations from 9.29 to 20.89‰ are associated with the δ13C variations, and correspond to variations in H 2O concentrations in vesicles ranging from ˜ 5 ± 2 vol% for most of the aliquots to high values of 40-85 vol% for small vesicles. The amount of carbon extracted below 900°C decreases with decreasing grain size, and its isotopic composition can be modelled as a variable mixture of CO 2 from small vesicles, precipitated carbonate and amorphous carbon deposits. On samples crushed down to complete exhaustion of vesicle CO 2, carbon deposits on vesicles walls and cracks have been shown to be about 40 ppm C ( ˜ 1% of vesicle CO 2) at δ 13C = -16 ± 4‰ . The carbon recovered on fusion, which corresponds to carbon dissolved in the glass, is constant within a given batch of samples but varies from 57 to 94 ppm C from batch to batch, with the corresponding δ13C values varying from -5.6 to -11.8‰. Water contents vary from 4160 to 5300 ppm, with a δD of -64 ± 2‰, except for an atypical

  7. Assessment Of A Groundwater Flow Model Of The Bangkok Basin, Thailand, Using Carbon-14-Based Ages And Paleohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Buapeng, Somkid

    1996-04-01

    A study was undertaken to understand the groundwater flow conditions in the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, by comparing 14C-based and simulated groundwater ages. 14C measurements were made on about 50 water samples taken from wells throughout the basin. Simulated ages were obtained using 1) backward-pathline tracking based on the well locations, and 2) results from a three-dimensional groundwater flow model. Comparisons of ages at these locations reveal a large difference between 14C-based ages and ages predicted by the steady-state groundwater flow model. Mainly, 14C and 13C analyses indicate that groundwater in the Bangkok area is about 20,000 years old, whereas steady-state flow and transport simulations imply that groundwater in the Bangkok area is 50,000-100,000 years old. One potential reason for the discrepancy between simulated and 14C-based ages is the assumption in the model of steady-state flow. Groundwater velocities were probably greater in the region before about 10,000 years ago, during the last glacial maximum, because of the lower position of sea level and the absence of the surficial Bangkok Clay. Paleoflow conditions were estimated and then incorporated into a second set of simulations. The new assumption was that current steady-state flow conditions existed for the last 8,000 years but were preceded by steady-state conditions representative of flow during the last glacial maximum. This "transient" paleohydrologic simulation yielded a mean simulated age that more closely agrees with the mean 14C-based age, especially if the 14C-based age corrected for diffusion into clay layers. Although the uncertainties in both the simulated and 14C-based ages are nontrivial, the magnitude of the improved match in the mean age using a paleohydrologic simulation instead of a steady-state simulation suggests that flow conditions in the basin have changed significantly over the last 10,000-20,000 years. Given that the valid age range of 14C-dating methods and the timing

  8. Carbon isotope (δ13C) excursions suggest times of major methane release during the last 14 ka in Fram Strait, the deep-water gateway to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, C.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Panieri, G.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.; Sztybor, K.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from a sediment core collected from a pockmark field on the Vestnesa Ridge (∼80° N) in the eastern Fram Strait. This is the only deep-water gateway to the Arctic, and one of the northernmost marine gas hydrate provinces in the world. Eight 14C AMS dating reveals a detailed chronology for the last 14 ka BP. The δ13C record measured on the benthic foraminiferal species Cassidulina neoteretis shows two distinct intervals with negative values, as low as -4.37‰ in the Bølling-Allerød interstadials and as low as -3.41‰ in the early Holocene. After cleaning procedure designed to remove all authigenic carbonate coatings on benthic foraminiferal tests, the 13C values are still negative (as low as -2.75‰). We have interpreted these negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) to record past methane release events, resulting from the incorporation of 13C-depleted carbon from methane emissions into the benthic foraminiferal shells. The CIEs during the Bølling-Allerød interstadials and the early Holocene relate to periods of ocean warming, sea level rise and increased concentrations of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. CIEs with similar timing have been reported from other areas in the North Atlantic suggesting a regional event. The trigger mechanisms for such regional events remain to be determined. We speculate that sea-level rise and seabed loading due to high sediment supply in combination with increased seismic activity as a result of rapid deglaciation may have triggered the escape of significant amounts of methane to the seafloor and the water column above.

  9. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Kan; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future.

  10. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.

    1988-05-01

    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile.

  11. Synthesis and in Vivo Biological Evaluation of (68)Ga-Labeled Carbonic Anhydrase IX Targeting Small Molecules for Positron Emission Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Deborah; Niemans, Raymon; Bauwens, Matthias; Yaromina, Ala; van Kuijk, Simon J A; Lieuwes, Natasja G; Biemans, Rianne; Pooters, Ivo; Pellegrini, Paul A; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Greguric, Ivan; Tonissen, Kathryn F; Supuran, Claudiu T; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2016-07-14

    Tumor hypoxia contributes resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, while oxygenated tumors are sensitive to these treatments. The indirect detection of hypoxic tumors is possible by targeting carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), an enzyme overexpressed in hypoxic tumors, with sulfonamide-based imaging agents. In this study, we present the design and synthesis of novel gallium-radiolabeled small-molecule sulfonamides targeting CA IX. The compounds display favorable in vivo pharmacokinetics and stability. We demonstrate that our lead compound, [(68)Ga]-2, discriminates CA IX-expressing tumors in vivo in a mouse xenograft model using positron emission tomography (PET). This compound shows specific tumor accumulation and low uptake in blood and clears intact to the urine. These findings were reproduced in a second study using PET/computed tomography. Small molecules investigated to date utilizing (68)Ga for preclinical CA IX imaging are scarce, and this is one of the first effective (68)Ga compounds reported for PET imaging of CA IX.

  12. Thermo-sensitive liposomes loaded with doxorubicin and lysine modified single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiali; Xie, Yingxia; Zhang, Yingjie; Huang, Heqing; Huang, Shengnan; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Zhi; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the thermo-sensitive liposomes loaded with doxorubicin and lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotube drug delivery system, which was designed to enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the side effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method, the mean particle size was 232.0 ± 5.6 nm, and drug entrapment efficiency was 86.5 ± 3.7%. The drug release test showed that doxorubicin released more quickly at 42℃ than at 37℃. Compared with free doxorubicin, doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes could efficiently cross the cell membranes and afford higher anti-tumor efficacy on the human hepatic carcinoma cell line (SMMC-7721) cells in vitro. For in vivo experiments, the relative tumor volumes of the sarcomaia 180-bearing mice in thermo-sensitive liposomes group and doxorubicin group were significantly smaller than those of N.S. group. Meanwhile, the combination of near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm significantly enhanced the tumor growth inhibition both on SMMC-7721 cells and the sarcomaia 180-bearing mice. The quality of life such as body weight, mental state, food and water intake of sarcomaia 180 tumor-bearing mice treated with doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes were much higher than those treated with doxorubicin. In conclusion, doxorubicin-lysine/single-walled carbon nanotube-thermo-sensitive liposomes combined with near-infrared laser irradiation at 808 nm may potentially provide viable clinical strategies for targeting delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

  13. Quantum dots conjugated with Fe3O4-filled carbon nanotubes for cancer-targeted imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; He, Ye-Ju; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2012-11-27

    A novel and specific nanoplatform for in vitro simultaneous cancer-targeted optical imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery is developed by conjugating CdTe quantum dots with Fe(3)O(4)-filled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the first time. Fe(3)O(4) is filled into the interior of the CNTs, which facilitates magnetically guided delivery and improves the synergetic targeting efficiency. In comparison with that immobilized on the external surface of CNTs, the magnetite nanocrystals inside the CNTs protect it from agglomeration, enhance its chemical stability, and improve the drug loading capacity. It also avoids magnetic nanocrystals-induced quenching of fluorescence of the quantum dots. The SiO(2)-coated quantum dots (HQDs) attached on the surface of CNTs exhibit favorable fluorescence as the hybrid SiO(2) shells on the QDs surface prevent its fluorescence quenching caused by the CNTs. In addition, the hybrid SiO(2) shells also mitigate the toxicity of the CdTe QDs. By coating transferrin on the surface of the herein modified CNTs, it provides a dual-targeted drug delivery system to transport the doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) into Hela cells by means of an external magnetic field. The nanocarrier based on the multifunctional nanoplatform exhibits an excellent drug loading capability of ca. 110%, in addition to cancer-targeted optical imaging as well as magnetically guided drug delivery.

  14. Constraints on emissions of carbon monoxide, methane, and a suite of hydrocarbons in the Colorado Front Range using observations of 14CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Tans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric radiocarbon (14CO represents an important observational constraint on emissions of fossil-fuel derived carbon into the atmosphere due to the absence of 14CO in fossil fuel reservoirs. The high sensitivity and precision that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS affords in atmospheric 14CO analysis has greatly increased the potential for using such measurements to evaluate bottom-up emissions inventories of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, as well as those for other co-emitted species. Here we use observations of 14CO2 and a series of hydrocarbons and combustion tracers from discrete air samples collected between June 2009 and September 2010 at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO; Lat: 40.050° N, Lon: 105.004° W to derive emission ratios of each species to CO2ff. From these emission ratios, we estimate emissions of these species by using the Vulcan CO2ff high resolution data product as a reference. The species considered in this analysis are carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, acetylene (C2H2, benzene (C6H6, and C3–C5 alkanes. Comparisons of top-down emissions estimates are made to existing inventories of these species for Denver and adjacent counties, as well as to previous efforts to estimate emissions from atmospheric observations over the same area. We find that CO is overestimated in the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI, 2008 by a factor of ~2. A close evaluation of the inventory suggests that the ratio of CO emitted per unit fuel burned from on-road gasoline vehicles is likely over-estimated by a factor of 2.5. The results also suggest that while the oil and gas sector is the largest contributor to the CH4 signal in air arriving from the north and east, it is very likely that other sources, including agricultural sources, contribute to this signal and must be accounted for when attributing these signals to oil and gas industry activity from a top-down perspective. Our results are

  15. Total and Partial Fragmentation Cross-Section of 500 MeV/nucleon Carbon Ions on Different Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, Behcet; Blasko, Sandor; Caraffini, Diego; Di Capua, Francesco; Postolache, Vasile; Saltanocchi, Giorgio; Menichelli, Mauro; Desorgher, Laurent; Durante, Marco; Pleskac, Radek; La Tessa, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    By using an experimental setup based on thin and thick double-sided microstrip silicon detectors, it has been possible to identify the fragmentation products due to the interaction of very high energy primary ions on different targets. Here we report total and partial cross-sections measured at GSI (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung), Darmstadt, for 500 MeV/n energy $^{12}C$ beam incident on water (in flasks), polyethylene, lucite, silicon carbide, graphite, aluminium, copper, iron, tin, tantalum and lead targets. The results are compared to the predictions of GEANT4 (v4.9.4) and FLUKA (v11.2) Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  16. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  17. Electrocatalytic activity of 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone/multi-walled carbon nanotubes immobilized on edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode for NADH oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassia Silva Luz, Rita de [Institute of Chemistry, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rcsluz@iqm.unicamp.br; Damos, Flavio Santos [Institute of Chemistry, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tanaka, Auro Atsushi [Center of Science and Technology, UFMA, Avenida dos Portugueses s/n, 65085-040, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Gushikem, Yoshitaka [Institute of Chemistry, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-30

    This work reports the electrocatalytic activity of 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) immobilized on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) were used to confirms the presence of chloro after the nanotube modification with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone. The surface charge transfer constant, k{sub s}, and the charge transfer coefficient for the modified electrode, {alpha}, were estimated as 98.5 ({+-}0.6) s{sup -1} and 0.5, respectively. With this modified electrode the oxidation potential of the NADH was shifted about 300 mV toward a less positive value, presenting a peak current much higher than those measured on an unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPG). Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) experiments indicated that the NADH oxidation reaction involves 2 electrons and a heterogenous rate constant (k{sub obs}) of 3.1 x 10{sup 5} mol{sup -1} l s{sup -1}. The detection limit, repeatability, long-term stability, time of response and linear response range were also investigated.

  18. Configuration- and conformation-dependent electronic-structure variations in 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes enabled by a carbon-to-silicon exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, Rikard; Löfås, Henrik; Wallner, Andreas; Nauroozi, Djawed; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph; Ahuja, Rajeev; Ott, Sascha; Grigoriev, Anton; Ottosson, Henrik

    2014-07-21

    Cyclohexane, with its well-defined conformers, could be an ideal force-controlled molecular switch if it were to display substantial differences in electronic and optical properties between its conformers. We utilize σ conjugation in heavier analogues of cyclohexanes (i.e. cyclohexasilanes) and show that 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexasilanes display configuration- and conformation-dependent variations in these properties. Cis- and trans-1,4-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)cyclohexasilanes display a 0.11 V difference in their oxidation potentials (computed 0.11 V) and a 0.34 eV difference in their lowest UV absorption (computed difference between first excitations 0.07 eV). This is in stark contrast to differences in the corresponding properties of analogous all-carbon cyclohexanes (computed 0.02 V and 0.03 eV, respectively). Moreover, the two chair conformers of the cyclohexasilane trans isomer display large differences in electronic-structure-related properties. This enables computational design of a mechanically force-controlled conductance switch with a calculated single-molecule ON/OFF ratio of 213 at zero-bias voltage.

  19. Near Surface Leakage Monitoring for the Verification and Accounting of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Using a Field Ready {sup 14}C Isotopic Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Bruno

    2014-04-14

    Results for the development of a field ready multi-isotopic analyzer for {sup 12}CO{sub 2}, {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and applications for carbon capture and storage (CCS) containment performance are described. A design goal of the field platform was to provide isotopic data with a high data rate, a standardized reference baseline and acceptable precision (e.g., ~ ±50 per mil D{sup 14}CO{sub 2}) for detection and quantification of fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} CCS leakage scenarios. The instrument platform was not designed to replace high precision accelerator mass spectrometry. An additional goal was to combine project scale isotopic data and associated fluxes with unique financial instruments linking CCS containment performance to a publicly traded security providing project revenue to stakeholders. While the primary goals of the project were attained additional work is needed for the instrument platform and deployment within a full scale CCS site that was not available during the project timeframe.

  20. Targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin to cancer cells using multifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shihui; Liu, Hui; Cai, Hongdong; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2013-09-01

    We report the use of multifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and folic acid (FA) were covalently linked to acid-treated MWCNTs, followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines to neutralize the positive surface potential. The formed multifunctional MWCNTs (MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA) were characterized via different techniques. Then, the MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA was used to load DOX for targeted and pH-responsive delivery to cancer cells overexpressing high-affinity folic acid receptors (FAR). We showed that the MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA enabled a high drug payload and encapsulation efficiency both up to 97.8% and the formed DOX/MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA complexes displayed a pH-responsive release property with fast DOX release under acidic environment and slow release at physiological pH conditions. Importantly, the DOX/MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA complexes displayed effective therapeutic efficacy, similar to that of free DOX, and were able to target to cancer cells overexpressing high-affinity FAR and effectively inhibit the growth of the cancer cells. The synthesized multifunctional dendrimer-modified MWCNTs may be used as a targeted and pH-responsive delivery system for targeting therapy of different types of cancer cells.

  1. Microdosing of a Carbon-14 Labeled Protein in Healthy Volunteers Accurately Predicts Its Pharmacokinetics at Therapeutic Dosages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaming, M L H; van Duijn, E; Dillingh, M R; Brands, R; Windhorst, A D; Hendrikse, N H; Bosgra, S; Burggraaf, J; de Koning, M C; Fidder, A; Mocking, J A J; Sandman, H; de Ligt, R A F; Fabriek, B O; Pasman, W J; Seinen, W; Alves, T; Carrondo, M; Peixoto, C; Peeters, P A M; Vaes, W H J

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical development of new biological entities (NBEs), such as human protein therapeutics, requires considerable expenditure of time and costs. Poor prediction of pharmacokinetics in humans further reduces net efficiency. In this study, we show for the first time that pharmacokinetic data of NBEs in humans can be successfully obtained early in the drug development process by the use of microdosing in a small group of healthy subjects combined with ultrasensitive accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After only minimal preclinical testing, we performed a first-in-human phase 0/phase 1 trial with a human recombinant therapeutic protein (RESCuing Alkaline Phosphatase, human recombinant placental alkaline phosphatase [hRESCAP]) to assess its safety and kinetics. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed dose linearity from microdose (53 μg) [(14) C]-hRESCAP to therapeutic doses (up to 5.3 mg) of the protein in healthy volunteers. This study demonstrates the value of a microdosing approach in a very small cohort for accelerating the clinical development of NBEs.

  2. Carbon transitions from either Calvin cycle or transitory starch to heteroglycans as revealed by (14) C-labeling experiments using protoplasts from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Irina; Steup, Martin; Fettke, Joerg

    2013-09-01

    Plants metabolize transitory starch by precisely coordinated plastidial and cytosolic processes. The latter appear to include the action of water-soluble heteroglycans (SHGin ) whose monosaccharide pattern is similar to that of apoplastic glycans (SHGex ) but, unlike SHGex , SHGin strongly interacts with glucosyl transferases. In this study, we analyzed starch metabolism using mesophyll protoplasts from wild-type plants and two knock-out mutants [deficient in the cytosolic transglucosidase, disproportionating isoenzyme 2 (DPE2) or the plastidial phosphoglucomutase (PGM1)] from Arabidopsis thaliana. Protoplasts prelabeled by photosynthetic (14) CO2 fixation were transferred to an unlabeled medium and were darkened or illuminated. Carbon transitions from the Calvin cycle or from starch to both SHGin and SHGex were analyzed. In illuminated protoplasts, starch turn-over was undetectable but darkened protoplasts continuously degraded starch. During illumination, neither the total (14) C content nor the labeling patterns of the sugar residues of SHGin were significantly altered but both the total amount and the labeling of the constituents of SHGex increased with time. In darkened protoplasts, the (14) C-content of most of the sugar residues of SHGin transiently and strongly increased and then declined. This effect was not observed in any SHGex constituent. In darkened DPE2-deficient protoplasts, none of the SHGin constituents exhibited an essential transient increase in labeling. In contrast, some residues of SHGin from the PGM1 mutant exhibited a transient increase in label but this effect significantly differed from that of the wild type. Two conclusions are reached: first, SHGin and SHGex exert different metabolic functions and second, SHGin is directly involved in starch degradation.

  3. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsu Chungyuan (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Lin Wanyu (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Huang Chihkua (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology); Chen Granhum (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1993-08-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8[+-]15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 [mu]Ci of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of [sup 14]C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: (DPM/mmol CO[sub 2] collected)/(DPM administered)x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min [sup 14]C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  4. A competitive strategy coupled with endonuclease-assisted target recycling for DNA detection using silver-nanoparticle-tagged carbon nanospheres as labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Gao, Fenglei; Lei, Jianping; Dong, Haifeng; Ju, Huangxian

    2012-10-22

    A simple competitive strategy was designed for the sensitive detection of sequence-specific DNA by combining endonuclease-assisted target recycling and electrochemical stripping analysis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNP-tagged carbon nanospheres were synthesized by means of in situ reduction of Ag(+) adsorbed onto a negatively charged polyelectrolyte layer and functionalized with streptavidin for binding biotin-labeled DNA strands. The labeled strand was captured on the DNA sensor surface by competitive hybridization of biotinated primer 1 and its cleaved product. The cleaved product could be amplified in homogeneous solution by endonuclease-assisted target recycling with a Y-shaped junction DNA structure, thus leading to the correlation of the stripping signal to the target concentration. The functionalized nanosphere was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The proposed method showed a linear range from 0.1 to 1000 fM with a limit of detection of 0.066 fM (3σ) and good selectivity for base discrimination. The designed strategy provided a sensitive tool for DNA analysis and could be widely applied in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

  5. Synthesis of carbon-13 labelled carbonaceous deposits and their evaluation for potential use as surrogates to better understand the behaviour of the carbon-14-containing deposit present in irradiated PGA graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L.; Walker, S.; Bond, G.; Eccles, H.; Heard, P. J.; Scott, T. B.; Williams, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    The present work has used microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition to generate suitable isotopically labelled carbonaceous deposits on the surface of Pile Grade A graphite for use as surrogates for studying the behaviour of the deposits observed on irradiated graphite extracted from UK Magnox reactors. These deposits have been shown elsewhere to contain an enhanced concentration of 14C compared to the bulk graphite. A combination of Raman spectroscopy, ion beam milling with scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to determine topography and internal morphology in the formed deposits. Direct comparison was made against deposits found on irradiated graphite samples trepanned from a Magnox reactor core and showed a good similarity in appearance. This work suggests that the microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition technique is of value in producing simulant carbon deposits, being of sufficiently representative morphology for use in non-radioactive surrogate studies of post-disposal behaviour of 14C-containing deposits on some irradiated Magnox reactor graphite.

