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Sample records for carbon 11

  1. Digital Carbon Monoxide Detector /11/

    OpenAIRE

    Grognia, M. T.; Hecq, A.; Dauchot, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The switch off concentration phenomena in carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum and the parallel steep variation of resistance or surface potential of thin platinum films are used to develop a carbon detector. Coating the platinum film with an increasing thickness of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) makes this switch off point move to increasing CO concentrations. Therefore a series of electrical elements, platinum thin film resistances, platinum M.O.S. diodes or platinum gate M.O.S. transistors...

  2. Studies to label Alfentanil with carbon-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, A.L. (Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie I)

    1992-09-01

    Methodology applicable to the synthesis of no-carrier-added (O-methyl-{sup 11}C)alfentanil was developed. The sequence consisted of ({sup 11}C)methylation and propionylation of N-aryl-4-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(N-anilino)-piperidines 1a and 1c, followed by the chemoselective hydrolysis of bulk byproducts to facilitate isolation of the NCA carbon-11-labeled product by prep-HPLC. All three steps could be performed without isolation of intermediates in a single reaction vessel. (author).

  3. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful synthetic approach to carbon-11 labelled 1,4-dihydropyridines is described. Carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists 11C-Nifedipine, 11C-Nisoldipine, 11C-nitrendipine and 11C-CF3-Nifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch method using protected carboxy functions. Deprotection of the carboxylic acids by alkaline hydrolysis followed by conversion into the corresponding potassium salts and subsequent methylation with 11CH3I produced the labelled compounds in very good chemical and radiochemical yields (94%). (author)

  4. GHGT-11 - Integrated Carbon Risk Assessment (ICARAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Busby, D.; Wessel-Berg, D.; Nepveu, M.; Bossie Codreanu, D.; Grimstad, A-A.; Sijacic, D.; Maurand, N.; Lothe, A.; Wahl, F.; Polak, S.; Boot, H.; Grøver, A.; Wildenborg, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an integrated workflow is described for risk assessment within CCS. IFPEN, SINTEF and TNO joined forces to define a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment methodology. The tools developed in these institutes are thereby integrated. The workflow can be applied to proposed carbon

  5. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [11C]physostigmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [11C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [11C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [11C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [11C]CH3COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [11C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [11C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25oC, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [11C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [11C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author)

  6. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [[sup 11]C]physostigmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnot-Lours, S.; Crouzel, C.; Prenant, C.; Hinnen, F. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1993-01-01

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [[sup 11]C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [[sup 11]C]CH[sub 3]COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25[sup o]C, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [[sup 11]C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author).

  7. Radiation dose estimates for carbon-11-labelled PET tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Carbon-11-labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers commonly used in biomedical research expose subjects to ionising radiation. Dosimetry is the measurement of radiation dose, but also commonly refers to the estimation of health risk associated with ionising radiation. This review describes radiation dosimetry of carbon-11-labelled molecules in the context of current PET research and the most widely used regulatory guidelines. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search returned 42 articles; 32 of these were based on human PET data dealing with radiation dosimetry of carbon-11 molecules. Radiation burden expressed as effective dose and maximum absorbed organ dose was compared between tracers. Results: All but one of the carbon-11-labelled PET tracers have an effective dose under 9 μSv/MBq, with a mean of 5.9 μSv/MBq. Data show that serial PET scans in a single subject are feasible for the majority of radiotracers. Conclusion: Although differing in approach, the two most widely used regulatory frameworks (those in the USA and the EU) do not differ substantially with regard to the maximum allowable injected activity per PET study. The predictive validity of animal dosimetry models is critically discussed in relation to human dosimetry. Finally, empirical PET data are related to human dose estimates based on homogenous distribution, generic models and maximum cumulated activities. Despite the contribution of these models to general risk estimation, human dosimetry studies are recommended where continued use of a new PET tracer is foreseen.

  8. Imaging for carbon translocation to a fruit of tomato with carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon kinetics in the fruit is an agricultural issue on the growth and development of the fruit to be harvested. Particularly, photo-assimilate translocation and distribution are important topics for understanding the mechanism. In the present work, carbon-11 (11C) labeled photo-assimilate translocation into fruits of tomato has been imaged using carbon-11-labeled carbon dioxide and the positron emission tomography (PET). Dynamic PET data of gradual increasing of 11C activity and its distribution is acquired quantitatively in intact plant body. This indicates that the three dimensional photo-assimilate translocation into the fruits is imaged successfully and carbon kinetics is analyzed to understand the plant physiology and nutrition. (authors)

  9. Ethanolic Carbon-11 Chemistry: the Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinica...

  10. Synthesis of colchicine and isocolchicine labelled with carbon-11 or carbon-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, P.J.; Finn, R.D.; Larson, S.M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The syntheses of isotopically labelled (-)-10-[{sup 11}C/{sup 13}C]-colchicine and (-)-9-[{sup 11}C/{sup 13}C]-isocolchicine have been achieved from the reaction of (-)desmethylcolchicine with [{sup 11}C/{sup 13}C]-iodomethane. The radiolabelled compounds, (-)-10-[{sup 11}C]-colchicine ({sup 11}C-n-colchicine) and (-)-9-[{sup 11}C]-isocolchicine ({sup 11}C-i-colchicine), were isolated by reversed phase HPLC. The total synthesis time was approximately 60 minutes for both radiolabelled compounds with an average specific activity of 240 mCi/{mu}mol calculated to EOB. Utilizing a similar synthetic strategy, we also reported the synthesis of milligram quantities of the carbon-13 enriched compounds and the magnetic resonance signal assignment for (-)-9-[{sup 13}C] isocolchicine. (Author).

  11. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: The introduction of green radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. - Highlights: • We report application of the principles of green chemistry to a radiochemistry setting. • Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent. • Green radiochemistry simplifies production and QC in busy clinical production laboratories. • Residual solvent analysis can be relegated to a quarterly or annual QC test

  12. Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion by 11-aminoundecanoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ghareba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports results on the investigation of the possibility of using 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AA as an inhibitor of general corrosion of carbon steel (CS in HCl under a range of experimental conditions: inhibitor concentration, exposure time, electrolyte temperature and pH and CS surface roughness. It was found that AA acts as a mixed-type inhibitor, yielding maximum inhibition efficiency of 97 %. The adsorption of AA onto the CS surface was described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The corresponding apparent Gibbs free energy of AA adsorption on CS at 295 K was calculated to be −30.2 kJ mol–1. The adsorption process was found to be driven by a positive change in entropy of the system. PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the adsorbed AA layer is amorphous, which can be attributed to the repulsion between the neighboring positively charged amine groups and a high heterogeneity of the CS surface. It was also found that the AA provides very good corrosion protection of CS of various surface roughness, and over a prolonged time.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of carbon-11 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzymatic synthesis of [11C] N-acetyl-D-glucosamine is described. 11CO2 is reacted with methylmagnesium bromide to form [1-11C]acetate. The latter is converted to [11C]acetylcoenzyme A by passage over an enzyme reactor containing immobilized acetylcoenzyme A synthetase, and to the title compound after purification. (author)

  14. Carbon-11-labeled daunorubicin and verapamil for probing P-glycoprotein in tumors with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, PH; Franssen, EJF; Hendrikse, NH; Fluks, L; Weemaes, AMA; vanderGraaf, WTA; deVries, GE; Visser, GM; Vaalburg, W

    1996-01-01

    One of the mechanisms for multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumors is an overexpression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The cytostatic agent daunorubicin and the modulator verapamil were labeled with C-11 to probe P-gp with PET. Methods: Carbon-11-daunorubicin was prepared from (CCH2N2)-C-11 with an aldeh

  15. Fixation, retention and exhalation of carrier-free 11C-labelled carbon monoxide by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free 11C-labelled carbon monoxide was produced by proton irradiation of a nitrogen gas flow target via the 14N(p,α)11C process followed by on-line reduction of the predominantly formed 11C-carbon dioxide with a yield of 0.4 mCi/μAmin. After appropriate quality control about 2 mCi of carrier-free 11C-carbon monoxide in 500 ml of nitrogen gas were inhaled by test subjects in one breath. The 11C-activity distribution was then followed in vivo by scanning above thorax, head, liver, thigh and os sacrum; simultaneously the 11C-activity of the blood was also followed by batch measurement. The data indicate that part of the 11C-activity migrates from the blood into the intercellular space, while another part is exhaled. The 11C-activity leaves the individual organs with a biological half-life ranging from about 120 to 200 min, a time which is short as compared to the one observed for 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes. A radio gas chromatographic analysis of the exhaled air showed that the 11C-activity leaves the body exclusively in the form of 11C-labelled carbon monoxide. Consequently, metabolism of the 11CO into 11Co2 or other compounds can be excluded. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled (R)-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A route to 11C-labelled (R)-carnitine, based on the methylation of the dimethyl derivative is described. Furthermore, a five-step synthesis for the enantiomerically pure precursor is outlined. (author)

  17. Groningen experience in production and application of fluorine-18 and carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the preparation of these tracers (fluorine-18 and carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals), as well as the present stage of development and evaluation, and the potential application in oncology will be discussed. (author)

  18. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-[11C]dimethyltryptamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. [11C]DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of [11C]DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of [11C]DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors. (orig.)

  19. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-(/sup 11/C)dimethyltryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Ido, Tatsuo; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Iwata, Ren; Hatazawa, Jun; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1986-07-01

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. (/sup 11/C)DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of (/sup 11/C)DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of (/sup 11/C)DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors.

  20. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-[11C]dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, K; Ido, T; Ishiwata, K; Hatazawa, J; Takahashi, T; Iwata, R; Matsuzawa, T

    1986-01-01

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. [11C]DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of [11C]DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of [11C]DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors. PMID:3489620

  1. Carbon-11 labelled analogs of alanine by the Strecker synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenant, C.; Theobald, A.; Siegel, T.; Joachim, J.; Weber, K.; Haberkorn, U.; Oberdorfer, F. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Derivatives of alanine, {alpha}-[2-sup(11)C]aminoisobutyric acid 1a and {alpha}-(N-methyl)-[2-{sup 11} C]aminoisobutyric acid 1b were prepared for the in-vivo study of amino acid transport phenomena by positron-emission-tomography (PET). Compounds 1a and 1b were obtained by a Zelinski-Stadnikoff variant of the Strecker {alpha}-amino acid synthesis from in-situ formed [{sup 11} C]acetone in presence of sodium cyanide and either ammonium sulfate (for 1a) or methylamine hydrochloride (for 1b). The complete preparation required 50 min from the end of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production, and delivered 1.2 - 2 GBq of labelled product for application (2.4 -4%); not corrected for decay; related to trapped [{sup C}]CO{sub 2}. The specific activity of the labelled products was 16 to 20 GBq{center_dot}{mu}mol{sup -1}. The radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations was greater than 98%. (Author).

  2. 11C标记Tamoxifen的制备%PREPARATION OF CARBON-11 LABELLED TAMOXIFEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; Shi.,O.Y

    2000-01-01

    报道了N-去甲基-Tamoxifen (N-Demethyltamoxifen)和11C标记Tamoxifen (11C-Tamoxifen)的制备及高效液相色谱(HPLC)分离分析方法.先将Tamoxifen柠檬酸盐(Tamoxifen Citrate)转换成无盐Tamoxifen(Tamoxifen free base),然后与1-氯乙基-氯甲酸酯(ACE.Cl)反应生成N-去甲基-Tamoxifen.N-去甲基-Tamoxifen与11CH3I在130℃下反应10min,即生成11C- Tamoxifen.标记物用μBonapak TM C18柱HPLC进行分离纯化后,制成11C-Tamoxifen注射液.从停止核反应开始,整个标记及分离纯化过程需时50~60min,标记率可达60%.

  3. Synthesis of n. c. a. PET-radiotracers with carbon-11. Zur Synthese traegerarme PET-Radiotracer mit Kohlenstoff-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirbel, A.

    1998-11-01

    Carbon-11 offers the unique possibility of authentic labelling of molecules as radioindicators for non invasive and quantitative determination of physiological functions via positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to synthesize of different n.c.a. [sup 11]C-labelled pharmaceuticals for in vivo distribution studies with PET. For the determination of the pharmacokinetics of [1-[sup 11]C]acetate in porcine myocardium during prolonged ischemia, n.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetate was synthesized via carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide with in target produced n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 68 [+-] 7%. The fast (18 min) and reliable radiosynthesis allowed for repeated tracer administration at short intervals (<20 min). In order to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin[sup R]c) in humans, [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid, acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid and [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid were prepared. N.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized via the reaction of [1-[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with salicylic acid salts. The use of the silver salt proved to be superior to the sodium salt and resulted in radiochemical yields of 32 [+-] 5%. Base-line (clean) separation of the labelled product was achieved using radio-HPLC. With regard to the preparation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid, several protected and unprotected phenol derivates were metallated and subsequently carboxylated using n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2]. Best results (87 [+-] 3% RCY) could be achieved with 2-(methoxymethoxy)-phenylmagnesium iodide as a precursor and subsequent quantitative cleavage of the MOM-group. Acetylation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid to acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid was performed using acetylchloride in CH[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield of 65 [+-] 4%. (orig.)

  4. Syntheses of carbon-11 labeled piperidine esters as potential in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of carbon-11 labeled N-methylpiperidinyl esters were prepared as potential in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Target compounds were designed based on the structure of N-[11C]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate, an ester currently used to measure AChE enzymatic activity in the human brain, to examine the structure-activity relationship for in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis. Changes in steric bulk and in the ester order ('reverse' esters) were made. Addition of methyl groups was made to both the acid side chain (synthesis of N-[11C]methylmethylpiperidin-4-yl isobutyrate) and to the piperidine ring (syntheses of N-[11C]methyl-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate, N-[11C]methyl-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate, and N-[11C]methyl-3-methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate). Alterations of the order of the ester heteroatoms was accomplished through syntheses of the N-[11C]methyl-2,3- and 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid ethyl esters. Finally, an additional piperidine-based ester (N-[11C]methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl propionate was also prepared. All carbon-11-labeled esters were prepared by N-[11C]methylation reactions, using the desmethyl precursors and no-carrier-added [11C]methyltriflate, and were obtained in decay-corrected yields (not optimized) of 10-40% and high specific activities

  5. Carbon-11 acetate PET in recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is not widely used for imaging of prostate cancer because of poor sensitivity. Thus, we evaluated C-11 acetate (AC-PET) in patients with PSA-recurrence and compared the findings to those of FDG-PET. Materials and Methods: We studied 46 patients with recurrent prostate cancer manifested by a detectable or rising PSA level following definitive treatment by prostatectomy or radiation therapy. After administration of 30 mCi (1110 MBq) C-11 acetate, PET images beginning in the pelvis and moving to the abdomen and chest were obtained over 35 min with an EXACT HR+ tomograph. After a suitable interval for radioactive decay, a Foley catheter was placed, 15 mCi (555 MBq) F-18 FDG was administered followed by furosemide injection, and images of the same regions were obtained 40 - 90 min later. The studies were then interpreted independently by 2 observers with correlation to biopsy, CT and bone scintigraphy when available. Results: The PSA level at the time of imaging ranged from 0.3 to 47.5 ng/mL (mean 5.2 ng/mL). Twenty-nine (63%) of patients had positive findings by AC-PET while only 8 (17%) were positive by FDG-PET. Disease confirmed by an abnormal prostate fossa biopsy, lymph nodes on CT or abnormal bone scintigraphy was present in 14 (30%) of patients imaged by AC-PET but only 4 (9%) of FDG-PET studies. No patient was positive by FDG-PET finding who was not also abnormal by AC-PET. Among the 22 patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL, 13 (59%) had abnormal AC-PET while only 1 of 24 (4%) with PSA less than or equal to 3 ng/mL were AC-PET positive. Conclusions: AC-PET is abnormal much more frequently than FDG-PET in patients with PSA recurrence, with most of the positive studies in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. Thus, AC-PET holds promise in imaging patients with recurrent prostate cancer

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive properties of nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Fei; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaohua, E-mail: mickyxie@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Jinhua, E-mail: chenjinhua@hnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were prepared from ZIF-11. • The activated N-PCMPs with fused KOH (N-PCMPs-A) have high specific surface area. • N-PCMPs-A exhibits high specific capacitance. • N-PCMPs-A reveals good cycling performance even at a high current density. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were successfully prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-11 polyhedra and further activated with fused KOH to obtain N-PCMPs-A. The morphology and microstructure of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micropore and chemisorption analyzer. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge method in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution on a standard three-electrode system. Results show that, compared with N-PCMPs, N-PCMPs-A has higher specific surface area (2188 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and exhibits improved electrochemical capacitive properties (307 F g{sup −1} at 1.0 A g{sup −1}). The mass specific capacitance of N-PCMPs-A is also higher than that of most MOF-derived carbons, some carbide-derived carbons and carbon aerogel-derived carbons. In addition, the capacitance of the N-PCMPs-A retains 90% after 4000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g{sup −1}. These imply that N-PCMPs-A is the promising materials for the construction of a high-performance supercapacitor.

  7. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive properties of nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were prepared from ZIF-11. • The activated N-PCMPs with fused KOH (N-PCMPs-A) have high specific surface area. • N-PCMPs-A exhibits high specific capacitance. • N-PCMPs-A reveals good cycling performance even at a high current density. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were successfully prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-11 polyhedra and further activated with fused KOH to obtain N-PCMPs-A. The morphology and microstructure of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micropore and chemisorption analyzer. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge method in 1.0 M H2SO4 aqueous solution on a standard three-electrode system. Results show that, compared with N-PCMPs, N-PCMPs-A has higher specific surface area (2188 m2 g−1) and exhibits improved electrochemical capacitive properties (307 F g−1 at 1.0 A g−1). The mass specific capacitance of N-PCMPs-A is also higher than that of most MOF-derived carbons, some carbide-derived carbons and carbon aerogel-derived carbons. In addition, the capacitance of the N-PCMPs-A retains 90% after 4000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g−1. These imply that N-PCMPs-A is the promising materials for the construction of a high-performance supercapacitor

  8. Carbon 11-MPTP: a potential tracer for Parkinson's disease research in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [11C]-1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine ([11C]MPTP), a compound producing parkinson-like symptoms in several species, has been synthesized and purified in sufficient activity to obtain tomographic images in the monkey. Biodistribution data has also been obtained in rats. Carbon-11-labeled MPTP could be used as a probe to study the pharmacokinetics of the compound under various research conditions in animals. Because of its neurotoxicity, the compound is not intended for use in humans

  9. A quartz-lined carbon-11 target: striving for increased yield and specific activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, Jacek; Larsen, Peter; Gillings, Nic

    2010-01-01

    The increased demand for high specific radioactivity neuroreceptor ligands for positron emission tomography (PET) requires the production of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 in high yields. We have attempted to address this issue with the development of a new quartz-lined aluminium target fo...

  10. Synthesis of n.c.a. PET-radiotracers with carbon-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11 offers the unique possibility of authentic labelling of molecules as radioindicators for non invasive and quantitative determination of physiological functions via positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to synthesize of different n.c.a. 11C-labelled pharmaceuticals for in vivo distribution studies with PET. For the determination of the pharmacokinetics of [1-11C]acetate in porcine myocardium during prolonged ischemia, n.c.a. [1-11C]acetate was synthesized via carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide with in target produced n.c.a. [11C]CO2 with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 68 ± 7%. The fast (18 min) and reliable radiosynthesis allowed for repeated tracer administration at short intervals (Rc) in humans, [1-11C]acetylsalicylic acid, acetyl-[carboxy-11C]salicylic acid and [carboxy-11C]salicylic acid were prepared. N.c.a. [1-11C]acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized via the reaction of [1-11C]acetylchloride with salicylic acid salts. The use of the silver salt proved to be superior to the sodium salt and resulted in radiochemical yields of 32 ± 5%. Base-line (clean) separation of the labelled product was achieved using radio-HPLC. With regard to the preparation of n.c.a. [carboxy-11C]salicylic acid, several protected and unprotected phenol derivates were metallated and subsequently carboxylated using n.c.a. [11C]CO2. Best results (87 ± 3% RCY) could be achieved with 2-(methoxymethoxy)-phenylmagnesium iodide as a precursor and subsequent quantitative cleavage of the MOM-group. Acetylation of n.c.a. [carboxy-11C]salicylic acid to acetyl-[carboxy-11C]salicylic acid was performed using acetylchloride in CH2Cl2 with a radiochemical yield of 65 ± 4%. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  12. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of 11C, 18F and 13N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume

  13. Measurement of regional pulmonary function with carbon-11-labeled CO2 and CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide labelled with carbon-11 have been produced in the remotecontrolled system for a large scale production of short lived radioactive substance with cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The single breath measurement with 11CO2 and 11CO, using inhalation system and a coincidence positron camera combined with an on-line computer system (TOSBAC 3400 Model 31) has been employed to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity in three normal volunteers and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), old lung tuberculosis and benign tumor. Regional clearance rate constant (lambda) and distribution index (lambda i/lambda t) were calculated from monoexponential removal curves measured by external counting over the chest in supine position. This process was performed in a short period of breath-holding (10 - 20 sec.) after a single breath of these radioactive gases mixed with room air. These parameters were calculated for each lung fields divided into four zones (bilateral upper and lower lung region). In our method, the activity of the inspired mixture were 5 - 35 mCi/L and each value in lung fields, divided into four zones, can be measured with time interval for one second. While the clearance rate of 11CO2 seemed to be mainly limited by pulmonary blood flow, it was considered that the rate of 11CO were limited by not only the diffusing capacity but also the perfusion in each lung fields. In normal subjects, the distribution of regional clearance rate was showed approximately even for 11CO2 and 11CO. It was caused of the measurement in supine position. In contrast, the distribution of these parameter was showed uneven in patients with lung disease, particularly with COPD. (author)

  14. Carbon-11-labelling of a novel, trishomocubane-derived, high affinity and selectivity DAT ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder and drug abuse are related to abnormalities within the brain's dopaminergic system. The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in regulating the synaptic concentration of dopamine and thus dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Since the DAT can be considered as a marker of the integrity and number of the presynaptic striatal dopamine-producing neurons, considerable efforts have been spent in recent years on the design and development of DAT-selective radioligands for use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. Notably, the tropane PE2I and its fluorinated analogue LBT-999 were identified as having high affinity and selectivity for the DAT over the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the serotonin transporter (SERT). Besides tropanes, only a few bicyclic frameworks, e.g. bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes, have delivered compounds with high affinity for the DAT. Recently, novel poly-carbocyclic DAT ligands with selectivity over the NET and the SERT were reported. The lead compound of this series (1, N-methyl-N-(3-fluoro) benzyl-pentacyclo[5.4.0.02,6.03,10.05,9] undec-8-ylamine, Ki = 1.2 nM, ≥ 8300-fold selectivity over NET and SERT) was selected as a potential candidate for imaging the DAT with PET and isotopically labelled with carbon-11 using [11C]methyl triflate. Methods: The trishomocubane derivatives 1 (reference) and 2 (precursor for labelling with carbon-11) were prepared from commercially available Cookson's diketone in 6 and 7 steps, respectively. Carbon-11 labelling of 1 was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprises (1) trapping at -10 C of [11C]MeOTf in acetone (0.4 mL) containing the nor-derivative 2 (0.6-0.9 mg, free base) and aq. 3N NaOH (8 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) concentration to dryness and taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification using semi

  15. Experience with carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential of carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of lymph node and bone metastases in prostate cancer. A total of 23 patients were studied (known metastases: 8; suspicion of metastases: 3; primary staging: 12). Whole-body PET imaging was performed 5 min after injection of the tracer and completed within 1 h. Focally increased tracer uptake in bone or abdominal lymph node regions was interpreted as representing tumour involvement. All known bone and lymph node metastases could be recognized by [11C]choline PET. One out of ten negative scans for primary staging was false-negative (lymph node 11C]choline PET is a promising new tool for the primary staging of prostate cancer, with lymph node and bone metastases demonstrating high tracer uptake. Therapeutic management could be influenced by these results in that the technique may permit avoidance of surgical lymph node exploration. (orig.)