  6. TRIM14 inhibits hepatitis C virus infection by SPRY domain-dependent targeted degradation of the viral NS5A protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Yongzhi; Li, Chunfeng; Wu, Yaoxing; Guo, Lei; Peng, Changwei; Huang, Yueping; Cheng, Genhong; Qin, F. Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif 14 (TRIM14) was reported to function as a mitochondrial signaling adaptor in mediating innate immune responses. However, the involvement of TRIM14 in host defense against viral infection and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that enforced expression of TRIM14 could potently inhibit the infection and replication of HCV in hepatocytes, whereas TRIM14 knockout cells became more susceptible to HCV infection. Interestingly, further experiments revealed that such anti-HCV activity was independent of activating the NF-κB or interferon pathways but required the C-terminal SPRY domain of no signaling capacity. In searching for mechanisms how TRIM14 exerts its antiviral function we found that TRIM14 interacted with HCV encoded non-structural protein NS5A and could strongly induce its degradation dependent on the NS5A1 subdomain. Interestingly extensive domain mapping analyses revealed that NS5A degradation was mediated by the highly conserved SPRY domain of TRIM14, which might involve the K48 ubiquitination pathway. Collectively, our work uncovered a new mechanism responsible for host defense against HCV infection, and could potentially aid the development of novel anti-HCV therapeutics. PMID:27578425

  7. Platinum-coordinated graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet used for targeted inhibition of amyloid β-peptide aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Li; Yijia Guan; Zhaowei Chen; Nan Gao; Jinsong Ren; Kai Dong; Xiaogang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Inhibition of Aβ production,dissolution of existing aggregates and clearance of Aβ represent valid therapeutic strategies against AD.Herein,a novel platinum(Ⅱ)-coordinated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)nanosheet (g-C3N4@Pt) has been designed to covalently bind to Aβ and modulate the peptide's aggregation and toxicity.Furthermore,g-C3N4@Pt nanosheets possess high photocatalytic activity and can oxygenate Aβ upon visible light irradiation,remarkably attenuating both the aggregation potency and neurotoxidty of Aβ.Due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its good biocompatibility,g-C3N4@Pt nanosheet is a promising inhibitor of Aβ aggregation.This study may serve as a model for the engineering of novel multifunctional nanomaterials used for the treatment of AD.

  8. Secondary particle yields from 400 MeV/u carbon ion and 250 MeV proton beams incident on thick targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A. [Fondazione CNAO, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, strada Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ferrarini, M., E-mail: michele.ferrarini@polimi.it [Fondazione CNAO, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, strada Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pelliccioni, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica, strada Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    The double differential particle yield produced by hadron beams striking thick targets of copper, tungsten and ICRU tissue, have been determined by means of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA (version FLUKA 2008.3b.1). 400 MeV/u carbon ion and 250 MeV proton pencil beams have been considered. Secondary neutrons, photons, and protons have been scored. In order to validate the obtained data, a few simulations have been also repeated with MCNPX 2.6.0. The calculated results are presented and compared with the experimental data reported in literature. They should be very useful to solve a number of problems related to technological aspects of hadrontherapy.

  9. Targeted Fe-filled carbon nanotube as a multifunctional contrast agent for thermoacoustic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor in living mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenzheng; Lou, Cunguang; Qiu, Jieshan; Zhao, Zongbin; Zhou, Quan; Liang, Minjie; Ji, Zhong; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) can map the microwave absorption distribution of targets, which depends on the electrical and magnetic properties. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with good electrical properties have been used as TAI contrast agents, the negligible magnetic absorption hinders its application for sensitive detection. In order to exploit CNTs with electrical and magnetic absorption properties as agent of TAI, the ferromagnetic material-filled multi-walled CNTs (MMWCNTs) are investigated. In this study, the folic acid conjugated plain multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) and MMWCNTs were injected through the tail-vein of mice separately, and TAI and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The results show the MMWCNTs can clearly image the size and edge of the tumor with the TAI contrast enhancement of 67% and T2 signal intensity decrease of four fifths compared to MWCNTs. This study demonstrated the hybrid particles have the potential to be a high-sensitive contrast agent for accurate tumor detection. From the Clinical Editor: Novel imaging modalities are emerging. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) relies on the absorption distribution of microwave of targets. In this article the authors investigate the use of ferromagnetic material-filled multi-walled CNTs as contrast agents for both TAI and MRI in an in-vivo model for tumors. The positive findings would imply that the application of dual-modality probe could provide more accurate imaging for the clinical setting.

  10. Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of novel biodegradable copolymers of 5-benzyloxy-trimethylene carbonate with 1,4-dioxan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Jia, Hua-Li; Liu, Gang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Feng, Jun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2006-08-01

    Enzymatic ring-opening copolymerization of 5-benzyloxy-trimethylene carbonate (BTMC) and 1,4-dioxan-2-one (DON) was investigated for the first time. Immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (IPPL) on silica particles was selected to perform the copolymerization. A series of novel biodegradable copolymers with different compositions were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and GPC. The influences of reaction conditions such as polymerization time and catalyst concentration on the yield and molecular weight of the copolymers were also studied. The copolymerizations of different monomer feed ratios were carried out in bulk at 150 degrees C with 4.5 wt per thousand IPPL as a catalyst for 24 h. With the increase of the BTMC molar feed ratio from 20% to 79%, the M(n) of the resulting copolymers increased from 5600 to 63400. Water uptake and static contact angle experiments showed that the hydrophilicity of copolymers could be improved with increasing DON content in the copolymers. Moreover, the in vitro drug release rate (ibuprofen as the model drug) of the resulting copolymers also increased along with the DON content in the copolymers.

  11. Carbon-rich presolar grains from massive stars. Subsolar 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios and the mystery of 15N

    CERN Document Server

    Pignatari, M; Hoppe, P; Jordan, C J; Gibson, B K; Trappitsch, R; Herwig, F; Fryer, C; Hirschi, R; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies compared to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C, and low-density graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. We present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. Different explosion energies and H concentrations are considered. If the SN shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of 13C and 15N. The short-lived radionuclides 22Na and 26Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic 22Ne from the decay of 22Na in the He shell might solve the pu...

  12. Down-regulation of KORRIGAN-like endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes impacts carbon partitioning, mycorrhizal colonization and biomass production in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya C Kalluri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis. Altered metabolism and reduced growth characteristics of RNAi plants revealed new implications on carbon allocation and partitioning. The distinctive metabolome phenotype comprised of a higher phenolic and salicylic acid content, and reduced lignin, shikimic acid and maleic acid content relative to control. Plant sustainability implications of modified cell walls on beneficial plant-microbe interactions were explored via co-culture with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor. A significant increase in the mycorrhization rate was observed in transgenic plants, leading to measurable beneficial growth effects. These findings present new evidence for functional interconnectedness of cellulose biosynthesis pathway, metabolism and mycorrhizal association in plants, and further emphasize the consideration of the sustainability implications of plant trait improvement efforts.

  13. Down-Regulation of KORRIGAN-Like Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Genes Impacts Carbon Partitioning, Mycorrhizal Colonization and Biomass Production in Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C.; Payyavula, Raja S.; Labbé, Jessy L.; Engle, Nancy; Bali, Garima; Jawdy, Sara S.; Sykes, Robert W.; Davis, Mark; Ragauskas, Arthur; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis. Altered metabolism and reduced growth characteristics of RNAi plants revealed new implications on carbon allocation and partitioning. The distinctive metabolome phenotype comprised of a higher phenolic and salicylic acid content, and reduced lignin, shikimic acid and maleic acid content relative to control. Plant sustainability implications of modified cell walls on beneficial plant-microbe interactions were explored via co-culture with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor. A significant increase in the mycorrhization rate was observed in transgenic plants, leading to measurable beneficial growth effects. These findings present new evidence for functional interconnectedness of cellulose biosynthesis pathway, metabolism and mycorrhizal association in plants, and further emphasize the consideration of the sustainability implications of plant trait improvement efforts. PMID:27757116

  14. Traceability of animal byproducts in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica tissues using carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Móri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistent information on meat products consumed by the public is essential. The technique of stable isotopes is a powerful tool to recover consumers' confidence, as it allows the detection of animal byproduct residues in poultry meat, particularly in quail meat. This study aimed at checking the presence of poultry byproduct mixtures in quail diets by applying the technique of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes in quail breast muscle, keel, and tibia. Sixty four one-day-old male quails were obtained from a commercial farm. Birds were housed in an experimental house from one to 42 days of age, and were randomly distributed into 8 experimental treatments, and fed diets containing poultry offal meal (POM, bovine meat and bone meal (MBM or poultry feather meal (PFM, or their mixtures. Four birds per treatment were slaughtered at 42 days of age, and breast (Pectoralis major, keel, and tibia were collected for analyses. The inclusion of animal byproducts in quail diets was detected by 13C e 15N analyses in the tissues of the birds; however, it was not possible to specify which byproducts were used. It was concluded that quail meat can be certified by the technique of stable isotopes.

  15. Carboxylic acid functionalization prevents the translocation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at predicted environmentally relevant concentrations into targeted organs of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouara, Abdelli; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Haifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-06-01

    Carboxyl (-COOH) surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) can be used for targeted delivery of drugs and imaging. However, whether MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations exert certain toxic effects on multicellular organisms and the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. In the present study, we applied the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate the properties of MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations by comparing the effects of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-COOH exposure on C. elegans from L1-larvae to adult at concentrations of 0.001-1000 μg L-1. Exposure to MWCNTs could potentially damage the intestine (primary targeted organ) at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg L-1 and functions of neurons and reproductive organ (secondary targeted organs) at concentrations greater than 0.001 μg L-1. Carboxyl modification prevented the toxicity of MWCNTs on the primary and the secondary targeted organs at concentrations less than 100 μg L-1, suggesting that carboxyl modification can effectively prevent the adverse effects of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. After exposure, MWCNTs-COOH (1 mg L-1) were translocated into the spermatheca and embryos in the body through the primary targeted organs. However, MWCNTs-COOH (10 μg L-1) were not observed in spermatheca and embryos in the body of nematodes. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH exposed nematodes might have a hyper-permeable intestinal barrier, whereas MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations effectively sustained the normally permeable state for the intestinal barrier. Therefore, we elucidated the cellular basis of carboxyl modification to prevent toxicity of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. Our data highlights the key role of biological barriers in the primary targeted organs to block toxicity formation from MWCNTs, which will be useful for the design of effective prevention strategies against

  16. Accelerated killing of cancer cells using a multifunctional single-walled carbon nanotube-based system for targeted drug delivery in combination with photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamohan P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prashanti Jeyamohan, Takashi Hasumura, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Japan Abstract: The photothermal effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in combination with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX for targeting and accelerated destruction of breast cancer cells is demonstrated in this paper. A targeted drug-delivery system was developed for selective killing of breast cancer cells with polyethylene glycol biofunctionalized and DOX-loaded SWCNTs conjugated with folic acid. In our work, in vitro drug-release studies showed that the drug (DOX binds at physiological pH (pH 7.4 and is released only at a lower pH, ie, lysosomal pH (pH 4.0, which is the characteristic pH of the tumor environment. A sustained release of DOX from the SWCNTs was observed for a period of 3 days. SWCNTs have strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR region. In this special spectral window, biological systems are highly transparent. Our study reports that under laser irradiation at 800 nm, SWCNTs exhibited strong light–heat transfer characteristics. These optical properties of SWCNTs open the way for selective photothermal ablation in cancer therapy. It was also observed that internalization and uptake of folate-conjugated NTs into cancer cells was achieved by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. Results of the in vitro experiments show that laser was effective in destroying the cancer cells, while sparing the normal cells. When the above laser effect was combined with DOX-conjugated SWCNTs, we found enhanced and accelerated killing of breast cancer cells. Thus, this nanodrug-delivery system, consisting of laser, drug, and SWCNTs, looks to be a promising selective modality with high treatment efficacy and low side effects for cancer therapy. Keywords: cancer, nanotherapy, SWCNTs, targeted drug delivery

  17. Interfacial Microstructure and Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Composites Caused by Growing Generation 1-4 Dendritic Poly(amidoamine) on a Fiber Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhang, Ruliang; Gao, Fucheng; He, Maoshuai; Wang, Chengguo; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Lifen; Cui, Hongzhi

    2016-08-23

    In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites, propagation of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers by in situ polymerization on a carbon fiber surface was performed. During polymerization processes, PAMAM was grafted on carbon fiber by repeated Michael addition and amidation reactions. The changes in surface microstructure and the chemical composition of carbon fibers before and after modification were investigated by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. All the results indicated that PAMAM was successfully grown on the carbon fiber surface. Such propagation could significantly increase the surface roughness and introduce sufficient polar groups onto the carbon fiber surface, enhancing the surface wettability of carbon fiber. The fractured surface of carbon fiber-reinforced composites showed a great enhancement of interfacial adhesion. Compared with those of desized fiber composites, the interlaminar shear strength and interfacial shear strength of PAMAM/fiber-reinforced composites showed increases of 55.49 and 110.94%, respectively.

  18. Learning Nutrition in Medical Schools. Report on a WHO Workshop (Warsaw, Poland, April 12-14, 1989). EUR/HFA Target 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This paper reports on a World Health Organization (WHO) workshop whose participants, in accordance with WHO's Health for All (HFA) Target is, "Knowledge and Motivation for Healthy Behaviour," examined the importance of nutritional education in medical schools. Areas discussed include the discrepancy between the need for skills in…

  19. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuschel Henrike

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro

  20. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    thickest part of the mound facies of the upper Ismay zone, where microporosity is well developed. In Bug field, the most productive wells are located structurally downdip from the updip porosity pinch out in the dolomitized lower Desert Creek zone, where micro-box-work porosity is well developed. Microporosity and micro-box-work porosity have the greatest hydrocarbon storage and flow capacity, and potential horizontal drilling target in these fields. Diagenesis is the main control on the quality of Ismay and Desert Creek reservoirs. Most of the carbonates present within the lower Desert Creek and Ismay have retained a marine-influenced carbon isotope geochemistry throughout marine cementation as well as through post-burial recycling of marine carbonate components during dolomitization, stylolitization, dissolution, and late cementation. Meteoric waters do not appear to have had any effect on the composition of the dolomites in these zones. Light oxygen values obtained from reservoir samples for wells located along the margins or flanks of Bug field may be indicative of exposure to higher temperatures, to fluids depleted in {sup 18}O relative to sea water, or to hypersaline waters during burial diagenesis. The samples from Bug field with the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are from wells that have produced significantly greater amounts of hydrocarbons. There is no significant difference between the oxygen isotope compositions from lower Desert Creek dolomite samples in Bug field and the upper Ismay limestones and dolomites from Cherokee field. Carbon isotopic compositions for samples from Patterson Canyon field can be divided into two populations: isotopically heavier mound cement and isotopically lighter oolite and banded cement. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the annual national convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, a core workshop, and publications

  1. Incomplete mass transfer in /sup 12/C and /sup 14/N reactions on medium-heavy targets at 15 and 30 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, R.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Gizon, A.; Barci, V.; Barneoud, D.; Charvet, A.; Foin, C.; Salicio, J.

    1986-04-01

    The mass and charge distributions of heavy residues in /sup 14/N (15 and 30 MeV/nucleon)- and /sup 12/C (30 MeV/nucleon)-induced reactions on /sup 141/Pr, /sup 144,150,152,154/Sm, and /sup 174/Yb have been determined from delayed gamma-ray emission. The average produced masses and charges are deduced. A comparison with evaporation calculations following complete and incomplete fusion processes is presented.

  2. (CH4)-C-14 Measurements in Greenland Ice: Investigating Last Glacial Termination CH4 Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko, V. V.; Smith, A. M.; Brook, E. J.;

    2009-01-01

    The cause of a large increase of atmospheric methane concentration during the Younger Dryas-Preboreal abrupt climatic transition (similar to 11,600 years ago) has been the subject of much debate. The carbon-14 (C-14) content of methane ((CH4)-C-14) should distinguish between wetland and clathrate...... contributions to this increase. We present measurements of (CH4)-C-14 in glacial ice, targeting this transition, performed by using ice samples obtained from an ablation site in west Greenland. Measured (CH4)-C-14 values were higher than predicted under any scenario. Sample (CH4)-C-14 appears to be elevated...... by direct cosmogenic C-14 production in ice. C-14 of CO was measured to better understand this process and correct the sample (CH4)-C-14. Corrected results suggest that wetland sources were likely responsible for the majority of the Younger Dryas-Preboreal CH4 rise....

  3. MiR-133a regarded as a potential biomarker for benzene toxicity through targeting Caspase-9 to inhibit apoptosis induced by benzene metabolite (1,4-Benzoquinone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujiao; Sun, Pengling; Bai, Wenlin; Gao, Ai

    2016-11-15

    Benzene is an environmental and industrial chemical which is widely utilized in various applications. Our previous study showed that miR-133a expression was down-regulated in chronic benzene poisoning workers, but the mechanism of miR-133a in benzene-induced hematotoxicity remains unclear. In this population-based study, benzene-exposed group recruited workers whose concentration of air benzene was 3.50±1.60mg/m(3), and control workers who were exposed to 0.06±0.01mg/m(3) air benzene. By comparison, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 was up-regulated while miR-133a expression decreased in benzene-exposed workers. Pearson correlation analysis showed that miR-133a was reversely correlated with pro-apoptotic gene Caspase-9 in population-based study. Moreover, multiple linear regressions indicated that miR-133a was positively associated with blood cells count. To explore the underlying mechanism of miR-133a in benzene-induced hematotoxicity, AO/EB staining and TEM ultrastructural analysis were conducted to verify the activation of apoptosis in Human Leukemic U937 Cells induced by benzene metabolites (1,4-Benzoquinone, 1,4-BQ), while the mechanism of miR-133a in 1,4-BQ-induced apoptosis was performed using lentivirus vectors transfection. The results demonstrated that 1,4-BQ evidently induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and increased pro-apoptotic genes (Caspase-9 and Caspase-3) expression in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanistic study showed 1,4-BQ decreased miR-133a expression and miR-133a over-expression attenuated 1, 4-BQ-caused upregulation of Caspase-9, Caspase-3 and apoptosis. In conclusion, our research suggested that benzene induced hematotoxicity by decreasing miR-133a and caspase-dependent apoptosis which might contribute to the underlying mechanism of miR-133a in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the equilibration reaction between the sulfur and carbon bonded forms of a cobalt(III) complex with the ligands 1,4,7-triazycyclononane and 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Y.S.; Becker, J.; Kofod, Pauli

    1996-01-01

    -sulfur complex to form the alkyl complex gave 100% loss of deuterium. It is concluded that the labile methylene proton is bound to the carbon atom which in the alkyl complex is bound to cobalt(III). From the kinetic data it is estd. that the carbanion reacts with water 270 times faster than it is captured......The new cyclic thioether 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane, dathicd, has been synthesized and used for the prepn. of the sulfur- and carbon-bonded cobalt(III) complexes: [Co(tacn)(S-dathicd)]Cl3.5H2O and [Co(tacn)(C-dathicd)](ClO4)2 (tacn, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; C-dathicd, 1,4-diamino-7-thiacyclodecan...

  5. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c - 12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Engel, R; Meurer, C; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Paganoni, M; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).

  6. The fate of river organic carbon in coastal areas: A study in the Rhône River delta using multiple isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C) and organic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathalot, C.; Rabouille, C.; Tisnérat-Laborde, N.; Toussaint, F.; Kerhervé, P.; Buscail, R.; Loftis, K.; Sun, M.-Y.; Tronczynski, J.; Azoury, S.; Lansard, B.; Treignier, C.; Pastor, L.; Tesi, T.

    2013-10-01

    A significant fraction of the global carbon flux to the ocean occurs in River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMar) although large uncertainties remain in the cycle of organic matter (OM) in these systems. In particular, the OM sources and residence time have not been well clarified. Surface (0-1 cm) and sub-surface (3-4 cm) sediments and water column particles (bottom and intermediate depth) from the Rhône River delta system were collected in June 2005 and in April 2007 for a multi-proxy study. Lignin phenols, black carbon (BC), proto-kerogen/BC mixture, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon stable isotope (δ13COC), and radiocarbon measurements (Δ14COC) were carried out to characterize the source of sedimentary organic material and to address degradation and transport processes. The bulk OM in the prodelta sediment appears to have a predominantly modern terrigenous origin with a significant contribution of modern vascular C3 plant detritus (Δ14COC = 27.9‰, δ13COC = -27.4‰). In contrast, the adjacent continental shelf, below the river plume, seems to be dominated by aged OM (Δ14COC = -400‰, δ13COC = -24.2‰), and shows no evidence of dilution and/or replacement by freshly produced marine carbon. Our data suggest an important contribution of black carbon (50% of OC) in the continental shelf sediments. Selective degradation processes occur along the main dispersal sediment system, promoting the loss of a modern terrestrial OM but also proto-kerogen-like OM. In addition, we hypothesize that during the transport across the shelf, a long term resuspension/deposition loop induces efficient long term degradation processes able to rework such refractory-like material until the OC is protected by the mineral matrix of particles.

  7. An expedient synthesis of functionalized 1,4-diketone-derived compounds via silyloxyallyl cation intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepherson, Jacob R; Fronczek, Frank R; Kartika, Rendy

    2016-02-07

    Herein we describe a new method, enabling the synthesis of highly functionalized 1,4-diketones that are readily differentiated as monosilylenol ethers under Brønsted acid catalysis. This synthetically useful chemistry exploited an intermediacy of unsymmetrical silyloxyallyl cations, which were directly captured by silyl enolates to create the targeted α,α carbon-carbon linkages in a regioselective manner. Our reaction conditions proved to be mild, rendering the silylenol ether functionalities intact.

  8. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK EC isolation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of 'soot' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the 'truth' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK and thermal optical transmission (TOT methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1 both methods exhibited biomass-C 'leakage'; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2 the initial isothermal oxidation stage

  9. Efficacy and Toxicity of Mammalian Target Rapamycin Inhibitors in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma with Renal Insufficiency: The Korean Cancer Study Group GU 14-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyang; Kim, Joo Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Hyo Song; Heo, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ho Young; Rha, Sun Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of mammalian target rapamycin inhibitors in Korean patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) with chronic renal insufficiency not requiring dialysis. Materials and Methods Korean patients with mRCC and chronic renal insufficiency not requiring dialysis treated with everolimus or temsirolimus between January 2008 and December 2014 were included. Patient characteristics, clinical outcomes, and toxicities were evaluated. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) durations were evaluated according to the degree of renal impairment. Results Eighteen patients were considered eligible for the study (median age, 59 years). The median glomerular filtration rate was 51.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The best response was partial response in six patients and stable disease in 11 patients. The median PFS and OS durations were 8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 0 to 20.4) and 32 months (95% CI, 27.5 to 36.5), respectively. The most common non-hematologic and grade 3/4 adverse events included stomatitis, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, and anorexia as well as elevated creatinine level. Conclusion Mammalian target rapamycin inhibitors were efficacious and did not increase toxicity in Korean patients with mRCC and chronic renal insufficiency not requiring dialysis. PMID:26875195

  10. The Subaru FMOS Galaxy Redshift Survey (FastSound). I. Overview of the Survey Targeting on H$\\alpha$ Emitters at $z \\sim 1.4$

    CERN Document Server

    Tonegawa, Motonari; Okada, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Glazebrook, Karl; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Bunker, Andrew J; Coupon, Jean; Ferreira, Pedro G; Frenk, Carlos S; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hikage, Chiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Matsubara, Takahiko; More, Surhud; Okumura, Teppei; Percival, Will J; Spitler, Lee R; Szapudi, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    FastSound is a galaxy redshift survey using the near-infrared Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, targeting H$\\alpha$ emitters at $z \\sim 1.18$--$1.54$ down to the sensitivity limit of H$\\alpha$ flux $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{-16} \\ \\rm erg \\ cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. The primary goal of the survey is to detect redshift space distortions (RSD), to test General Relativity by measuring the growth rate of large scale structure and to constrain modified gravity models for the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. The target galaxies were selected based on photometric redshifts and H$\\alpha$ flux estimates calculated by fitting spectral energy distribution (SED) models to the five optical magnitudes of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Wide catalog. The survey started in March 2012, and all the observations were completed in July 2014. In total, we achieved $121$ pointings of FMOS (each pointing has a $30$ arcmin diameter circular footprint) covering $20.6...

  11. The preparation of nucleotides uniformly labelled with carbon-14 by biosynthetic methods. Isolation of adenylic, uridylic, cytidylic,and guanylic acids, from the alkaline hydrolysate of escherichia coli RNA; Preparacion de nucleiotidos uniformemente marcados con 14{sup C}, por via biosintetica. Aislamiento de los acidos adenilico, uridilico, citidilico y guanilico, procedentes de la hidrolisis alcalina de RNA de escherichia Coli.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Pineda, M. D.; Pacheco Lopez, J.

    1978-07-01

    A method is described for the preparation and analysis of adenylic, uri dilic, cytidi- 11c and guanylic acids, labelled with 14{sup C}. Escherichia coli cells have been labelled by growing them in a medi dia containing glucose-14{sup C} as their only source of carbon. RNA is isolated from the cells, and after hydrolysis of the molecule the resulting nucleotides are separated by gel filtration and exchange chromatography. Chemical and radiochemical purity of the Isolated nucleotides is determined, and also its specific radioactivity. (Author) 30 refs.

  12. Electron loss from 1.4 MEV/u U{sup 4,6,10+} ions colliding with Ne, N{sub 2} and Ar targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, R.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Santos, A.C.F. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE). Abt. Atomphysik] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Absolute, total, single, and multiple electron loss cross sections are measured for 1.4 MeV/u U{sup 4,6,10+} ions colliding with neon and argon atoms and nitrogen molecules. It is found that the cross sections all have the same dependence on the number of electrons lost and that multiplying the cross sections by the initial number of electrons in the 6s, 6p, and 5f shells yields good agreement between the different projectiles. By combining the present data with previous measurements made at the same velocity, it is shown that the scaled cross sections slowly decrease in magnitude for incoming charge states between 1 and 10 whereas the cross sections for higher charge state ions fall off much more rapidly. (orig.)

  13. Targeted Synthesis of 1-(4-Hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium-3-pyridiniumpropane Dibromide – A New Nerve Agent Reactivator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marek

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of 1-(4-hydroxy-iminomethylpyridinium-3-pyridiniumpropane dibromide is described. This compound represents a new acetylcholinesterase (AChE reactivator, which has no substituents on the second pyridinium ring as found in other commonly used AChE reactivators. The reactivation ability of this reactivator was tested on tabun- and cyclosarin-inhibited AChE. According to the results obtained, the new compound (without substitution and with decreased molecule size showed increased reactivation potency in case of cyclosarin inhibited AChE. A potent oxime for treatment of tabun and cyclosarin-caused intoxications was thus obtained via slight modification of the reactivator structure (compared to trimedoxime and K027.

  14. Seasonal and snowmelt-driven changes in the water-extractable organic carbon dynamics in a cool-temperate Japanese forest soil, estimated using the bomb-(14)C tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Koarashi, Jun; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Hirai, Keizo

    2014-02-01

    Water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) in soil consists of a mobile and bioavailable portion of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. WEOC plays an important role in dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and transport of radionuclides in forest soils. Although considerable research has been conducted on the importance of recent litter versus older soil organic matter as WEOC sources in forest soil, a more thorough evaluation of the temporal pattern of WEOC is necessary. We investigated the seasonal variation in WEOC in a Japanese cool-temperate beech forest soil by using the carbon isotopic composition ((14)C and (13)C) of WEOC as a tracer for the carbon sources. Our observations demonstrated that fresh leaf litter DOC significantly contributed to WEOC in May (35-52%) when the spring snowmelt occurred because of the high water flux and low temperature. In the rainy season, increases in the concentration of WEOC and the proportion of hydrophobic compounds were caused by high microbial activity under wetter conditions. From summer to autumn, the WEOC in the mineral soil horizons was also dominated by microbial release from SOC (>90%). These results indicate that the origin and dynamics of WEOC are strongly controlled by seasonal events such as the spring snowmelt and the rainy season's intense rainfall.

  15. Simulation of swift boron clusters traversing amorphous carbon foils

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Ávalos, Santiago; Abril Sánchez, Isabel; Denton Zanello, Cristian D.; García Molina, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    We use a simulation code to study the interaction of swift boron clusters (Bn+, n=2–6, 14) with amorphous carbon foils. We analyze different aspects of this interaction, such as the evolution of the cluster structure inside the target, the energy and angle distributions at the detector or the stopping power ratio. Our simulation code follows in detail the motion of the cluster fragments through the target and in the vacuum until reaching a detector, taking into account the following interacti...

  16. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  17. Density distribution of {sup 14}Be from reaction cross-section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriguchi, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ozawa, A., E-mail: ozawa@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ishimoto, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Abe, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hachiuma, I. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ishibashi, Y.; Ito, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kuboki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Lantz, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagae, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Namihira, K. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ooishi, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suda, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2014-09-15

    We measured the reaction cross sections of the two-neutron halo nucleus {sup 14}Be with proton and carbon targets at about 41 and 76 MeV/nucleon. Based on a Glauber model calculation, we deduced the matter density distribution of {sup 14}Be in which previously measured interaction cross sections at relativistic energies were also included. An s-wave dominance in {sup 14}Be has been confirmed, although the halo tail of {sup 14}Be is not distributed as much as that of {sup 11}Li. Significant mixing of the p-wave in addition to the s- and d-wave is also suggested.

  18. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Nannan; Shu, Chang; Li, Ruixin; Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xuequan; Wang, Ran; Zhong, Wenying, E-mail: wyzhong@cpu.edu.cn [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2015-05-15

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π–π interaction. DSPE–PEG–COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (−24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC{sub 50}: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL BIODEGRADABILITY OF [14C] SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBESBY TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND NATURAL MICROBIAL CULTURES FOUND IN NEWBEDFORD HARBOR SEDIMENT AND AERATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible...

  20. First direct measurement of the $^{11}$C($\\alpha$, p)$^{14}$N stellar reaction by an extended thick-target method

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, S; Kahl, D; Yamaguchi, H; Binh, D N; Hashimoto, T; Wakabayashi, Y; He, J J; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, T; Kwon, Y K; Teranishi, T

    2016-01-01

    The $^{11}$C($\\alpha$, p) reaction is an important $\\alpha$-induced reaction competing with $\\beta$-limited hydrogen-burning processes in high-temperature explosive stars. We directly measured its reaction cross sections both for the ground-state transition ($\\alpha$, $p_{0}$) and the excited-state transitions ($\\alpha$, $p_{1}$) and ($\\alpha$, $p_{2}$) at relevant stellar energies 1.3 - 4.5 MeV by an extended thick-target method featuring time of flight for the first time. We revised the reaction rate by numerical integration including the ($\\alpha$, $p_{1}$) and ($\\alpha$, $p_{2}$) contributions and also low-lying resonances of ($\\alpha$, $p_{0}$) using both the present and the previous experimental data which were totally neglected in the previous compilation works. The present total reaction rate lies between the previous ($\\alpha$, $p_{0}$) rate and the total rate of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculation, which is consistent with the relevant explosive hydrogen-burning scenarios such as the $...

  1. Structure-Function Analysis of PPP1R3D, a Protein Phosphatase 1 Targeting Subunit, Reveals a Binding Motif for 14-3-3 Proteins which Regulates its Glycogenic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Villena, Carla; Sanz, Pascual; Garcia-Gimeno, Maria Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is one of the major protein phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. It plays a key role in regulating glycogen synthesis, by dephosphorylating crucial enzymes involved in glycogen homeostasis such as glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP). To play this role, PP1 binds to specific glycogen targeting subunits that, on one hand recognize the substrates to be dephosphorylated and on the other hand recruit PP1 to glycogen particles. In this work we have analyzed the functionality of the different protein binding domains of one of these glycogen targeting subunits, namely PPP1R3D (R6) and studied how binding properties of different domains affect its glycogenic properties. We have found that the PP1 binding domain of R6 comprises a conserved RVXF motif (R102VRF) located at the N-terminus of the protein. We have also identified a region located at the C-terminus of R6 (W267DNND) that is involved in binding to the PP1 glycogenic substrates. Our results indicate that although binding to PP1 and glycogenic substrates are independent processes, impairment of any of them results in lack of glycogenic activity of R6. In addition, we have characterized a novel site of regulation in R6 that is involved in binding to 14-3-3 proteins (RARS74LP). We present evidence indicating that when binding of R6 to 14-3-3 proteins is prevented, R6 displays hyper-glycogenic activity although is rapidly degraded by the lysosomal pathway. These results define binding to 14-3-3 proteins as an additional pathway in the control of the glycogenic properties of R6.

  2. Applications of radiocarbon in the terrestrial carbon cycle and related research advances%14C在陆地生态系统碳循环研究中的应用及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓虎; 周卫健; 杜花; 程鹏; 吴书刚; 牛振川; 卢雪峰

    2016-01-01

    深刻理解陆地生态系统碳循环有助于提高未来气候预测的准确性。14C是陆地生态系统碳循环研究中广泛应用的重要工具,本文对14C在土壤有机碳周转时间和平均停留时间的评估、陆地生态系统释放CO2的源解析、河流有机碳的源解析及陆地生态系统碳循环对气候变化和土地利用的响应等四个方面的应用及进展进行了细致的介绍,最后展望了14C应用于陆地碳循环研究发展趋势,并对国内相关研究的开展提出了几点建议。%Background, aim, and scope Terrestrial ecosystems are one of the main sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 now, however, it is not clear whether it will become a net source or sink in the future under the inlfuence of climate change and human activities. Radiocarbon is an important and widely used tool in the research of terrestrial carbon cycle. In this paper, the research progress in recent years were reviewed and divided in four parts: the calculation of turnover time and mean residence time of soil organic carbon, partitioning sources of CO2 derived from terrestrial ecosystem, partitioning sources of lfuvial organic carbon and the response of terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change and land use. The expanded applications of radiocarbon in terrestrial carbon cycle in future and the deifciencies of related research in China were also discussed.Materials and methods We mainly reviewed the literature those use radiocarbon with alternative method (model) to evaluate the turnover of soil organic carbon, partition sources of different types of C in terrestrial ecosystem or catch the response of terrestrial carbon cycle to climate change and land use, then, we made comparisons between these methods (models).Results The turnover time of soil organic carbon (SOC) is a measuring of its mixing or refresh rate, and is the time it would take for the reservoir to completely empty if there were no further inputs. And the mean

  3. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed ‘Green’ Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Sebastian; CP, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E.; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the ‘green’ synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26470029

  4. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed 'Green' Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Sebastian; Cp, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the 'green' synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity.

  5. Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

    2010-12-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect.

  6. Biodegradation of poly(butylene succinate) powder in a controlled compost at 58°C evaluated by naturally-occurring carbon 14 amounts in evolved CO(2) based on the ISO 14855-2 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-11-20

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 degrees C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled "Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions-Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide-Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test". The evolved CO(2) was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)(2) solution. The trapped BaCO(3) was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the (14)C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO(2) (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO(2) amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO(2).

  7. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-12-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite

  8. Target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, G.E.; Hua, Q.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Antares Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy Centre at ANSTO has two chemistry labs dedicated to preparing targets for measurement. Target preparation encompasses a variety of activities ranging from the curation of incoming samples to the numerous steps involved in the purification and processing of dissimilar samples. One of the two laboratories is set up for the physical and chemical pretreatment of {sup 14}C samples. Treatments include cleaning by sonification, sorting, grinding and sieving, and chemical treatments such as the standard AAA treatment, and solvent extraction. Combustion and graphitization are also carried out in this laboratory. The second laboratory is a clean room and is dedicated to the combustion, hydrolysis and graphitization of {sup 14}C samples as well as the process of the targets for the other isotopes. Combustion is achieved by heating the sample to 900 deg C in the presence of CuO, the resulting gas is purified by passing over Ag and Cu wire at 600 deg C. Graphitization is carried out by reducing the CO{sub 2} with an iron catalyst (600 deg C) in the presence of zinc (400 deg C) and a small amount of hydrogen. Samples such as charcoal, shell bone, wood, sediment, seawater and groundwater, containing 0.3-1 mg or more of original carbon, are processed routinely for radiocarbon analysis. The current {sup 14}C chemistry background for 1 mg carbon is {approx} 0.3 percent of modern carbon (pMC) enabling us to date materials up to 45 000 BP. Samples of 0.5 - 3 mg carbon or more are routinely performed with a precision < 1% At present, procedures are being tested for the treatment of samples containing a minimum of 20 {mu}g original carbon. Such small samples sre more likely to be affected by contamination with modern carbon. These laboratories are also being expanded to cater for the processing of a variety of samples for the measurement of other isotopes, ie {sup 129}I, {sup 10}Be, {sup 36}CI and {sup 26}Al. Initial tests for the extraction of

  9. A model-based interpretation of low frequency changes in the carbon cycle during the last 120,000 years and its implications for the reconstrucion of atmospheric D14C and the 14C production rates estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Peter; R. Muscheler; Fischer, Hubertus

    2006-01-01

    We use the ocean/atmosphere/biosphere box model of the global carbon cycle BICYCLE (Köhler et al., 2005) to reproduce low frequency changes in atmospheric CO2 as seen in Antarctic ice cores during the last glacial cycle (120,000 years) (Köhler et al., 2006). We force the model forward in time by various paleo-climatic records derived from ice and sediment cores. The simulation results of our proposed scenario match a compiled CO2 record from various ice cores with high accuracy (r2 = 0.89). T...

  10. Theoretical total ionization cross-sections of CH{sub x}, CF{sub x}, SiH{sub x}, SiF{sub x} (x = 1-4) and CCl{sub 4} targets by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, K.N.; Antony, B.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Physics; Vinodkumar, M. [VP and RPTP Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar (India)

    2003-04-01

    Total ionization cross-sections of electron impact are calculated for the molecular targets CH{sub x}, CF{sub x}, SiH{sub x}, SiF{sub x} (x = 1-4) and CCl{sub 4} at incident energies 20-3000 eV. The calculation is based on Complex Scattering Potential approach, as developed by us recently. This leads to total inelastic cross-sections, from which the total ionization cross-sections are extracted by reasonable physical arguments. Extensive comparisons are made here with the previous theoretical and experimental data. The present results are satisfactory except for the CF{sub x} and SiF{sub x} (x = 1-3) radicals, for which the experimental data are lower than most of the theories by more than 50%. (authors)

  11. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ{sup 13}C, Δ{sup 14}C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-15

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ{sup 13}C and Δ{sup 14}C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  12. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIII. pH Effects in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} Fixation by Scenedesmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, C.; Benson, A. A.

    1951-10-23

    The rates of photosynthesis and dark fixation of C{sup 14}O{sub 2} in Scenedesmus have been compared in dilute phosphate buffers of 1.6 to 11.4 pH; determination of C{sup 14} incorporation into the various products shows enhancement of uptake in an acid medium into sucrose, polysaccharides, alanine and serine, in an alkaline medium into malic asparctic acids. kinetic experiments at extreme pH values suggest that several paths are available for CO{sub 2} assimilation. A tentative correlation of the results with the pH optima of some enzymes and resultant effects upon concentrations of intermediates is presented.