  16. Some examples of the use of carbon 11-labelled molecules in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a radioelement is to be useful for medical diagnosis it must: be an indicator of a normal or pathological biological process; have a half-life consistent with the duration of the biological phenomenon to be observed; emit a suitable radiation. Carbon 11 is one of the radionuclides which best satisfies these different requirements. It is shown how this radioelement, of 20-minute half-life, may be incorporated into psychotropic drugs and biologically useful molecules with enough speed to have an available radioactivity adequate for diagnostic examinations. Two examples are described, one concerning the metabolism of a neuroleptic, chlorpromazine-11C, the other the passage of methionine-11C through the blood brain barrier during a congenital disease, phenylketonuria

  17. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled dexetimide and levetimide for studying muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization and quantitation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m-AChR) in the living human brain using a non-invasive method, such as positron emission tomography (PET), may provide valuable information about receptor changes which have been observed post mortem in patients with Huntington's chorea and Alzheimer's dementia, as well as normal brain mechanisms mediated by the m-AChR. Although quinuclidinyl benzilate has been radioiodinated and radiomethylatd, the former is not useful with PET and the latter does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier; therefore, the authors chose to radiolabel dexetimide, a ligand which labels m-AChR in vitro and in vivo, and levetimide, its inactive enantiomer. Carbon-11 labeled carbon dioxide is bubbled through a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of phenylmagnesium chloride (1 M, l ml) after which 2 mg of lithium aluminium hydride is added in THF (500 μl). After evaporation of the solvent, 48% hydriodic acid (l ml) is added and the solution is heated for 1 minute. Carbon-11 labeled benzyl iodide is extracted into methylene chloride, added to a solution of nor-benzyl dexetimide or levetimide, and heated for several minutes. Purification is accomplished using semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analytical HPLC is used to determine the radiochemical purity and specific activity

  18. Reduced myocardial carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine retention is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system are known to be of prognostic significance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cardiac autonomic innervation in CHF has not been explored previously. We retrospectively studied the survival data of 46 NYHA class II-III CHF patients (mean LVEF 35%±8%) who had undergone carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine (11C-HED) studies at the Turku PET Centre between August 1992 and March 1996. The origin of CHF was dilated cardiomyopathy in 13 of the 46 patients and coronary artery disease with at least one prior myocardial infarction in the remaining 33. Data on causes of death and heart transplantation were collected, and the statistically significant predictors of prognosis were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. During the mean follow-up period of 55±19 months, 11 deaths occurred and two patients underwent heart transplantation successfully. Eleven end-points were classified as cardiac (nine sudden cardiac deaths and two deaths due to progressive heart failure) and two as non-cardiac. When divided into two groups based on the median of 11C-HED retention (mean 0.184±0.061, median 0.183), eight end-points (death or cardiac transplantation) were reached in the group with 11C-HED retention below the median and three in the group with 11C-HED retention above the median (P2), left ventricular end-diastolic volume and HED retention were found to be statistically significant. It is concluded that 11C-HED PET provides independent prognostic information in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  19. Reduced myocardial carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine retention is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, M.; Ukkonen, H. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Malminiemi, K. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital (Finland); Saraste, M. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Naagren, K.; Lehikoinen, P. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Voipio-Pulkki, L.-M. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system are known to be of prognostic significance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cardiac autonomic innervation in CHF has not been explored previously. We retrospectively studied the survival data of 46 NYHA class II-III CHF patients (mean LVEF 35%{+-}8%) who had undergone carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine ({sup 11}C-HED) studies at the Turku PET Centre between August 1992 and March 1996. The origin of CHF was dilated cardiomyopathy in 13 of the 46 patients and coronary artery disease with at least one prior myocardial infarction in the remaining 33. Data on causes of death and heart transplantation were collected, and the statistically significant predictors of prognosis were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. During the mean follow-up period of 55{+-}19 months, 11 deaths occurred and two patients underwent heart transplantation successfully. Eleven end-points were classified as cardiac (nine sudden cardiac deaths and two deaths due to progressive heart failure) and two as non-cardiac. When divided into two groups based on the median of {sup 11}C-HED retention (mean 0.184{+-}0.061, median 0.183), eight end-points (death or cardiac transplantation) were reached in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention below the median and three in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention above the median (P<0.02). In proportional hazards regression analysis, only peak oxygen uptake (peak VO{sub 2}), left ventricular end-diastolic volume and HED retention were found to be statistically significant. It is concluded that {sup 11}C-HED PET provides independent prognostic information in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  20. Tracers development for the PET study of nicotinic receptors: [11C]-mecamylamine and [11C]-SIB 1553A. Tritium and carbon-11 radiolabelling of a serine proteinase inhibitor: the t-PAstop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop radiotracers for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we labelled both the mecamylamine and SIB-1553A with carbon-11 to study the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). The radiosynthesis of [11C]-t-PAstop and the labelling with tritium of one analogue were realized for cerebral ischemia PET studies. The [11C]-mecamylamine, a non-competitive and non-selective nAChRs antagonist was synthesized in 45 min via a N-[11C]-methylation reaction. In the rat brain, the ex vivo studies showed no radio-metabolite 45 min after the injection of [11C]-mecamylamine. The uptake kinetics in the rat brain or in vivo by PET in the anesthetized baboon or in the conscious monkey, reached a plateau around 45-50 min after injection. However, the saturation or displacement experiments did not permit to exhibit nor a significant difference of labelling between the different cerebral regions nor a specific uptake. In consequence, the [11C]-mecamylamine was not an appropriate radioligand for nAChRs PET study. The labelling of [11C]-SIB 1553A, a selective agonist for the nicotinic β4 subunit, required the synthesis in 5 steps (56% overall yield) of precursor for the incorporation of carbon-11. The radiosynthesis was performed in 36 min by a N-[11C]-methylation reaction (yield: 75%). The [11C]-t-PAstop was obtained from [11C]-KCN with yields from 80 to 90%. For the first time with carbon-11, the formation of an amidine group was realized from a nitrile group. The labelling by isotopic exchange of hydrogen by tritium of the t-PAstop did not permit to obtain the [3H]-t-PAstop but a tritiated analogue. This compound will be used to study its vectorization by micro-encapsulation. (author)

  1. Synthesis and positron emission tomography studies of carbon-11-labeled imatinib (Gleevec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Kun-Eek [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Ding Yushin [Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); Lin Kuoshyan [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Alexoff, David [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States)]. E-mail: fowler@bnl.gov

    2007-02-15

    Introduction: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is a well known drug for treating chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Its active ingredient, imatinib ([4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-N-[4-methyl-3-[[4-(3-pyridyl) -2-pyrimidinyl]amino]phenyl]benzamide), blocks the activity of several tyrosine kinases. Here we labeled imatinib with carbon-11 as a tool for determining the drug distribution and pharmacokinetics of imatinib, and we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) studies in baboons. Methods: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib was synthesized from [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide and norimatinib was synthesized by the demethylation of imatinib (isolated from Gleevec tablets) according to a patent procedure [Collins JM, Klecker RW Jr, Anderson LW. Imaging of drug accumulation as a guide to antitumor therapy. US Patent 20030198594A1, 2003]. Norimatinib was also synthesized from the corresponding amine and acid. PET studies were carried out in three baboons to measure pharmacokinetics in the brain and peripheral organs and to determine the effect of a therapeutic dose of imatinib. Log D and plasma protein binding were also measured. Results: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib uptake in the brain is negligible (consistent with P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux); it peaks and clears rapidly from the heart, lungs and spleen. Peak uptake and clearance occur more slowly in the liver and kidneys, followed by accumulation in the gallbladder and urinary bladder. Pretreatment with imatinib did not change uptake in the heart, lungs, kidneys and spleen, and increased uptake in the liver and gallbladder. Conclusions: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib has potential for assessing the regional distribution and kinetics of imatinib in the human body to determine whether the drug targets tumors and to identify other organs to which the drug or its labeled metabolites distribute. Paired with tracers such as 2'deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and 3&apos

  2. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length11C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of11C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation

  3. Studies and proposed changes to the RHIC p-Carbon polarimeters for the upcoming RUN-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makdisi, Y.; Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Morozov, B.; Svirida, D.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized proton complex utilizes polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow beams that measure the beam polarization through the p-Carbon elastic scattering process in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference kinematic region. This along with a Polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that utilizes the proton-proton elastic scattering process to first measure the analyzing power of the reaction and using the reverse process to measure the beam polarization. The latter is used to calibrate the p-Carbon polarimeters at the desired beam energy. In Run 9 RHIC ran with beams at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 500 GeV respectively. The higher beam intensities as well as the fact that the 250 GeV beam size is much smaller than that at 100 GeV resulted in significantly higher rates seen by the polarimeters and led to observed instability. In this paper, we will discuss the problems encountered and the tests that were carried out using the AGS as a proxy in an attempt to solve the problems and the path forward we took towards the upcoming polarized proton Run11.

  4. Studies and proposed changes to the RHIC p-Carbon polarimeters for the upcoming RUN-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC polarized proton complex utilizes polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow beams that measure the beam polarization through the p-Carbon elastic scattering process in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference kinematic region. This along with a Polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that utilizes the proton-proton elastic scattering process to first measure the analyzing power of the reaction and using the reverse process to measure the beam polarization. The latter is used to calibrate the p-Carbon polarimeters at the desired beam energy. In Run 9 RHIC ran with beams at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 500 GeV respectively. The higher beam intensities as well as the fact that the 250 GeV beam size is much smaller than that at 100 GeV resulted in significantly higher rates seen by the polarimeters and led to observed instability. In this paper, we will discuss the problems encountered and the tests that were carried out using the AGS as a proxy in an attempt to solve the problems and the path forward we took towards the upcoming polarized proton Run11.

  5. Biodistribution of a positron-emitting suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase, carbon-11 pargyline, in mice and a rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11 (11C) pargyline, which is a suicide inactivator of Type B monoamine oxidase (MAO), was synthesized by the reaction of N-demethylpargyline with 11CH3l. Biodistribution was investigated in mice, and positron tomographic images of the heart and lung in a rabbit were obtained. The distribution of 11C after administration of [11C]pargyline was measured in several organs and blood at various time intervals. After 30 min its concentrations in the organs were constant. Subcellular distribution studies in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney showed that 59-70% of the 11C became acid-insoluble and 9-33% was present in the crude mitochondrial fraction at 60 min after injection. The uptakes of the 11C in each organ except for the kidney and spleen seemed to correlate with the in vitro enzymatic activity of Type B MAO. At high loading dose a nonspecific uptake was observed

  6. Propionyl-l-carnitine: Labelling in the N-methyl position with Carbon-11 and pharmacokinetic studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Raymond J.; Law, Marilyn P.; Pike, Victor W.; Osman, Safiye; Poole, Keith G

    1995-08-01

    The prospective therapeutic, propionyl-l-carnitine, was labelled in the N-methyl position with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t{sub (1(2))} = 20.4 min), with a view to studying its pharmacokinetics in humans using PET. Labelling was achieved by methylating nor-propionyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride with no-carrier-added [{sup 11}C]iodomethane (produced from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide) in ethanol in the presence of 1,2,2,6,6,-pentamethylpiperidine. HPLC of the reaction mixture on a strong cation exchange column provided high purity [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl-l-carnitine in 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected from [{sup 11}C]iodomethane), ready for intravenous administration within 35 min from the end of radionuclide production. [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]Propionyl-l-carnitine, given intravenously to rats, cleared rapidly from plasma. A slow uptake of radioactivity into myocardium and striated muscle was observed. In plasma, unchanged tracer represented 84% of the radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.5% of the radioactivity at 60 min. In heart, unchanged tracer represented 18% of radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.4% at 15 min. The remainder of radioactivity detected in plasma and heart was identified as [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]l-carnitine and [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]acetyl-l-carnitine.

  7. Propionyl-l-carnitine: Labelling in the N-methyl position with Carbon-11 and pharmacokinetic studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospective therapeutic, propionyl-l-carnitine, was labelled in the N-methyl position with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t(1(2)) = 20.4 min), with a view to studying its pharmacokinetics in humans using PET. Labelling was achieved by methylating nor-propionyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride with no-carrier-added [11C]iodomethane (produced from cyclotron-produced [11C]carbon dioxide) in ethanol in the presence of 1,2,2,6,6,-pentamethylpiperidine. HPLC of the reaction mixture on a strong cation exchange column provided high purity [N-methyl-11C]propionyl-l-carnitine in 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected from [11C]iodomethane), ready for intravenous administration within 35 min from the end of radionuclide production. [N-methyl-11C]Propionyl-l-carnitine, given intravenously to rats, cleared rapidly from plasma. A slow uptake of radioactivity into myocardium and striated muscle was observed. In plasma, unchanged tracer represented 84% of the radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.5% of the radioactivity at 60 min. In heart, unchanged tracer represented 18% of radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.4% at 15 min. The remainder of radioactivity detected in plasma and heart was identified as [N-methyl-11C]l-carnitine and [N-methyl-11C]acetyl-l-carnitine

  8. Comparative studies of potential cancer biomarkers carbon-11 labeled MMP inhibitors (S)-2-(4'-[11C]methoxybiphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-methylbutyric acid and N-hydroxy-(R)-2-[[(4'-[11C]methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]benzylamino]-3 -methylbutanamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (S)-2-(4'-[11C]methoxybiphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-methylbutyric acid ([11C]MSMA) and N-hydroxy-(R)-2-[[(4'-[11C]methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]benzylamino]-3- methylbutanamide ([11C]CGS 25966), carbon-11 labeled matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors, have been synthesized for evaluation as new potential positron emission tomography (PET) cancer biomarkers. [11C]MSMA was prepared by appropriate precursory droxybiphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-methylbutyric acid tert-butyl ester, which was synthesized in eight steps from amino acid (L)-valine in 39.4% chemical yield. This precursor was labeled by [11C]methyl triflate through O-[11C]methylation method at the hydroxyl position of biphenol under basic conditions, followed by a quick acid hydrolysis and isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification to produce pure target compound [11C]MSMA in 35-55% radiochemical yield, based on 11CO2, decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), and 20-25 min synthesis time. [11C]CGS 25966 was prepared in our previous work starting from amino acid (D)-valine. The biodistribution of [11C]MSMA and [11C]CGS 25966 were determined at 45 min post iv injection in breast cancer animal models MCF-7's transfected with IL-1α implanted athymic mice and MDA-MB-435 implanted athymic mice. The results showed the uptakes of [11C]MSMA and [11C]CGS 25966 in these tumors were 0.95 and 0.42%dose/g in MCF-7's transfected with IL-1α implanted mice, 0.98 and 1.53%dose/g in MDA-MB-435 implanted mice, respectively; the ratios of tumor/muscle (T/M) and tumor/blood (T/B) were 1.21 and 1.09 (T/M, MCF-7's), 0.99 and 0.84 (T/B, MCF-7's), 1.38 and 1.27 (T/M, MDA-MB-435), 1.27 and 1.95 (T/B, MDA-MB-435), respectively. The micro-PET images of [11C]MSMA and [11C]CGS 25966 in both breast cancer athymic mice were acquired for 15 min from a MCF-7's transfected with IL-1α and/or MDA-MB-435 implanted mouse at 45 min post iv injection of 1 mCi of the tracer using a dedicated high resolution (11C]MSMA and [11C]CGS 25966

  9. Synthesis of suicide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase: carbon-11 labeled clorgyline, L-deprenyl and D-deprenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suicide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A and B, clorgyline and L-deprenyl have been labeled with carbon-11 by [11C]methylation of the norbases with [11C]H3I. The less active enantiomer of deprenyl (D-deprenyl) was also labeled using this procedure. The synthesis time was 35 minutes, the radiochemical yield was 25-40% and the specific activity was 0.8-2.0 Ci/μmol (calculated to EOB). Procedures for synthesis of the precursor norbases as well as the synthesis of unlabeled clorgyline, L-deprenyl and D-deprenyl are given. (author)

  10. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S;

    2011-01-01

    Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acute...

  11. Chiral dimethylamine flutamide derivatives-modeling, synthesis, androgen receptor affinities and carbon-11 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most prostate cancers are androgen dependent upon initial diagnosis. On the other hand, some very aggressive forms of prostate cancer were shown to have lost the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Although the AR is routinely targeted in endocrine treatment, the clinical outcome remains suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the presence and activity of the AR in each case of prostate cancer, before and after treatment. While noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to determine AR expression of tumor cells in vivo, fully optimized PET imaging agents are not yet available. Based on molecular modeling, three novel derivatives of hydroxyflutamide (Compounds 1-3) were designed and synthesized. They contain an electron-rich group (dimethylamine) located on the methyl moiety, which may confer a better stability to the molecule in vivo. Compounds 1-3 have AR binding that is similar or higher than that of the currently used commercial drugs. An automated carbon-11 radiolabeling route was developed, and the compounds were successfully labeled with a 10-15% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 4Ci/μmol end of bombardment (n=15). These labeled biomarkers may facilitate the future quantitative molecular imaging of AR-positive prostate cancer using PET and may also allow for image-guided treatment of prostate cancer

  12. Radiation protection problems in a laboratory for the labelling of molecules with carbon-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that the qualities of carbon-11, especially its short half-life, which suit it so well for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals prove to be a great handicap in the preparation of these substances. The operator has to make a fresh preparation for each examination and start with strong radioactivities (200 to 500 mCi) in order to obtain an adequate injected activity at the end of the process, the absorbed dose averaging 1.5 man-rem per manipulation at the fingertips. The development of an automatic preparation method involving as little manual interference as possible has halved the collective dose for twice the dose handled. The labelling of molecules used for diagnosis is now considered to take place under satisfactory radioprotection conditions. The fingertip irradiations are analysed in the light of CIPR recommendations, while regretting that in publication 26 this problem of partial external irradiation of the skin is not dealt with as clearly and precisely as before

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled tracers for in vivo visualization of PDE10A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In vivo visualization of PDE10A using PET provides a tool to evaluate the role of PDE10A in various neuropsychiatric diseases and can also be useful in the clinical evaluation of PDE10A inhibitor drug candidates. We evaluated several carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled PDE10A inhibitors as potential PDE10A PET radioligands. Materials and Methods: [11C]MP10, [11C]JNJ42071965 and four other tracers were developed. Their biodistribution was evaluated in rats. Rat plasma and brain radiometabolites were quantified. Baseline microPET imaging was performed in normal rats and PDE10A knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Blocking and displacement studies were conducted. The selectivity of the tracer binding was further studied in an ex vivo autoradiography experiment in PDE10A KO and WT mice. Results: Biodistribution showed brain uptake for all tracers in the striatum and wash-out from the cerebellum. [11C]1 (11C-MP10) had the highest specific uptake index (striatum (S) vs. cerebellum (C) ratios (S/C)-1) at 60 min (7.4). [11C]5 ([11C]JNJ42071965) had a high index at the early time points (1.0 and 3.7 at 2 and 30 min p.i., respectively). The affinity of [11C]4, [18 F]3 and [18 F]6 was too low to visualize PDE10A using microPET. [11C] 2 showed a specific binding, while kinetics of [11C]1 were too slow. [11C]5 reached equilibrium after 10 min (uptake index = 1.2). Blocking and displacement experiments in rats and baseline imaging in PDE10A KO mice showed specific and reversible binding of [11C]5 to PDE10A. Conclusions: We successfully radiolabeled and evaluated six radiotracers for their potential to visualize PDE10A in vivo. While [11C]1 had the highest striatal specific uptake index, its slow kinetics likely compromise clinical use of this tracer. [11C]5 has a relatively high striatum-to-background ratio and fast kinetic profile, which makes it a valuable carbon-11 alternative

  14. In vivo evaluation of carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-based glycine transporter 1 inhibitors in mice and conscious monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is an attractive target in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of three carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-type GlyT-1 inhibitors - [11C]SA1, [11C]SA2 and [11C]SA3 - as novel PET tracers for GlyT-1. Methods: The regional brain distributions of the three compounds in mice were studied at baseline and under receptor-blockade conditions with co-injection of carrier loading or pretreatment with an excess of selective GlyT-1 inhibitors (ALX-5407 and SSR504734). Metabolic stability was investigated by radio high-performance liquid chromatography. Dynamic PET scans in conscious monkeys were performed with/without selective GlyT-1 inhibitors. Results: The IC50 values of SA1, SA2 and SA3 were 9.0, 6400 and 39.7 nM, respectively. The regional brain uptakes of [11C]SA1 and [11C]SA3 in mice were heterogeneous and consistent with the known distribution of GlyT-1. [11C]SA2 showed low and homogeneous uptake in the brain. Most radioactivity in the brain was detected in unchanged form, although peripherally these compounds were degraded. Carrier loading decreased the uptake of [11C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. However, similar reductions were not observed with [11C]SA3. Pretreatment with ALX-5407 decreased the uptake of [11C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. In the monkey at baseline, regional brain uptake of [11C]SA1 was heterogeneous and consistent with the known GlyT-1 distribution. Pretreatment with selective GlyT-1 inhibitors significantly decreased the distribution volume ratio of [11C] SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. Conclusions: [11C]SA1 has the most suitable profile among the three carbon-11-labelled GlyT-1 inhibitors. Lead optimization of [11C]SA1 structure will be required to achieve in vivo selective GlyT-1 imaging.