  13. 促进区域产业有序转移与协调发展的碳减排目标设计%Target Design on Carbon Reduction of Promoting Regional Industrial Transfer Orderly and Coordinated Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成艾华; 魏后凯

    2013-01-01

    当前,在扩大内需、转变经济发展方式的大背景下,跨区域产业转移已成为中国区域政策中促进区域协调发展的重要手段.如何根据中国各区域碳排放的差异性,合理设计有差别的碳减排目标,促进区域产业有序转移与协调发展,是当前需要考虑的一个重要战略问题.本文首先采用工业部门市场份额指标来反映地区产业转移状况,并按产业转移情况和工业化水平把中国划分为净转入、净转出和其他中西部三类区域;然后运用改进的LMDI模型,从碳排放系数、碳排放强度、经济结构及经济规模四个方面对不同区域碳排放效应进行分解,明确了不同区域碳排放的差异特征.在此基础上,根据未来中国区域碳减排政策应坚持“共同而有区别的责任原则”,建立了新的区域碳减排指标分配框架,即对净转入、净转出和其他中西部三类区域分别实行以结构调整为主的强制减排、以降低能源强度为主的强制减排和发展减排的差异化目标,促进东部地区产业转型升级与中西部地区跨越式绿色发展.%In the background of expanding domestic demand and changing the mode of economic development, the regional industry transference has become one important method of Chinese regional policies which focused on regional coordinating development. How to design reasonable and considerable carbon emission reduction targets depending on the difference of regional carbon diversity has become a significant strategy of Chinese development, and the successful targets also can promote industry transference orderly and regional coordinating development fairly. In this paper, we used industry market share index to reflect the regional industry transference status, and divided Chinese regions into the area of transfer into, the area of transfer out, and the area of other middle and west places based on Chinese status of regional industry transference and

  14. Biodegradation of Poly(butylene succinate Powder in a Controlled Compost at 58 °C Evaluated by Naturally-Occurring Carbon 14 Amounts in Evolved CO2 Based on the ISO 14855-2 Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Funabashi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate (PBS powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions—Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide—Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test”. The evolved CO2 was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH2 solution. The trapped BaCO3 was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample] based on the 14C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample was the sum of the pMC (compost (109.87% and pMC (PBS (0% as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO2 (respiration was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO2 amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO2.

  15. Down-Regulation of KORRIGAN-Like Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Genes Impacts Carbon Partitioning, Mycorrhizal Colonization and Biomass Production in Populus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl un...

  16. Down-regulation of KORRIGAN-like endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes impacts carbon partitioning, mycorrhizal colonization and biomass production in Populus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl un...

  17. The effect of carbon credits on savanna land management and priorities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Lucinda L; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon finance offers the potential to change land management and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land management to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from carbon biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of global significance for biodiversity and carbon storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and managing fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential carbon revenue (using a carbon price of US$14 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting carbon stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved management can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in carbon revenue and prevent the release of 1-2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land management by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet carbon storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and carbon data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land management investments.

  18. Ba(OH)/sub 2/. 8H/sub 2/O process for the removal and immobilization of carbon-14. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, G.L.; Holladay, D.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Young, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    The airborne release of /sup 14/C from various nuclear facilities has been identified as a potential biohazard due to the long half-life of /sup 14/C (5730 years) and the ease with which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. At ORNL, technology has been developed for the removal and immobilization of this radionuclide. Prior studies have indicated that /sup 14/C will likely exist in the oxidized form as CO/sub 2/ and will contribute slightly to the bulk CO/sub 2/ concentration of the gas stream, which is air-like in nature (approx.300 ppM/sub v/ CO/sub 2/). The technology that has been developed utilizes the CO/sub 2/-Ba(OH)/sub 2/.8H/sub 2/O gas-solid reaction with the mode of gas-solid contacting being a fixed bed. The product, BaCO/sub 3/, possesses excellent thermal and chemical stability, prerequisites for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. For optimal process operation, studies have indicated that an operating window of adequate size does exist. When operating within the window, high CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency (effluent concentrations <100 ppB/sub v/), high reactant utilization (>99%), and an acceptable pressure drop across the bed (3 kPa/m at a superficial velocity of 13 cm/s) are possible. Three areas of experimental investigation are reported: (1) microscale studies on 150-mg samples to provide information concerning surface properties, kinetics, and equilibrium vapor pressures; (2) macroscale studies on large fixed beds (4.2 kg of reactant) to determine the effects of humidity, temperature, and gas flow rate upon bed pressure drop and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough; and (3) design, construction, and operation of a pilot unit capable of continuously processing a 34-m/sup 3//h (20-ft/sup 3//min) air-based gas stream.

  19. CARBON-RICH PRESOLAR GRAINS FROM MASSIVE STARS: SUBSOLAR {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C AND {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N RATIOS AND THE MYSTERY OF {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatari, M. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Zinner, E. [Laboratory for Space Sciences and Physics Department, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Hoppe, P. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Jordan, C. J.; Gibson, B. K. [E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Dept of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Trappitsch, R. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Chicago Center for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Herwig, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada); Fryer, C. [Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Hirschi, R. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Timmes, F. X. [The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies compared to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C and low-density (LD) graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. We present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. Different explosion energies and H concentrations are considered. If the supernova shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N. The short-lived radionuclides {sup 22}Na and {sup 26}Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic {sup 22}Ne from the decay of {sup 22}Na in the He shell might solve the puzzle of the Ne-E(L) component in LD graphite grains. This scenario is attractive for the SiC grains of type AB with {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios lower than solar, and provides an alternative solution for SiC grains originally classified as nova grains. Finally, this process may contribute to the production of {sup 14}N and {sup 15}N in the Galaxy, helping to produce the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in the solar system.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of methotrexate conjugated fluorescent carbon nanoparticles as drug delivery system for human lung cancer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Yunus, Uzma; Matin, Abdul; Haq, Noaman Ul

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology based cancer therapeutics have rapidly advanced towards the solution of many limitations associated with other drug delivery agents such as nonspecific distribution within the body, low water solubility and non-biocompatibility. Carbon nanoparticles have demonstrated unique properties that are useful to combat with these issues, including their properties dependent on size, high stability in different solvents, compatible size for drug delivery and ease of surface modifications. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with good water solubility were obtained from a carbohydrate source by acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35kHz for 4h. This simple and economical method can be used for large scale production. Electron microscopic, spectroscopic and thermo gravimetric analysis techniques were used to characterize these carbon nanoparticles. Functionalized CNPs were further conjugated with anticancer drug-methotrexate and used as fluorescent nano-carriers. In this research work, we determined the in vitro bioactivity of CNPs-methotrexate conjugates by lactate dehydrogenase assay, cell adhesion assay and sulforhodamine B assay in human lung carcinoma cell line (H157). The CNPs showed promising biocompatibility and CNPs-MTX conjugates demonstrated potent cytotoxic effects and high anticancer activities in human lung cancer cell line.

  1. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure [(14) C]-labelled morpholine derivatives for a class of trace amine-associate receptor 1 agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Martin R; Hartung, Thomas; Trussardi, René; Iding, Hans; Galley, Guido; Pflieger, Philippe; Norcross, Roger D

    2016-12-01

    Various agonists of the trace amine-associate receptor 1, under consideration as potential clinical development candidates, were labelled with carbon-14 for use in preclinical in vitro and in vivo drug metabolism studies. Herein, the [(14) C]-radiosynthesis of 2-phenyl-substituted morpholines 1 is described. After evaluating and optimizing different synthetic routes, 4-iodonitrobenzene 3 was selected as starting material for the 14-step synthesis. Incorporation of carbon-14 into the acetyl moiety allowed a safe and efficient synthesis of [(14) C]-labelled 4-nitroacetophenone 2 in five steps and 38% yield. Further transformation of 2 to the target compounds 1 was achieved in a 9-step synthesis. In a representative example, [(14) C]-labelled 1 was obtained in an overall yield of 11% and was isolated in >99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 47 mCi/mmol.

  2. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  3. 含Zn2+的金属有机骨架材料对碳酸二苯酯与1,4-丁二醇酯交换反应的催化性能%Transesterification Between Diphenyl Carbonate and 1,4-Butanediol Catalyzed by Metal-Organic Framework Based on Zn2 +

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽苹; 王公应; 汪帆; 刘品华; 徐晓林; 贺池先

    2013-01-01

    采用溶剂热法制备了Zn2+和对苯二甲酸组合形成的金属有机骨架材料(MOF),并用X射线衍射(XRD)和红外光谱(FT-IR)对其进行了表征.研究了MOF对碳酸二苯酯(DPC)与1,4-丁二醇(1,4-BD)酯交换反应合成聚碳酸酯二醇(PCDL)的催化活性,并与乙酰丙酮氧钛(TiO(acac)2)、乙酰丙酮锌(Zn(acac)2)和锌铝类水滑石(Zn-Al-CO3 LDH)等催化剂进行了比较.结果显示,MOF是该酯交换反应的良好催化剂.在优化的反应条件下,获得了数均分子量为3470,羟基值为35.2mg KOH/g的PCDL.%Metal-organic framework (MOF) based on Zn2+ and terephthalic acid was prepared and characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The catalytic activity of MOF for the transesterification between diphenyl carbonate (DPC) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) to polycarbonate diol (PCDL) was investigated, and was compared with that of catalysts such as titaniumoxide acetylacetonate (TiO(acac)2), zinc acetylacetonate (Zn(acac)2) and Zn-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al-CO3 LDH). The results show that MOF is an efficient catalyst for the transesterification. Under optimal reaction conditions, PCDL with number average molecular weight (-Mn) of 3470 and hydroxyl value of 35.2 mg KOH/g was synthesized.

  4. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  5. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  6. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laural L.

    2001-11-26

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities.

  7. Targeted management of organic resources for sustainably increasing soil organic carbon: Observations and perspectives for resource use and climate adaptations in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heve, William K; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe

    2016-01-01

    northern savannah of Ghana. Data and information on spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), current practices that could enhance climate adaptation including management of organic resources were collected through biophysical assessments and snap community surveys. Even though homestead fields...... and residues, traditions for bush-burning and competing use of organic resources for fuels. Our findings suggest a need for effective management practices, training and awareness aimed at improving management of organic resources and, consequently, increasing SOC and resilience to climate-change-induced risks.......Since soil organic matter (SOM) buffers against impacts of climatic variability, the objective of this study was to assess on-farm distribution of SOM and propose realistic options for increasing SOM and thus the adaptation of smallholder farmers to climate change and variability in the interior...

  8. Yields of nuclear fragments in the interactions of carbon nuclei with a beryllium target at a projectile energy of 0.6 GeV per nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, B. M.; Alexeev, P. N.; Borodin, Yu. A.; Bulychjov, S. A.; Gudima, K. K.; Dukhovskoy, I. A.; Krutenkova, A. P.; Kulikov, V. V.; Martemianov, M. A.; Matsyuk, M. A.; Mashnik, S. G.; Turdakina, E. N.; Khanov, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    The yields of long-lived nuclear fragments at an angle of 3.5° that originate fromthe fragmentation of carbon ions with an energy of T 0 = 0.6 GeV per nucleon on a berylliumtarget were measured in the FRAGMexperiment at the ITEP TWA heavy-ion accelerator. The momentum spectra of these fragments cover both the fragmentation-maximum region and the cumulative region. The respective differential cross sections change by about five orders of magnitude. The momentum distributions of fragments in the laboratory frame and their kinetic-energy distributions in the rest frame of the fragmenting nucleus are used to test the predictions of four models of ion-ion interactions: BC, INCL++, LAQGSM03.03, and QMD.

  9. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  10. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children risk of leukaemia in young children following the peak of above-ground nuclear weapons testing, or that incidence rates are

  11. Genesis Silicon Carbide Concentrator Target 60003 Preliminary Ellipsometry Mapping Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis concentrator was custom designed to focus solar wind ions primarily for terrestrial isotopic analysis of O-17/O-16 and O-18/O-16 to +/-1%, N-15/N-14 to +/-1%, and secondarily to conduct elemental and isotopic analysis of Li, Be, and B. The circular 6.2 cm diameter concentrator target holder was comprised of four quadrants of highly pure semiconductor materials that included one amorphous diamond-like carbon, one C-13 diamond, and two silicon carbide (SiC). The amorphous diamond-like carbon quadrant was fractured upon impact at Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), but the remaining three quadrants survived fully intact and all four quadrants hold an important collection of solar wind. The quadrants were removed from the target holder at NASA Johnso n Space Center Genesis Curation Laboratory in April 2005, and have been housed in stainless steel containers under continual nitrogen purge since time of disintegration. In preparation for allocation of a silicon carbide target for oxygen isotope analyses at UCLA, the two SiC targets were photographed for preliminary inspection of macro particle contamination from the hard non-nominal landing as well as characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry to evaluate thin film contamination. This report is focused on Genesis SiC target sample number 60003.

  12. 碳纳米管结合药物在肿瘤靶向治疗中的应用%Application of functionalized carbon nanotube in tumor targeted therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文彬; 温诗辉; 赵庆华

    2014-01-01

    Targeted therapy means transporting drugs to certain tissue,aiming at increasing the utilization of drugs as well as reducing cytotoxicity.Chemotherapy drugs carried by carbon nanotube have high pharmaceutical activity and tumor control rate,compared with drugs alone.Carbon nanotube combined with immunotherapy drugs and nucleic acid can treat tumors at immunology and gene level.%将药物定点运输至相关组织以提高药物利用率、降低细胞毒性的手段称为靶向治疗.以碳纳米管为载体的结合化疗药物与单纯使用药物相比,药物活性与肿瘤抑制率均有提高.碳纳米管结合免疫治疗类药物和核酸还可从免疫学和基因水平治疗肿瘤.

  13. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  14. Determining novel functions of Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins in central metabolic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Celine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are considered master regulators of many signal transduction cascades in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. Results In this study, extensive novel roles of 14-3-3 proteins in plant metabolism were determined through combining the parallel analyses of metabolites and enzyme activities in 14-3-3 overexpression and knockout plants with studies of protein-protein interactions. Decreases in the levels of sugars and nitrogen-containing-compounds and in the activities of known 14-3-3-interacting-enzymes were observed in 14-3-3 overexpression plants. Plants overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins also contained decreased levels of malate and citrate, which are intermediate compounds of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. These modifications were related to the reduced activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of TCA cycle. In addition, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 proteins interacted with one isocitrate dehydrogenase and two malate dehydrogenases. There were also changes in the levels of aromatic compounds and the activities of shikimate dehydrogenase, which participates in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins play roles as crucial tuners of multiple primary metabolic processes including TCA cycle and the shikimate pathway.

  15. Impact of suppression of tumorigenicity 14 (ST14)/serine protease 14 (Prss14) expression analysis on the prognosis and management of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sauryang; Yang, Jae Woong; Kim, Chungho; Kim, Moon Gyo

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate the role of a type II transmembrane serine protease, ST14/Prss14, during breast cancer progression, we utilized publically accessible databases including TCGA, GEO, NCI-60, and CCLE. Survival of breast cancer patients with high ST14/Prss14 expression is significantly poor in estrogen receptor (ER) negative populations regardless of the ratios of ST14/Prss14 to its inhibitors, SPINT1 or SPINT2. In a clustering of 1085 selected EMT signature genes, ST14/Prss14 is located in the same cluster with CDH3, and closer to post-EMT markers, CDH2, VIM, and FN1 than to the pre-EMT marker, CDH1. Coexpression analyses of known ST14/Prss14 substrates and transcription factors revealed context dependent action. In cell lines, paradoxically, ST14/Prss14 expression is higher in the ER positive group and located closer to CDH1 in clustering. This apparent contradiction is not likely due to ST14/Prss14 expression in a cancer microenvironment, nor due to negative regulation by ER. Genes consistently coexpressed with ST14/Prss14 include transcription factors, ELF5, GRHL1, VGLL1, suggesting currently unknown mechanisms for regulation. Here, we report that ST14/Prss14 is an emerging therapeutic target for breast cancer where HER2 is not applicable. In addition we suggest that careful conclusions should be drawn not exclusively from the cell line studies for target development.

  16. Etude de la migration des interstitiels dans des austenites Fe, Cr (18), Ni (14) pures et industrielles par irradiation dans un microscope a tres haute tension: Role du carbone et du titane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housseau, N.; Pelissier, J.

    1983-12-01

    Nous avons étudié le rôle des impurtés (C ou Ti) dans la condensation et la migration des défauts interstitiels. Les échantillons étudiés sont des aciers austénitiques: (a) acier de synthèse de haute pureté (Cr 18, Ni 14, Fe) avec ou sans carbone; (b) acier industriel avec C (800 ppm) ou Ti (0,45%). Les échantillons ont été irradiés dans un microscope à très haute tension aux doses allant de 10 -4 jusqu'à 10 -1 dpa aux températures de 300°C à 400°C. Dans de telles conditions les défauts observés sont des boucles interstitielles. L'étude de la variation de l'épaisseur de la zone dénudée près du bord de la lame mince en fonction de la température nous a permis d'évaluer l'énergie de migration effective de l'interstitiel dans ces alliages. Dans l'austénite de synthèse carburée ou non sa valeur est de 0.8 eV. Dans l'acier industriel au titane carburé ou non on obtient 2.0 eV. Nous n'avons pas observé d'effet lié au carbone. L'examen de la densité de boucles à saturation dans les divers aciers suggère une forte énergie de liaison interstitiel-titane. Cette énergie de liaison, si l'ont admet que le titane est la seule impureté agissante du système, peut être estimée à 1.2 eV.

  17. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  18. The synthesis of 14 C-labelled carbon dots and their accumulation in marine phytoplankton%14C-标记碳点的合成及其在海洋浮游植物体内的 生物富集应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家梦; 杨柳燕; 缪爱军

    2016-01-01

    为了探究光敏性碳基纳米材料的生物富集过程,通过一步微波热解反应合成14 C标记的碳点,并以海洋原甲藻(Prorocentrummicans)和东海原甲藻(Prorocentrumdonghaiense)作为受试生物,定量分析了这两种生物对碳点(C-dots)的吸收动力学差异.由于生物细胞的遮挡效应可能会影响胞内标记碳点的测定,实验中首先比较了生物样品三种处理方法(对生物样品分别直接测定,超清洗,超声破碎)的效果差异,发现对生物细胞样品进行超声破碎的处理效果最好,并且在超声5 min的条件下测定效果最佳.随后,开展实验进一步探究了短时间内碳点在生物细胞内的富集过程.结果表明,碳点在这两种生物体内的富集量都随时间呈现线性增加的趋势.当我们以三种生物富集量表示方法作图(pg·cell-1,pg·μm-2和pg·μm-3)时,发现采用以单位体积的生物富集量作图最科学,并且发现这两种原甲藻对碳点的生物富集量随时间的变化趋势极为接近,克服了藻细胞大小带来的差异,更为科学地阐述了水生生物体内碳点的富集量的变化.%To investigate the bioaccumulation of carbon-based nanomaterial,we synthesized the14 C-labeled carbon dots (C-dots)by one-way microwave pyrolysis.Two marine algae,Prorocentrum micans and Prorocentrum donghaiense were used as the objective organisms,and their accumulation of C-dots was compared.As the 14 C signal from the C-dots may be quenched inside the cells,the results of the different ultrasonicating methods were compared,and the counting number was the highest when the cells were ultrasonicated for 5 minutes.After the optimization of the cell processing methods,we further explored the bioaccumulation kinetics of C-dots by both algae and the accumulation results with different units(pg·cell-1 ,pg·μm-2 ,and pg·μm-3 )were compared.As expected,cellular concentration of C-dots increased linearly with exposure time regardless of

  19. 14 CFR 34.60 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designed to measure concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 34.60 Section 34.60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  20. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0412 TITLE: "Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis " PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yong Teng CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: REPORT...ng Prost a t e Cancer Metastasi s Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14- 1- 0 41 2 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER YongTeng Se...r egulator in contr olling metastasis of p r ost a t e cancer and i nhi b i t i ng i t prevent s met ast asis . There are no drugs available to tar

  1. Accounting for biomass carbon stock change due to wildfire in temperate forest landscapes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David B; Mackey, Brendan G; Blair, David; Carter, Lauren; McBurney, Lachlan; Okada, Sachiko; Konishi-Nagano, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1), which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1) depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise mitigation activities.

  2. Accounting for biomass carbon stock change due to wildfire in temperate forest landscapes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Carbon stock change due to forest management and disturbance must be accounted for in UNFCCC national inventory reports and for signatories to the Kyoto Protocol. Impacts of disturbance on greenhouse gas (GHG inventories are important for many countries with large forest estates prone to wildfires. Our objective was to measure changes in carbon stocks due to short-term combustion and to simulate longer-term carbon stock dynamics resulting from redistribution among biomass components following wildfire. We studied the impacts of a wildfire in 2009 that burnt temperate forest of tall, wet eucalypts in south-eastern Australia. Biomass combusted ranged from 40 to 58 tC ha(-1, which represented 6-7% and 9-14% in low- and high-severity fire, respectively, of the pre-fire total biomass carbon stock. Pre-fire total stock ranged from 400 to 1040 tC ha(-1 depending on forest age and disturbance history. An estimated 3.9 TgC was emitted from the 2009 fire within the forest region, representing 8.5% of total biomass carbon stock across the landscape. Carbon losses from combustion were large over hours to days during the wildfire, but from an ecosystem dynamics perspective, the proportion of total carbon stock combusted was relatively small. Furthermore, more than half the stock losses from combustion were derived from biomass components with short lifetimes. Most biomass remained on-site, although redistributed from living to dead components. Decomposition of these components and new regeneration constituted the greatest changes in carbon stocks over ensuing decades. A critical issue for carbon accounting policy arises because the timeframes of ecological processes of carbon stock change are longer than the periods for reporting GHG inventories for national emissions reductions targets. Carbon accounts should be comprehensive of all stock changes, but reporting against targets should be based on human-induced changes in carbon stocks to incentivise

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25 (NODC Accession 0100084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100084 includes chemical, physical, and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25. These data...

  4. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  5. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  6. Catalytic activity of carbon-based solid acids in the esterification synthesis of 1,4-butanediol disuccinate diisooctyl%碳基固体酸在1,4-丁二醇双琥珀酸二异辛酯合成中的催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华平; 喻红梅; 李建华; 方略韬; 戴宝江; 张海滨; 朱国华

    2016-01-01

    采用对甲苯磺酸和可溶性淀粉混合物部分炭化制备新型碳基固体酸催化剂,研究了m(对甲苯磺酸):m(可溶性淀粉)、炭化温度和炭化时间对催化剂催化合成1,4-丁二醇双琥珀酸二异辛酯的影响,用SEM、XRD、红外光谱、元素分析等对催化剂进行了表征。结果表明,在m(对甲苯磺酸):m(可溶性淀粉)=1.0:2.0、炭化温度200℃、炭化时间8 h的条件下,得到碳基固体酸的催化活性最高,在180℃下反应1.5 h可达到规定的酯化率,催化剂重复使用5次后,酯化率仍能达到93%以上,另外该催化剂具有良好的热稳定性。%Carbon-based solid acids were prepared by coking mixtures of p-toluene sulfonic acid and soluble starch with different ratios at different temperatures. The effects of the p-toluene sulfonic acid/soluble starch mass ratio, coking temperature and time on their catalytic activities in the esterification reaction of maleic anhydride with ethylene glycol were investigated. Results indicated that the activity of the acid was the highest when amixture with the mass ratio of 0. 5 was coked at 200℃ for 8 h. The activity remained high after the solid acid had been used 5 times.

  7. Reporting C-14 activities and concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, WG; van der Plicht, J

    1999-01-01

    Three modes of reporting C-14 activities are in use, in part analogous to the internationally accepted (IAEA) conventions for stable isotopes: (1) absolute activity, the specific activity of C-14 or the activity per gram of carbon; (2) activity ratio, the ratio between the absolute activities of a s

  8. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  9. Structure-Function Analysis of PPP1R3D, a Protein Phosphatase 1 Targeting Subunit, Reveals a Binding Motif for 14-3-3 Proteins which Regulates its Glycogenic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Villena, Carla; Sanz, Pascual; Garcia-Gimeno, Maria Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is one of the major protein phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. It plays a key role in regulating glycogen synthesis, by dephosphorylating crucial enzymes involved in glycogen homeostasis such as glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP). To play this role, PP1 binds to specific glycogen targeting subunits that, on one hand recognize the substrates to be dephosphorylated and on the other hand recruit PP1 to glycogen particles. In this work we have analyz...

  10. Measurement of low {ital m}{sub {ital t}K}{sup 0}{sub {ital s}} production from 14.6{ital A} GeV/{ital c} Si beams on a Pb target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chan, C.S.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Eiseman, S.E.; Efstathiadis, E.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hallman, T.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Madansky, L.; Morris, T.W.; Mutchler, G.S.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Zhao, K.; Zhu, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)]|[City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)]|[Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)]|[Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 (United States); (E810 Collaboration)

    1995-11-01

    We present the measurement of low {ital m}{sub {ital t}K}{sup 0}{sub {ital s}} production in the rapidity range 2.2{lt}{ital y}{lt}2.6 with silicon beams on a lead target. We have selected central events with a cross section of approximately 280 mb and compare with a low kaon {ital m}{sub {ital t}} enhancement as reported earlier.

  11. Ultra-rapid targeted analysis of 40 drugs of abuse in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS using carbon-13 isotopes of methamphetamine and MDMA to reduce detector saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rago, Matthew; Chu, Mark; Rodda, Luke N; Jenkins, Elizabeth; Kotsos, Alex; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    The number of oral fluid samples collected by the road policing authority in Victoria, Australia, requiring confirmatory laboratory analysis for drugs proscribed under Victorian legislation (methamphetamine, MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) has greatly increased in recent years, driving the need for improved analysis techniques to enable expedient results. The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS-based targeted oral fluid screening technique that covers a broad range of basic and neutral drugs of abuse that can satisfy increased caseload while monitoring other compounds of interest for epidemiological purposes. By combining small sample volume, simple extraction procedure, rapid LC-MS/MS analysis and automated data processing, 40 drugs of abuse including amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and major metabolites, opioids, cannabinoids and some designer stimulants were separated over 5 min (with an additional 0.5 min re-equilibration time). The analytes were detected using a Sciex® API 4500 Q-Trap LC-MS/MS system with positive ESI in MRM mode monitoring three transitions per analyte. The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines and also monitored carbon-13 isotopes of MDMA and MA to reduce detector saturation effects, allowing for confirmation of large concentrations of these compounds without the need for dilution or re-analysis. The described assay has been successfully used for analysis of oral fluid collected as part of law enforcement procedures at the roadside in Victoria, providing forensic results as well as epidemiological prevalence in the population tested. The fast and reliable detection of a broad range of drugs and subsequent automated data processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic toxicology.

  12. Mechanism design problems in carbon economics

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Radhika; Narahari, Y.; Bagchi, Deepak; Suresh, P.; Subrahmanya, SV

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of carbon emissions is of paramount importance in the context of global warming and climate change. Countries and global companies are now engaged in understanding systematic ways of solving carbon economics problems, aimed ultimately at achieving well defined emission targets. This paper proposes mechanism design as an approach to solving carbon economics problems. The paper first introduces carbon economics issues in the world today and next focuses on carbon economics problems...

  13. Microcapsule carbon nanotube devices for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulamarva, Arun; Raja, Pavan M. V.; Bhathena, Jasmine; Chen, Hongmei; Talapatra, Saikat; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a new class of nanomaterials that have immense potential in the field of biomedicine. Their ability to carry large quantities of therapeutic molecules makes them prime candidates for providing targeted delivery of therapeutics for use in various diseases. However, their utility is limited due to the problems faced during their delivery to target sites. This article for the first time describes the design of a novel microcapsule carbon nanotube targeted delivery device. This device has potential in the targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes in suitable membranes along with their cargo, safely and effectively to the target loci.

  14. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  15. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled cis-malonato [(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolane] platinum(II) (SKI 2053R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Kim, Youngseok; Rim, Jonggill; Kim, Ganghyeok; Gam, Jongsik; Song, Sungkun; Yoo, Kwanghee; Kim, Key H. (Sunkyong Industries, Kyungki-Do (Korea, Republic of). Life Science Research Center)

    1994-02-01

    The synthesis of [sup 14]C-labelled cis-malonato[(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolan e]platinum(II) from [1,4-[sup 14]C] D-tartaric acid is described. The overall radiochemical yield of the product in a eight-step sequence was 23.8% and radiochemical purity was 98.5%. (author).

  16. DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON and TOTAL ALKALINITY collected from NEW HORIZON in Gulf of California and NE Pacific (limit-180) from 2004-07-14 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0130921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Total Alkalinity (TA) samples collected via Niskin bottle and analysed on shore from the Gulf of California in the summers of...

  17. 平阳霉素-活性炭纳米微粒行口腔癌淋巴化疗的靶向性评价%Lymphatic targeting study of pingyangmycin-activated carbon nanoparticles treating oral cancer lymph node metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明磊; 谢卫红; 王昌美; 温玉明

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察平阳霉素-活性炭纳米微粒(PYM-CH-NP)经鼠癌周黏膜下给药后,活性药物在体内各组织器官中的分布情况,探讨PYM-CH-NP对淋巴结转移灶的靶向性.方法 采用改良氯胺T法将125I标记平阳霉素(PYM),应用淋巴结高转移癌株U14建立昆明小鼠颈淋巴结转移模型.将360只颈淋巴结转移模型小鼠随机分为PYM-CH-NP组、PYM组和阴性对照组,分别于癌周黏膜下注射PYM-CH-NP、PYM水溶液和空白活性炭纳米微粒,给药后0.5、1、4、8、12、24、48、72、96、120、144、168 h处死动物,取血、心、肝、脾、肺、肾和颈淋巴结,检测各时间点各组织器官内平阳霉素的放射活性,计算各样本单位重量的药物放射活性(比放射活性),并计算药物的选择性指数(SI)和靶向指数(TI).结果 PYM-CH-NP组各时间点颈淋巴结内药物浓度显著高于PYM组(P<0.001),4 h后血、心、肝、脾、肺、肾等器官中药物浓度均低于PYM组(P<0.001).PYM组各时间点的SI均小于1,而PYM-CH-NP组SI和TI最低值为1.793和1.562,最高为72 h时的68.126和14.623.结论 PYM-CH-NP可显著增加淋巴结转移灶内的药物浓度,同时非靶器官药物分布减少,降低了药物的全身毒副反应.%Objective To investigate the drug distribution in tissues of cervical lymph node metastasis mice model after submucosa adjacent cancer injection of pingyangmycin-activated carbon nanoparticles (PYM-CH-NP) and evaluate the lymph targeting effect of PYM-CH-NP. Methods Pingyangmycin (PYM) was radiolabeled with 125I by modified the chloramine T method. Cervical lymph node metastasis mice model was established by buccal submucosa inoculation of a high lymph metastasis cell line U14 cancer cell. 360 mice models burdened with cervical lymph metastasis were randomly divided into 3 groups. PYM group was treated with PYM water solution, PYM-CH-NP group was treated with PYM-CH-NP. Negative control group was injected with activated carbon

  18. Electron Loss from 1.4 MeV/u U4,6,10+ Ions Colliding with Ne, N2, and Ar Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, R D; Stöhlker, T; Bosch, F; Bräuning-Demian, A; Banas, D; Gumberidze, A; Hagmann, S; Kozhuharov, C; Mann, R; Orsic-Muthig, A; Spillmann, U; Tachenov, S; Bart, W; Dahl, L; Franzke, B; Glatz, J; Gröning, L; Richter, S; Wilms, D; Ullmann, K; Jagutzki, O

    2004-01-01

    Absolute, total, single, and multiple electron loss cross sections are measured for 1.4 MeV/u U4,6,10+ ions colliding with neon and argon atoms and nitrogen molecules. It is found that the cross sections all have the same dependence on the number of electrons lost and that multiplying the cross sections by the initial number of electrons in the 6s, 6p, and 5f shells yields good agreement between the different projectiles. By combining the present data with previous measurements made at the same velocity, it is shown that the scaled cross sections slowly decrease in magnitude for incoming charge states between 1 and 10 whereas the cross sections for higher charge state ions fall off much more rapidly.

  19. 14-Thienyl Methylene Matrine (YYJ18, the Derivative from Matrine, Induces Apoptosis of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells by Targeting MAPK and PI3K/Akt Pathways in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a distinctive type of head and neck cancer with the highest incidence in South China. Previous studies have proved that matrine, a main alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait, has antitumor activity against NPC. However, the effect is not so pronounced and the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here we investigated whether 14-thienyl methylene matrine (YYJ18 that was derived from matrine could exert more effective suppression activity on NPC, along with the underlying mechanism. Methods: NPC cell lines CNE1, CNE2 and HONE1 were treated with YYJ18. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt pathways were determined by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. Results: YYJ18 remarkably inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of all three NPC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, especially in CNE2 cells. Furthermore, YYJ18 treatment significantly suppressed phosphorylation of p38 in CNE2 cells, but upregulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and Akt. Next, alterations in downstream signaling were found, including activation of BCL2-associated X protein (Bax, caspase-3 and inactivation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2. Conclusion: We demonstrate the potent inhibitory effects of 14-thienyl methylene matrine on NPC cells for the first time, which could be mediated by modulation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of carbon nanotube and polystyrene-carbon nanotube composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramel, A. A.; Gupta, M. C.; Lee, H. R.; Yu, J.; Edwards, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we report on the fabrication of carbon nanotube thin films via pulsed laser deposition using a pulsed, diode pumped, Tm:Ho:LuLF laser with 2 μm wavelength. The thin films were deposited on silicon substrates using pure carbon nanotube targets and polystyrene-carbon nanotube composite targets. Raman spectra, scanning electron micrographs, and transmission electron micrographs show that carbon nanotubes are present in the deposited thin films, and that the pulsed laser deposition process causes minimal degradation to the quality of the nanotubes when using pure carbon nanotube targets.

  1. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weight limits. 31.14 Section 31.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights...

  2. 14 CFR 380.14 - Unused space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused space. 380.14 Section 380.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 380.14 Unused space. Noting contained in this...

  3. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  4. Blank corrections for ramped pyrolysis radiocarbon dating of sedimentary and soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alvaro; Santos, Guaciara M; Williams, Elizabeth K; Pendergraft, Matthew A; Vetter, Lael; Rosenheim, Brad E

    2014-12-16

    Ramped pyrolysis (RP) targets distinct components of soil and sedimentary organic carbon based on their thermochemical stabilities and allows the determination of the full spectrum of radiocarbon ((14)C) ages present in a soil or sediment sample. Extending the method into realms where more precise ages are needed or where smaller samples need to be measured involves better understanding of the blank contamination associated with the method. Here, we use a compiled data set of RP measurements of samples of known age to evaluate the mass of the carbon blank and its associated (14)C signature, and to assess the performance of the RP system. We estimate blank contamination during RP using two methods, the modern-dead and the isotope dilution method. Our results indicate that during one complete RP run samples are contaminated by 8.8 ± 4.4 μg (time-dependent) of modern carbon (MC, fM ∼ 1) and 4.1 ± 5.5 μg (time-independent) of dead carbon (DC, fM ∼ 0). We find that the modern-dead method provides more accurate estimates of uncertainties in blank contamination; therefore, the isotope dilution method should be used with caution when the variability of the blank is high. Additionally, we show that RP can routinely produce accurate (14)C dates with precisions ∼100 (14)C years for materials deposited in the last 10,000 years and ∼300 (14)C years for carbon with (14)C ages of up to 20,000 years.

  5. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  6. Carbonized Micro- and Nanostructures: Can Downsizing Really Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naraghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we discuss relationships between morphology and mechanical strength of carbonized structures, obtained via pyrolysis of polymeric precursors, across multiple length scales, from carbon fibers (CFs with diameters of 5–10 µm to submicron thick carbon nanofibers (CNFs. Our research points to radial inhomogeneity, skin–core structure, as a size-dependent feature of polyacrylonitrile-based CFs. This inhomogeneity is a surface effect, caused by suppressed diffusion of oxygen and stabilization byproducts during stabilization through skin. Hence, reducing the precursor diameters from tens of microns to submicron appears as an effective strategy to develop homogeneous carbonized structures. Our research establishes the significance of this downsizing in developing lightweight structural materials by comparing intrinsic strength of radially inhomogeneous CFs with that of radially homogeneous CNF. While experimental studies on the strength of CNFs have targeted randomly oriented turbostratic domains, via continuum modeling, we have estimated that strength of CNFs can reach 14 GPa, when the basal planes of graphitic domains are parallel to nanofiber axis. The CNFs in our model are treated as composites of amorphous carbon (matrix, reinforced with turbostratic domains, and their strength is predicted using Tsai–Hill criterion. The model was calibrated with existing experimental data.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  8. 6,12,18,24-Tetra-meth-oxy-4,10,16,22-tetra-kis-[(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)meth-oxy]-2,8,14,20-tetra-kis-(2-phenyl-eth-yl)resorcin[4]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansuriya, Pramod B; Friedrich, Holger B; Maguire, Glenn E M

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C(76)H(80)O(16), is a macrocyclic structure. This novel resorcin[4]arene derivative has (meth-oxy-carbon-yl)meth-oxy 'head' groups on the upper rim. The compound has a C(2v) 'boat' geometry and there are a range of C-H⋯O contacts in the crystal structure.

  9. 14 CFR 14.26 - Further proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Further proceedings. 14.26 Section 14.26... proceedings. (a) Ordinarily the determination of an award will be made on the basis of the written record... adjudicative officer assigned to the matter may order further proceedings, such as an informal conference,...

  10. Impact of Different Carbon Policies on City Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A programming model for a four-layer urban logistics distribution network is constructed and revised based on three types of carbon emissions policies such as Carbon tax, carbon emissions Cap, Carbon Trade. Effects of different policies on logistics costs and carbon emissions are analyzed based on a spatial Logistics Infrastructure layout of Beijing. Research findings are as follows: First, based on low-carbon policies, the logistics costs and carbon emissions can be changed by different modes of transport in a certain extent; second, only when carbon taxes and carbon trading prices are higher, carbon taxes and carbon trading policies can reduce carbon emissions while not significantly increase logistics costs at the same time, and more effectively achieve carbon reduction targets than use carbon cap policy.

  11. Black carbon in deep-Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello; Druffel

    1998-06-19

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is 4 to 22 percent of the DOC pool. If soils are the intermediate reservoir, then the importance of riverine carbon in the ocean carbon cycle has been underestimated.