  15. Development of new and improved labelling procedures for introducing isotopic hydrogen and carbon-11 into organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and improved methods for introducing radioisotopic hydrogen (tritium) and carbon (positron-emitting short-lived carbon-11, t1/2 = 20.4 min) into organic molecules for application in biological research have been explored. In Chapter 1 the applications of radioactive isotopes in biological and clinical research is surveyed, with particular emphasis on the value of β-emitting tritium and positron-emitting carbon-11. In Chapter 2 we report the use of the non-radioactive hydrogen isotope, deuterium, as a surrogate for tritium in the development of microwave-enhanced labelling procedures, based on catalytic hydrogen transfer to olefins (e.g. styrene, styrene derivatives, cinnamic acid and its derivatives). Hydrogen or deuterium donors (e.g. formate salts) were used alone or in combination with other sources (e.g. D2O). The method was found to give fully hydrogenated products using very short microwave irradiation times (∼ 2 min) and was highly reproducible. Importantly, the method is environmentally clean, as when extended to tritiated formates little or no radioactive waste is produced. In Chapter 3 we explored the labelling of CGP 62349 {3-[1-(R)-[3-(4-methoxybenzyl)phosphinyl-2-(S)-hydroxy-propyl- amino]ethyl]benzoic acid}, a γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor antagonist, with carbon-11 in order to provide a prospective radioligand for medical imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Labelling agents, [11C]iodomethane and [11C]methyl triflate, prepared by improved methods, were used in the rapid methylation of desmethyl-CGP 62349. Substantially higher radiochemical yields (78%) of [11C]CGP 62349 were achieved by the new methods compared to that produced in a previously published procedure (9%). In addition, the use of [11C]methyl triflate rather than [11C]iodomethane has the advantage of giving a high radiochemical yield and a lower amount of carrier. In Chapter 4 we report on the use of [11C]carbon monoxide as a labelling agent. This has

  16. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. - Highlights: • Measurement of cyanide mass contribution from different component of automated [11C]HCN production system. • Determination of specific activity of [11C]HCN by micro ion selective electrode

  17. Synthesis and carbon-11 labeling of (R)- and (S)-thionisoxetine, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, potential radioligands for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards and des-methyl precursors of (R)- and (S)-thionisoxetine, potent and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, were synthesized and radiolabeled with carbon-11. Both enantiomers of the N-methyl-3-(2-thiomethylphenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine and the 3-(2-thiomethylphenoxy)-3-phenylpropylamine were obtained via multi-step syntheses, while the radiosyntheses were carried out using [11C]CH3I. The radiochemical yields were 26%, decay corrected and the specific radioactivity ranging from 2 to 3 Ci/μmol. The HPLC analyses were performed using a chiral column: during the radiolabeling, no racemization occurred and the isomers were synthesized with high enantiomeric purity

  18. Rotational Spectrum and Structure of the 1,1-Difluoroethylene···Carbon Dioxide Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ashley M; Peebles, Rebecca A; Peebles, Sean A

    2016-01-21

    Rotational spectra for five isotopologues of the 1:1 weak complex between 1,1-difluoroethylene (H2C═CF2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been measured using 480 MHz bandwidth chirped-pulse and resonant cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy between 5.5 and 18.5 GHz. The observed structure of the complex is planar, with the CO2 aligned roughly parallel to the C═C bond, and experimental structural parameters derived from rotational constants are consistent with the most stable geometry predicted by basis set superposition error and zero point energy corrected ab initio geometry optimizations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level. Comparisons with the recently characterized vinyl fluoride···carbon dioxide complex reveal slightly longer intermolecular distances in the present complex, but very similar binding energies. PMID:26745797

  19. Brady-tachycardia syndrome after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Assessment by computed tomography and carbon-11 methionine positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 74-year-old male who had received radiotherapy (total 54 Gy) for right lung cancer 7 months earlier developed a symptomatic brady-tachycardia syndrome requiring the implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Chest CT showed a pulmonary tumor of 2-cm diameter in the right lower lobe with direct extension into the surrounding tissue, suggesting the possibility of cardiac invasion. Carbon-11 methionine positron emission tomography (PET) indicated the absence of visible invasion of the heart with lung cancer. The brady-tachycardia syndrome, therefore, was considered to be associated with sinus node injury due to radiation. Carbon-11 methionine PET metabolic imaging might play an important role in evaluating noninvasively the cause of the arrhythmia in this patient. (author)

  20. Development of rapid multistep carbon-11 radiosynthesis of the myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 to assess brain exposure by PET microdosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 has been selected as a candidate drug currently being developed to delay progression in patients with neurodegenerative brain disorders. Part of the decision tree for translation of AZD3241 into clinical studies included the need for assessment of brain exposure in non-human primates by PET microdosing. For that purpose a rapid multistep method for 11C-labeling of AZD3241 was developed. Methods: AZD3241 was labeled in the thio-carbonyl position starting from [11C]potassium cyanide in a 4-step procedure using microwave assisted heating. In the first step [11C]potassium cyanide was converted to [11C]potassium thiocyanate followed by reaction with benzoyl chloride to yield benzoyl [11C]isothiocyanate. The benzoyl [11C]isothiocyanate was subsequently reacted with the precursor ethyl 3-(2-isopropoxyethylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and the formed intermediate underwent a base catalyzed cyclization to obtain [11C]AZD3241 in the final step. To assess [11C]AZD3241 brain exposure PET measurements were performed in three cynomolgus monkeys. Results: [11C]AZD3241 was produced in good and reproducible radiochemical yield 710 ± 294 MBq (mean ± SD, n = 7). Total time of synthesis was 60 min from end of bombardment. The specific radioactivity was 9 ± 4 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity was > 98%. Following iv administration of [11C]AZD3241 there was a rapid presence of radioactivity in brain in each of the three monkeys. The distribution of [11C]AZD3241 to brain was fast and a Cmax of 1.9 to 2.6% of the injected radioactivity was observed within 1.5 min. [11C]AZD3241 was homogeneously distributed in brain. Conclusion: The MPO inhibitor AZD3241 was successfully labeled with carbon-11 in a challenging 4-step procedure in good radiochemical yield allowing PET microdosing studies in cynomolgus monkey. [11C]AZD3241 rapidly entered brain and confirmed adequate brain exposure to support translation of AZD3241 to phase 2a

  1. Rapid synthesis and purification of carbon-11 labelled DOPA: a potential agent for brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method for preparation and purification of β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-D,L-α-alanine-1-11C(11C-DOPA), using 11CO2 as the radioactive precursor is described. Carboxylation of an α-lithioisocyanide, containing protected hydroxylic groups, was followed by a three-step hydrolysis of the intermediate αioscyano carboxylic acid. Preliminary experiments in rats indicate that the compound is preferentially decarboxylated in brain areas rich in dopamine containing neurons. (author)

  2. Stable isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Jiang, Wenjuan; Chen, Shanli; Sun, Deling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Rui, Maoling

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotopic compositions (δ13C) of elemental carbon (EC) in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing region were determined in order to quantitatively evaluate the carbon sources of atmospheric fine particles during different seasons. Besides, δ13C values from potential sources such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and dust were synchronously measured. The results showed that the average δ13C values of EC in PM1.1 in winter and summer were - 23.89 ± 1.6‰ and - 24.76 ± 0.9‰, respectively. Comparing with δ13C values from potential sources, we concluded that the main sources of EC in PM1.1 were from the emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust. The higher δ13C values in winter than those in summer were chiefly attributed to the more coal consumption. Combining with the concentrations of SO42 - and K+ in PM1.1, the high δ13C values of EC on 24 December and 27 December 2013 were ascribed to extra input of corn straw burning in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust.

  3. Carbon-11 and radioiodinated derivatives of lysergic acid diethylamide: Ligands for the study of serotonin S2 receptors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-[1251]-LSD binds selectively and with high affinity to serotonin S2 receptors in vitro. In the present study, the authors prepared 2-[1231]-LSD as well as a carbon-11 labeled analog. They also characterized the in vivo binding of these tracers to receptor sites in mouse brain to assess their potential for tomographic imaging of S2 receptors in man. The temporal distribution of 2-[1251]-LSD paralleled the density of S2 receptors. Regional selectivity was maximal after 15 minutes when tissue to cerebellum ratios were: frontal cortex (2.6), olfactory tubercles (2.4), striatum (2.3), and cortex (2.0). Preinjection of ketanserin, a potent S2 antagonist, inhibited binding. 2-[1231]-LSD, prepared in 20% yield from LSD and electrophilic I-123, gave similar results in vivo and may be useful for SPECT studies. The authors then synthesized N1-([11C]-Me)-2-Br-LSD (11C-MBL) from [11C]-methyl iodide and 2-Br-LSD for PET imaging trials. 11C-MBL was isolated by HPLC in high chemical and radiochemical purity within 30 minutes from E.O.B. The average radiochemical yield was 20% and the specific activity was determined by U.V. spectroscopy to be up to 1300Ci/mMol (E.O.S.). 11C-MBL showed greater regional selectivity in vivo in mouse brain than 2-[1251]-LSD. After 30 minutes, peak tissue to cerebellum ratios were: frontal cortex (5.4), olfactory tubercles (4.2), striatum (3.0), and cortex (2.8). Preinjection of ketanserin markedly inhibited 11C-MBL binding. 11C-MBL is a promising candidate for PET studies of S2 receptors

  4. Carbon-11-labeled amino acids for the rectilinear and positron tomographic imaging of the human pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification of the Buecherer-Strecker amino acid synthesis facilitated the production of DL-[11C]tryptophan and DL-[11C]valine for clinical trials in patients with proven or suspected pancreatic disease. Examples of rectilinear scans and tomographic images of the pancreas are presented in this initial paper. Positron computed tomography was done with the ORTEC ECAT system. Rapid localization of these C-11-labeled amino acids and fast clearance from the plasma permit almost immediate examination following i.v. injection. Illustrative images include the normal pancreas, pancreatitis, and pancreatic carcinoma. The use of positron tomography with C-11-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine appears to offer a new and promising diagnostic modality for the detection and study of pancreatic diseases

  5. Dynamics of carbon dioxide transport in a multiple sink network (GHGT-11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    As Carbon Capture and Storage slowly gets accepted and integrated as a mean for cleaner utilization of fossil fuels, the integration of capture, transport and storage becomes a key component to properly design a CO2 network. While the boundary conditions set by the capture and storage units have bee

  6. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, O; Halldin, C; Dollé, F; Swahn, C G; Olsson, H; Karlsson, P; Hall, H; Sandell, J; Lundkvist, C; Vaufrey, F; Loc'h, C; Crouzel, C; Mazière, B; Farde, L

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride [(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenza mide] binds with a picomolar affinity (Ki = 24 pM) to the dopamine D2 receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/micromol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [11C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [11C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [11C]epidepride. The availability of [11C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with SPECT. PMID:10473189

  7. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidepride {(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide} binds with a picomolar affinity (Ki=24 pM) to the dopamine D2 receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/μmol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [11C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [11C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [11C]epidepride. The availability of [11C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with SPECT.

  8. Non-Detection of HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1: Constraining the Chemistry of Large Carbon-Chain Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Ryan A; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A; Dollhopf, Niklaus M; Burkhardt, Andrew M; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T; Carroll, P Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Bell et al. (1997) reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC$_{11}$N toward the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported toward any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules toward TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analyzed GBT observations of HC$_9$N and HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1. Although we find an HC$_9$N column density consistent with previous values, HC$_{11}$N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC$_{11}$N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown ...

  9. Carbon-11 acetate PET/CT based dose escalated IMRT in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of [11C]acetate PET/CT in delineating the malignant intraprostatic lesions (IPL's) in prostate cancer and to use the data in external beam radiotherapy to boost the biologically defined target volume (BTV). Methods and materials: Twelve men with intracapsular prostate carcinoma were imaged with [11C]acetate PET/CT and the data were used to delineate the BTV. Six dynamic IMRT plans were generated to each patient: a standard IMRT (sIMRT) plan with a 77.9 Gy dose to PTV (prostate gland with a 6-mm margin) and a simultaneous integrated boost IMRT (SIBIMRT) plan to deliver 77.9 Gy, 81 Gy, 84 Gy, 87 Gy and 90 Gy to the BTV and 72 Gy to the rest of PTV. To study the theoretical dose escalation based on the delineation of BTV, tumor control probabilities (TCPs) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of bladder and rectum were calculated and compared between the treatment plans. Results: [11C]Acetate was used to delineate the IPL's of all 12 patients. With every patient the TCP was increased with SIBIMRT without increasing the NTCP of the bladder or rectum. The probability of uncomplicated control (PUC) was increased on average by 28% with the SIBIMRT treatment plans. The highest PUC was achieved with an average dose of 82.1 Gy to the BTV. Conclusions: Our study indicates that [11C]acetate can be used to define the IPL's and in combination with SIBIMRT the defined areas can theoretically be treated to ultra high doses without increasing the treatment toxicity. These results motivate the formal validation of [11C]acetate PET for biological dose planning in prostate cancer.

  10. Carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry devoted to molecular probes for imaging the brain with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration of the living human brain in real-time and in a noninvasive way was for centuries only a dream, made, however, possible today with the remarkable development during the four last decades of powerful molecular imaging techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET). Molecular PET imaging relies, from a chemical point of view, on the use and preparation of a positron-emitting radiolabelled probe or radiotracer, notably compounds incorporating one of two short-lived radionuclides fluorine-18 (T1/2: 109.8 min) and carbon-11 (T1/2: 20.38 min). The growing availability and interest for the radio-halogen fluorine-18 in radiopharmaceutical chemistry undoubtedly results from its convenient half-life and the successful use in clinical oncology of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). The special interest of carbon-11 is not only that carbon is present in virtually all biomolecules and drugs allowing therefore for isotopic labelling of their chemical structures but also that a given molecule could be radiolabelled at different functions or sites, permitting to explore (or to take advantage of) in vivo metabolic pathways. PET chemistry includes production of these short-lived radioactive isotopes via nuclear transmutation reactions using a cyclotron, and is directed towards the development of rapid synthetic methods, at the trace level, for the introduction of these nuclides into a molecule, as well as the use of fast purification, analysis and formulation techniques. PET chemistry is the driving force in molecular PET imaging, and this special issue of the Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, which is strongly chemistry and radiochemistry-oriented, aims at illustrating, be it in part only, the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions currently available and its potential for the research and development of specific molecular probes labelled with the positron emitters carbon-11 and fluorine-18,with optimal imaging properties for

  11. Determination of biological transport of oxygen-15 and carbon-11 generated in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of induced 15O and 11C activity in live and dead rats was determined following local irradiation with a 32 MeV proton beam. Results indicate that rapid biological redistribution of some of the induced activity occurs within a minute following irradiation. Sufficient activity remains, bound in the intracellular water, to define the proton beam in tissue. Thus, mapping of the induced 15O activity proves to be a valid means of beam localization

  12. Investigations of acetonitrile solvent cluster formation in supercritical carbon dioxide, and its impact on microscale syntheses of carbon-11-labeled radiotracers for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new strategy has been developed for synthesizing positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers using [11C]methyl iodide. This strategy relies on the ability of organic co-solvents to cluster within mixtures of supercritical fluids resulting in localized regions of high density which can serve as microscopic pockets for reaction. We've shown that acetonitrile will cluster about dilute solutes when mixtures of this co-solvent with carbon dioxide are forced to behave as a homogeneous fluid at the critical point. We applied this strategy in a systematic investigation of the conditions for optimized reaction between methyl iodide and L-α-methyl-N-2-propynyl phenethylamine (nordeprenyl) to yield L-deprenyl. Variables such as temperature, ultraviolet light exposure, co-solvent concentration, system pressure, and methyl iodide concentration were explored. The synthesis of radioactive [11C]-L-deprenyl using no-carrier-added concentrations of [11C]methyl iodide was also tested. Results showed that greater than 90% radiochemical yield of the desired product could be attained using 40 times less labeling substrate than in conventional PET tracer syntheses

  13. Study the structure of neutron deficient carbon isotopes: 10C and 11C. Elastic and inelastic scattering on proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the study of the structure of neutron-deficient carbon isotopes: 10C and 11C. A theoretical model predicts a special behaviour for these nuclei: different deformations for neutron and proton densities. To test these predictions and to obtain information on the structure of these nuclei, we measured angular distribution for elastic and inelastic scattering on proton target with inverse kinematics at 40 MeV per nucleon. The angular distribution is deduced from the proton energy and angle scattering, measured by the MUST detector. Experimental set-up is completed with plastic detectors for scattered nucleus identification and with two CATS detectors for measurement of position and angle for each beam particle on the target. Angular distributions are calculated with an analytic method. This method is tested with a simulation and with 12C + p scattering analysis. Angular distributions are analysed in terms of a complex microscopic potential JLM with different microscopic matter densities. Elastic scattering gives an information on 10C and 11C matter root mean square radii. Both radii are larger than the one for the stable 12C isotope. Inelastic scattering is treated in DWBA approximation with microscopic transition densities. 10C inelastic scattering gives an information on neutron contribution of nucleus excitation. With 11C inelastic scattering, we could constrain transition densities and we could extract an information on the type of the transition. However, it is very difficult to confirm or to annul predictions of different deformations for proton and neutrons densities. (author)

  14. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT. Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C−neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C. The 1−σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1 of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  15. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

    We study the $^{11}\\mathrm{Li}$ and $^{22}\\mathrm{C}$ nuclei at leading order (LO) in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT). Using the value of the $^{22}\\mathrm{C}$ rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrained the values of the two-neutron (2$n$) separation energy of $^{22}\\mathrm{C}$ and the virtual-state energy of the $^{20}\\mathrm{C}-$neutron system (hereafter denoted $^{21}$C). The 1$-\\sigma$ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gave an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2$n$ separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2$n$ halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the $^{11}\\mathrm{Li}$ data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtai...

  16. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bijaya; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO) in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT). Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n) separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C-neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C). The 1-σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1) of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  17. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer E-mail: christer.halldin@neuro.ks.se; Dolle, Frederic; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Olsson, Hans; Lundkvist, Per Karlsson; Hall, Haakan; Sandell, Johan; Vaufrey, Camilla; Loc' h, Christian; Franzoise; Crouzel, Christian; Maziere, Bernard; Farde, Lars

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride {l_brace}(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide= {r_brace} binds with a picomolar affinity (K{sub i}=24 pM) to the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/{mu}mol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [{sup 11}C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 11}C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]epidepride. The availability of [{sup 11}C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with

  18. [11C]Carbon Monoxide in Palladium- / Selenium-Promoted Carbonylation Reactions : Synthesis of 11C-Imides, Hydrazides, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Carboxylic Esters, Carbothioates, Ketones and Carbamoyl Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Farhad

    2002-01-01

    [11C]Carbon monoxide in low concentrations has been used in palladium- or seleniummediated carbonylation reactions such as the synthesis of 11C-imides, hydrazides, amides, carboxylic acids, esters, carbothioates, ketones and carbamoyl compounds. In these reactions aryl iodides have been used in most cases. However, less reactive aryl triflate, chloride and bromides were activated using tetrabutylammonium iodide. The reactivities of nucleophiles may have influence on the radiochemical yield of...

  19. No-carrier-added carbon-11-labeled sn-1,2- and sn-1,3-diacylglycerols by [11C]propyl ketene method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the preparation of sn-1,2-[11C]diacylglycerols and sn-1,3-[11C]diacylglycerols by a no-carrier-added reaction based on a labeling method using [1-11C]propyl ketene, which is one of the most potent acylating agents. [1-11C]Propyl ketene was produced by pyrolytic decomposition of [1-11C]butyric acid and was trapped in pyridine containing L-alpha-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, producing L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-[1-11C]butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. The authors adopted an enzymatic reaction to remove the phosphorylcholine, in which L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-[1-11C]butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine was incubated with phospholipase C, hydrolyzing to produce 1-palmitoyl-sn-2-[1-11C]butyrylglycerol. Total synthesis time was about 50 minutes and the specific activity was estimated at 93 GBq/mumol (2.5 Ci/mumol) at end of synthesis. Radiochemical yield was 3.8% based on the trapped 11CO2. sn-1,3-[11C]Diacylglycerol was also synthesized by [1-11C]propyl ketene reaction with 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol in a single procedure. The regional brain tissue radioactivities obtained in sn-1,2-[11C]diacylglycerol were higher than those of sn-1,3-[11C]diacylglycerol, and the regional values varied widely. In autoradiography of brain slices from conscious rats, sn-1,2-[11C]diacylglycerol incorporation sites were discretely localized, especially in the amygdala, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, suggesting that intensive neuronal processing occurred in these areas on the basis of phosphatidylinositol turnover

  20. The ''in vivo'' distribution of carbon 11 labeled-nicotine in animals. A method suitable for use in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to label nicotine with carbon 11. A hundred millicuries can be obtained, in 45 minutes, with a high specific activity. This labeling of nicotine has allowed an ''in vivo'' study of the distribution of this very toxic drug in animals. Five minutes after injection in rabbits or monkeys, it was shown with a gamma camera or with a positron camera that the radioactivity was very rapidly distributed throughout the tissues especially in brain, lungs and kidneys. 11C-nicotine readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and the brain radioactivity decreases very sharply with time. The eyes however retained activity, possibly in the retina. Unfortunately the monkey is not the ideal subject for 11C-nicotine brain study because: the brain is small, considering the resolution of the cameras and the cerebral lobes are also quite overlaped in this animal; Japanese authors have shown that compared with dogs the nicotine brain uptake is lower, due to the high affinity of nicotine for skeletal muscle which occupies approximately forty to fifty % of the body weight of the monkey. Also in monkeys, the nicotine destruction is faster than in dogs because there is a higher enzyme nicotine metabolizing activity in the liver of this animal. The differences observed between various animals studies using nicotine indicate that we should not draw any firm conclusions about the behaviour of this drug in humans. In order to do so, examinations must be conducted in man and the method described in spite of its limitations provides a means for such a study

  1. Synthesis of a sugar-organometallic compound 1,1 Prime -difurfurylferrocene and its microwave preparation of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Shanyu, E-mail: syzhao65@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Safty Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912-9108 (United States); Cooper, Daniel C. [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912-9108 (United States); Xu, Haixun [Institute of Building Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Zhu Pinghua [School of Environmental and Safty Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Suggs, J. William, E-mail: j_suggs@brown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912-9108 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In order to synthesize a carbon-metal or metal oxide combination sphere, carbonaceous resource furfural was introduced, which was nucleophilic treated with 1,1 Prime -dilithioferrocene to form a sugar-organometallic compound: ferrocenyl monosaccharide derivative 1,1 Prime -difurfurylferrocene, which can be hydrothermally treated in a microwave reactor to give 300-500 nm microspheres with the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed on the surface, which may be favorable for new magnetic materials preparation or instead of iron with other metal ions, versatile carbon/metal composites will be possibly synthesized for catalysis, drug delivery and magnetic uses. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized 1,1 Prime -difurfurylferrocene by nucleophilic treating furfural with 1,1 Prime -dilithioferrocene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1,1 Prime -Difurfurylferrocene can be hydrothermally treated by microwave to give microspheres with iron oxides on the surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1,1 Prime -Difurfurylferrocene has 2 reactive furanose units, which form carbonspheres and ferrocenyl can give iron oxides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer REDOX atmosphere influences the coating structures. - Abstract: In order to synthesize a carbon-metal or metal oxide combination sphere, carbonaceous resource furfural 1 was introduced, which was nucleophilic treated with 1,1 Prime -dilithioferrocene 2 to form a sugar-organometallic compound: ferrocenyl monosaccharide derivative 1,1 Prime -difurfurylferrocene 3. 1,1 Prime -Difurfurylferrocene 3 can be hydrothermally treated in a microwave reactor to give 300-500 nm microspheres with the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals formed on the surface, which may be favorable for new magnetic materials preparation or instead of iron with other metal ions, versatile carbon/metal composites will be possibly synthesized for catalysis, drug delivery and magnetic uses.

  2. Study on photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied nuclear interference from a matrix produced by (γ, n), (γ, 2n), (γ, p) and (n, γ) reactions and a flow method for 11C separation in order to develop an approach for the photon activation analysis of carbon in InF3-based fluoride, chalcogenide and tellurite glasses for fiber amplifiers. We found that seventeen radionuclides are produced from these glasses and chemical separation is necessary to determine carbon. For the flow method, which involves the fusion of an irradiated sample with an oxidizer, the conversion of 11C into 11CO2 and the absorption of 11C in ethanolamine solution, we used a mixture of Pb3O4 and B2O3 as the oxidizer. We also found that the reaction between 19F(γ, n) and 23Na(γ, αn) in the ethanolamine solution produced 18F contamination with fluoride and chalcogenide glasses and that this flow method can only be applied to tellurite glasses. We confirmed that the chemical yield of the flow method was close to 100% when determining carbon in standard steel samples by using lithium carbonate as a standard sample. We determined that the carbon concentrations in two kinds of tellurite glass were 8 to 13 and 21 to 28 ppm, respectively. (author)

  3. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled acetate and palmitic acid for the study of myocardial metabolism by emission-computerised axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods have been developed for the labelling of acetate and palmitic acid with the positron-emitting radionuclide, 11C(T=20.4 min). Labelling was achieved via carbonation of the appropriate alkyl magnesium bromide (methyl magnesium bromide or n-pentadecyl magnesium bromide) with 11C-labelled carbon dioxide produced by the 14Np(p,α)11C nuclear reaction. The radiochemical yield and speed of each method of labelling are such that a radiochemically pure product is obtained in injectable form and in activity (>10 mCi) suitable for the study of myocardial metabolism by emission-computerised axial tomography. High pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography were used to assess the radiochemical purity of each radiopharmaceutical. The specific activity of 11C-labelled acetate was estimated by an enzymic procedure to be greater than 0.5 Ci/μmole. (author)

  4. Assembly and Electrochemical Study of Transition Metal Substituted Polyoxometalates SiW11NiO6-39 and SiW11MnO6-39 on 4-Aminothiophenol Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U¨) Gui-qin; DU Jin-yan; HU Chang-wen

    2005-01-01

    Via layer-by-layer assembly, the polyoxometalates of Keggin type, SiW11O39Ni(H2O)6-(SiNiW11) and SiW11O39Mn(H2O)6-(SiMnW11) were first immobilized on a 4-aminothiophenol(4-ATP) modified glassy carbon electrode surface. The electrochemical behavior of these polyoxometalates was investigated. They exhibited some special properties in the films, which are different from those in a homogeneous aqueous solution. Their reaction mechanism in a multilayer film is proposed. The electrocatalytic behavior of these multilayer film electrodes for the reduction of BrO-3 and NO-2 were comparatively studied.

  5. Visualisation and assessment of the protein synthesis rate of lung cancer using carbon-11 tyrosine and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the potential role of L-(1-11C)-tyrosine positron emission tomography (TYR PET) for visualisation and quantification of protein metabolism in lung cancer. Dynamic TYR PET scans of the thorax were performed in 17 patients with lung cancer. Protein synthesis rate (PSR in μmol/min.l) and standardised uptake value (SUV, corrected for body measurements) of tumour tissue and contralateral normal tissue were calculated before and after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. All tumours [11 non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), five small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), and one pleural mesothelioma] were visualised as a hot spot. The median PSR in tumour tissue was higher than that in corresponding contralateral normal lung tissue before [1.88 μmol/min.l (range 1.10-3.42) vs 0.40 μmol/min.l (range 0.12-0.86); P=0.003] and after treatment [1.33 μmol/min.l (range 0.45-2.21) vs 0.28 μmol/min.l (range 0.18-0.51); P<0.02]. In contrast to PSR of normal lung tissue, PSR of tumour tissue decreased significantly after therapy (P=0.03). Before therapy, no significant difference in PSR between NSCLCs and SCLCs was observed, but after therapy the PSR differed significantly between the subgroups [1.69 μmol/min.l (range 0.63-2.78) for NSCLC vs 0.67 μmol/min.l (range 0.45-0.92) for SCLC; P=0.03], irrespective of the treatment modality. The median SUV of tumour tissue was higher than that in corresponding contralateral normal lung both before and after therapy. Only a weak correlation between PSR and SUV was found when the latter was corrected for body surface area or lean body mass. Carbon-11 labelled tyrosine appears to be a good tracer for visualising lung cancer. PSR of tumour tissue can be used to quantify reduction in the metabolic rate of the tumour. Future studies need to be performed to determine whether TYR PET will supply additional clinical information with treatment implications in patients with lung cancer. (orig.)

  6. Simple synthesis of carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer. The target tracers, X-[11C]methoxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; [11C]4a–d), were prepared from their corresponding precursors, X-hydroxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; 5a–d), with [11C]CH3OTf through O-[11C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a C-18 Sep-Pak Plus cartridge. The radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), from [11C]CO2, were 40–60%. The specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185–370 GBq/μmol. - Highlights: ► New chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► New carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► Simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  7. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profiles. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11CO2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [11C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity were the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low ( VPA > PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [11C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [11C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [11C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2010-10-11 (NODC Accession 0084098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0084098 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2010-10-11. These data...

  9. Design and Synthesis of 11C-Labelled Compound Libraries for the Molecular Imaging of EGFr, VEGFr-2, AT1 and AT2 Receptors: Transition-Metal Mediated Carbonylations Using [11C]Carbon Monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with radiochemistry and new approaches to develop novel PET tracers labelled with the radionuclide 11C. Two methods for the synthesis of 11C-labelled acrylamides have been explored. First, [1-11C]-acrylic acid was obtained from a palladium(0)-mediated 11C-carboxylation of acetylene with [11C]carbon monoxide; this could be converted to the corresponding acyl chloride and then combined with benzylamine to form N-benzyl[carbonyl-11C]acrylamide. In the second method, the palladium(0)-mediated carbonylation of vinyl halides with [11C]carbon monoxide was explored. This latter method, yielded labelled acrylamides in a single step with retention of configuration at the C=C double bond, and required less amine compared to the acetylene method. The vinyl halide method was used to synthesize a library of 11C-labelled EGFr-inhibitors in 7-61% decay corrected radiochemical yield via a combinatorial approach. The compounds were designed to target either the active or the inactive form of EGFr, following computational docking studies. The rhodium(I)-mediated carbonylative cross-coupling of an azide and an amine was shown to be a very general reaction and was used to synthesize a library of dual VEGFr-2/PDGFrβ inhibitors that were 11C-labelled at the urea position in 38-78% dc rcy. The angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist eprosartan was 11C-labelled at one of the carboxyl groups in one step using a palladium(0)-mediated carboxylation. Autoradiography shows specific binding in rat kidney, lung and adrenal cortex, and organ distribution shows a high accumulation in the intestines, kidneys and liver. Specific binding in frozen sections of human adrenal incidentalomas warrants further investigations of this tracer. Three angiotensin II AT2 ligands were 11C-labelled at the amide group in a palladium(0)-mediated aminocarbonylation in 16-36% dc rcy. One of the compounds was evaluated using in vitro using autoradiography, and in vivo using organ distribution and animal

  10. Synthesis of a sugar-organometallic compound 1,1′-difurfurylferrocene and its microwave preparation of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In order to synthesize a carbon–metal or metal oxide combination sphere, carbonaceous resource furfural was introduced, which was nucleophilic treated with 1,1′-dilithioferrocene to form a sugar-organometallic compound: ferrocenyl monosaccharide derivative 1,1′-difurfurylferrocene, which can be hydrothermally treated in a microwave reactor to give 300–500 nm microspheres with the α-Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 formed on the surface, which may be favorable for new magnetic materials preparation or instead of iron with other metal ions, versatile carbon/metal composites will be possibly synthesized for catalysis, drug delivery and magnetic uses. Highlights: ► We synthesized 1,1′-difurfurylferrocene by nucleophilic treating furfural with 1,1′-dilithioferrocene. ► 1,1′-Difurfurylferrocene can be hydrothermally treated by microwave to give microspheres with iron oxides on the surface. ► 1,1′-Difurfurylferrocene has 2 reactive furanose units, which form carbonspheres and ferrocenyl can give iron oxides. ► REDOX atmosphere influences the coating structures. - Abstract: In order to synthesize a carbon–metal or metal oxide combination sphere, carbonaceous resource furfural 1 was introduced, which was nucleophilic treated with 1,1′-dilithioferrocene 2 to form a sugar-organometallic compound: ferrocenyl monosaccharide derivative 1,1′-difurfurylferrocene 3. 1,1′-Difurfurylferrocene 3 can be hydrothermally treated in a microwave reactor to give 300–500 nm microspheres with the α-Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 nanocrystals formed on the surface, which may be favorable for new magnetic materials preparation or instead of iron with other metal ions, versatile carbon/metal composites will be possibly synthesized for catalysis, drug delivery and magnetic uses.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-liang; Meng, Hui-min; Liang, Li-kang; Li, Sen; Shi, Jin-hui

    2015-10-01

    LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were applied to carbon steels with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat by plasma spraying. The effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs were investigated in 3.5wt% NaCl solution using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that a large number of cracks are found in the LaMgAl11O19 TBCs after the samples are heat-treated, including some through-thickness cracks. The corrosion forms of the as-sprayed and heat-treated TBCs are uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion, respectively. The as-sprayed TBCs exhibit three EIS time constants after being immersed for less than 7 d, and then a new time constant appears because of steel substrate corrosion. When the immersion time is increased to 56 d, a Warburg impedance ( W) component appears in the EIS data. The EIS data for the heat-treated TBCs exhibit only two time constants after the samples are immersed for less than 14 d, and a new time constant appears when the immersion time is increased further. The heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs. The corrosion products are primarily γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4.

  12. Directs measurement of high temperature/high pressure solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in polyamide (PA-11) using a high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Rubin, A; Andersen, Simon Ivar;

    2005-01-01

    Experiments to determine the Solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in PA-11 have been performed in the temperature range 50-90&DEG; C and the pressure ranges 50-150 bar for methane and 20-40 bar for carbon dioxide. In general, the results agree fairly well with previous experiments for similar...... polymers, as well as showing correct trends in terms of temperature and pressure. The Solubility of the gases follows Henry's law-type behavior except for methane at very high pressures. Diffusivities were also measured for the same systems at the same conditions. While the diffusivities are subject to...

  13. The potential of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry: illustration through the development of positron emission tomography radioligands targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TSPO (translocator protein), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is up-regulated in the brain of subjects suffering from neuro-degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Moreover, this overexpression has been proved to be linked to micro-glia activation making thus the TSPO a marker of choice of neuro-inflammatory processes and therefore a potential target for the development of radioligands for positron emission tomography imaging. The discovery of selective TSPO ligands and their labelling with the short-lived positron-emitter isotopes carbon-11 and fluorine-18 emerged in the mid-1980's with the preparation of the 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [11C]PK11195. To date, an impressive number of promising compounds - [11C]PK11195-challengers - have been developed; some radioligands - for example, [11C]PBR28, [11C]DPA-713, [18F]FEDAA1106 and [18F]DPA-714 - are currently used in clinical trials. As illustrated in this review, the methodologies applied for the preparation of these compounds remain mainly [11C]methylations using [11C]MeI or [11C]MeOTf and SN2- type nucleophilic aliphatic [18F]fluorinations - two processes illustrating the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions that involves these two short-lived radioisotopes - but alternative processes, such as [11C]carbonylations using [11C]CO and [11C]COCl2 as well as SNAr-type nucleophilic [18F]fluorinations, have also been reported and as such, reviewed herein. (authors)

  14. Facile synthesis of new carbon-11 labeled conformationally restricted rivastigmine analogues as potential PET agents for imaging AChE and BChE enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivastigmine is a newer-generation inhibitor with a dual inhibitory action on both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes, and is used for the treatment of AChE- and BChE-related diseases such as brain Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. New carbon-11 labeled conformationally restricted rivastigmine analogues radiolabeled quaternary ammonium triflate salts, (3aR,9bS)-1-[11C]methyl-1-methyl-6-(methylcarbamoyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5, 9b-hexahy dro-1H-benzo[g]indolium triflate ([11C]8) and (3aR,9bS)-1-[11C]methyl-1-methyl-6-(heptylcarbamoyloxy)-2,3,3a,4,5, 9b-hexahy dro-1H-benzo[g]indolium triflate ([11C]9), were designed and synthesized as potential positron emission tomography (PET) agents for imaging AChE and BChE enzymes. The appropriate precursors were labeled with [11C]CH3OTf through N-[11C]methylation, and the target tracers were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-50% radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), 15-20 min overall synthesis time, and 148-222 GBq/μmol specific activity at EOB

  15. Further evaluation of the carbon11-labelled D2/3 agonist PET radiotracer PHNO: reproducibility in tracer characteristics and characterization of extrastriatal binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Hirani, Ella; Ahmad, Rabia; Turton, David R; Brickute, Diana; Rosso, Lula; Howes, Oliver D; Luthra, Sajinder K; Grasby, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    [11C]-(+)-PHNO is a new dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist radiotracer which has been successfully used to measure D2/3 receptor availability in experimental animals and man. Here we report in vivo evaluation in the rat of the biodistribution, metabolism, specificity, selectivity and dopamine sensitivity of carbon-11 labeled PHNO ([11C]-3-PHNO) produced by an alternative radiochemical synthesis method. [11C]-3-PHNO showed rapid metabolism and clearance from most peripheral organs and tissues. [11C]-3-PHNO, but not its polar metabolite, readily crossed the blood-brain barrier and showed high levels of uptake in the D2/3 -rich striatum. Pre-treatment with unlabelled PHNO and the D2/3 receptor antagonist raclopride indicated that binding in the striatum was specific and selective to D2/3 receptors. PET studies in anaesthetized rats revealed significant reductions in [11C]-3-PHNO binding in the striatum following amphetamine administration, indicating sensitivity to increases in endogenous dopamine concentrations. D2/3 antagonist pre-treatment additionally indicated moderate levels of [11C]-3-PHNO specific binding in several extrastriatal brain areas – most notably the olfactory bulbs and tubercles, thalamus and hypothalamus. Of particular interest, approximately 30% of [11C]-3-PHNO signal in the cerebellum – a region often used as a ‘low-binding’ reference region for PET quantification - was attributable to specific signal. These data demonstrate that [11C]-3-PHNO shows similar tracer characteristics to [11C]-(+)-PHNO, but additionally indicate that radiolabeled PHNO may be used to estimate D2/3 receptor availability in select extrastriatal brain regions with PET. PMID:19957364

  16. In vivo distribution of carbon-11 phenytoin and its major metabolite, and their use in scintigraphic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curie quantities (0.3 to 1.5 Ci) of H11CN were used in the synthesis of C-11-tagged phenytoin (C-11.DPH) and 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (C-11.HPPH), using a modified Buecherer--Bergs reaction. The H11CN was produced from a mixture of 95% nitrogen and 5% hydrogen by a 45-min bombardment with 10-MeV protons at 10 μA. Following iv infusions of C-11 DPH (13.7 mg/kg at a rate of 29 mg/min) into the left femoral vein of Rhesus monkeys, DPH shows persistent concentration in the brain and liver fields. Extravascular administration shows significant retention at the site of administration. Intravenous bolus injection of [11C]-HPPH into a Rhesus monkey, at a dose of 6.4 mg/kg, resulted in localization of this compound in the liver, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and intestinal fields. Loss of activity from the liver region, with appearance of this activity in the intestinal field, suggests that [11C]-HPPH is secreted into the intestine via the bile. Further investigation is needed to study the potential of [11C]-DPH as a brain-scanning agent and [11C]-HPPH as a possible cholescintigraphic agent

  17. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito; Sasaki, Tomio [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine (Japan); Oriuchi, Noboru; Inoue, Tomio [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-{sup 11}C-choline ({sup 11}C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for each patient during open surgery. The standardised uptake values of brain tumours and the tumour-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of {sup 11}C-choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared with the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of {sup 11}C-choline in high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that in low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean{+-}SD: 8.7{+-}6.2, n=9 versus 1.5{+-}0.7, n=5, P<0.03) when data pertaining to the prominent uptake of {sup 11}C-choline in a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma were excluded. {sup 11}C-choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of {sup 11}C-choline accumulation in PET scans were larger than areas enhanced on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. {sup 11}C-choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. The combination of {sup 11}C-choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with an accurate means by which to identify high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  18. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-11C-choline (11C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for each patient during open surgery. The standardised uptake values of brain tumours and the tumour-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of 11C-choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared with the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of 11C-choline in high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that in low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean±SD: 8.7±6.2, n=9 versus 1.5±0.7, n=5, P11C-choline in a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma were excluded. 11C-choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of 11C-choline accumulation in PET scans were larger than areas enhanced on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. 11C-choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. The combination of 11C-choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with an accurate means by which to identify high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  19. Effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang Huang; Hui-min Meng; Li-kang Liang; Sen Li; Jin-hui Shi

    2015-01-01

    LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were applied to carbon steels with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat by plasma spraying. The effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs were investigated in 3.5wt% NaCl solution using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The results show that a large number of cracks are found in the LaMgAl11O19 TBCs after the samples are heat-treated, including some through-thickness cracks. The corrosion forms of the as-sprayed and heat-treated TBCs are uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion, respectively. The as-sprayed TBCs exhibit three EIS time constants after being immersed for less than 7 d, and then a new time constant ap-pears because of steel substrate corrosion. When the immersion time is increased to 56 d, a Warburg impedance (W) component appears in the EIS data. The EIS data for the heat-treated TBCs exhibit only two time constants after the samples are immersed for less than 14 d, and a new time constant appears when the immersion time is increased further. The heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs. The corrosion products are primarilyγ-FeOOH and Fe3O4.

  20. Carbon-11 labeled papaverine as a PET tracer for imaging PDE10A: radiosynthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaverine, 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A with IC50 values of 36 nM for PDE10A, 1,300 nM for PDE3A and 320 nM for PDE4D, has served as a useful pharmaceutical tool to study the physiological role of PDE10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]papaverine and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]papaverine as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of papaverine with 11C was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide. [11C]papaverine was obtained with ∼70% radiochemical yield and a specific activity >10 Ci/μmol. In vitro autoradiography studies of rat and monkey brain sections revealed selective binding of [11C]papaverine to PDE10A enriched regions: the striatum of rat brain and the caudate and putamen of rhesus monkey brain. The biodistribution of [11C]papaverine in rats at 5 min demonstrated an initially higher accumulation in striatum than in other brain regions, however the washout was rapid. MicroPET imaging studies in rhesus macaques similarly displayed initial specific uptake in the striatum with very rapid clearance of [11C]papaverine from brain. Our initial evaluation suggests that despite papaverine's utility for in vitro studies and as a pharmaceutical tool, [11C]papaverine is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Analogs of papaverine having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.

  1. Carbon-11 labeled papaverine as a PET tracer for imaging PDE10A: radiosynthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Zhude [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: tuz@mir.wustl.edu; Xu Jinbin; Jones, Lynne A.; Li Shihong; Mach, Robert H. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Papaverine, 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A with IC{sub 50} values of 36 nM for PDE10A, 1,300 nM for PDE3A and 320 nM for PDE4D, has served as a useful pharmaceutical tool to study the physiological role of PDE10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]papaverine and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]papaverine as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of papaverine with {sup 11}C was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. [{sup 11}C]papaverine was obtained with {approx}70% radiochemical yield and a specific activity >10 Ci/{mu}mol. In vitro autoradiography studies of rat and monkey brain sections revealed selective binding of [{sup 11}C]papaverine to PDE10A enriched regions: the striatum of rat brain and the caudate and putamen of rhesus monkey brain. The biodistribution of [{sup 11}C]papaverine in rats at 5 min demonstrated an initially higher accumulation in striatum than in other brain regions, however the washout was rapid. MicroPET imaging studies in rhesus macaques similarly displayed initial specific uptake in the striatum with very rapid clearance of [{sup 11}C]papaverine from brain. Our initial evaluation suggests that despite papaverine's utility for in vitro studies and as a pharmaceutical tool, [{sup 11}C]papaverine is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Analogs of papaverine having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.

  2. Report on compounds labelled with nitrogen-13 or carbon-11 used in cancer metabolic studies with quantitative two-dimensional scanning and pet tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of compounds labelled with radionuclides of the elements commonly involved in metabolic processes (oxygen, carbon, nitrogen) is becoming important in the non-invasive study of organ and tumour function. The application of compounds labelled with 13N and 11C to the study of amino-acid metabolism and changes in vasculature following chemotherapy and radiation therapy is described. In particular, 13N-labelled L-glutamate has been found to be useful in visualizing a number of human tumours including osteogenic sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, pineal gland tumours, primitive neuroectodermal tumours, medulloblastoma and several other solid tumours. In patients with bone tumours, changes in 13N-L-glutamate scans during chemotherapy were found to correlate with changes in other clinical parameters, such as serum alkaline phosphatase, histology and 99Tcsup(m)-bone scans, thus indicating that labelled L-glutamate is potentially useful in evaluating the response of solid tumours to chemotherapy. Scans of patients and volunteers using 13N-L-glutamate and 13N-L-valine indicate that the L-amino acids may be useful in studies of metabolic processes in the liver, myocardium and pancreas. Red blood cells, labelled with 11C-carbon monoxide via inhalation of the radioactive gas, have been used to assess changes in tumour vascularity following radiation therapy. Alpha-aminoisobutyric acid labelled with 11C has been synthesized and its distribution in normal and tumour-bearing dogs has been studied. (author)

  3. Carbon-11 labeled stilbene derivatives from natural products for the imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mengchao; Tang, Ruikun; Li, Zijing; Jia, Hongmei; Liu, Boli [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-04-01

    Four stilbene derivatives from natural products were screened as novel β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging ligands. In vitro binding assay showed that the methylated ligand, (E)-1-methoxy-4-styrylbenzene (8) displayed high binding affinity to Aβ{sub 1-42} aggregates (K{sub i} = 19.5 nM). Moreover, the {sup 11}C-labeled ligand, [{sup 11}C]8 was prepared through an O-methylation reaction using [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}OTf. In vitro autoradiography with sections of transgenic mouse brain also confirmed the high and specific binding of [{sup 11}C]8 to Aβ plaques. In vivo biodistribution experiments in normal mice indicated that [{sup 11}C]8 displayed high initial uptake (9.41 ± 0.51% ID/g at 5 min post-injection) into and rapid washout from the brain, with a brain{sub 5} {sub min}/brain{sub 30} {sub min} ratio of 6.63. These preliminary results suggest that [{sup 11}C]8 may be served as a novel Aβ imaging probe for PET. (orig.)

  4. Carbon-11 labeled stilbene derivatives from natural products for the imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four stilbene derivatives from natural products were screened as novel β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging ligands. In vitro binding assay showed that the methylated ligand, (E)-1-methoxy-4-styrylbenzene (8) displayed high binding affinity to Aβ1-42 aggregates (Ki = 19.5 nM). Moreover, the 11C-labeled ligand, [11C]8 was prepared through an O-methylation reaction using [11C]CH3OTf. In vitro autoradiography with sections of transgenic mouse brain also confirmed the high and specific binding of [11C]8 to Aβ plaques. In vivo biodistribution experiments in normal mice indicated that [11C]8 displayed high initial uptake (9.41 ± 0.51% ID/g at 5 min post-injection) into and rapid washout from the brain, with a brain5min/brain30min ratio of 6.63. These preliminary results suggest that [11C]8 may be served as a novel Aβ imaging probe for PET. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism in normal human subjects using nitrogen-13 ammonia and carbon-11 acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokapich, J; Huang, S C; Schelbert, H R

    1993-06-01

    The dual purposes of this study with positron emission tomography were to measure the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism, and to compare carbon-11 (C-11) acetate versus nitrogen-13 (N-13) ammonia in quantitating flow in normal subjects. Flow was quantitated with N-13 ammonia at rest and at peak dobutamine infusion (40 micrograms/kg/min) in 21 subjects. In 11 subjects, oxidative metabolism was also estimated at rest and peak dobutamine infusion using the clearance rate of C-11 acetate, k mono (min-1). A 2-compartment kinetic model was applied to the early phase of the C-11 acetate data to estimate flow. The rest and peak dobutamine rate-pressure products were 7,318 +/- 1,102 and 19,937 +/- 3,964 beats/min/mm Hg, respectively, and correlated well (r = 0.77) with rest and peak dobutamine flows of 0.77 +/- 0.14 and 2.25 ml/min/g determined using N-13 ammonia as a flow tracer. Rest and dobutamine flows estimated with C-11 acetate were highly correlated with those determined with N-13 ammonia (r = 0.92). k mono increased from 0.05 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.02 min-1, and correlated highly with the increase in flows (r = 0.91) and rate-pressure products (r = 0.94). Thus, the increase in cardiac demand associated with dobutamine is highly correlated with an increase in supply and oxidative metabolism. C-11 acetate is a unique tracer that can be used to image both flow and metabolism simultaneously. PMID:8498380

  6. 进氧化氢在微过氧化物酶-11(MP-11)修饰玻碳电极上的电催化还原%Electrocatalytic Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Microperoxidase-11 Modified Glass Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction MP-11 is obtained from pepsin digestion of cytochrome c.It retains amino acid residues 11-21 of cytochrome c.It is considered a good model of c-type heme enzymes and peroxidases.So far,some methods have been used to immobilize MP-11 on electrodes,such as mixing up with graphite paste[1],covalently combining to the thiol or cystamine monolayer self-assembled at the gold electrode[2,3].This paper reports that MP-11 convalently bound on a glass carbon electrode through glutaraldehyde coupling of the peptide to a hydrazino-alkoxysilane exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2.

  7. Understanding Climate Policy Data Needs. NASA Carbon Monitoring System Briefing: Characterizing Flux Uncertainty, Washington D.C., 11 January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Climate policy in the United States is currently guided by public-private partnerships and actions at the local and state levels. This mitigation strategy is made up of programs that focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, agricultural practices and implementation of technologies to reduce greenhouse gases. How will policy makers know if these strategies are working, particularly at the scales at which they are being implemented? The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) will provide information on carbon dioxide fluxes derived from observations of earth's land, ocean and atmosphere used in state of the art models describing their interactions. This new modeling system could be used to assess the impact of specific policy interventions on CO2 reductions, enabling an iterative, results-oriented policy process. In January of 2012, the CMS team held a meeting with carbon policy and decision makers in Washington DC to describe the developing modeling system to policy makers. The NASA CMS will develop pilot studies to provide information across a range of spatial scales, consider carbon storage in biomass, and improve measures of the atmospheric distribution of carbon dioxide. The pilot involves multiple institutions (four NASA centers as well as several universities) and over 20 scientists in its work. This pilot study will generate CO2 flux maps for two years using observational constraints in NASA's state-of -the-art models. Bottom-up surface flux estimates will be computed using data-constrained land and ocean models; comparison of the different techniques will provide some knowledge of uncertainty in these estimates. Ensembles of atmospheric carbon distributions will be computed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GEOS-5), with perturbations to the surface fluxes and to transport. Top-down flux estimates will be computed from observed atmospheric CO2 distributions (ACOS/GOSAT retrievals) alongside the forward-model fields, in conjunction with an

  8. Specific activity of [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I synthesized by the 'wet' method: Main sources of non-radioactive carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vallejo, Vanessa [Institut Alta Tecnologia PRBB-Fundacio Privada, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C/Dr. Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Llop, Jordi [Institut Alta Tecnologia PRBB-Fundacio Privada, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C/Dr. Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jllop@cicbiomagune.es

    2009-01-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful molecular imaging technique based on the administration and detection of radioactive (positron emitting) species. In some applications, the concept of specific activity becomes especially important in order to prevent undesired pharmacological and/or toxic effects after injection of the radiotracer. Problems to obtain high specific activities are found when {sup 11}C-labeled compounds are prepared by methylation following the so called 'wet' method, which consists of a simple route but usually yields radiotracers highly diluted with the stable specie. In the present work, the main sources of contamination by stable carbon in the [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I synthesis following the 'wet' method have been analyzed and their individual contribution has been quantified. The results show that the most relevant contamination of CO{sub 2} is generated during the bombardment process.