  12. AixMICADAS, the accelerator mass spectrometer dedicated to {sup 14}C recently installed in Aix-en-Provence, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Edouard, E-mail: bard@cerege.fr [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopôle de l’Arbois, BP 80, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Tuna, Thibaut; Fagault, Yoann; Bonvalot, Lise [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, Collège de France, Technopôle de l’Arbois, BP 80, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Wacker, Lukas; Fahrni, Simon; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    A compact AMS system dedicated to measuring {sup 14}C in ultra-small samples was installed at the CEREGE in Aix-en-Provence at the end of March 2014, together with an automated graphitization system. AixMICADAS operates at around 200 kV with carbon ion stripping in helium leading to a transmission of about 47%. The hybrid ion source works with graphite targets and CO{sub 2} gas. It is coupled to a versatile gas interface system that ensures stable gas measurements from different sources: a cracker for CO{sub 2} in glass ampoules, an elemental analyzer for combusting organic matter and an automated system to handle carbonate by wet chemistry. The analyses performed during the first half-year of operation show that a precision of about 2‰ is reached on modern samples of about 1 mg of carbon. Measurements of IAEA reference materials of various {sup 14}C ages show a good agreement with consensus values. Direct measurements of geological graphites indicate a machine background equivalent to an age of 68,000 years BP. AixMICADAS is thus limited solely by the {sup 14}C contamination of samples in the field and in the laboratory. The performances of the gas ion source and its gas interface system were tested with two CO{sub 2} production units: the elemental analyzer and the automated carbonate hydrolysis unit. These tests show that samples ranging between 10 and 100 μg C can produce a {sup 12}C{sup −} ion beam of the order of 10–15 μA during time spans ranging from 3 to 30 min depending on the sample mass. Coupling the automated hydrolysis system to the gas ion source of AixMICADAS, enables us to develop a method involving sequential leaching of carbonate samples with direct {sup 14}C measurements of the leached fractions and the residual sample. The main advantage is that all of steps leaching and hydrolysis are performed in the same vial for a particular sample. A sequential leaching was applied to a young carbonate sample (ca. 6600 years BP) whose {sup 14}C age

  13. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  14. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  15. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  16. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the carbon dioxide and oxygen (CO2 + O2) system at the temperatures 218, 233, 253, 273, 288 and 298 K and pressures up to 14 MPa

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, Snorre Foss; Stang, Hans Georg Jacob; Løvseth, Sigurd W.; Austegard, Anders; Snustad, Ingrid; Ertesvåg, Ivar S.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate thermophysical data for the CO2-rich mixtures relevant for carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) are essential for the development of the accurate equations of state (EOS) and models needed for the design and operation of the processes within CCS. Vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements for the binary system CO2+O2 are reported at 218, 233, 253, 273, 288 and 298 K, with estimated standard uncertainties of maximum 8 mK in temperature, maximum 3 kPa in pressure, and max...

  17. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  18. As-Fabricated Reinforced Carbon/Carbon Characterized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Webster, Neal

    2004-01-01

    Reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) is a critical material for the space shuttle orbiter. It is used on the wing leading edge and the nose cap, where maximum temperatures are reached on reentry. The existing leading-edge system is a single-plate RCC composite construction with a wall thickness of approximately 1/4 in., making it a prime reliant protection scheme for vehicle operation.

  19. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs.

  20. Relativistic electron beam transport through cold and shock-heated carbon samples from aerogel to diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, C. M.; Wei, M.; Zhang, S.; Santos, J.; Nicolai, P.; Theobald, W.; Kim, J.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Beg, F.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the transport physics of a relativistic electron beam in various plasma regimes is crucial for many high-energy-density applications, such as fast heating for advanced ICF schemes and ion sources. Most short pulse laser-matter interaction experiments for transport studies have been performed with initially cold targets where the resistivity is far from that in warm dense plasmas. We present three experiments that have been performed on OMEGA EP in order to extend fast electron transport and energy coupling studies in pre-assembled plasmas from different carbon samples. Each experiment has used one 4 ns long pulse UV beam (1014 W/cm2) to drive a shockwave through the target and a 10 ps IR beam (1019 W/cm2) to create an electron beam moving opposite the shock propagation direction. These shots were compared with initially cold target shots without the UV beam. We fielded three different samples including 340 mg/cc CRF foam, vitreous carbon at 1.4 g/cc, and high density carbon at 3.4 g/cc. Electrons were diagnosed via x-ray fluorescence measurements from a buried Cu tracer in the target, as well as bremsstrahlung emission and escaped electrons reaching an electron spectrometer. Proton radiograph was also performed in the foam shots. Details of each experiment, available data and particle-in-cell simulations will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002728.

  1. Effect of HF leaching on 14C dates of pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslar, Tomasz; Kozłowski, Janusz; Szmyt, Marzena; Czernik, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experiments with 14C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The 14C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make 14C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable 14C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  2. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  3. The SPES direct UCx target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Antonucci, C.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, M.; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; di Bernardo, P.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tonezzer, M.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.

    2007-11-01

    A possible solution for a target system aimed at the production of exotic nuclei as a result of high energy fissions in 238U compounds has been analyzed. The proposed configuration is constituted by a primary proton beam (40 MeV, 0.2 mA) directly impinging on uranium carbide disks inserted within a cylindrical carbon box. This system has been conceived to obtain both a high number of neutron rich atoms (originated from about 1013 fissions/s) and a low power deposition in the target. In order to extract the fission fragments, the box has to be hold at 2000○C. The thermal analysis shows the capability of the thermal radiation to cool the disks with a reasonable margin below the material melting point. Moreover, the analyses of the thermo-mechanical behaviour and of the effusion times confirm the promising features of this target configuration.

  4. Preparation of a Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 01lla, 01llb, k58: h21 bacterial wall, labeled with carbon-14; Preparacion de un lipopolisacarido de la pared baceteriana de escherichia coli 01lla, 01llb, K58: H21, marcado con carbono-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano Aunon, M. L.; Pacheco Lopez, J.; Garcia Pineda, M. D.; Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1981-07-01

    A brief description of the morphological and chemical structure of Li po polysaccharides is given, as well as its occurrence in nature and its mechanisms of action. It is emphasized the usefulness for actual biochemical and biomedical research of the labeled Lipopolysaccharide. The method for the labelling, isolation and purification of 14''C-Lipopolysacchari de is described. (Author) 23 refs.

  5. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  6. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AKADEMIK IOFFE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-02-14 to 1992-04-06 (NODC Accession 0115013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115013 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AKADEMIK IOFFE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-02-14 to...

  8. {sup 14}C. The future of the past; {sup 14}C. De toekomst van het verleden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mook, W.G.; Van der Plicht, J.; Leijenaar, D. [comps.

    1994-12-31

    In this catalogue an overview is given of the impact that {sup 14}C surveys had and still have on a broad spectrum of disciplines, e.g. archaeology, geology, paleobotany, hydrology and oceanography, in particular on the basis of results from the authors` laboratory. Next to the uses of carbon 14 attention is paid to the advantages of the new Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). 28 figs.

  9. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media.

  10. Low Carbon: Do the Green Thing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ Apparently,till the end of the year 2009,the words related with climate change,Copenhagen,as well as low-carbon almost spread all over the world.Just click the web,only 0.14 seconds,nearly 27,600,000 low-carbon related results were showcasing obviously.Low carbon economy,low carbon life...the things that related with the 'low-carbon' has become a trend or a focus,gradually changing our daily life;or,the whole world cares more about their living condition and makes effort to avoid suffering the crack of doom that the '2012' told us.

  11. Multiplicity of secondary electrons emitted by carbon thin targets by impact of H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles at MeV energies; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} et H{sub 3}{sup +} d`energie de l`ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Zvonimir [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-06-24

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25 - 2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. Phenomenological and theoretical descriptions as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subjects of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of the thin carbon foils crossed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter there are also presented the method and the algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H{sup 0} atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of the ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ions fragments, upon the amplitude of these collected effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. The experiments allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion interactions with solid surfaces. (author) 136 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges.

  13. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  14. Irradiation Scheme Design of 14C Production on CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Zheng; LIU; Xing-min; XU; Zhi-long; DING; Li

    2012-01-01

    <正>14C is a radioisotope of carbon. It is widely used in pharmacy, medical treatment, agriculture, reconnoiter and archaeology. China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) is a research reactor of high capability, the applications of which includes the radio nuclides production. Therefore, the technical scheme on 14C irradiation in CARR should be prepared elaborately.

  15. Low-Energy Grazing Ion-Scattering From Alkali-Halide Surfaces: A Novel Approach To C-14 Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Galutschek, E.; Hotchkis, M.

    2009-03-01

    Carbon-14 labeled compounds are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, e.g., as tracers to determine the fate of these compounds in vivo. Conventional accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is one approach that offers sufficiently high sensitivity to avoid radiological waste and contamination issues in such studies, but requires large, expensive facilities that are usually not solely dedicated to this task. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) we are exploring a small size, low cost alternative to AMS for biomedical 14C tracer studies that utilizes ECR-ion-source-generated keV-energy-range multicharged C beams grazingly incident on an alkali halide target, where efficient negative ion production by multiple electron capture takes place. By using C ion charge states of +3 or higher, the molecular isobar interference at mass 14, e.g. 12CH2 and 13CH, is eliminated. The negatively charged ions in the beam scattered from the alkali halide surface are separated from other scattered charge states by two large acceptance (˜15 msr) stages of electrostatic analysis. The N-14 isobar interference is thus removed, since N does not support a stable negative ion. Initial results for C-14 detection obtained using C-14 enriched CO2 from ANSTO will be described.

  16. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    How does a corporation know it emits carbon? Acquiring such knowledge starts with the classification of environmentally relevant consumption information. This paper visits the corporate location at which this underlying element for their knowledge is assembled to give rise to carbon emissions. Us...

  17. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  18. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  19. The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14: overview.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets i...

  20. Carbon nanotubes as in vivo bacterial probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Ghosh, Debadyuti; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-09-01

    With the rise in antibiotic-resistant infections, non-invasive sensing of infectious diseases is increasingly important. Optical imaging, although safer and simpler, is less developed than other modalities such as radioimaging, due to low availability of target-specific molecular probes. Here we report carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as bacterial probes for fluorescence imaging of pathogenic infections. We demonstrate that SWNTs functionalized using M13 bacteriophage (M13-SWNT) can distinguish between F‧-positive and F‧-negative bacterial strains. Moreover, through one-step modification, we attach an anti-bacterial antibody on M13-SWNT, making it easily tunable for sensing specific F‧-negative bacteria. We illustrate detection of Staphylococcus aureus intramuscular infections, with ~3.4 × enhancement in fluorescence intensity over background. SWNT imaging presents lower signal spread ~0.08 × and higher signal amplification ~1.4 × , compared with conventional dyes. We show the probe offers greater ~5.7 × enhancement in imaging of S. aureus infective endocarditis. These biologically functionalized, aqueous-dispersed, actively targeted, modularly tunable SWNT probes offer new avenues for exploration of deeply buried infections.

  1. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures is disclosed. The improvement consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat.No. 4,909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially, the carbon fabric of tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar, or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U"-channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  2. Counting the cost of carbon. Low carbon economy index 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Achieving the rates of decarbonisation needed to stay within the 2 degrees target agreed by governments in Cancun in 20101 requires a revolution in the way the world produces and uses energy. A transformation in financing will also be necessary to achieve the transition at the scale and speed needed. PwC published the first Low Carbon Economy Index ahead of the COP15 in Copenhagen, 2009. This looked at the progress of the G20 economies against a 2000-based carbon budget estimated by PwC. Carbon intensity is our preferred metric for analysing countries' movements towards a low carbon economy, as it accounts for expected economic growth, and can generate comparable targets. The carbon intensity of an economy is the emissions per unit of GDP and is affected by a country's fuel mix, energy efficiency and the proportion of industrial versus service sectors. Since COP 16 in Cancun, there has been an increasing focus on the cost of meeting the low carbon challenge and raising the capital required to finance it. This year's Low Carbon Economy Index focuses on this global financing gap and the reforms that might help to fill it. In section one we present our analysis of economic and emissions growth and ask whether we are decarbonising fast enough. The second section asks how much it will cost and can we afford it. We highlight the global financing gap, and focus on efforts to increase low carbon generation in the UK and South Africa. The report concludes by outlining some steps that could be taken to help meet the low carbon challenge.

  3. 基于四(5,6-二氢-1,4-二噻英)四氮杂卟啉修饰玻碳电极对多巴胺的选择性检测%(Iron( II )-Tetra(5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithijn) Porphyrazine)-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Elective Determination of Dopamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅颖; 王佳; 郭晓利; 刘昌华

    2012-01-01

    将四(5,6-二氢-1,4-二噻英)四氮杂卟啉(FePz(dtn)4)通过电沉积的方式固载在玻碳电极上,该电极在抗坏血酸(AA)和尿酸(UA)等干扰物存在下,可选择性地检测多巴胺(DA).对比裸电极,在循环伏安测量中修饰过后的电极在氧化电位处对DA表现出良好的电催化活性.并且出现一对可逆的氧化还原峰,阳极和阴极的电位值分别为0.182V和0.142V.在电解质溶液中氧化峰电流随着DA的浓度线性增加.两个线性范围分别是1~10和10~200μg/mL,相关系数分别为0.996 7和0.998 8.检出限为0.3μg/mL.%Glassy carbon (GC) electrode was modified with an electropolymerized film of (iron( II )-tetra (5,6-dihydro-1,4-dithijn) porphyrazine) (FePz(dtn)4). The polymer film-modified electrode was used to electrochemically detect dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). In cyclic voltammetrie measurements, the polymer film showed an excellent eleetrocatalytic activity as the oxi- dation potential for DA was positively shifted compared to that at the bare electrode. A couple of reversible redox peaks were detected, the potential value of the anodic and the cathodic peaks being 0. 182 and 0. 142 V, respectively. The oxidation peak current increased linearly with the concentration of DA in the electrolytic solution, with a linear range of 1--10 and 10--200ug/mL and a correlation coefficient of 0. 996 7 and 0. 998 8, respectively. The detection limit was 0.3 ug/mL.

  4. Determination of the accuracy for targeted irradiations of cellular substructures at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenwirth, C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Drexler, S.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich (Germany); Girst, S.; Reindl, J. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Walsh, D.W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the last 10 years the ion microbeam SNAKE, installed at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, has been successfully used for radiobiological experiments by utilizing pattern irradiation without targeting single cells. Now for targeted irradiation of cellular substructures a precise irradiation device was added to the live cell irradiation setup at SNAKE. It combines a sub-micrometer single ion irradiation facility with a high resolution optical fluorescence microscope. Most systematic errors can be reduced or avoided by using the same light path in the microscope for beam spot verification as well as for and target recognition. In addition online observation of the induced cellular responses is possible. The optical microscope and the beam delivering system are controlled by an in-house developed software which integrates the open-source image analysis software, CellProfiler, for semi-automatic target recognition. In this work the targeting accuracy was determined by irradiation of a cross pattern with 55 MeV carbon ions on nucleoli in U2OS and HeLa cells stably expressing a GFP-tagged repair protein MDC1. For target recognition, nuclei were stained with Draq5 and nucleoli were stained with Syto80 or Syto83. The damage response was determined by live-cell imaging of MDC1-GFP accumulation directly after irradiation. No systematic displacement and a random distribution of about 0.7 μm (SD) in x-direction and 0.8 μm (SD) in y-direction were observed. An independent analysis after immunofluorescence staining of the DNA damage marker yH2AX yielded similar results. With this performance a target with a size similar to that of nucleoli (i.e. a diameter of about 3 μm) is hit with a probability of more than 80%, which enables the investigation of the radiation response of cellular subcompartments after targeted ion irradiation in the future.

  5. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by Managing Anthropogenic Carbon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-05-01

    carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of carbon affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, the economic model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower carbon pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade carbon pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift carbon consumption to jurisdictions with lower carbon tolls. Third, the economic model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a carbon pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of carbon consumers worldwide.

  6. A target repurposing approach identifies N-myristoyltransferase as a new candidate drug target in filarial nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan D Galvin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Myristoylation is a lipid modification involving the addition of a 14-carbon unsaturated fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a modification that promotes their binding to cell membranes for varied biological functions. The process is catalyzed by myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT, an enzyme which has been validated as a drug target in human cancers, and for infectious diseases caused by fungi, viruses and protozoan parasites. We purified Caenorhabditis elegans and Brugia malayi NMTs as active recombinant proteins and carried out kinetic analyses with their essential fatty acid donor, myristoyl-CoA and peptide substrates. Biochemical and structural analyses both revealed that the nematode enzymes are canonical NMTs, sharing a high degree of conservation with protozoan NMT enzymes. Inhibitory compounds that target NMT in protozoan species inhibited the nematode NMTs with IC50 values of 2.5-10 nM, and were active against B. malayi microfilariae and adult worms at 12.5 µM and 50 µM respectively, and C. elegans (25 µM in culture. RNA interference and gene deletion in C. elegans further showed that NMT is essential for nematode viability. The effects observed are likely due to disruption of the function of several downstream target proteins. Potential substrates of NMT in B. malayi are predicted using bioinformatic analysis. Our genetic and chemical studies highlight the importance of myristoylation in the synthesis of functional proteins in nematodes and have shown for the first time that NMT is required for viability in parasitic nematodes. These results suggest that targeting NMT could be a valid approach for the development of chemotherapeutic agents against nematode diseases including filariasis.

  7. A target repurposing approach identifies N-myristoyltransferase as a new candidate drug target in filarial nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Brendan D; Li, Zhiru; Villemaine, Estelle; Poole, Catherine B; Chapman, Melissa S; Pollastri, Michael P; Wyatt, Paul G; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2014-09-01

    Myristoylation is a lipid modification involving the addition of a 14-carbon unsaturated fatty acid, myristic acid, to the N-terminal glycine of a subset of proteins, a modification that promotes their binding to cell membranes for varied biological functions. The process is catalyzed by myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme which has been validated as a drug target in human cancers, and for infectious diseases caused by fungi, viruses and protozoan parasites. We purified Caenorhabditis elegans and Brugia malayi NMTs as active recombinant proteins and carried out kinetic analyses with their essential fatty acid donor, myristoyl-CoA and peptide substrates. Biochemical and structural analyses both revealed that the nematode enzymes are canonical NMTs, sharing a high degree of conservation with protozoan NMT enzymes. Inhibitory compounds that target NMT in protozoan species inhibited the nematode NMTs with IC50 values of 2.5-10 nM, and were active against B. malayi microfilariae and adult worms at 12.5 µM and 50 µM respectively, and C. elegans (25 µM) in culture. RNA interference and gene deletion in C. elegans further showed that NMT is essential for nematode viability. The effects observed are likely due to disruption of the function of several downstream target proteins. Potential substrates of NMT in B. malayi are predicted using bioinformatic analysis. Our genetic and chemical studies highlight the importance of myristoylation in the synthesis of functional proteins in nematodes and have shown for the first time that NMT is required for viability in parasitic nematodes. These results suggest that targeting NMT could be a valid approach for the development of chemotherapeutic agents against nematode diseases including filariasis.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of micro and meso porous silica monoliths with embedded carbon nanoparticles for the extraction of non-polar compounds from waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco-Cala, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-10-14

    A novel hybrid micro and meso porous silica monolith with embedded carbon nanoparticles (Si-CNPs monolith) was prepared inside a fused silica capillary (3cm in length) and used as a sorbent for solid-phase microextraction. The hybrid monolithic capillary was synthetized by hydrolysis and polycondensation of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), ethanol, and three different carbon nanoparticles such as carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs), carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs), and oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns (o-SWNHs) via a two-step catalytic sol-gel process. Compared with silica monolith without carbon nanoparticles, the developed monolithic capillary column exhibited a higher extraction efficiency towards the analytes which can be ascribed to the presence of the carbon nanoparticles. In this regard, the best performance was achieved for silica monolith with embedded c-MWCNTs. The resulted monolithic capillaries were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis and nitrogen intrusion porosimetry. Variables affecting to the preparation of the sorbent phase including three different carbon nanoparticles and extraction parameters were studied in depth using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as target analytes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected as instrumental technique. Detection limits range from 0.1 to 0.3μgL(-1), and the inter-extraction units precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) is between 5.9 and 14.4%.

  9. Carbon cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A satellite launched in early August as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth could dramatically increase understanding of how carbon cycles through the Earth's biosphere and living organisms and how this process influences global climate. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) will measure the color of the oceans with a radiometer to determine the concentration of chlorophyll found in oceanic phytoplankton. The single-celled plants, at the base of food chains around the world, remove carbon dioxide from seawater through photosynthesis, which allows oceans to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  10. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  11. Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by the first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT transistors [1,2], and reinvigorated with the isolation of graphene [3], the field of carbon-based nanoscale electronic devices and components (Carbon Nanoelectronics for short has developed at a blistering pace [4]. Comprising a vast number of scientists and engineers that span materials science, physics, chemistry, and electronics, this field seeks to provide an evolutionary transition path to address the fundamental scaling limitations of silicon CMOS [5]. Concurrently, researchers are actively investigating the use of carbon nanomaterials in applications including back-end interconnects, high-speed optoelectronic applications [6], spin-transport [7], spin tunnel barrier [8], flexible electronics, and many more.