  9. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 labelled N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[11C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine as a PET tracer for NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in learning and memory. Overactivation is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Currently, it is not possible to assess N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) bio-availability in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for the NR2B binding site of the NMDA receptor. Methods: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was radiolabelled with carbon-11 in the phenyl moiety. Biodistribution and blocking studies were carried out in anaesthetized mice and in non-anaesthetized rats. Results: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[11C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was prepared in 49 ± 3% (decay-corrected) yield, affording 4.1 ± 0.3 GBq of formulated product at the end of synthesis with a radiochemical purity of > 99% and with a specific activity of 78 ± 10 GBq/μmol. Conclusion: A new NR2B PET ligand was developed in high yield. [11C]4 readily enters the brain and binds to the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr in the rodent brain. High sigma-1 receptor binding may, however, limit its future application as a PET probe for imaging the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr. Anaesthesia has an effect on NMDAr function and therefore can complicate interpretation of preclinical in vivo results. In addition, effects of endogenous compounds cannot be excluded. Despite these potential limitations, further studies are warranted to investigate the values of [11C]4 as an NR2B PET ligand

  10. Production of oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11 and of their low molecular weight derivatives for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and the medical use of the short-lived radioisotopes of the 3 major elements of the biosphere, 13N, 11C and 15O, require the vicinity of a cyclotron, of radiochemistry laboratories and of a suitably equipped medical unit. The methodological and practical aspects of the routine, high efficiency, production of these gases, with the specifications that result from their medical use, are discussed and described. (author)

  11. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country s gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates into an a...

  12. Glucose transport and utilization in the human brain: model using carbon-11 methylglucose and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-0-[11C]-Methyl-D-glucose (CMG) is specifically suited for measuring carrier facilitated glucose (G) transport; it enters the free G pool in tissue from where it is not utilized for metabolism in contrast to G, but is transported back into circulation. The ratio of carrier affinity for G and CMG was reported to be 1.11. By simultaneously measuring CMG concentration in plasma and in cerebral cortex in vivo with positron tomography at 1-min intervals for 40 min, two time-activity curves are obtained, as reported previously, which together with the G concentration in plasma yield the in vivo rate constants of G transport across the blood-brain barrier and the rate of G inflow; a repeat measurement at a different G concentration in plasma gives the in vivo Michaelis-Menten constant KM and the maximal rate of transport VMAX. The present paper summarizes and extends this approach to analyzing the free G pool in tissue, the rate of G return to circulation, and the rate of G exit into metabolism with its corresponding rate constants. The data from six volunteers agreed with results reported for the individual biochemical parameters in primate brains

  13. L-[METHYL-11C] Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Delineation in Malignant Gliomas: Impact on Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the importance of 11C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume (CTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 16 patients with malignant glioma (4 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma; 12 patients, glioblastoma multiforme) treated with surgery and carbon ion radiotherapy from April 2002 to Nov 2005. The MET-PET target volume was compared with gross tumor volume and CTV, defined by using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlations with treatment results were evaluated between positive and negative extended volumes (EVs) of the MET-PET target for CTV. Results: Mean volumes of the MET-PET targets, CTV1 (defined by means of high-intensity volume on T2-weighted MRI), and CTV2 (defined by means of contrast-enhancement volume on T1-weighted MRI) were 6.35, 264.7, and 117.7 cm3, respectively. Mean EVs of MET-PET targets for CTV1 and CTV2 were 0.6 and 2.2 cm3, respectively. The MET-PET target volumes were included in CTV1 and CTV2 in 13 (81.3%) and 11 patients (68.8%), respectively. Patients with a negative EV for CTV1 had significantly greater survival rate (p = 0.0069), regional control (p = 0.0047), and distant control time (p = 0.0267) than those with a positive EV. Distant control time also was better in patients with a negative EV for CTV2 than those with a positive EV (p = 0.0401). Conclusions: For patients with malignant gliomas, MET-PET has a possibility to be a predictor of outcome in carbon ion radiotherapy. Direct use of MET-PET fused to planning computed tomography will be useful and yield favorable results for the therapy

  14. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P. [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Pragal, Almada (Portugal); Ribeiro, M.J. [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Servico de Biofisica, IBILI, Faculdade de Medicina de Coimbra (Portugal); Bottlaender, M.; Loc' h, C.; Langer, O.; Strul, D.; Maziere, B.; Bendriem, B. [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Hugonnard, P.; Grangeat, P. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Lab. d' Electronique de Technologie et d' Instrumentation

    1999-12-01

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using {sup 123}I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 ), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of {sup 123}I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to {sup 123}I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a {sup 123}I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC+AT) and (SC+CBC+AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of {sup 11}C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (%ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC+CBC+AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and {sup 11}C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo

  15. Non-invasive estimation of myocardial efficiency using positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate--comparison between the normal and failing human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengel, F M; Permanetter, B; Ungerer, M; Nekolla, S; Schwaiger, M

    2000-03-01

    The clearance kinetics of carbon-11 acetate, assessed by positron emission tomography (PET), can be combined with measurements of ventricular function for non-invasive estimation of myocardial oxygen consumption and efficiency. In the present study, this approach was applied to gain further insights into alterations in the failing heart by comparison with results obtained in normals. We studied ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 11 healthy normals by dynamic PET with 11C-acetate and either tomographic radionuclide ventriculography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. A "stroke work index" (SWI) was calculated by: SWI = systolic blood pressure x stroke volume/body surface area. To estimate myocardial efficiency, a "work-metabolic index" (WMI) was then obtained as follows: WMI = SWI x heart rate/k(mono), where k(mono) is the washout constant for 11C-acetate derived from monoexponential fitting. In DCM patients, left ventricular ejection fraction was 19%+/-10% and end-diastolic volume was 92+/-28 ml/m2 (vs 64%+/-7% and 55+/-8 ml/m2 in normals, PSWI (1674+/-761 vs 4736+/-895 mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) and the WMI as an estimate of efficiency (2.98+/-1.30 vs 6.20+/-2.25 x 10(6) mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) were lower in DCM patients, too. Overall, the WMI correlated positively with ejection parameters (r=0.73, P<0.001 for ejection fraction; r=0.93, P<0.001 for stroke volume), and inversely with systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.77; P<0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between WMI and end-diastolic volume in normals (r=0.45; P=0.17), while in DCM patients, a non-significant negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.21; P=0.57) was obtained. In conclusion non-invasive estimates of oxygen consumption and efficiency in the failing heart were reduced compared with those in normals. Estimates of efficiency increased with increasing contractile performance, and decreased with increasing ventricular afterload. In contrast to normals, the failing heart

  16. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P; Ribeiro, M J; Bottlaender, M; Loc'h, C; Langer, O; Strul, D; Hugonnard, P; Grangeat, P; Mazière, B; Bendriem, B

    1999-12-01

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 degrees), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC + AT) and (SC + CBC + AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (% ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC + CBC + AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo absolute quantitation of 123

  17. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 ), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC+AT) and (SC+CBC+AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (%ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC+CBC+AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo absolute quantitation of 123I

  18. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride (14CCl4) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14CCl4 in the breath and 14C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl4. Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14CCl4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14CO2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14C activity in the expired air was 14CCl4. The quantities of 14C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14CCl4 and 14CO2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14CCl4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14CO2 in the breath

  19. Realization of an apparatus for the synthesis and detection of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids and of a data acquisition system for the study of the myocardial methabolism of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the study and the realization of an apparatus to synthesize fatty acids labelled with carbon 11, a radioactive isotope with an half-life of 20.38 minutes. A system of gamma-ray detection with data processing designed for the study of the myocardiac metabolism of radiopharmaceuticals using isolated rat hearts as experimental models. The synthesis of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids required a preliminary study of the manufacture of this isotope at the synchrocyclotron of the I.P.N. (Lyon). The method chosen is the nuclear reaction (d,xn) with naturally occurring boron trioxide as the target. The apparatus was designed so as extract carbon 11 from the target in the form of 11CO2 which can then be used in the synthesis of carbon 11 labelled hexadecanoique, heptadecanoic and beta-methyl hexadecanoic acids. The time scale of this synthesis must be compatible with the short half-like of the isotope. In order to study these compounds 'in vivo' on the experimental model of isolated rat hearts, a system of detection, which functions either in a simple gamma mode or in a gamma-gamma coincidence mode, was developed. This apparatus can attain a rate of approximately 50 000 counts/sec. per channel, thus it is possible to obtain information about rapid phases of metabolism with a satisfactory statistical precision. Moreover the spectral analysis of the gamma-ray permits the simultaneous detection of different radioisotopes. Hence it was possible to compare the behaviour of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids with homologous molecules marked with iodine 123. The analysis of the experimental results was achieved witha computer based on an I.B.M. compatible PC-XT. The essential parts of this system are a data-acquisition card for the PC, code for the acquisition and the data processing

  20. Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Hickler, Thomas; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; El-Masri, Bassil; Thornton, Peter; Jain, Atul; Wang, Shusen; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William; Iversen, Colleen M; Gallet-Budynek, Anne; McCarthy, Heather; Finzi, Adrien; Hanson, Paul J; Prentice, I Colin; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground-below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C-N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2 , given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections. PMID:24467623

  1. Combined δ11B, δ13C, and δ18O analyses of coccolithophore calcite constrains the response of coccolith vesicle carbonate chemistry to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Tripati, Robert; Aciego, Sarah; Gilmore, Rosaleen; Ries, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophorid algae play a central role in the biological carbon pump, oceanic carbon sequestration, and in marine food webs. It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification on these organisms. Differences in the regulation of carbonate chemistry, pH, and carbon sources of the intracellular compartments where coccolith formation occurs may underlie the diverse calcification and growth responses to acidified seawater observed in prior experiments. Here we measured stable isotopes of boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) within coccolith calcite, and δ13C of algal tissue to constrain carbonate system parameters in two strains of Pleurochrysis carterae (P. carterae). The two strains were cultured under variable pCO2, with water temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity monitored. Notably, PIC, POC, and PIC/POC ratio did not vary across treatments, indicating that P. carterae is able to calcify and photosynthesize at relatively constant rates irrespective of pCO2 treatment. The δ11B data indicate that mean pH at the site of coccolith formation did not vary significantly in response to elevated CO2. These results suggest that P. carterae regulates calcifying vesicle pH, even amidst changes in external seawater pH. Furthermore, δ13C and δ18O data suggest that P. carterae may utilize carbon from a single internal DIC pool for both calcification and photosynthesis, and that a greater proportion of dissolved CO2 relative to HCO3‑ enters the internal DIC pool under acidified conditions. These results suggest that P. carterae is able to calcifyand photosynthesize at relatively constant rates across pCO2 treatments by maintaining pH homeostasis at their site of calcification and utilizing a greater proportion of aqueous CO2.

  2. Synthesis and carbon-11-labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575, a novel indoleacetamide-based candidate for PET imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (TSPO 18 kDa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [11C]PK11195, despite its low brain uptake and high level of nonspecific binding, is still the most widely used PET-radioligand for the in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR or TSPO 18 kDa). Several new PBR radioligands are currently developed to replace [11C]PK11195, e.g the pyrazolo[1, 5-a]pyrimidine-acetamides [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714, the imidazo[1, 2-a]pyridine-acetamides [11C]CLINME and [18F]PBR111 and the N-benzyl-N-(2-phenoxy-aryl)- acetamides [11C]PBR28 and [18F]FEDAA1106. Another attractive newly identified chemical class of structures are the indole-acetamides and notably compounds derived from the lead compound SSR180575. Herein are reported the synthesis and the labelling with the positron-emitter carbon-11 (half-life: 20.38 min) of a novel derivative of SSR180575, bearing a para methoxy function on its phenyl ring. Methods: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was synthesized from commercially available 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene in 10 steps. O-demethylation, performed with a boron tribromide solution in dichloromethane at low temperature, afforded the free phenol derivative 2. Carbon-11 labeling of p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprised (1) trapping of [11C]MeOTf at -10 C in acetone (0.3 mL) containing the nor-derivative 2 (O-demethylated, 0.6-0.9 mg) and aq. 3N NaOH (8 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) concentration to dryness and taking up the residue in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase; (4) purification using semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC (Waters Symmetry C-18 - eluent: CH3CN / H2O / TFA: 50 / 50 / 0.1 (v:v:v) - flow rate: 5 mL/min - detection at 254 nm) and (5) SepPakR Plus C-18-based formulation for i.v. injection. Results: p-MeO-SSR180575 (1) was obtained in 10% overall yield. The tricky and low-yielding step in our approach was the pyridazine ring formation reaction that proceeded

  3. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  4. Tetra- and mono-organotin reagents in palladium-mediated cross-coupling reactions for the labeling with carbon-11 of PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, T.; Huiban, M.; Sobrio, F.; Perrio, C.; Barre, E. [Groupe de Dev Methodol en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, UMR CEA 2E, Universite deCaen, Centre Cyceron, F-14070 Caen Cedex (France); Fouquet, A.; Huet, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR CNRS 3802, Univ Bordeaux I, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions between a (trimethylstannyl)arene and [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide (Stille reaction) or between an aryl halide and a [{sup 11}C]monomethyltin reagent issued from Lappert's stannylene, were developed for the synthesis of polyfunctional [{sup 11}C]methyl quinolines and quinoline-imides as potential tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). (authors)

  5. Protective film formation of carbon steel surfaces for corrosion and deposit control in Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (Paper No. 1.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru based on H2S-H2O bi-thermal chemical exchange process employs carbon steel as major material of construction for towers and piping. Several different phases of iron sulphide form as a result of interaction between aqueous H2S and carbon steel. Development of a procedure for formation of stable film on carbon steel as a preconditioning step was carried out based on work done by Heavy Water Division and the experiences of HWP, Kota. Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru was designed for carrying protective film formation of entire exchange unit including vessels, tanks, pipings etc. under dynamic conditions. This paper describes the procedure followed for the protective film formation of carbon steel surfaces at HWP, Manuguru. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  6. 纯牛奶中18碳TFA及9c,11 t-CLA含量的测定研究%Study on 18-carbon trans fatty acid and 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid contents in milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章萍萍; 赵培城

    2010-01-01

    为了精确测量出纯牛奶中18碳TFA及9c,11t-CLA的含量,本实验通过毛细管气相色谱法,并采用内标法,对纯牛奶进行了检测,结果显示,纯牛奶中18碳脂肪酸的质量百分比约为35.43% ,18碳TFA的质量百分比约为2.27%,而其中C18:1-llt的质量百分比达到1.28%,占所有18碳TFA的一半以上,约为56.36%,同时,牛奶中C18:2 -9c,11t的质量百分比只为0.11%,其含量远少于TFA.

  7. Novel carbon-11 labeled 4-dimethylamino-but-2-enoic acid [4-(phenylamino)-quinazoline-6-yl]-amides: potential PET bioprobes for molecular imaging of EGFR-positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported of labeled reversible and irreversible EGFR inhibitors, such as 4-(3,4-dichloro-6-fluoroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (ML01) and 6-acrylamido-4-(3,4-dichloro-6-fluoroanilino)quinazoline (ML03), to be suboptimal as imaging agents. On the basis of these studies, a new generation of novel, more chemically stable irreversible inhibitors was labeled with carbon-11 as potential positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers for molecular imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive tumors. In these new labeled, irreversible inhibitors the acryl-amide group at the 6-position of the quinazoline ring was replaced with a 4-dimethylamino-but-2-enoic amide. The nonlabeled compounds were evaluated in vitro to determine their EGFR autophosphorylation IC50 values. The IC50 values indicated that these new irreversible compounds possess similar potencies towards the EGFR, as the parent compound, ML03. These compounds were labeled with carbon-11 at the dimethylamine moiety, using the well known labeling reagent C-11 MeI. The labeling procedure was automated using a commercial module. The final products were obtained with 10% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity, 96% chemical purity, and a high specific activity of 2.7 Ci/μmol EOB. The high potency of these new labeled bioprobes towards the EGFR establishes their potential to serve as PET agents for molecular imaging of EGFR-positive tumors

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2012-02-29 to 2012-05-11 (NODC Accession 0123315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  9. Carbon-11 labelling of eticlopride in two different positions - a selective high-affinity ligand for the study of dopamine D-2 receptors using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new highly selective high-affinity dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride ((-)-(S)-5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-6-methoxysalicylamide), was labelled with 11C in two different positions ([N-ethyl-11C]eticlopride (I) and ([methyl-11C]eticlopride (II)). Product I was prepared by N-alkylation of the N-desethyl compound with [11C]ethyl iodide. II was prepared by O-alkylation of the diphenolic precursor with [11C]methyl iodide followed by separation of the two methylated products. The radiochemical yields were 15-20% (EOB) with an overall synthesis time of 45-60 min. Both compounds were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and the radiochemical purity was in both cases > 99%. I was injected i.v. in a Cynomolgus monkey and brain radioactivity was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). The specific activity was 70 Ci/mmol at time of injection. There was a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the basal ganglia, regions known to have a high density of dopamine D-2 receptors. (author)

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. An unexpected rearrangement of carbon vertexes in the tricarbollide series. Asymmetrical 7-aryl-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H11 derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Holub, Josef; Hnyk, Drahomír; Štíbr, Bohumil; Růžičková, Z.; Růžička, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 805, MAR (2016), s. 117-121. ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0705 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Boron hydrides * Carboranes * NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2014

  13. Clinical application of dynamic lung imaging by the single breath measurement with carbon-11-labeled CO2, CO and nitrogen-13-labeled N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single breath measurement with 11CO2, 11CO and 13N-N composed of inhalation system and a coincidence positron camera interfaced with an on-line computer system has been used to evaluated regional pulmonary function in two normal volunteers and four patinets with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In serial images of normal subjects after single inhalation of 11CO2, the appearance time of the heart was within about 10 - 20 seconds and the radioactivity at heart area remained to be relatively high compared with lung fields. However in some patients with COPD, the heart appearance time was delayed and the hypo-ventilated lung area became gradually to be hot during the wash-out phase. The heart appearance time after a inspiration of 11CO was within 10 - 20 seconds in normal subject. In contrast, the appearance time was remarkably prolonged in the patients with disturbance of diffusion capacity. Immediately after single breath of 13N-N in the patient with COPD the well ventilated lung area was revealed as a region of high radioactivity and the distribution of the slow space was showed in the late phase of wash out. These findings should have patho-physiological diagnostic usefullness, especially for the patients with COPD and fibrosing lung disease. (author)

  14. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) as an in vivo tracer of amino acid uptake in differing metabolic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIB has been used as a model amino acid for the evaluation of alanine-preferring amino acid transport. Hormonal factors and starvation alter the tissue distribution of amino acids, particularly in liver and muscle. With positron emission tomography and labeling of biochemical tracers with C-11, (t1/2=20.4 min), it is now possible to study amino acid kinetics in vivo using external imaging. In order to investigate the utility of C-11 AIB as an in vivo tracer of altered tissue metabolism, C-14 AIB was studied in groups of rats with either streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin-induced hypoglycemia or starvation. The data suggest an increased amino acid uptake in liver in starvation, an increased uptake in muscle in response to insulin and associated hypoglycemia and decreased transport in muscle in starvation, as seen by other investigators. These results suggest that C-11 AIB may be useful as an in vivo monitor of metabolic changes in body tissues

  15. Non-invasive estimation of myocardial efficiency using positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate - comparison between the normal and failing human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 11 healthy normals by dynamic PET with 11C-acetate and either tomographic radionuclide ventriculography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. A ''stroke work index'' (SWI) was calculated by: SWI = systolic blood pressure x stroke volume/body surface area. To estimate myocardial efficiency, a ''work-metabolic index'' (WMI) was then obtained as follows: WMI = SWI x heart rate/k(mono), where k(mono) is the washout constant for 11C-acetate derived from mono-exponential fitting. In DCM patients, left ventricular ejection fraction was 19%±10% and end-diastolic volume was 92±28 ml/m2 (vs 64%±7% and 55±8 ml/m2 in normals, P2; P6 mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) were lower in DCM patients, too. Overall, the WMI correlated positively with ejection parameters (r=0.73, P<0.001 for ejection fraction; r=0.93, P<0.001 for stroke volume), and inversely with systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.77; P<0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between WMI and end-diastolic volume in normals (r=0.45; P=0.17), while in DCM patients, a non-significant negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.21; P=0.57) was obtained. In conclusion non-invasive estimates of oxygen consumption and efficiency in the failing heart were reduced compared with those in normals. Estimates of efficiency increased with increasing contractile performance, and decreased with increasing ventricular afterload. In contrast to normals, the failing heart was not able to respond with an increase in efficiency to increasing ventricular volume.(orig./MG) (orig.)

  16. A refined method for quantification of myocardial oxygen consumption rate using mean transit time with carbon-11-acetate and dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y; Huang, S C; Hawkins, R A; Hoh, C K; Krivokapich, J; Buxton, D B; Armbrecht, J J; Sun, K T; Phelps, M E; Schelbert, H R

    1993-11-01

    The utility of the mean transit time equation was investigated for estimation of the myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate, which is proportional to myocardial oxygen consumption rates. The mean transit time approach was also employed to generate parametric images of the clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate with dynamic PET imaging in 20 normal human studies. Input function delays and cutoff errors due to the truncation of the myocardial tissue time-activity curve at a finite time were corrected. The clearance rate constants estimated by mean transit time correlated well with the estimates by conventional monoexponential fitting (15 min (truncation time): Y = 0.01 + 0.94X, correlated coefficient (r) = 0.99; 16 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.94X, r = 0.98; 20 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.84X, r = 0.99). The clearance rate constants estimated by the mean transit time approach also correlated well (r = 0.94) with the measured rate-pressure products. The quality and noise level of parametric images of the clearance rate constants generated by mean transit time are improved over those generated by monoexponential fitting. Additional advantages of the mean transit time approach compared to the standard monoexponential fitting method for estimating myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate include ease of input function delay correction, less sensitivity to the shape of the input function and elimination of subjective data selection of the linear portion of the clearance data on a semilog plot. Thus, this approach is expected to facilitate objective quantitative analysis of indices of myocardial oxygen consumption. PMID:8229256

  17. Regularities of thermochemical characteristics of 1-1, 2-1, 3-1 electrolyte solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide-water and propylene carbonate water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an air-tight tilting calorimeter with an isothermal casing enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - water mixtures, contaning 3.86 and 18.53 mol.% DMSO, and propylene carbonate (PC) - water mixtures, containing 1.85 and 3.23 mol.% PC are measured. The enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in the given mixtures in case of infinite solution dilution are determined. Solvation enthalpies of praseodymium and neodymium chlorides, as well as alkali earth metal and magnesium chlorides in water and DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are calculated. Regularities in thermochemical characteristics of solutions of the given salts in DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are discussed

  18. Non-invasive estimation of myocardial efficiency using positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate - comparison between the normal and failing human heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, F.M.; Nekolla, S.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Permanetter, B. [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kreiskrankenhaus Wasserburg/Inn (Germany); Ungerer, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). 1. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2000-03-01

    We studied ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 11 healthy normals by dynamic PET with {sup 11}C-acetate and either tomographic radionuclide ventriculography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. A ''stroke work index'' (SWI) was calculated by: SWI = systolic blood pressure x stroke volume/body surface area. To estimate myocardial efficiency, a ''work-metabolic index'' (WMI) was then obtained as follows: WMI = SWI x heart rate/k(mono), where k(mono) is the washout constant for {sup 11}C-acetate derived from mono-exponential fitting. In DCM patients, left ventricular ejection fraction was 19%{+-}10% and end-diastolic volume was 92{+-}28 ml/m{sup 2} (vs 64%{+-}7% and 55{+-}8 ml/m{sup 2} in normals, P<0.001). Myocardial oxidative metabolism, reflected by k(mono), was significantly lower compared with that in normals (0.040{+-}0.011/min vs 0.060{+-} 0.015/min; P<0.003). The SWI (1674{+-}761 vs 4736{+-} 895 mmHg x ml/m{sup 2}; P<0.001) and the WMI as an estimate of efficiency (2.98{+-}1.30 vs 6.20{+-}2.25 x 10{sup 6} mmHg x ml/m{sup 2}; P<0.001) were lower in DCM patients, too. Overall, the WMI correlated positively with ejection parameters (r=0.73, P<0.001 for ejection fraction; r=0.93, P<0.001 for stroke volume), and inversely with systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.77; P<0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between WMI and end-diastolic volume in normals (r=0.45; P=0.17), while in DCM patients, a non-significant negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.21; P=0.57) was obtained. In conclusion non-invasive estimates of oxygen consumption and efficiency in the failing heart were reduced compared with those in normals. Estimates of efficiency increased with increasing contractile performance, and decreased with increasing ventricular afterload. In contrast to normals, the failing heart was not able to respond with an increase in efficiency to increasing ventricular volume.(orig./MG) (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to 1997-11-11 (NODC Accession 0115176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115176 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to...

  1. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Gaslightwala, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and chemical data during R/V Meteor Expedition 11/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean, including the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; and the Eastern South Atlantic Ocean. This cruise was conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The cruise started from Ushuaia, Argentina, on January 23, 1990, and ended at Capetown, South Africa on March 8, 1990. Samples were collected at 78 stations that covered the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; a section along the 58 W parallel; and two segmented S-N sections between the Northern Weddell Sea and Capetown, South Africa. Measurements taken at WOCE sections A-12 and A-21 included pressure, temperature, salinity measured by the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth sensor (CTD); bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrate; silicate; total carbon concentration (TCO{sub 2}); and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured at 20 C. In addition, potential density at 0 decibar (dbar) and potential temperature were calculated from the measured variables. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometer with an estimated precision of approximately {+-} {mu}mol/kg.

  2. Properties of carbon-based structures synthesized in nuclear reactions induced by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with threshold energy of 10 MeV at helium pressure of 1.1 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    Helium gas with an initial pressure of about 1.1 kbar inside a high-pressure chamber (HeHPC) has been irradiated by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with a threshold energy of 10 MeV for 1.0 × 105 s produced by an electron-beam current of 22-24 μA. After opening the HeHPC, the residual pressure of helium is equal to 430 bar. Synthesized black foils with a variety of other objects are found inside the HeHPC. They are located on the inner surfaces of the reaction chamber made of high-purity copper (99.99%), the entrance the window of γ quanta made of beryllium bronze and a copper container of nuclear and chemical reaction products. Elemental analysis with the use of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis has revealed that the foils contain predominantly carbon and small quantities of other elements from carbon to iron. The results are in good agreement with the cycle of investigations of the authors devoted to the γ-quanta irradiation of dense hydrogen and helium gases in the presence (absence) of metals in a reaction chamber.

  3. High pressure study of low compressibility tetracalcium aluminum carbonate hydrates 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·11H2O

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Juhyuk

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data was collected from a sample of monocarboaluminate 3CaO•Al2O3•CaCO 3•11H2O from ambient pressure to 4.3 GPa. The refined crystal structure at ambient pressure is triclinic with parameters a = 5.77(2) Å, b = 8.47(5) Å, c = 9.93(4) Å, α = 64.6(2)°, β = 82.8(3)°, γ = 81.4(4)°, and space group of P1 or P1̄. It showed some degree of perfectly reversible pressure-induced dehydration with a non-hygroscopic pressure-transmitting medium. However the dehydration effect does not critically affect a bulk modulus due to its strong framework. The isothermal bulk modulus of monocarboaluminate was found to be 53(5) GPa and 54(4) GPa with 3rd order and 2nd order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of state, respectively. That value is higher than for any other reported AFm or AFt phase. The pressure-volume behavior of the monocarboaluminate was compared with that of previous studied hemicarboaluminate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon-13 and cadmium-113 nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for a novel transannular oscillation of cadmium(II) in the pendant arm macrocyclic complex (1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)cadmium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, P.; Hounslow, A.M.; Lincoln, S.F. (Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)); Keough, R.A.; Wainwright, K.P. (Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia))

    1990-05-16

    A {sup 13}C NMR study of (1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)cadmium(II), (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+}, in CD{sub 3}OD shows that the most probable structure for (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} incorporates the 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane ring in the trans III configuration. In this structure Cd(II) is above the tetraaza plane and is trigonal-prismatically coordinated by four ring nitrogens and two hydroxyethyl pendant arms attached to either end of the same 1,3-diaminopropane moiety. The {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectrum of solid (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} is also consistent with this structure. Dynamic {sup 13}C NMR studies of natural abundance (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} and of (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} in which both carbons of each of the hydroxyethyl arms are 99 atom % enriched in {sup 13}C are consistent with a rapid oscillation of Cd(II) through the macrocyclic annulus of THEC. The {sup 13}C-enriched hydroxyethyl arms are characterized by {sup 13}C AB quartets under conditions of slow exchange but show a novel coalescence to a singlet under fast-exchange conditions consistent with the relative chemical shifts of the methylene carbons of the hydroxyethyl arm being reversed when it changes from the mono- to the bidentate coordination state. The pairwise exchange of the hydroxyethyl arm between the monodentate and bidentate environments is characterized by k(298.2 K) = 34,200 {plus minus} 1,800 s{sup {minus}1}, {Delta}H{double dagger} = 44.00 {plus minus} 0.56 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and {Delta}S{double dagger} = {minus}10.6 {plus minus} 2.2 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1}. {sup 13}C and {sup 113}Cd NMR spectra show that intermolecular THEC and Cd(II) exchange on (Cd(THEC)){sup 2+} is a much slower process. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Ice core measurements of 14CH4 show no evidence of methane release from methane hydrates or old permafrost carbon during a large warming event 11,600 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Vasilii; Severinghaus, Jeffrey; Smith, Andrew; Riedel, Katja; Brook, Edward; Schaefer, Hinrich; Baggenstos, Daniel; Harth, Christina; Hua, Quan; Buizert, Christo; Schilt, Adrian; Fain, Xavier; Mitchell, Logan; Bauska, Thomas; Orsi, Anais

    2015-04-01

    Thawing permafrost and marine methane hydrate destabilization in the Arctic and elsewhere have been proposed as large sources of methane to the atmosphere in the future warming world. To evaluate this hypothesis it is useful to ask whether such methane releases happened during past warming events. The two major abrupt warming events of the last deglaciation, Oldest Dryas - Bølling (OD-B, ≈ 14,500 years ago) and Younger Dryas - Preboreal (YD-PB; ≈11,600 years ago), were associated with large (up to 50%) increases in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations. The sources of these large warming-driven CH4 increases remain incompletely understood, with possible contributions from tropical and boreal wetlands, thawing permafrost as well as marine CH4 hydrates. We present new measurements of 14C of paleoatmospheric CH4 over the YD-PB transition from ancient ice outcropping at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. 14C can unambiguously identify CH4 emissions from "old carbon" sources, such as permafrost and CH4 hydrates. The only prior study of paleoatmospheric 14CH4 (from Greenland ice) suggested that wetlands were the main driver of the YD-PB CH4 increase, but the results were weakened by an unexpected and poorly understood 14CH4 component from in situ cosmogenic production directly in near-surface ice. In this new study, we have been able to accurately characterize and correct for the cosmogenic 14CH4 component. All samples from before, during and after the abrupt warming and associated CH4 increase yielded 14CH4 values that are consistent with 14C of atmospheric CO2 at that time, indicating a purely contemporaneous methane source. These new measurements rule out the possibility of large CH4 releases to the atmosphere from methane hydrates or old permafrost carbon in response to the large and rapid YD-PB warming. To the extent that the characteristics of the YD-PB warming are comparable to those of the current anthropogenic warming, our measurements suggest that large future

  6. E11 in 11D

    CERN Document Server

    Tumanov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We construct the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its vector representation in eleven dimensions and find the dynamical equations it predicts at low levels. These equations are completely determined by the non-linear realisation and when restricted to contain only the usual fields of supergravity and the usual space-time we find precisely the equations of motion of eleven dimensional supergravity. This paper extends the results announced in arXiv:1512.01644 and in particular it contains the contributions to the equations of motion that involve derivatives with respect to the level one generalised coordinates.

  7. E11 in 11D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2016-07-01

    We construct the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its vector representation in eleven dimensions and find the dynamical equations it predicts at low levels. These equations are completely determined by the non-linear realisation and when restricted to contain only the usual fields of supergravity and the usual spacetime we find precisely the equations of motion of eleven dimensional supergravity. This paper extends the results announced in arxiv:hep-th/1512.01644 and in particular it contains the contributions to the equations of motion that involve derivatives with respect to the level one generalised coordinates.

  8. Enhanced radiosyntheses of [11C]raclopride and [11C]DASB using ethanolic loop chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: To improve the synthesis and quality control of carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals, we report the fully automated loop syntheses of [11C]raclopride and [11C]DASB using ethanol as the only organic solvent for synthesis module cleaning, carbon-11 methylation, HPLC purification, and reformulation. Methods: Ethanolic loop chemistry is fully automated using a GE TRACERLab FXC-Pro synthesis module, and is readily adaptable to any other carbon-11 synthesis apparatus. Precursors (1 mg) were dissolved in ethanol (100 μL) and loaded into the HPLC loop. [11C]MeOTf was passed through the HPLC loop and then the labeled products were purified by semi-preparative HPLC and reformulated into ethanolic saline. Results: Both [11C]raclopride (3.7% RCY; > 95% RCP; SA = 20831 Ci/mmol; n = 64) and [11C]DASB, both with (3.0% RCY; > 95% RCP; SA = 15152 Ci/mmol; n = 9) and without (3.0% RCY; > 95% RCP; SA = 10931 Ci/mmol; n = 3) sodium ascorbate, have been successfully prepared using the described methodology. Doses are suitable for human use and the described methods are now employed for routine clinical production of both radiopharmaceuticals at University of Michigan. Conclusions: Ethanolic loop chemistry is a powerful technique for preparing [11C]raclopride and [11C]DASB, and we are in the process of adapting it for other carbon-11 radiopharmaceuticals prepared in our laboratories ([11C]PMP, [11C]PBR28 etc.).

  9. Tendances Carbone n. 11 Feb. 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter treats, first, of the introduction of aviation industry into the European emissions trading scheme. Then it makes a synthesis of the European CO2 market over the last 13 months: traded volumes, spot prices, climate indexes (temperature, precipitations), economic activity indicators (industrial production index, business leaders' confidence index, changes in energy prices, CO2 quotas allocated to European Union countries, and detailed indicators of CO2 market, climate, economic activity and energy prices. (J.S.)

  10. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 48644 (August 11, 2010) (``First Rescission''). \\5\\ See Certain Activated Carbon... activated carbon is a powdered, granular, or pelletized carbon product obtained by ``activating'' with heat... activated carbon, including powdered activated carbon (``PAC''), granular......

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-11 (NCEI Accession 0144245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144245 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-11. These data include AIR-SEA...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2013-02-18 (NODC Accession 0117059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117059 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2013-02-18 and retrieved during cruise...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 (NODC Accession 0117354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117354 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 and retrieved during cruise...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0144246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144246 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05. These data include AIR...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25 (NODC Accession 0100084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100084 includes chemical, physical, and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25. These...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_SOFS_142W_46S in the Indian Ocean from 2011-11-24 to 2012-09-24 (NODC Accession 0118546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118546 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_SOFS_142W_46S in the Indian Ocean from 2011-11-24 to...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2010-11-06 (NODC Accession 0100076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100076 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2010-11-06. These data...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11 (NCEI Accession 0144244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144244 includes Surface underway data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11. These data include AIR...

  19. Preparation of 11C labelled tamoxifen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses and HPLC analysis of N-desmethyltamoxifen and carbon-11labelled tamoxifen are described. In order to obtain the N-desmethyltamoxifen,tamoxifencitrate was first converted to tamoxifen free base.N-desmethyltamoxifen wasprepared by reacting tamoxifen free base with 1-chloroethyl-chloroformate(ACE.Cl).For 11C labeling, N-desmethyltamoxifen was heated with 11Cmethyl iodide for 10min at 130℃,and the 11Clabelled compound was purifiedby HPLC on a μBonapak TM C18 column.Injectable 11C-tamoxifen was obtained within 50~60min from EOB (end-of-bombardment) with a labeling yield of 60%~70%.

  20. Carbon diffusion in carbon-supersaturated ferrite and austenite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 586, FEB (2014), s. 129-135. ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : carbon diffusion * Carbon supersaturation * Carbon supersaturation * Ferrite * Austenite Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  1. Difference in brain distributions of carbon 11-labeled 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolones as PET radioligands for the glycine-binding site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Haradahira, Terushi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: terushi@niu.ac.jp; Fujimoto, Noriko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okauchi, Takashi; Maeda, Jun; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Sasaki, Shigeki; Mukai, Takahiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Maeda, Minoru [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    High-affinity iodine- and ethyl-C-5 substituted analogs of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)-2(1H)-quinolone ([{sup 11}C]4HQ) were synthesized as new positron emission tomography radioligands for the glycine-binding sites of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel. Although both radioligands showed high in vitro specific binding to rat brain slices, their binding characteristics were quite different from each other. 5-Ethyl-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed higher in vitro binding in the forebrain regions than in the cerebellum, bindings that were strongly inhibited by both glycine-site agonists and antagonists. In contrast, 5-iodo-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed a homogeneous in vitro binding throughout the brain, which was inhibited by antagonists but not by agonists. This difference in in vitro binding between 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ was quite similar to that previously observed between [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 and [{sup 11}C]4HQ, both glycine-site antagonists. In vivo brain uptakes of these {sup 11}C-labeled 4-hydroxyquinolones were examined in mice. Initial brain uptakes of 5Et- and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ at 1 min after intravenous injections were comparable to that of [{sup 11}C]4HQ, but they were 1.3-2.1 times higher than that of [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The treatment with an anticoagulant, warfarin, only slightly increased the initial uptakes of [{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ in contrast to [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The in vivo regional brain distributions were slightly different between the two radioligands. Pretreatment with nonradioactive ligand (2 mg/kg) slightly inhibited the binding of 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (16-36% inhibition) but not that of 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ. In this study, it was found that a small structural change in [{sup 11}C]4HQ resulted in a major change in binding characteristics and distributions, suggesting the existence of two binding sites for [{sup 11}C]4-hydroxyquinolones on the NMDA ion channel

  2. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  3. Synthesis of some 11C-labelled alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using (11C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-(11C-methyl)-morphine, N-(11C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-(11C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-(11C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing (11C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. (11C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from (11C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the 14N(p,α)11C reaction. (Authors)

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 (NODC Accession 0109920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109920 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 and...

  5. Tendances Carbone n. 11 Feb. 2007; Tendances Carbone n. 11 Fevrier 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemaere, M

    2007-07-01

    This newsletter treats, first, of the introduction of aviation industry into the European emissions trading scheme. Then it makes a synthesis of the European CO{sub 2} market over the last 13 months: traded volumes, spot prices, climate indexes (temperature, precipitations), economic activity indicators (industrial production index, business leaders' confidence index, changes in energy prices, CO{sub 2} quotas allocated to European Union countries, and detailed indicators of CO{sub 2} market, climate, economic activity and energy prices. (J.S.)

  6. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  8. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B;

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...... frequently seen in proximal 11q deletions involving 11q21. Telomeric staining using the PRINS technique demonstrated normal telomeric sequences in the deleted chromosome 11....

  9. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  10. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, May 23, 2005 - November 11, 2006 (NODC Accession 0038513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from May 23, 2005 to November 11, 2006....

  11. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to 2011-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0144622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144622 includes Surface underway data collected from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-11 to 1997-08-11 (NODC Accession 0112236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112236 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-11 to...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to 1996-11-30 (NODC Accession 0113544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113544 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to...

  15. Carbon isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a hands-on introduction to using carbon isotope tracers in experimental biology and ecology. It is a bench-top reference with protocols for the study of plants, animals, and soils. The 11C, 12C, 13C, and 14C carbon isotopes are considered and standard techniques are described by established authors. The compilation includes the following features: specific, well-established, user-oriented techniques; carbon cycles in plants, animals, soils, air, and water; isotopes in ecological research; examples and sample calculations

  16. Main: SURECOREATSULTR11 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SURECOREATSULTR11 S000499 02-August-2006 (last modified) kehi Core of sulfur-respon...sive element (SURE) found in the promoter of SULTR1;1 high-affinity sulfate transporter gene in Arabidopsis;

  17. Kinetics of resite carbonization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Svítilová, Jaroslava

    11(120) (2001), s. 97-103. ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : carbonization * combustion Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using infrared dissolved inorganic carbon analyzer, alkalinity titrator and other instruments from the North Atlantic Ocean near Key West, Florida (Class III climate monitoring sites) from 2012-03-23 to 2014-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0132022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data collected to monitor changes to oral reef carbonate chemistry over time, at US affiliated coral reef sites, through quantifying...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has...

  20. Carbon isotope anomalies in carbonates of the Karelian series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudovich, Ia. E.; Makarikhin, V. V.; Medvedev, P. V.; Sukhanov, N. V.

    1990-07-01

    Results are presented on carbon isotope distributions in carbonates of the Karelian complex. A highly anomalous isotopic composition was found in carbonate rocks aged from 2.6 to 1.9 b.y. In the stromatolitic carbonates of the Onega water table, delta-(C-13) reaches a value of +18 percent, while the shungite layer of the Zaonega horizon is characterized by a wide dispersion (from +7.9 to -11.8 percent). These data are in good agreement with the known geochemical boundary (about 2.2 b.y. ago) in the history of the earth.

  1. Analysis of plasma metabolites during human PET studies with three receptor ligands, [11C]YM-09151-2, [11C]doxepin and [11C]pyrilamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11 labeled metabolites in human plasma were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography during positron emission tomography (PET) studies using the dopamine D2 ligand [11C]YM-09151-2 as well as the histamine H1 ligands [11C]doxepin and [11C]pyrilamine. For all the three tracers, blood clearance of the radioactivity was extremely rapid after an i.v. injection. The plasma protein-binding of [11C]YM-09151-2 and [11C]doxepin had protective effects upon the metabolic alteration of the ligands, whereas [11C]pyrilamine was free from the protein-binding and immediately degraded. The degradation of [11C]doxepin was more rapid in epileptic patients on medication than in normal subjects. These results indicate that analysis of metabolites in the plasma is necessary to determine the accurate arterial input function for quantitative PET measurement. (author)

  2. Studio 1:1

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Projekteerimis- ja disainistuudiost STUDIO 1:1 (Eindhoven), mis tegeleb avaliku ruumi loomise ja selle kasutamise kujundamisega. Projektidest "Linnulinn - linn lindude segakogukonna jaoks" ja ICT kogemuskeskus "De Verdieping"

  3. Synthesis of some /sup 11/C-labelled alkaloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Halldin, H.; Svaerd, H.; Bergson, G. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden) Inst. of Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    Using (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-morphine, N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. (/sup 11/C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from (/sup 11/C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the /sup 14/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reaction.

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-03-29 to 1994-05-11 (NODC Accession 0115177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115177 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-03-29 to 1994-05-11...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-05-11 to 1989-06-07 (NODC Accession 0113530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113530 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-05-11 to...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to 2015-07-29 (NODC Accession 0112926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112926 includes discrete sample, profile and time series profile data collected from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to...

  7. 22q11-deletionssyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Agergaard, Peter; Boers, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    22q11 deletion syndrome (formerly named CATCH22, DiGeorge, Velo-Cardio-Facial, Caylor, Kinouchi and Shprintzen syndrome) occurs in approximately 1/2000 to 4000 children. The genetic lesion is remarkably uniform, occurring mainly as 3 or 1.5 MB deletions in the 22q11.2 region. However, the clinical...

  8. Lift11 / Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruudi, Ingrid, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    23. augustist 11. oktoobrini 2010 toimuvast konkursist, mille eesmärk on leida kultuuripealinna üritusena toimuva linnainstallatsioonide festivali "Lift11" tarvis installatsioonide ideekavandeid. Festivali kuraatorid on kunstiteadlased Maarin Mürk ja Ingrid Ruudi ning arhitektid Margit Aule ja Margit Argus

  9. WOOD 1:1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Report from 1:1 workshop at Virserum Konsthall in May 2013 with a team of Master's students from Royal Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Dpt. 3.......Report from 1:1 workshop at Virserum Konsthall in May 2013 with a team of Master's students from Royal Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Dpt. 3....

  10. September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Christine K.

    2002-01-01

    The September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States had an impact on everyone across the nation, and certainly included college campuses. This article addresses campus responses targeted at students and identifies future implications. (Contains 20 references.) (Author)

  11. Sensitivity study in vitro in clinical isolated strains in the previous five years for erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate%环酯红霉素对近5年临床分离菌株的体外敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立涛; 孙韵; 卢涛; 谭显曙; 秦盼立; 周黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility to clinically isolated strains in the previous five years and the drug resistance to antimicrobial agents so as to realize the antibacterial activity to erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate in vitro. Methods Agar dilution method was used to detect the drug susceptibility to the 220 clinical isolates. Results Susceptibility test showed the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and H. Influenzae to erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate were 35.0%, 55.0%, 35.0%, 36.7% and 70.0%. The MIC50 of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and H. Influenzae were 1, 1, 32, 0.5 and 64ug/mL, and the MIC90 were 32, 8, 256, 32 and 128μg/mL. Conclusion The resistance of clinical isolates indicated that erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate was comparative with azithromycin in the antibacterial activity, presenting no statistically significant between erythromycin cyclic 1 l,12-carbonate and azithromycin by SPSS17.0 (P>0.05).%目的 通过比较近五年临床分离菌株对多种抗菌药物的药物敏感性及耐药性研究,了解环酯红霉素的体外抗菌活性.方法 利用琼脂平板稀释法对临床分离220株细菌进行药敏性分析.结果 药物敏感性实验表明肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和流感嗜血菌对环酯红霉素的耐药率分别为35.0%、55.0%、35.0%、36.7 %和70.0 %.肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和流感嗜血菌对环酯红霉素的MIC50和MIC90分别为1、1、32、0.5、64μg/mL和32、8、256、32、128μg/mL.结论 经SPSS17.0统计分析后,发现临床分离菌株对环酯红霉素和阿奇霉素的耐药率表明两者的抗菌活性相当,不存在统计学差异(P>0.05).

  12. Impacts of March 11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Feng: The world-shocking September 11 terrorist attacks occurred in the United States in 2001, and two and a half years late the world saw panic-stricken terrorist attacks of the same kind in Spain. Ever since then March 11 has become another day that is engraved on the mind of the people all over the world. The terrorist event in Madrid has not only produced great impact on Spain and other European nations as well as on the common people, but also spurred the European nations to reflect on a series of important issues and to make some adjustments of their policies.

  13. CARBON DIFFUSION IN CARBON-SUPERSATURATED 9CR-1MO STEEL: ANOMALOUS TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF CARBON DIFFUSIVITY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    Ostrava : Tanger Ltd, 2014. ISBN 978-80-87294-52-9. [Metal 2014. International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials /23./. Brno (CZ), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Diffusion * Carbon * phase decomposition * Carbon-supersaturation * Cr-Mo steels Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://www.metal2014.com/cz/zobrazit-seznam-prispevku/2498-carbon-diffusion-in-carbon-supersaturated-9cr-1mo-steel-anomalous-temperature-dependence-of-carbon-diffusivity/

  14. 11C-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Michael R; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Herth, Matthias Manfred;

    2007-01-01

    The long-distance transport and actions of the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were investigated by using the short-lived positron-emitting isotope 11C to label both MeJA and photoassimilate, and compare their transport properties in the same tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). There was...