  12. Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2006-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively.

  13. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  14. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation; Expression HIF-1-abhaengiger Gene in humanen Lungenadenokarzinom (A549)-Zellen und deren Regulation nach Photonen- und Schwerionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, Verena Maria

    2013-11-26

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  15. RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.

  16. Mixed Carbon Policies Based on Cooperation of Carbon Emission Reduction in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established cooperation decision model for a mixed carbon policy of carbon trading-carbon tax (environmental tax in a two-stage S-M supply chain. For three different cooperative abatement situations, we considered the supplier driven model, the manufacturer driven model, and the equilibrium game model. We investigated the influence of mixed carbon policy with constraint of reduction targets on supply chain price, productivity, profits, carbon emissions reduction rate, and so on. The results showed that (1 high-strength carbon policies do not necessarily encourage enterprises to effectively reduce emissions, and increasing market acceptance of low carbon products or raising the price of carbon quota can promote the benign reduction; (2 perfect competitive carbon market has a higher carbon reduction efficiency than oligarch carbon market, but their optimal level of cooperation is the same and the realized reduction rate is in line with the intensity of carbon policy; (3 the policy sensitivity of the carbon trading mechanism is stronger than the carbon tax; “paid quota mechanism” can subsidize the cost of abatement and improve reduction initiative. Finally, we use a numerical example to solve the optimal decisions under different market situations, validating the effectiveness of model and the conclusions.

  17. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... size and PTV position. Methods: Several treatment plans are produced with TRiP, using a 256x256x256 mm3 water phantom and SOBP optimization on physical dose. Box formed PTV volumes between 0.15 - 1010 cm3, and PTV positions ranging from 3 cm to 200 cm depth (relative...

  18. Low Carbon:Do the Green Thing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Apparently, till the end of the year 2009, the words related with climate change, Copenhagen, as well as low-carbon almost spread all over the world. Just click the web, only 0.14 seconds, nearly 27,600,000 low-carbon related results were showcasing obviously. Low carbon economy, low carbon life…the things that related with the ’low-carbon’ has become a trend or a focus, gradually changing our daily life; or, the whole world cares more about their living condition and makes effort to avoid suffering the crack of doom that the ’2012’ told us.

  19. Black carbon in deep-sea sediments

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) enters the ocean through aerosol and river deposition. BC makes up 12 to 31 percent of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) at two deep ocean sites, and it is 2400 to 13,900 carbon-14 years older than non-BC SOC deposited concurrently. BC is likely older because it is stored in an intermediate reservoir before sedimentary deposition. Possible intermediate pools are oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and terrestrial soils. If DOC is the intermediate reservoir, then BC is ...

  20. Accessibility, searchability, transparency and engagement of soil carbon data: The International Soil Carbon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Koven, Charlie; Sulman, Ben; O'Donnell, Jon; He, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Soils are capacitors for carbon and water entering and exiting through land-atmosphere exchange. Capturing the spatiotemporal variations in soil C exchange through monitoring and modeling is difficult in part because data are reported unevenly across spatial, temporal, and management scales and in part because the unit of measure generally involves destructive harvest or non-recurrent measurements. In order to improve our fundamental basis for understanding soil C exchange, a multi-user, open source, searchable database and network of scientists has been formed. The International Soil Carbon Network (ISCN) is a self-chartered, member-based and member-owned network of scientists dedicated to soil carbon science. Attributes of the ISCN include 1) Targeted ISCN Action Groups which represent teams of motivated researchers that propose and pursue specific soil C research questions with the aim of synthesizing seminal articles regarding soil C fate. 2) Datasets to date contributed by institutions and individuals to a comprehensive, searchable open-access database that currently includes over 70,000 geolocated profiles for which soil C and other soil properties. 3) Derivative products resulting from the database, including depth attenuation attributes for C concentration and storage; C storage maps; and model-based assessments of emission/sequestration for future climate scenarios. Several examples illustrate the power of such a database and its engagement with the science community. First, a simplified, data-constrained global ecosystem model estimated a global sensitivity of permafrost soil carbon to climate change (g sensitivity) of -14 to -19 Pg C °C-1 of warming on a 100 years time scale. Second, using mathematical characterizations of depth profiles for organic carbon storage, C at the soil surface reflects Net Primary Production (NPP) and its allotment as moss or litter, while e-folding depths are correlated to rooting depth. Third, storage of deep C is highly

  1. Carbon Multicharged Ion Generation from Laser Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2014-10-01

    Multicharged ions (MCI) have potential uses in different areas such as microelectronics and medical physics. Carbon MCI therapy for cancer treatment is considered due to its localized energy delivery to hard-to-reach tumors at a minimal damage to surrounding tissues. We use a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 40 ns pulse width operated at 1064 nm to ablate a graphite target in ultrahigh vacuum. A time-of-flight energy analyzer followed by a Faraday cup is used to characterize the carbon MCI extracted from the laser plasma. The MCI charge state and energy distribution are obtained. With increase in the laser fluence, the ion charge states and ion energy are increased. Carbon MCI up to C+6 are observed along with carbon clusters. When an acceleration voltage is applied between the carbon target and a grounded mesh, ion extraction is observed to increase with the applied voltage. National Science Foundation.

  2. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  3. A supercritical oxidation system for the determination of carbon isotope ratios in marine dissolved organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Clercq, Martijn; Van der Plicht, Johannes; Meijer, Harro A.J.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical oxidation system employing supercritical oxidation has been developed. It is designed to measure concentration and the natural carbon isotope ratios (C-13, C-14) Of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and is especially suited for marine samples. The oxidation takes place in a ceramic tube a

  4. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo;

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their su...

  5. Carbon turnover and sequestration potential of fodder radish cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2013-01-01

    We studied fodder radish carbon turnover as affected by soil tillage in Foulum, Denmark. Actively growing fodder radish monoliths from direct-drilled (DD) and conventionally tilled (CT) plots were extracted and labelled regularly with 14C isotope across their entire growth period. At the end......- to 45-cm-depth increments for determination of 14C distribution and retention. Carbon-14 declined significantly with increasing soil depth at each sampling for the two tillage practices (P

  6. Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, E.A.G.; McGuire, Anthony; Schädel, C.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Hayes, D.J.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Kuhry, P.; Lawrence, D.M.; Natali, Susan M.; Olefeldt, David; Romanovsky, V.E.; Schaefer, K.; Turetsky, M.R.; Treat, C.C.; Vonk, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.

  7. Classifying transcription factor targets and discovering relevant biological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeLisi Charles

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal in post-genomic research is discovering the network of interactions between transcription factors (TFs and the genes they regulate. We have previously reported the development of a supervised-learning approach to TF target identification, and used it to predict targets of 104 transcription factors in yeast. We now include a new sequence conservation measure, expand our predictions to include 59 new TFs, introduce a web-server, and implement an improved ranking method to reveal the biological features contributing to regulation. The classifiers combine 8 genomic datasets covering a broad range of measurements including sequence conservation, sequence overrepresentation, gene expression, and DNA structural properties. Principal Findings (1 Application of the method yields an amplification of information about yeast regulators. The ratio of total targets to previously known targets is greater than 2 for 11 TFs, with several having larger gains: Ash1(4, Ino2(2.6, Yaf1(2.4, and Yap6(2.4. (2 Many predicted targets for TFs match well with the known biology of their regulators. As a case study we discuss the regulator Swi6, presenting evidence that it may be important in the DNA damage response, and that the previously uncharacterized gene YMR279C plays a role in DNA damage response and perhaps in cell-cycle progression. (3 A procedure based on recursive-feature-elimination is able to uncover from the large initial data sets those features that best distinguish targets for any TF, providing clues relevant to its biology. An analysis of Swi6 suggests a possible role in lipid metabolism, and more specifically in metabolism of ceramide, a bioactive lipid currently being investigated for anti-cancer properties. (4 An analysis of global network properties highlights the transcriptional network hubs; the factors which control the most genes and the genes which are bound by the largest set of regulators. Cell-cycle and

  8. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included. (WHK)

  9. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  10. 碳酚醛-铝板中二维X射线热击波数值模拟%2-D numerical simulation of thermal shock wave induced by X-ray irradiation in carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic aluminum target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄霞; 汤文辉; 蒋邦海

    2011-01-01

    Using the plane-strain anisotropic rate-related elasto-plastic constitutive model and the ideal isotropic elasto-plastic constitutive model, the thermal shock wave propagation induced by X-ray irradiation in carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic-aluminum plate is simulated by finite element method.The results show that under the irradiation of X-ray of 1 keV, the penetration depth is small, the material surface is gasified, and the peak stress values are high; but under the irradiation of X-ray of 3keV, the penetration depth is much increased, the thermal shock wave takes a double-wave shape, and the delamination phenomenon is more significant.%文章利用平面应变正交各向异性材料率相关性的弹塑性本构模型和各向同性材料理想弹塑性本构模型,采用有限元方法编写程序,对X射线辐照碳酚醛-铝板时诱导的热击波进行数值模拟,讨论了热击波的传播规律.结果表明,在1 kev的X射线辐照下,X射线穿透极浅,材料表面发生气化现象,应力峰值较大;在3keV的X射线辐照下,X射线穿透较深,热击波呈现双波结构,材料的层裂更明显.

  11. Antiproton production target of the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The target rods were initially of tungsten, later of iridium. Diameters were around 3 mm and the lengths 60-110 mm. The rod is embedded in graphite, pressed into an aluminium body with cooling fins for forced air cooling. The 26 GeV proton beam from the PS was focused to the dimension of the rod. To aim precisely at its centre, the target was fitted with a scintillator screen, with circles at every 5 mm radius. Both scintillator and target had to stand pulses of 1.4E13 protons every 4.8 s, without interruption for many months.

  12. A Natural Light/Dark Cycle Regulation of Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolism and Gene Expression in Rice Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Liang, Zhijun; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Light and temperature are two particularly important environmental cues for plant survival. Carbon and nitrogen are two essential macronutrients required for plant growth and development, and cellular carbon and nitrogen metabolism must be tightly coordinated. In order to understand how the natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism in rice plants, we analyzed the photosynthesis, key carbon-nitrogen metabolites, and enzyme activities, and differentially expressed genes and miRNAs involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathway in rice shoots at the following times: 2:00, 6:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00. Our results indicated that more CO2 was fixed into carbohydrates by a high net photosynthetic rate, respiratory rate, and stomatal conductance in the daytime. Although high levels of the nitrate reductase activity, free ammonium and carbohydrates were exhibited in the daytime, the protein synthesis was not significantly facilitated by the light and temperature. In mRNA sequencing, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related differentially expressed genes were obtained, which could be divided into eight groups: photosynthesis, TCA cycle, sugar transport, sugar metabolism, nitrogen transport, nitrogen reduction, amino acid metabolism, and nitrogen regulation. Additionally, a total of 78,306 alternative splicing events have been identified, which primarily belong to alternative 5' donor sites, alternative 3' acceptor sites, intron retention, and exon skipping. In sRNA sequencing, four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs (osa-miR1440b, osa-miR2876-5p, osa-miR1877 and osa-miR5799) were determined to be regulated by natural light/dark cycle. The expression level analysis showed that the four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs negatively regulated their target genes. These results may provide a good strategy to study how natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism to ensure plant growth and

  13. Proximate analysis for determination of micropores in granulated activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Ya. G.; Nikolaev, V.B.; Shepelev, A.N.

    1987-02-01

    A method is discussed for determining the specific micropore volume of granulated activated carbon used for water treatment in Soviet coking plants. Toluene molecules with a diameter of 0.67 nm are sorbed by activated carbon with micropore diameter ranging from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Therefore, sorptive properties of activated carbon in relation to toluene supply information on micropore volume in carbon. A formula which describes this relation is derived. The method for determining micropore volume on the basis of toluene adsorption was tested using 8 types of activated carbon produced from coal and petroleum. Types of activated carbon characterized by the highest adsorption were selected. 1 ref.

  14. Progress on LMJ targets for ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfils-Clerouin, C; Boniface, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Masson-Laborde, P E; Monteil, M C; Poggi, F; Seytor, P; Wagon, F; Willien, J L, E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-12-15

    Targets designed to produce ignition on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) are being simulated in order to set specifications for target fabrication. The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 160 laser beams, delivering up to 1.4 MJ and 380 TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness have then been designed for this purpose. Working specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, has led to the design of a rugby-ball shaped cocktail hohlraum; with these improvements, a target based on the 240-beam A1040 capsule can be included in the 160-beam laser energy-power space. Robustness evaluations of these different targets shed light on critical points for ignition, which can trade off by tightening some specifications or by preliminary experimental and numerical tuning experiments.

  15. 14-3-3 proteins in plant-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Robatzek, Silke

    2015-05-01

    14-3-3 proteins define a eukaryotic-specific protein family with a general role in signal transduction. Primarily, 14-3-3 proteins act as phosphosensors, binding phosphorylated client proteins and modulating their functions. Since phosphorylation regulates a plethora of different physiological responses in plants, 14-3-3 proteins play roles in multiple signaling pathways, including those controlling metabolism, hormone signaling, cell division, and responses to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Increasing evidence supports a prominent role of 14-3-3 proteins in regulating plant immunity against pathogens at various levels. In this review, potential links between 14-3-3 function and the regulation of plant-pathogen interactions are discussed, with a special focus on the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in response to pathogen perception, interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and defense-related proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins as targets of pathogen effectors.

  16. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  17. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-propoxur (o-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate-/sup 14/C) insecticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossaini, M.A.; Zareh, Z. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

    1984-08-01

    /sup 14/C-propoxur (Baygonsub(circled R)) is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and a very low order of mammalian toxicity. Radiosynthesis of propoxur was performed by the reaction of acetyl-1-/sup 14/C chloride and sodium azide to produce methyl isocyanate which then reacted with o-isopropoxyphenol at 100 degC. A two-compartment reaction tube with a break seal was utilized. Chromatograhic procedures for isolating the N-methylcarbamates from their reaction mixtures are reported. Acetyl-1-/sup 14/C chloride was prepared from thionyl chloride and sodium acetate-1-/sup 14/C. Grignard reaction between methyl iodide and carbon-14 dioxide yielded acetic acid-/sup 14/C which was neutralized by sodium hydroxide solution to give sodium acetate-1-/sup 14/C. 9 refs.

  18. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    further newly identified drug-induced differential regulation of Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase, Endoplasmin, DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha and Calmodulin 1. The feedback regulation in these and other targets is likely to be relevant for the success or failure of the molecular intervention....

  19. Simulation of swift boron clusters traversing amorphous carbon foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    We use a simulation code to study the interaction of swift boron clusters ( Bn+ , n=2-6 , 14) with amorphous carbon foils. We analyze different aspects of this interaction, such as the evolution of the cluster structure inside the target, the energy and angle distributions at the detector or the stopping power ratio. Our simulation code follows in detail the motion of the cluster fragments through the target and in the vacuum until reaching a detector, taking into account the following interactions: (i) wake force, (ii) Coulomb repulsion among cluster fragments, (iii) stopping force, and (iv) elastic scattering with the target nuclei. Electron capture and loss by each fragment is also included in the code, affecting the above-mentioned interactions. The clusters size grows inside the foil due mainly to the Coulomb explosion but this increase is less pronounced in the plane transversal to the beam direction because of the alignment effect of the wake forces. We obtain an enhancement of the stopping power ratio that increases with the projectile energy and with the number of molecular constituents. Our results agree very well with the available experimental data for the thicker foils (≳10μg/cm2) and are compatible (within the experimental error bars) for the thinner foils.

  20. Abrasion resistant low friction and ultra-hard magnetron sputtered AlMgB14 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric AlMgB14 ceramic target. X-ray amorphous AlMgB14 films are very smooth. Their roughness does not exceed the roughness of Si wafer and Corning glass used as the substrates. Dispersion of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined within 300 to 2500 nm range for the film deposited onto Corning glass. Stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous 2 μm thick films on the Si(100) wafer possess the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young’s modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 GPa and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth. Friction coefficient was found to be 0.06. The coating scratch adhesion strength of 14 N was obtained as the first chipping of the coating whereas its spallation failure happened at 21 N. These critical loads and the work of adhesion, estimated as high as 18.4 J m-2, surpass characteristics of diamond like carbon films deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) substrates.

  1. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract outlines an economic model that integrates carbon externalities seamlessly into the national and international economies. The model incorporates a broad carbon metric used to value all carbon in the biosphere, as well as all transnational commerce. The model minimizes the cost associated with carbon management, and allows for the variation in carbon avidity between jurisdictions. When implemented over time, the model reduces the deadweight loss while minimizing social cost, thus maximizing the marginal social benefit commonly associated with Pigouvian taxes. Once implemented, the model provides a comprehensive economic construct for governments, industry and consumers to efficiently weigh the cost of carbon, and effectively participate in helping to reduce their direct and indirect use of carbon, while allowing individual jurisdictions to decide their own carbon value, without the need for explicit, express agreement of all countries. The model uses no credits, requires no caps, and matches climate changing behavior to costs. The steps to implement the model for a particular jurisdiction are: 1) Define the Carbon Metric to value changes in Carbon Quality. 2) Apply the Carbon Metric to assess the Carbon Toll a) for all changes in Carbon Quality and b) for imports and exports. This economic model has 3 clear advantages. 1) The carbon pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any special training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. 2) Given the spectrum of carbon affinities worldwide, the model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in

  2. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  3. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  4. Enhancing Target Normal Sheath Accelerated Ions with Micro-structured Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin; Snyder, Joseph; Ji, Liangliang; Rubin, Trevor; Handler, Abraham; Poole, Patrick; Willis, Christopher; Daskalova, Rebecca; Cochran, Ginevra; Schumacher, Douglass

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) of ions has been widely studied due to its fundamental importance, use as a probe, and for possible applications such as cancer therapy and neutron generation. Much of this work has been conducted on thin foils with peak ion energy and yield optimized using laser parameters such as energy and spot size. Micro-structured targets, however, have demonstrated increased peak ion energy and yield by controlling and enhancing mechanisms preferential to TNSA. Novel micro-structured targets were developed using optical lithography techniques on thin substrates at the OSU NanoSystem Laboratory. Variable structure height (0.5-2 micron) and transverse patterning (up to 1 micron resolution) permit the survey of a range of structured target variables in the study of ion acceleration. We describe the development of these targets and an experiment investigating the enhancement of TNSA ions from lithography produced micro-structured targets conducted at the Scarlet Laser Facility. Experimental results show increased proton and Carbon yield >2 MeV and higher peak Carbon energy from structured targets. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... targeted therapies are directed against HER-2, including trastuzumab (Herceptin®), which is approved to treat certain breast and ... traditional chemotherapy drugs. For example, the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin®) has been used in combination with docetaxel , ...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using flow through pump and other instruments from Explorer of the Seas (ID: 33KF) in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic ocean during the Ocean Acidification Cruise EX1507 from 2015-02-14 to 2015-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0154385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbon chemistry. Through the SOOP program we...

  7. Effect of clipping, benomyl, and genet on [sup 14]C transfer between mycorrhiz plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, J.R.; Borowicz, V.A. (Dept. of Biological Sciences, Ecology Group, Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States))

    1994-11-01

    We examined how simulated herbivore, fungicide, and genet affect the magnitude and direction of net carbon transfer between paired mycrrhizal Lotus corniculatus. One plant in each pair was labeled with [sup 14]C, and [sup 14]C levels in the unlabeled plant were quantified. Without fungicide, the roots of unlabeled plants received significantly more [sup 14]C when the labeled partner was clipped than when the unlabeled plant was clipped, indicating that net carbon flow was away from clipped plants and toward unclipped plants. Because the specific activity of donor roots was unaffected by simulated herbivore, fungicide, and genet, significant differences in net carbon flow were not affect carbon transfer between plants in trays treated with the fungicide benomyl, which probably reduced but did not eliminate VAM colonization. The three genets did not differ. The median [sup 14]C levels of unlabeled root samples were only 1.2% the [sup 14]C levels of labeled plants' roots and thus constituted a very small portion of their carbon budget. [sup 14]C levels in stems of unlabeled plants were never above background, suggesting that the fungal symbiont retained most of the transferred carbon. Although clipping can affect net carbon flow, we failed to detect significant differences in the amount of [sup 14]C leaking from the roots of clipped vs unclipped plants. This study suggests that grazed mycorrhizal plants are unlikely to gain significant amounts of carbohydrates from neighbors and may actually experience a net loss. (au).