  15. LIFT11 linnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn 2011 programmi kuuluva installatsioonide festivali "Lift11" avalikule ideekonkursile esitati 129 tööd, välja valiti 17. Tutvustatakse Maarja Kase ja Ralf Lõokese tööd "L", Tomomi Hayashi tööd "Merele!", Toomas Paaveri, Teele Pehki ja Triin Talki tööd "Kalarand"

  16. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  17. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  18. An efficient synthesis of 2-[carbonyl-11C]acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (N-[carbonyl-11C]acetyl-D-glucosamine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid chemical synthesis of 2-[carbonyl-11C]acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (N-[carbonyl-11C]acetyl-D-glucosamine) starting from [11C]carbon dioxide is described. The total time required for the synthesis, the radiochemical yield, and purity of the titled sugar are ca. 60 min, 49.5% (based on [carbonyl-11C] acetic acid), and >98%, respectively. (author)

  19. IDEA papers no 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no.11 is devoted to the wastes management in Aquitaine. Data on wastes volume, type and recycling are presented and examples of enterprises actions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Fusion11 Conference Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary account of the conference Fusion11, held in Saint Malo, France, May 2-6, 2011. There were 77 talks by experts in the field. The author comments on a few of the physics topics discussed during the presentations. His comments concern: new facilities, fusion cross-sections (particularly the barrier penetration model, optical potentials, the channel coupling, the barrier distribution, fusion hindrance and transfer channels), rare isotopes, clusters and superheavy elements

  1. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  2. Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) Expression in the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Koike; Yasuko Tanaka; Toshiyuki Matsuzaki; Yoshiyuki Morishita; Kenichi Ishibashi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular aquaporin expressed in various tissues, including brain tissues in mammals. While AQP11-deficient mice have developed fatal polycystic kidneys at one month old, the role of AQP11 in the brain was not well appreciated. In this study, we examined the AQP11 expression in the mouse brain and the brain phenotype of AQP11-deficient mice. AQP11 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein were expressed in the brain, but much less than in the thymus and kidn...

  3. In vivo detection of cranial dopaminergic processes: studies with L-1-C-11-Dopa and C-11-labelled ADTN derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, probably the first in literature, some results are presented of in vivo studies of carbon-11-labelled dopamine agonists in cats and dogs with positron emission tomography. Recently a method for the separation of D- and L-dopa enantiomers from the DL-dopa mixture was developed. These three compounds were injected intravenously and with PET cold spots in the striatium of dog's brains could be obtained, independently of pretreatment with carbidopa. The synthesis of carbon-11-labelled ADTN derivatives and their uses is discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Solid support for [11C]cyanide labelling of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [11C]HCN plays a major role in synthesis of 11C-labelled organic radiopharmaceuticals because of its on-line availability as a primary precursor of Carbon-11. [11C]HCN is usually trapped in 0.5-1.0 ml of 0.1 M NaOH or KOH solution for the synthesis of organic labelled compounds. Though [11C]HCN in 0.1 M base can be utilized for labelling base resistant organic compounds, substrates with esters, amide like functional groups cannot be labelled using this method due to the instability of these groups in basic medium. The authors report a novel approach for trapping no-carrier-added [11C]HCN on a silica gel support and its incorporation into model compounds

  5. Toward explaining the Holocene carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records: Results from transient ocean carbon cycle-climate simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Menviel, L.; F. Joos

    2012-01-01

    [1] The Bern3D model was applied to quantify the mechanisms of carbon cycle changes during the Holocene (last 11,000 years). We rely on scenarios from the literature to prescribe the evolution of shallow water carbonate deposition and of land carbon inventory changes over the glacial termination (18,000 to 11,000 years ago) and the Holocene and modify these scenarios within uncertainties. Model results are consistent with Holocene records of atmospheric CO2 and δ13C as well as the spatiotempo...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using spectrophotometer and other instruments from R/V Henry B. Bigelow off the northeastern coast of the United States from 2014-09-10 to 2014-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0138983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbon chemistry resulting in a reduction in...

  7. Wendepunkt 11. September

    OpenAIRE

    Crome, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    "Hin und wieder ist es sinnvoll", betonte Bertrand Russell, "ein Fragezeichen hinter Dinge zu setzen, die wir schon lange für selbstverständlich nehmen". Der US-amerikanische 11. September ist zehn Jahre her. Die Neokonservativen in den USA hatten bereits in den 1990er Jahren verschiedene Netzwerke gegründet, darunter das Project for the New American Century (PNAC). Das agitierte für den Sturz Saddam Husseins und Krieg gegen den Irak. Davon wollte Präsident Clinton nichts wissen; George W. Bu...

  8. 9/11 Art

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Bering Ovesen, Maj Winther Møller; Ida Løwenstein Holmen, Julie Stigsen; Irina Postelnicu, Michael Schulz

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to investigate the reasons behind the censoring of five art pieces inspired by the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. The key issue in this project is to determine which psychological aspects came into play when the nation was struck by the traumatic event. This is done with the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and the analysis of group trauma. Furthermore by examining the aesthetics and sociology of art, as well as the media’s coverage of events, it is discus...

  9. 11C-methylations using 11C-methyl iodide and tetrabutylammonium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11 methylation reactions on functional groups such as phenols and amides require a base when using 11C-methyl iodide. This study demonstrates that tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) can be used as a base to prepare 11C-radiopharmaceuticals efficiently and in high yield. We have applied this method to raclopride, methylphenidate, PK11195, dihydrotetrabenazine and MDL100907 and have compared the results with the Alumina/KF and hydroxide methods. Our results indicate that TBAF gives equivalent or higher radiochemical yields compared to the other bases even when using as little as 200 μg of precursor. In the case of PK11195 the TBAF method was the only one that provided a reasonable yield of product. (orig.)

  10. {sup 11}C-methylations using {sup 11}C-methyl iodide and tetrabutylammonium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, M.J.; Jivan, S.; Huser, J.M.; Lu, J. [TRIUMF Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Carbon-11 methylation reactions on functional groups such as phenols and amides require a base when using {sup 11}C-methyl iodide. This study demonstrates that tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) can be used as a base to prepare {sup 11}C-radiopharmaceuticals efficiently and in high yield. We have applied this method to raclopride, methylphenidate, PK11195, dihydrotetrabenazine and MDL100907 and have compared the results with the Alumina/KF and hydroxide methods. Our results indicate that TBAF gives equivalent or higher radiochemical yields compared to the other bases even when using as little as 200 {mu}g of precursor. In the case of PK11195 the TBAF method was the only one that provided a reasonable yield of product. (orig.)

  11. The Biological carbon pump in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Richard; Henson, Stephanie A.; Koski, Marja; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Painter, Stuart C.; Poulton, Alex J.; Riley, Jennifer; Salihoglu, Baris; Visser, Andre; Yool, Andrew; Bellerby, Richard; Martin, Adrian P.

    Mediated principally by the sinking of organic rich particles from the upper ocean, the Biological Carbon Pump (BCP) is a significant component of the global carbon cycle. It transfers roughly 11 Gt C yr−1 into the ocean’s interior and maintains atmospheric carbon dioxide at significantly lower...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  13. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  14. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  15. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Kaiser, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    solubility of CO2 in acidic forest soil solutions and large NEE. Leaching of CH4 proved to be insignificant compared with other fluxes of carbon. Overall, our results show that leaching losses are particularly important for the carbon balance of agricultural systems.......Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and......, and 4.11.3 gm2 yr1 for croplands. The average flux of total biogenic carbon across land use systems was 19.44.0 gCm2 yr1. Production of DOC in topsoils was positively related to their C/N ratio and DOC retention in subsoils was inversely related to the ratio of organic carbon to iron plus aluminium...

  16. The Rich Circumstellar Chemistry of SMP LMC 11

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, Sarah E; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-rich evolved stars from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase are characterized by a rich and complex carbon chemistry in their circumstellar envelopes. A peculiar object is the preplanetary nebula SMP LMC 11, whose Spitzer-IRS spectrum shows remarkable and diverse molecular absorption bands. To study how the molecular composition in this object compares to our current understanding of circumstellar carbon chemistry, we modeled this molecular absorption. We find high abundances for a number of molecules, perhaps most notably benzene. We also confirm the presence of propyne (CH3C2H) in this spectrum. Of all the cyanopolyynes, only HC3N is evident; we can detect at best a marginal presence of HCN. From comparisons to various chemical models, we can conclude that SMP LMC 11 must have an unusual circumstellar environment (a torus rather than an outflow).

  17. 11 CFR 114.11 - Employee participation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stockholder, director, or employee of the corporation or its separate segregated fund may exert pressure of... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee participation plans. 114.11 Section... § 114.11 Employee participation plans. (a) A corporation may establish and administer an...

  18. 75 FR 26927 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ...: Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China, 71 FR 59721 (October 11, 2006); unchanged in... merchandise subject to this order is certain activated carbon. Certain activated carbon is a powdered... powdered activated carbon (``PAC''), granular activated carbon (``GAC''), and pelletized......

  19. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 11 (ASR-11) is a short-range digital, integrated primary and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) radar system with a 60 nautical...

  20. High molar activity of [11C]TCH346 via [11C]methyl triflate using the 'wet' [11C]CO2 reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [11C]TCH346, a compound acting on the glycolytic enzyme, glycerol-aldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was produced under optimised conditions by methylation of the desmethyl compound with no-carrier added (n.c.a.) [11C]methyl triflate. An i.v. injectable solution of n.c.a. [11C]TCH346 containing 4040±1550 MBq (n=6) containing a molar activity between 40 and 5700 GBq/μmol and a radiochemical purity of >99% was obtained within 30 min (after EOB) by irradiation of nitrogen gas containing 0.5% oxygen with 16.5 MeV protons at 45 μA for 30 min. The alkylation reagent [11C]methyl triflate was prepared via on-line conversion of [11C]methyl iodide. For the formation of [11C]methyl iodide, [11C]carbon dioxide from the target chamber was reduced by a lithium aluminium hydride solution, and the methanol obtained on-line was converted using triphenylphosphine diiodide. The molar activity of [11C]TCH346 could be improved from 40 up to nearly 5700 GBq/μmol during the optimisation of the synthesis using the same stock solution of lithium aluminium hydride solution in tetrahydrofuran

  1. Clinical and radiographic study of activated carbon workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Uragoda, C. G.

    1989-01-01

    Activated carbon is made in Sri Lanka by passing steam through charcoal made from coconut shells. The carbon does not contain free silica. Sixty six men who had worked in a factory making activated carbon for an average of 7.2 years had no more respiratory symptoms than a control group, and none showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. There was no evidence that people exposed to charcoal and pure carbon for up to 11 years are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis.

  2. Lepidoptera. Chapter 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna, in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries, Madeira and Azores 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. The route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confined to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks and gardens. We highlight four species in particular, Diaphania perspectalis, Cacyreus marshalli, Cameraria ohridella and Paysandisia archon, as the most important current economic threats.

  3. Carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  4. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over a...... corporations construing themselves as able and suitable to manage their emissions, and, additionally, given that the construction of carbon emissions has performative consequences, the underlying practices need to be declassified, i.e. opened for public scrutiny. Hence the paper concludes by arguing for a...

  5. New developments of carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 117th Committee on Carbon Materials in the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) started in March 1948. The committee will have 60th anniversary in March 2008. As memorial of this, the title publication was published for informing about new developments of carbon materials to many people. The publication is divided into 3 chapters. A theme of the 1st chapter is 'Synthesis' which includes 17 papers, a theme of the 2nd chapter is 'Analysis' which includes 11 papers, a theme of the 3rd chapter is Application' which includes 15 papers. The publication also includes historical review of the committee. (J.P.N.)

  6. (/sup 11/C)clorgyline and (/sup 11/C)-L-deprenyl and their use in measuring functional monoamine oxidase activity in the brain using positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1986-04-17

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase in the living body by using /sup 11/C-labeled enzyme inhibitors which bind irreversibly to an enzyme as a result of catalysis. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  7. Synthesis of 2-[11C]cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid), a drug used in treating tuberculosis has been labelled with carbon-11 at the 2-position. The labelling synthesis starts with methyl isonicotinate treated with dimethyl sulfate. The resulting salt solution is loaded onto silica gel and dried, followed by treatment with carbon-11 labelled hydrocyanic acid. Work-up gave the labelled compound with an average 32% radiochemical yield. Subsequent treatment with hydrazine hydrate yielded isoniazid

  8. Development of an automated modular system for the synthesis of [11C]acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felicini, Chiara; Någren, Kjell; Berton, Andrea; Pascali, Giancarlo; Salvadori, Piero Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Carboxylation reactions offer a straightforward method for the synthesis of carbon-11 labelled carboxylic acids. Among these, the preparation of carbon-11 (C)-acetate is receiving increasing attention because of diagnostic applications in oncology in addition to its well-established use as a prob...... for myocardial oxidative metabolism. Although a number of dedicated modules are commercially available, the development of the synthesis on flexible platforms would be beneficial to widen the number of tracers, in particular for preclinical assessment and testing....

  9. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25–38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  10. Development of additive [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [{sup 11}C]radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Technical Support Team, Duchembio, Seoul 121-844 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Chul, E-mail: leebc2001@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Eun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Smart Humanity Convergence Center, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 11}C]PIB, [{sup 11}C]DASB, [{sup 11}C]PBR28, [{sup 11}C]Methionine and [{sup 11}C]Clozapine, the radiochemical

  11. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin; Lee, Won Kyung; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25-38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  12. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate. PMID:20502921

  13. Chemical Behaviour of C11 in Liquid Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11 is produced by the C12 (γ, n)Cu11 reaction in the Bremsstrahlung beam of a 70 MeV electron synchrotron. As target materials, liquid hydrocarbons with 5 and 6 carbons have been used, including normal, branched and alicyclic pentanes and hexanes as well as benzene. The behaviour of Cu11 has been studied by gas chromatographic separation of the products, counting the Cu11 in the gas stream in a cell placed in a well-type scintillation counter. In each experiment yields of different products were compared to the yield of acetylene as an internal standard and either to a tantalum monitor or to the total Cu11 produced as measured in the entire sample before separation. The flow counters were calibrated in terms of total Cu11 produced in experiments in which the complete sample was burned to CO2 and passed through a flow counter. Our earlier experiments were concerned only with the gaseous products that have now been well characterized for the various target molecules under different dosage conditions. Current experiments on product molecules similar in size to the target have proved very helpful in deciding on mechanisms for recombination of recoil atoms. Of particular interest is the yield of product with one carbon more than the target,the result of an addition reaction. The location of the additional atom on a target molecule having several types of addition sites gives information regarding the process itself. When the recoil atom is slowed to an energy at which it is possible for a bond to be formed, at least temporarily, the extra energy which the Cu11 atom brings into the system may cause bond rupture elsewhere within the activated complex usually leading to a two-carbon product. If the complex is able to hold together without rupturing, an additional product will result. Thus comparison of the yields of two-carbon compounds, acetylene, ethylene and ethane, and the additional products provides valuable information regarding the energy at which stable

  14. Bone induction through controlled release of novel BMP-2-related peptide from PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is the most powerful osteogenic factor; its effectiveness in enhancing osteoblastic activation has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a novel peptide (designated P24) derived from the ‘knuckle’ epitope of BMP-2 and found it also had osteogenic bioactivity to some extent. The main objective of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on poly(trimethylene carbonate)–F127–poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC11-F127-PTMC11) hydrogels for the P24 peptide, to promote bone formation. By varying the copolymer concentrations, we demonstrated that P24/PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogels were an efficient system for the sustained release of P24 over 21–35 days. The P24-loaded hydrogels elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and promoted the expression of osteocalcin mRNA in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Radiographic and histological examination showed that P24-loaded hydrogels could induce more effective ectopic bone formation in vivo than P24-free hydrogels. These results indicate that the PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogel is a suitable carrier for the controlled release of P24, and is a promising injectable biomaterial for the induction of bone regeneration. (paper)

  15. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Broadband Service (EBS) stations; DBS services, as defined in 47 CFR 25.701(a) (including certain Ku-band Fixed-Satellite Service Direct to Home providers); SDARS, as defined in 47 CFR 25.201; participating... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11...

  16. Synthesis of 1- and 3-11C-labelled L-lactic acid using multi-enzyme catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 1- and 3-11C-labelled L-lactic acid from the corresponding racemic 1- or 3-11C-labelled alanine using a multi-enzymatic reaction route, is presented. DL-[1-11C]Alanine was synthesised by reacting sodium 1-hydroxy-ethyl sulfite with hydrogen [11C]cyanide, obtained from [11C]carbon dioxide, and ammonia followed by acid hydrolysis. DL-[3-11C]-Alanine was synthesised by a methylation of a glycine derivative, N-(diphenylmethylene)-glycine tert-butyl ester, with [11C]methyl iodide, obtained from [11C]carbon dioxide, and subsequent hydrolysis. The racemic 1- or 3-11C-labelled alanine was then converted to pyruvic acid, by D-amino acid oxidase/catalase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, which was directly reduced to L-lactic acid by L-lactic dehydrogenase in a one-pot procedure. The total synthesis time was 40 minutes, counted from release of [11C]carbon dioxide. The decay corrected radiochemical yields were ca. 80% for L-[1-11C]lactic acid, based on hydrogen cyanide, and ca. 60% for L-[3-11C]lactic acid, based on carbon dioxide. The radiochemical purities were higher than 99% analysed by HPLC. (author)

  17. Carbon-14 measurement using carbon dioxide absorption method - Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-C14 measurement using absorption technique consists of direct absorption of sample carbon dioxide into an absorber - scintillator mixture. This technique is a simple, fast, less expensive and less hazardous technique compared to benzene synthesis or any other technique. This techniques enable us in preparing six/seven samples in a day while benzene synthesis technique takes two days for the preparation of one sample. It is useful for radiocarbon age up to about 38,000 a BP (∼1 pMC), which is adequate for most of the hydrological investigations. All the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) is precipitated as barium carbonate from the ∼60 to 70 liters of water at the site. In the laboratory, it is reacted with orthophosphoric acid to give carbon dioxide (CO2). This carbon dioxide is transferred into 0.5 L capacity cylinder. The reaction and collection of gas is done under vacuum using a glass vacuum line. Carbon dioxide is directly absorbed in 11.5 ml of carbasorb + 11 ml of Permaflour V (commercially not available) or its equivalent scintillator in the specially made absorption apparatus. Since, absorption process is exothermic, temperature of the medium is maintained at about 220 deg. C, it results in the absorption of ∼7 m moles of carbon dioxide per mL of cabasorb. As reaction progresses, bubbles can be seen rising slowly. The end point is marked by rapid rise in the solution level. Carbon dioxide obtained from oxalic acid (Standard) and background carbon dioxide are also absorbed in the same quantity of absorber and scintillator mixture. Samples, standard and background are transferred in 22 mL teflon vials and counted in low level liquid scintillation counter (LKB Wallac 1220 Quantulus) for 1000 minutes. The counting efficiency at best factor of merit (AON/ON/√B) is ∼60 % where AON is normalized net count rate of standard and B is the background count rate. The mean count rate of last fifteen background samples is 0.64 ± .0005 cpm with an

  18. Opportunities and Challenges for Being a Carbon Black Great Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1. The "Uth Five-year Plan" Lay- ing the Foundation for Carbon Black Great Power 1.1 Rapid growth of carbon black output and production capacity During the "llth Five-year Plan" Period, China carbon black output was increased by 1.1 times and realized doubling; and the production capacity of carbon black realized an average annu- al growth of 16.9%. In 2011, the carbon black output was 3.853 million tons, increased by 14.2% compared with that of the last year, and the pro- portion of carbon black output in the world carbon black output was increased from 16% to 36%. The carbon black production capacity was 5.345 mil- lion tons, increased by 6% compared with that of the last year, and the proportion of carbon black production capacity in the world carbon black out- put reached 38%. Chinese carbon black output has been ranking the 1st place throughout the world for 6 years successively, and China has become a great power of carbon black production in the world.

  19. Carbon Footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Rahel Aichele; Gabriel Felbermayr

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich der Beitrag eines Landes zum weltweiten Klimaschutz an der Veränderung seines CO2-Ausstoßes messen, wie es im Kyoto-Abkommen implizit unterstellt wird? Oder ist aufgrund der Bedeutung des internationalen Güterhandels der Carbon Footprint – der alle CO2-Emissionen erfasst, die durch die Absorption (d.h. Konsum und Investitionen) eines Landes entstehen – das bessere Maß? Die Autoren erstellen eine Datenbank mit den Footprints von 40 Ländern für den Zeitraum 1995–2007. Die deskriptive...

  20. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests. PMID:24405426

  1. Carbon Cycling and Storage in Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y-1) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y-1) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests.

  2. Carbon Nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are synthetic 2D carbon sheets with tailored physical or chemical properties. These depend on the structure, molecular composition, and surroundings on either side. Due to their molecular thickness, they can be regarded as "interfaces without bulk" separating regions of different gaseous, liquid, or solid components and controlling the materials exchange between them. Here, a universal scheme for the fabrication of 1 nm-thick, mechanically stable, functional CNMs is presented. CNMs can be further modified, for example perforated by ion bombardment or chemically functionalized by the binding of other molecules onto the surfaces. The underlying physical and chemical mechanisms are described, and examples are presented for the engineering of complex surface architectures, e.g., nanopatterns of proteins, fluorescent dyes, or polymer brushes. A simple transfer procedure allows CNMs to be placed on various support structures, which makes them available for diverse applications: supports for electron and X-ray microscopy, nanolithography, nanosieves, Janus nanomembranes, polymer carpets, complex layered structures, functionalization of graphene, novel nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices. To close, the potential of CNMs in filtration and sensorics is discussed. Based on tests for the separation of gas molecules, it is argued that ballistic membranes may play a prominent role in future efforts of materials separation. PMID:27281234

  3. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  4. HUC 8-11 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  5. 11 Theses on Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per

    2015-01-01

    Questions I care about How can I best contribute to establishing clarity and precision to the way we develop the central elements of entrepreneurship education research? Approach Inspired by Karl Marx´s 11 theses on Feuerbach the paper establishes 11 short theses on entrepreneurship education....... These theses are formulated around questions of the ontology of entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial process, entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneurship education. Results The 11 theses are short, precise and constitute a framework, which educators and researchers can use either for agreeing or...... disagreeing on what should be the foundation of entrepreneurship education research. Implications The paper produces a few central statements (theses) that entrepreneurship educators and entrepreneurship education researchers would benefit from either agreeing or disagreeing on. Value/Originality The 11...

  6. Turning physics up to 11

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rock guitars, superstrings, 11 dimensions and the world's largest and highest energy particle accelerator are the lead instruments for the Institute of Physics' latest drive to get kids interested in science.

  7. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. Carbon Activation Diagnostic for Tertiary Neutron Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glebov, V.Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T.C.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Radha, P.B.; Padalino, S.; Baumgart, L.; Fuschino, J.

    2003-03-28

    OAK B202 The yield of tertiary neutrons with energies greater than 20 MeV has been proposed to determine the high rho R of inertial confinement fusion targets. The activation of carbon is a valuable measurement technique because of its high reaction threshold, the availability of high-purity samples, and relatively low cost. The 12C(n,2n)11C reaction has a Q value of 18.7 MeV, well above the 14.1 MeV primary DT neutron energy. The isotope 11C decays with a half-life of 20.3 min and emits a positron, resulting in the production of two back-to-back, 511 keV gamma rays upon annihilation. The positron decay of 11C is nearly identical to the copper decay used in the activation measurements of 14.1 MeV primary DT yields; therefore, the present copper activation gamma-detection system can be used to detect the tertiary-produced carbon activation. Because the tertiary neutron yield is more than six orders of magnitude lower than primary neutron yield, the carbon activation diagnostic requires ultrapure carbon samples, free from any positron-emitting contamination. In recent years we have developed carbon purification, packaging, and handling procedures that minimize the contamination signal to a level low enough to use carbon activation for tertiary neutron measurements in direct-drive implosion experiments with DT cryogenic targets on OMEGA. Experimental results of contamination measurements in carbon samples performed on high-neutron-yield shots on OMEGA in 2001-2002 will be presented. A concept for implementing a carbon activation system on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)will be discussed.