  8. 14C Analysis of Protein Extracts from Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappucio, Jenny A.; Sarachine Falso, Miranda J.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F14C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F14C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F14C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F14C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their 14C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate 14C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, 14C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. PMID:24814329

  9. Measurement of the $b \\bar b$ Production Cross Section in 920 GeV Fixed-Target Proton-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, I; Adams, M; Albrecht, H; Amaral, V S; Amorim, A; Aplin, S J; Arefev, A; Arino, I; Atiya, M; Aushev, V; Bagaturia, Yu S; Baghshetsyan, R; Balagura, V; Bargiotti, M; Barsuk, S; Barsukova, O; Bassetti, V; Bastos, J; Bauer, C; Bauer, T S; Beck, M; Belkov, A; Belotelov, I; Belyaev, I; Berkhan, K; Bertin, A; Bobchenko, B M; Böcker, M; Bogatyrev, A; Böhm, G; Borgmeier, C; Brauer, M; Broemmelsiek, D R; Bruinsma, M; Bruschi, M; Buchholz, P; Buchler, M; Buran, T; Capéans-Garrido, M; Capponi, M; Carvalho, J; Chamanina, J; Chen, B X; Chistov, R; Chmeissani, M; Christensen, A; Conde, P; Cruse, C; Dam, M; Danielsen, K M; Danilov, M; De Castro, S; Deckers, H; Dehmelt, K; Deppe, H; Dolgoshein, B A; Dong, X; Dreis, H B; Dressel, M; Dujmic, D; Eckmann, R; Egorytchev, V; Ehret, K; Eiges, V; Eisele, F; Emeliyanov, D; Erhan, S; Essenov, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Faccioli, P; Fallot-Burghardt, W; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Flammer, J; Fleckenstein, H; Fominykh, B A; Fourletov, S; Fuljahn, T; Funcke, M; Galli, D; García, A; Garrido, L; Gascón, D; Gellrich, A; Gerndt, K E K; Giacobbe, B; Glass, J; Glebe, T; Goloubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Golutvin, I A; Gorbounov, I; Gorisek, A; Gouchtchine, O; Goulart, D C; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Guilitsky, Yu; Hamacher, T; Hansen, J D; Harr, R; Hast, C; Hausmann, S; Hernández, J M; Hildebrandt, M; Hölscher, A; Höpfner, K; Hofmann, W; Hohlmann, M; Hott, T; Hulsbergen, W D; Husemann, U; Igonkina, O; Ispiryan, M; Issever, S; Itterbeck, H; Ivarsson, J; Jagla, T; Jia, Y; Jiang, C; Kaoukher, A; Kapitza, H; Karabekyan, S; Karchin, P; Karpenko, N; Ke, Z; Keller, S; Khasanov, F M; Kim, H; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kisel, I; Klefenz, F; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetkov, V; Kolanoski, H; Korpar, S; Krauss, C; Kreuzer, P; Krizan, P; Krücker, D; Kvaratskheliia, T; Lange, A; Lanyov, A V; Lau, K; Leffers, G; Legrand, I; Lewendel, B; Liu Ya Qian; Lohse, T; Loke, R; Lomonosov, B N; Lüdemann, J; Männer, R; Mankel, R; Marconi, U; Masciocchi, S; Massa, I; Matchikhilian, I; Medin, G; Medinnis, M; Mevius, M; Michetti, A; Mikhailov, Yu; Miquel, R; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, A; Moshkin, A; Moshous, B; Muresan, R; Nam, S; Negodaev, M A; Negri, I; Nörenberg, M; Nowak, S; Núñez-Pardo de Vera, M T; Oest, T; Oliveira, A; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Padilla, C; Pakhlov, P; Pavlenko, Yu N; Peralta, D; Pernack, R; Perschke, T; Pestotnik, R; Petersen, B AA; Piccinini, M; Pleier, M A; Poli, M; Popov, V; Pose, A; Pose, D; Pugatch, V; Pylypchenko, Y; Pyrlik, J; Ramachandran, S; Ratnikov, F; Reeves, K; Ressing, D; Riechmann, K; Rieling, J; Rietz, M; Riu, I; Robmann, P; Rosen, J; Rothe, C; Rückstuhl, W; Rusinov, V Yu; Rybnikov, V; Ryzhikov, D; Saadi-Ludemann, F; Samtleben, D; Sánchez, F; Sang, M; Saveliev, V; Sbrizzi, A; Schaller, S; Schlein, P E; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, S; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schreiner, A; Schröder, H; Schultz, H D; Schwanke, U; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, A S; Schwenninger, B; Schwingenheuer, B; Schwitters, Roy F; Sciacca, F; Semenov, S; Semprini-Cesari, N; Sexauer, E; Seybold, L; Shiu, J; Shuvalov, S; Siccama, I; Skrk, D; Sozuer, L; Soldatov, A; Solunin, S; Somov, A; Somov, S; Souvorov, V; Spahn, M; Spengler, J; Spighi, R; Spiridonov, A A; Spratte, S; Stanovnik, A; Staric, M; Saint-Denis, R; Stegmann, C; Steinbeck, S; Steinkamp, O; Stieler, D; Straumann, U; Sun, F; Sun, H; Symalla, M; Takach, S F; Tesch, N; Thurn, H; Tikhomirov, I; Titov, M; Trunk, U; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Van Eldik, C; Van Staa, R; Vasilev, Yu; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Vukotic, I; Wagner, G; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Walenta, Albert H; Walter, M; Walter, T; Wang, J J; Wang, Y M; Wanke, R; Wegener, D; Werthenbach, U; Weyers, P J; Wolters, H; Wurth, R; Wurz, A; Xella, S M; Yang, J; Zaitsev, Yu; Zavertyaev, M V; Zech, G; Zeuner, T; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Z; Zhu, Z; Zimmermann, R; Zivko, T; Zoccoli, A; Zweizig, J

    2003-01-01

    Using the HERA-B detector, the b-bbar production cross section has been measured in 920 GeV proton collisions on carbon and titanium targets. The b-bbar production was tagged via inclusive bottom quark decays into J/psi, by exploiting the longitudinal separation of J/psi->ll decay vertices from the primary proton-nucleus interaction. Both $e^+e^-$ and $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ channels have been reconstructed and the combined analysis yields the cross section $\\sigma(b \\bar b) = 32 ^{+14}_{-12} (stat) ^{+6}_{-7} (sys) nb/nucleon$.

  10. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  11. The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey: IV. Helium and Carbon Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Trey V; Balser, Dana S; Anderson, L D

    2012-01-01

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average ionic He-4+/H+ abundance ratio by number, , is 0.068 +/- 0.023 (1-sigma). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y+ upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y+ less than 0.04 and another ...

  12. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Application of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes is an essential tool to study C and N flows in plant-soil-microorganisms systems. When targeting single plants in a community the tracers need to be added via e.g., leaf-labeling or stem-feeding approaches. In this study we: (i) investigated...... parts with high and low 14C activity were separated and analyzed for 15N enrichment. Results Bicarbonate applied by leaf-labeling efficiently introduced 14C into both white clover and ryegrass, although the 14C activity in particular for white clover was found predominantly in the labeled leaf. Using 14...... that 15N also had a heterogeneous distribution (up to two orders of magnitude). Conclusion Bicarbonate can efficiently be used to introduce 14C or 13C into plant via the leaf-labeling method. Both 14C and 15N showed heterogeneous distribution in the plant, although the distribution of 15N was more even...

  13. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Salter, Michael A; Harborne, Alastair R; Crowley, Stephen F; Jelks, Howard L; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-03-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO(3)) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ∼6.1 × 10(6) kg CaCO(3)/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the fish to total carbonate mud production average ∼14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  14. Eikonal phase shift analyses of carbon-carbon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    1983-01-01

    A high-energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series is used in determining eikonal phase shifts for carbon-carbon scattering at 204.2, 242.7, and 288.6 MeV. The double-folding potentials are derived by folding the energy-dependent free nucleon-nucleon interaction with densities for the projectile and target; these latter are obtained by unfolding the finite nucleon charge density from harmonic-well carbon charge distributions. The charge parameters for these distributions are taken from the results of electron scattering experiments. Predictions are made for total, reaction, and elastic differential cross sections using standard partial wave analysis for the scattering of identical particles and are then compared with recent experimental results. Excellent agreement is obtained despite the absence of arbitrarily adjusted parameters in the theory.

  15. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C. (Inventor); Eklund, Peter C. (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Shinn, Michelle (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  16. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C; Eklund, Peter C; Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C; Shinn, Michelle

    2012-11-27

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  17. Climate Constraints on the Carbon Intensity of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Narloch, U.

    2015-12-01

    Development and climate goals together constrain the carbon intensity of production. Using a simple and transparent model that represents committed CO2 emissions (i.e. those embedded in installed capital), we explore the carbon intensity of production related to new capital required for different temperature targets across several thousand scenarios. Future pathways consistent with the 2oC target which allow for continued GDP growth require early action to reduce carbon intensity of new production, and either (i) a short lifetime of energy and industry capital (e.g. early retrofit of coal power plants), or (ii) large negative emissions after 2050 (i.e. rapid development and dissemination of carbon capture and sequestration). To achieve the 2oC target, half of the scenarios indicate a carbon intensity of new production between 33 and 73 g CO2/ - much lower than the carbon intensities of the best performing countries today. The average lifespan of energy capital (especially power plants), and industry capital, are critical because they commit emissions far into the future and reduce the budget for new capital emissions. Each year of lifetime added to existing, carbon intensive capital, decreases the carbon intensity of new production required to meet a 2°C carbon budget by 1 to 1.5 g CO2/, and each year of delaying the start of mitigation decreases the required CO2 intensity of new production by 20 to 50 gCO2/$. Constraints on the carbon intensity of new production under a 3°C target are considerably relaxed relative to the 2°C target, but remain daunting in comparison to the carbon intensity of the global economy today. Figure Caption: The relationship between GDP per capita growth, lifetime of energy and industry capital and the required carbon intensity of new production 2013-2050 under a 2°C target.

  18. Computational design of high efficiency release targets for use at ISOL facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat-removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated-vitreous-carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies that simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived from diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected t...

  19. Preparation of hollow spherical carbon nanocages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.-K.; Kang, H. Y.; Hong, C.-I; Huang, C.-H.; Chang, F.-C.; Wang, H. Paul, E-mail: wanghp@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    This study presents a new and simple method for the synthesis of hollow carbon spheres possessing nanocage sizes of 7.1, 14, and 20 nm in diameter. The core-shell (i.e., Cu-C) nanoparticles prepared by carbonization of the Cu{sup 2+}-cyclodextrin (CD) complexes at 573 K for 2 h was etched with HCl (6N) to yield the hollow carbon spheres. The carbon-shell of the hollow carbon nanospheres, which consisted of mainly diamond-like and graphite carbons, is not perturbed during etching. In addition to the nanocages, the hollow carbon nanospheres also possess micropores with an opening of 0.45 nm, allowing small molecules to diffuse in and out through the carbon-shell. Many elements (such as Zn{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+}) can therefore be filled into the nanocages of the hollow carbon nanospheres. With these unique properties, for instance, designable active species such as Cu and ZnO encapsulated in the carbon-shell can act as Cu-ZnO-C yolk-shell nanoreactors which are found very effective in the catalytic decomposition of methanol.

  20. Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0221 TITLE: Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kala...AND SUBTITLE: Targeting the Meval onate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0221 5b. GRANT NUMBER...cost. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: cancer mortality, cholesterol-lowering drugs, disease progression, epithelial ovarian cancer , lovastatin, Mevalonate Pathway

  1. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  2. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  3. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  4. The impact of the Permafrost Carbon Feedback on Global Carbon Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Zhang, T.; Bruhwiler, L.; Barrett, A. P.; Li, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Global treaties to reduce fossil fuel emissions should include an allocation for permafrost carbon emissions or we will overshoot our target CO2 concentration and end up with a warmer climate than planned. Arctic permafrost currently contains 1466 Gt of carbon frozen since the last ice age, roughly double the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. We estimate 190±64 Gt of this carbon will thaw out, decay, and end up in the atmosphere by 2200, potentially increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 87±29 ppm. International negotiations of a treaty to limit fossil fuel emissions are focused on an overall global warming target of 2 °C above per-industrial temperaters, placing an overall limit on total global carbon emissions. The contribution of the permafrost carbon feedback to overall global warming is proportional to total carbon emissions from permafrost. If the treaty does not include an allocation for permafrost carbon emissions, we will overshoot our target climate of 2 C above pre-industrial temperatures. We discuss the scientific basis for our conclusions and the implications for negotiations of a global climate treaty.

  5. The development of fast tantalum foil targets for short-lived isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.R.J. E-mail: roger.bennett@rl.ac.uk; Bergmann, U.C.; Drumm, P.V.; Ravn, H

    2003-05-01

    The most recent developments of fast tantalum foil targets for short-lived isotopes are described and the performance of the targets at ISOLDE with beams of {sup 11}Li, {sup 12}Be and {sup 14}Be is given.

  6. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Philippe; Clinton, Eric; McWilliams, R.; Lawrence, Dave; Miskimen, Rory; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Asaturyan, Arshak; Baker, O.; Benton, LaRay; Bernstein, Aron; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Dale, Daniel; Danagoulian, Samuel; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, Raphael; Deur, Alexandre; DOLGOLENKO, A.; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Evdokimov, Anatoly; Feng, JIng; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Gasparian, Ashot; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hardy, K.; Ito, Mark; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kingsberry, Paul; Kolarkar, Ameya; Konchatnyi, Mykhailo; Korchin, O.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kowalski, Stanley; Kubantsev, Mikhail; Kubarovsky, Valery; LARIN, Ilya; MATVEEV, V.; McNulty, Dustin; Milbrath, Brian; Minehart, Ralph; Mochalov, Vasiliy; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Nakagawa, Itaru; Overby, Steven; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Payen, Marvin; Pedroni, Ronald; Prok, Yelena; Ritchie, Barry; Salgado, Carlos; Sitnikov, Anatoly; Sober, Daniel; Stephens, W.; Teymurazyan, Aram; Underwood, Jarreas; VASILIEV, A.; VEREBRYUSOV, V.; Vishnyakov, Vladimir; Wood, Michael

    2009-12-01

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  7. Solid-phase reversible trap for [11C]carbon dioxide using carbon molecular sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, B H; Vavrek, M T; Mulholland, G K

    1995-07-01

    A simple, maintenance-free trapping technique which concentrates and purifies no-carrier-added 11CO2 from gas targets is described. The trap requires no liquid nitrogen cooling and has no moving parts besides solenoid valves. It employs carbon molecular sieves to adsorb 11CO2 selectively from gas targets at room temperature. Nitrogen, O2, CO, NO and moisture in the target gas which could interfere with subsequent radiochemical steps are not retained. Trapping efficiency of 1 g of sieve for 11CO2 from a 240 cm3 target gas dump and helium flush cycle is > 99%, and the adsorbed 11CO2 is recovered quantitatively as a small concentrated bolus from the carbon sieve trap by thermal desorption. This durable trap has performed reliably for more than 1 y with a single charge of carbon sieve. It has simplified the production, and improved the yields of several 11C-radiochemicals at this laboratory.

  8. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  9. The Enhancement of Composite Scarf Joint Interface Strength Through Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    13 Figure 6. Complete Sheet (Prior to Vacuum Curing ) ..........13 Figure 7. Complete Sheet (Following Vacuum Curing ) .........14 Figure 8...Figure 6. Complete Sheet (Prior to Vacuum Curing ) 14 Figure 7. Complete Sheet (Following Vacuum Curing ) B. CARBON NANOTUBE

  10. 磁控溅射Al靶功率对类金刚石薄膜结构和摩擦学性能的影响%Effect of Al Target Power of Magnetron Sputtering on the Structure and Tribological Properties of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周升国; 王立平; 薛群基

    2011-01-01

    本文采用中频磁控溅射金属Al靶,以CH4为反应气体,通过调整Al靶溅射功率,在p(100)单晶硅片和不锈钢基底上成功制备出不同Al含量的Al/a-C∶H纳米复合薄膜.并利用HR-TEM、XPS、纳米压痕仪和摩擦磨损试验机等手段分析和研究了Al/a-C∶H薄膜的结构、机械及摩擦学性能.结果表明:金属Al以纳米晶颗粒形式镶嵌在非晶碳网络中,使得所制备Al/a-C∶H薄膜呈现出典型的纳米晶/非晶复合结构;同时,Al掺杂促进了薄膜中sp2杂化碳形成,且有效地释放残余内应力.Al靶溅射功率为800W时所制备的Al/a-C∶H薄膜具有结构致密、内应力低、硬度高的特性;在大气环境中,该薄膜与Si3N4陶瓷球干摩擦时显示出优越的摩擦学性能,其摩擦系数约为0.055,磨损率约为2.9×10-16m3/(N·m).%Aluminum/amorphous hydrogenated carbon (Al/a-C: H) nanocomposite thin films were deposited on silicon p( 100) wafer and stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering of aluminum in an argon and methane atmosphere with different Al target power. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of composite films were systemically investigated by HR - TEM, XPS, nano - indenter and tribo - tester. The results showed that the Al nanocrystallites could be easily formed in the amorphous carbon matrix, the sp2 hybrid carbon was increased as the Al was embedded into the films, and Al - doping could relax the internal stress whilst keeping high hardness of as - deposited films. The film containing 4.7 % Al prepared by target power of 800 W exhibited a high hardness about 16.5 Cpa, a low internal stress about 0.62 Gpa, a low friction coefficient about 0.055 and a low wear rate about 2.9 × 10-16 m3/(N ? M) in the ambient atmosphere.

  11. VAM programme 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngman, Michael [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Since 1988, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has supported a Valid Analytical Measurement (VAM) initiative. VAM programming 14 is concerned with sampling and measurement of aerosols and particulates in the gas phase. The programme of work is summarised here. (author).

  12. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  13. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio

    2010-06-15

    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  14. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  15. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  16. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  17. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  18. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  19. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  20. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  1. ISOL Targets Prepared with a New Paint Infiltration Coating Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Kiggans, J O; Stracener, Dan

    2005-01-01

    A new infiltration paint coating method has been developed for fabricating ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam applications. The technique has been shown to be inexpensive, fast, and almost universal for the uniform deposition of many refractory target materials onto the interior surfaces of complex geometry matrices, such as Reticulated-Vitreous-Carbon-Foam (RVCF). The process yields robust, highly permeable targets with fast diffusion and release properties. We demonstrate the viability of the technique for coating forms of RVCF compressed by factors of 6 and 10 with materials to form targets for use at high energy facilities such as RIA. The use of compressed RVCF, coated with an optimum thickness of target material, reduces target lengths to practical values, while preserving high permeability. We calculate thermal conductivities and diffusion for various targets on 6xRVCF and 10xRVCF.

  2. Beryllium ignition target design for indirect drive NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Marinak, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Beryllium (Be) ablator offers multiple advantages over carbon based ablators for indirectly driven NIF ICF ignition targets. These are higher mass ablation rate, ablation pressure and ablation velocity, lower capsule albedo, and higher thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. Such advantages can be used to improve the target robustness and performance. While previous NIF Be target designs exist, they were obtained a long time ago and do not incorporate the latest improved physical understanding and models based upon NIF experiments. Herein, we propose a new NIF Be ignition target design at 1.45 MJ, 430 TW that takes all this knowledge into account.

  3. Applications of 14C-AMS in biomedical sciences (Bio-14C-AMS)