  9. Functional Analysis of Histone Deacetylase 11 (HDAC11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John; Lienlaf, Maritza; Perez-Villarroel, Patricio; Knox, Tessa; Villagra, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The physiological role of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), the newest member of the HDAC family, remained largely unknown until the discovery of its regulatory function in immune cells. Among them, the regulation of cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells and the modulation of the suppressive ability of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) (Sahakian et al. Mol Immunol 63: 579-585, 2015; Wang et al. J Immunol 186: 3986-3996, 2011; Villagra et al. Nat Immunol 10: 92-100, 2009). Our earlier data has demonstrated that HDAC11, by interacting at the chromatin level with the IL-10 promoter, downregulates il-10 transcription in both murine and human APCs in vitro and ex vivo models (Villagra et al. Nat Immunol 10: 92-100, 2009). However the role of HDAC11 in other cell types still remains unknown. Here we present several methods that can potentially be used to identify the functional role of HDAC11, assigning special attention to the evaluation of immunological parameters. PMID:27246214

  10. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331. ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  11. Predicting the deforestation-trend under different carbon-prices

    OpenAIRE

    Obersteiner Michael; Kindermann Georg E; Rametsteiner Ewald; McCallum Ian

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Global carbon stocks in forest biomass are decreasing by 1.1 Gt of carbon annually, owing to continued deforestation and forest degradation. Deforestation emissions are partly offset by forest expansion and increases in growing stock primarily in the extra-tropical north. Innovative financial mechanisms would be required to help reducing deforestation. Using a spatially explicit integrated biophysical and socio-economic land use model we estimated the impact of carbon pric...

  12. Carbon Nanotubes Technology for Removal of Arsenic from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naghizadeh; Ahmad Reza Yari; Hamid Reza Tashauoei; Mokhtar Mahdavi; Elham Derakhshani; Rahman Rahimi; Pegah Bahmani; Hiva Daraei; Esmaeil Ghahremani

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Tashauoei HR, Mahdavi M, Derakhshani E, Rahimi R, Bahmani P. Carbon nanotubes technology for removal of arsenic from water. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1):6-11. Aims of the Study: This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the arsenic removal from water by using carbon nanotubes in continuous adsorption column. Materials & Methods: Independent variables including carbon nanotubes dosage, contact time and breakthrough poi...

  13. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 1993-06-11 to 1993-06-20 (NODC Accession 0115404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115404 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 1993-06-11 to...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-10 (NODC Accession 0113555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113555 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-10...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16 (NODC Accession 0113553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113553 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean from 2004-11-03 to 2004-12-10 (NODC Accession 0113537)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113537 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean from 2004-11-03 to 2004-12-10 and...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-10-13 to 2004-11-08 (NODC Accession 0112262)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112262 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-10-13 to 2004-11-08...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-03-11 to 2003-03-20 (NODC Accession 0112273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112273 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-03-11 to...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-10-05 to 1997-11-19 (NODC Accession 0113567)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113567 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-10-05 to 1997-11-19...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-11-28 to 2008-02-04 (NODC Accession 0108067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108067 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-11-28 to...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-07-31 to 1989-09-11 (NODC Accession 0113604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113604 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-07-31 to 1989-09-11...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 2000-09-26 to 2000-11-12 (NODC Accession 0108074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108074 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 2000-09-26 to 2000-11-12 and...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-08-11 to 2003-08-25 (NODC Accession 0112276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112276 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-08-11 to...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-22 (NODC Accession 0108064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108064 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2005-01-11 to...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12 (NODC Accession 0113580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113580 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-03-11 to 2004-04-13 (NODC Accession 0113892)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113892 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-03-11 to 2004-04-13...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is Carbon Monoxide? Carbon monoxide, or “CO,” is an odorless, colorless gas that can kill you. Carbon monoxide detector Where is CO found? CO is ...

  9. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  10. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) » Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  11. Carborane-based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brynda, Jiří; Mader, Pavel; Šícha, Václav; Fábry, Milan; Poncová, Kristýna; Bakardjiev, Mario; Grüner, Bohumír; Cígler, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 51 (2013), s. 13760-13763. ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : carbonic anhydrases * carboranes * drug discovery * inhibitors * structure elucidation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.336, year: 2013

  12. Electrochemical Metal Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Shinohara, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 427-435. ISSN 1344-9931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * electrodeposition * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2001

  13. Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.

  14. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes with nitrogen-containing carbon coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšík, Elena; Morávková, Zuzana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Šálek, Petr; Kovářová, Jana; Zemek, Josef; Cieslar, M.; Prokeš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1054-1065. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP108/11/P763; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR GA202/09/0428 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline coating * carbonization * multi-wall carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  15. Transition metal mediated [(11) C]carbonylation reactions: recent advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealey, Steven; Gee, Antony; Miller, Philip W

    2014-04-01

    [(11) C]Carbon monoxide is undoubtedly a highly versatile radiolabelling synthon with many potential applications for the synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer molecules and functional groups, but why has it not found more applications in the PET radiolabelling arena? Today, (11) CO radiolabelling is still primarily viewed as a niche area; however, there are signs that this is beginning to change as some of the technical and chemistry challenges of producing, handling and reacting (11) CO are overcome. This mini review covers the more recent developments of (11) CO-labelling chemistry and is focused on palladium and rhodium-mediated carbonylation reactions that are growing in importance and finding wider application for carbon-11 PET radiotracer development. PMID:24425679

  16. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  19. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-11C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [11C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via 11C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [11C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [11C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [11C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [11C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [11C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [11C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [11C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [11C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [11C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [11C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [11C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [11C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. (Author)

  20. Automatic synthesis of [11C]NKY-722 with high specific activity, using anhydrous [11C] methanol as a precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-(4-allyl-1-piperazinyl)-2,2-dimethylpropyl methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl- 4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridine dicarboxylate (NKY-722) was labeled with carbon-11 using anhydrous [11C] methanol. Using a computer controlled equipment, a few GBq of [11C] NKY-722 with the specific activity of 120 - 180 GBq/μmol could by synthesized at the radiochemical purity of > 99% in 10 ml of physiological saline containing Polysolvate-80 (1.5 vol%) and ethyl alcohol (0.75 vol%). Preliminary PET experiments using rats and a rhesus monkey have bee done, and very low accumulation of the compound into the brain, however comparatively higher accumulation in the heart were observed. (author)

  1. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  2. Spectators After 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Gandasegui, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    The (un)reality of films was superseded by reality on 9/11 and therefore cinema required a different kind of perception to offer to the spectators as the boundaries of imagination became altered. The events that followed the devastation which occurred on the 11th September 2001 in New York affected the way in which we perceive films, transforming our symbolic and epistemological system. This episode was beyond our imagination, beyond our words and, in Lacanian terms, we can say that it was ne...

  3. Functional analysis of the ASTE11 gene from the dimorphic yeast Arxula adeninivorans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arxula adeninivorans is dimorphic yeast with unusual biochemical and physiological characteristic. It is thermo- and osmo- resistance and it can use a wide range of carbon sources for growth. One kinase of the HOG pathway, the MAPKKK is encoded by ASTE11 gene which was isolated from A. adeninivorans. The aste11 mutant was achieved by gene disruption procedure. The Sck1p gene encoding MAPKKK in S. cerevisiae can complement with aste11 mutation. Growth rate of G1211/pAL-ALEU2m, G1211/pAL-ALEU2m-ASTE11 (over-expression transformants) and IS1 [aleu2 aste11 ALEU2] (aste11 mutant), the ASTE11 expression level dose not correlates with salt resistance. However, the growth rate of G1211/pAL-ALEU2m, G1211/pAL-ALEU2m-ASTE11 (over-expression transformants) and IS1 [aleu2 aste11::ALEU2] (aste11 mutant) and the response to thermo stress were affected in the deleted mutant, the Aste11p influenced the thermo resistance of A. adeninivorans. The MAPKKK encoding by STE11 gene from various yeast species is involved in the mating process. The mutant strains and their transformants were lost the capacity to mate. Assessment of the ASTE11 promoter activity with lacZ reporter gene confirmed its inducibility by osmolaytes.

  4. Biomolecules Electrochemical Sensing Properties of a PMo11V@N-Doped Few Layer Graphene Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Diana M. Fernandes; Marta Nunes; de Carvalho, Ricardo J.; Revathi Bacsa; Israel-Martyr Mbomekalle; Philippe Serp; Pedro Oliveira; Cristina Freire

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid nanocomposite, PMo11V@N-doped few layer graphene, was prepared by a one-step protocol through direct immobilization of the tetrabutylammonium salt of a vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdate (PMo11V) onto N-doped few layer graphene (N-FLG). The nanocomposite characterization by FTIR and XPS confirmed its successful synthesis. Glassy carbon modified electrodes with PMo11V and PMo11V@N-FLG showed cyclic voltammograms consistent with surface-confined redox processes attributed to M...

  5. Carbon Stocks in Harran Plain Soils, Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SAKIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are an important component of the global carbon cycle and can be net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The goals of the present study were to analyze the soil organic carbon (SOC and soil inorganic carbon (SIC content of Harran Plain soil in Sanliurfa, Turkey, part of the Southeast Anatolia region (SAR, and to estimate carbon stocks (CSs in soil series that are representative of arid and semiarid lands. To this end, soil samples were collected from 16 profiles in the Harran Plain at depths of 100, 120, and 160 cm of the genetic horizons, and the SOC stocks in the three soil depths were estimated. The carbon stock was 56.41 Tg of C in the 0-100 cm layer, 67.80 Tg of C in the 0-120 cm layer and 87.91 Tg of C in the 0-160 cm layer. For the three soil depths 100, 120, and 160 cm, the SOC content ranged from 6.33 to 11.04, 7.11 to 11.98 and 8.72 to 16.53 kg of C m-2, respectively, and the soil inorganic carbon content ranged from 8.83 to 19.26, 11.00 to 23.34 and 14.82 to 32.64 kg of C m-2, respectively.

  6. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle.

  7. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro and...

  8. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  9. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  10. Wood - a carbon depot

    OpenAIRE

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  11. 22 CFR 223.11 - Appropriate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriate action. 223.11 Section 223.11...-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.11 Appropriate action. The Administrator may take appropriate action in the... action....

  12. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M;

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically...... insignificant. Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  13. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  14. 11 CFR 300.30 - Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., 11 CFR 102.5(a)(4), 11 CFR 106.7(d)(1)(i), 11 CFR 300.33 and 11 CFR 300.34. (2) Levin account. The funds deposited into this account must comply with 11 CFR 300.31. Such funds may be used for the categories of activities described at 11 CFR 300.32(b). (3) Federal account. Federal accounts may be used...

  15. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelVecchia, Amanda G; Bruno, John F; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; Banerjee, Ovik; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

  16. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. DelVecchia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g. Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm−3 (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm−3 (8.0 ± 0.3% in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks.

  17. N-Cyclohexyl-11-(octylthioundecanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Schön

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical synthesis of N-cyclohexyl-11-(octylthioundecanamide by thiol-ene click coupling reaction under UV light irradiation is reported. The title compound was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. This molecule was found to be an efficient gelator for fluid oils, and the main physical parameters of the formed gels were also examined.

  18. Annual report 2010-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development and other activities of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for the year 2010-11 are reported. The activities of PAEC are described under the headings: Highlights, Nuclear Power, Engineering, Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Nuclear Materials, Safety, Quality, Human Resource Development, PAEC General Health Services, Projects and International Collaboratioin and publications. Its publication is aimed to document the achievements and concerted endeavour put in by all establishments of PAEC towards the fulfillment of its programme. (A.B.)

  19. Advances in magnetic resonance 11

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 11, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the principles and applications of dynamic nuclear polarization, with emphasis on molecular motions and collisions, intermolecular couplings, and chemical interactions. Subsequent chapters focus on the assessment of a proposed broadband decoupling method and studies of time-domain (or Fourier transform) multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance.

  20. Consumer confidence after September 11

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist attacks on September 11 dealt a serious blow to the U.S. economy. The damage included the tragic loss of human life, massive property destruction, and disruptions to the travel and shipping industries. But immediately after the attacks, many observers also worried about the possible harm to business and consumer confidence. Although the effects on business confidence are hard to measure, regular surveys of households make it easier to assess the effects on consumer confidence. T...

  1. TEK11 graphics user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TEK11 graphics library was written for use on PDP-11 minicomputers running the RT-11 operating system to drive Tektronix 4010 graphics display terminals. Library subroutines are coded in FORTRAN and assembly language. The library includes routines to draw axes, either linear or semilog, to plot data in terms of logical values without first scaling to screen coordinates, to label graphs, and to plot in a maximum of four regions on the screen. Modes of plotting may be point plot with any character at the point, vector plot, or bar plot. Two features, automatic scaling and windowing, permit the researcher to use computer graphics without spending time first to learn about scaling or ''Tek points'' and preparing long parameter lists for subroutines. Regions on the screen are defined by specifying minima and maxima logical coordinates, i.e., 0K or milliseconds, and a region number. After definition, a region may be activated for plotting by calling REGN with the region number as an argument

  2. Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This is the flight insignia, or logo, for the Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar landing mission. Descending on the lunar surface, the eagle in the logo depicts the Lunar Module (LM), named 'Eagle''. Carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, the 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. Aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand upon the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V launch vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  3. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  4. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  5. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  6. [11C]PR04.MZ, a promising DAT ligand for low concentration imaging: synthesis, efficient 11C-0-methylation and initial small animal PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.; Alexoff, D.; Kim, Sung-Won; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2009-05-01

    PR04.MZ was designed as a highly selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, derived from natural cocaine. Its binding profile indicates that [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ may be suited as a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of striatal and extrastriatal DAT populations. As a key feature, its structural design facilitates both, labelling with fluorine-18 at its terminally fluorinated butynyl moiety and carbon-11 at its methyl ester function. The present report concerns the efficient [{sup 11}C]MeI mediated synthesis of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ from an O-desmethyl precursor trifluoroacetic acid salt with Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in DMF in up to 95 {+-} 5% labelling yield. A preliminary {mu}PET-experiment demonstrates the reversible, highly specific binding of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ in the brain of a male Sprague-Dawley rat.

  7. Dynamic polarization effects on the angular distributions of protons channeled through carbon nanotubes in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Borka, D.; Mowbray, D. J.; Mišković, Z. L.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2008-01-01

    The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix, so such structures present the most suitable candidates for future channeling experiments with carbon nanotubes. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11,~9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Pro...

  8. Performance evaluation of a tubular direct carbon fuel cell operating in a packed bed of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DCFC (direct carbon fuel cell) technology, based on the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbon, has the potential to double the electric efficiency and half the CO2 emissions compared to conventional coal fired power plants. In order to assess the scalability of the technology in terms of fabrication and fuel feed system, and to elucidate the possible causes of the cell degradation, a tubular DCFC has been fabricated and operated in a pulverised carbon packed bed at around 800 °C. The cell was operated for a total period of 11 days with many thermal cycles. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to elucidate the possible causes of the cell degradation. Post-mortem analysis of the cell with SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed structural stability of both air and fuel electrodes. A peak power density of 30 mW cm−2 was obtained by direct contact of carbon to the fuel electrode with high purity He as the purge gas. The cell, at the end of operation was still found to produce 60% of the power relative to the power at the beginning of operation, and this study demonstrates the feasibility of continuous operation of the tubular fuel cell in a packed bed of carbon. - Highlights: • A direct carbon fuel cell was operated for 11 days in a packed carbon bed. • Scalability and continuous operation of fuel cell on solid carbon demonstrated. • MIEC (Mixed ion electronic conducting) anode (LSCF) showed reasonable stability. • Major degradation source is lack of carbon contact with anode as it is consumed

  9. Streamlining and Core Genome Conservation among Highly Divergent Members of the SAR11 Clade

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Jana; Thrash, J. Cameron; Huggett, Megan J.; Landry, Zachary C.; Carini, Paul; Giovannoni, Stephen J.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT SAR11 is an ancient and diverse clade of heterotrophic bacteria that are abundant throughout the world’s oceans, where they play a major role in the ocean carbon cycle. Correlations between the phylogenetic branching order and spatiotemporal patterns in cell distributions from planktonic ocean environments indicate that SAR11 has evolved into perhaps a dozen or more specialized ecotypes that span evolutionary distances equivalent to a bacterial order. We isolated and sequenced genome...

  10. Radiopharmaceutical for differential diagnosis of tuberculoma: synthesis of 2-( sup 11 C)cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somawardhana, C.W.; Sajjad, M.; Lambrecht, R.M. (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-01-01

    The radiochemical synthesis of 2-({sup 11}C)cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide was accomplished. Carbon-11 labelled cyano-group was introduced at the 2-position of the pyridine ring of 1-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl pyridinium methyl sulfate via a Riessert-Kaufmann type reaction. The reaction was performed on a solid support (silica gel) to yield no-carrier-added methyl 2-({sup 11}C)cyano-isonicotinate in (32.4 +- 12%) (EOB) yield. This method is unique for the incorporation of ({sup 11}C)HCN to base sensitive substrates. The carbon-11 labelled methyl ester was treated with hydrazine hydrate to obtain 2-({sup 11}C)cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The final radiochemical yield was 10% (EOB) and the synthesis time was approximately 35 min. (author).

  11. Radiopharmaceutical for differential diagnosis of tuberculoma: synthesis of 2-[11C]cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiochemical synthesis of 2-[11C]cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide was accomplished. Carbon-11 labelled cyano-group was introduced at the 2-position of the pyridine ring of 1-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl pyridinium methyl sulfate via a Riessert-Kaufmann type reaction. The reaction was performed on a solid support (silica gel) to yield no-carrier-added methyl 2-[11C]cyano-isonicotinate in (32.4 ± 12%) (EOB) yield. This method is unique for the incorporation of [11C]HCN to base sensitive substrates. The carbon-11 labelled methyl ester was treated with hydrazine hydrate to obtain 2-[11C]cyano-isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The final radiochemical yield was 10% (EOB) and the synthesis time was approximately 35 min. (author)

  12. 26 CFR 11.412(c)-11 - Election with respect to bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to bonds. 11.412(c)-11 Section 11.412(c)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... OF 1974 § 11.412(c)-11 Election with respect to bonds. (a) In general. Section 412(c)(2)(B)...

  13. 37 CFR 11.11 - Administrative suspension, inactivation, resignation, and readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., inactivation, resignation, and readmission. 11.11 Section 11.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... Other Non-Patent Law § 11.11 Administrative suspension, inactivation, resignation, and readmission. (a... §§ 1.21(a)(7)(iii) and (iv) of this subchapter. (e) Resignation. A registered practitioner or...

  14. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to ‑41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  15. 7 CFR 1610.11 - Prepayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prepayments. 1610.11 Section 1610.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.11 Prepayments. (a) Bank loans approved before November 1, 1993, may be prepaid in accordance with the terms thereof,...

  16. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not...

  17. Carbon nanotube cathode with capping carbon nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Dengchao; Pang, Kaige; Pang, Junchao; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-10-01

    Here, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film capped with a few layer of carbon nanosheet (FLCN) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The square resistance of the VACNT film is significantly reduced from 1500 Ω/□ to 300 Ω/□ when it is capped with carbon nanosheet. The VACNT capped with carbon nanosheet was transferred to an ITO glass substrate in an inverted configuration so that the carbon nanosheet served as a flexible transparent electrode at the bottom and the VACNT roots served as emission tips. Because all of the VACNTs start growing from a flat silicon substrate, the VACNT roots are very neat and uniform in height. A field emission test of the carbon nanosheet-capped VACNT film proved that the CNT roots show better uniformity in field emission and the carbon nanosheet cap could also potentially serve as a flexible transparent electrode, which is highly desired in photo-assisted field emission.

  18. Performance of a bench-scale fast fluidized bed carbonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2014-01-01

    The carbonate looping process is a promising technology for CO2 capture from flue gas. In this process, the CO2 capture efficiency depends on the performance of a carbonator that may be operated as a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). In this paper, the carbonator performance is investigated by...... applying a new experimental method with accurate control of the particle recirculation rate. The experimental results show that the inlet calcium to carbon molar ratio is the main factor on the CO2 capture efficiency in the carbonator, that is, increasing the inlet Ca/C from 4 to 13 results in increasing...... the CO2 capture efficiency from 40 to 85% with limestone having a maximum CO2 capture capacity of only 11.5%. Furthermore, a reactor model for a carbonator is developed based on the Kunii-Levenspiels model. A key parameter in the model is the particle distribution along the height of the reactor...

  19. New halogenated [11C]WAY analogues, [11C]6FPWAY and [11C]6BPWAY--Radiosynthesis and assessment as radioligands for the study of brain 5-HT1A receptors in living monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [Carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635 ([11C]WAY) is an established radioligand for the study of brain serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors in living animals and humans with positron emission tomography (PET). There is a recognised need to develop halogenated ligands for 5-HT1A receptors, either for labelling with longer-lived fluorine-18 for more widespread application with PET or with iodine-123 for application with single photon emission tomography (SPET). Here we used autoradiography and PET to assess two new halogenated anlogues of WAY, namely 6BPWAY and 6FPWAY [N-(2-(1-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazinyl)ethyl))-N-(2- (6-bromo-/fluoro-pyridinyl))cyclohexanecarboxamide] as prospective radioligands, initially using carbon-11 as the radiolabel. Labelling of 6BPWAY and 6FPWAY with carbon-11 was accomplished by acylation of the corresponding secondary amine precursors with [carbonyl-11C]cyclohexanecarbonyl chloride. After incubation of human brain crysections with [11C]6BPWAY or [11C]6FPWAY, the highest accumulation of radioactivity was observed in cortical areas and the hippocampal formation. Both radioligands had high nonspecific binding. There was a rapid accumulation of radioactivity in the monkey brain after intravenous injection of [11C]6BPWAY and [11C]6FPWAY. High accumulation of radioactivity was observed in the frontal and temporal cortex and the raphe nuclei, areas known to contain a high density of 5-HT1A receptors. The ratios of radioactivity in receptor-rich temporal cortex to that in receptor-poor cerebellum at peak equilibrium were 1.9 (at 10 min) and 3.0 at (at 20 min) for [11C]6BPWAY and [11C]6FPWAY, respectively. In pretreatment experiments with high doses of unlabelled WAY, the level of radioactivity in the frontal and temporal cortex and the raphe nuclei was reduced to the same level as in the cerebellum. Radioactive metabolites of [11C]6FPWAY appeared at a rate similar to those for [11C]WAY, with 17% of the radioactivity in plasma represented by unchanged

  20. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  1. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  3. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community ... KB | Spanish PDF 645 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  6. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  8. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  9. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  10. Metal filled porous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  11. Effect of Synthesis Technique and Carbonate Content on the Crystallinity and Morphology of Carbonated Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia Ching Kee; Hanafi Ismail; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The syntheses of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) were performed by comparing dropwise and direct pouring of acetone solution of Ca(NO3)2.4H20 into mixture of (NH4)2HP04 and NH4HC03 at room temperature controlled at pH 11.Direct pouring method was later applied to study the increment of carbonate content in syntheses.The as-synthesized powders were characterized by various characterization techniques.The crystallographic results of the produced powders were obtained from X-ray diffraction analysis,whilst the carbonate content in the produced powders was determined by the CHNS/O elemental analyzer.Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed that the CHA powders formed were B-type.Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the powders were highly agglomerated in nanosized range and hence energy filtered transmission electron microscopy was employed to show elongated particles which decreased with increasing carbonate content.

  12. Growth of carbon nanotube field emitters on single strand carbon fiber: a linear electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-stage effect has been revisited through growing carbon nanotube field emitters on single strand carbon fiber with a thickness of 11 μm. A prepared linear electron source exhibits a turn-on field as low as 0.4 V μm-1 and an extremely high field enhancement factor of 19 300, when compared with those results from reference nanotube emitters grown on flat silicone wafer; 3.0 V μm-1 and 2500, respectively. In addition, we introduce a novel method to grow nanotubes uniformly around the circumference of carbon fibers by using direct resistive heating on the continuously feeding carbon threads. These results open up not only a new path for synthesizing nanocomposites, but also offer an excellent linear electron source for special applications such as backlight units for liquid crystal displays and multi-array x-ray sources.

  13. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  14. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  15. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  16. STUDY OF DEPENDENCE OF POLYETHYLENE AND CARBON FIBERS COMPOSITES PROPERNIES ON SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER AND TYPE OF SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petukhova E. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PE2NT11 and chopped carbon fibers and PE2NT11 and modified carbon fibers composites were investigated. It was shown that the mechanical properties depend on the surface characteristics of fibers. It was found that laboratory and tube samples have some difference in mechanical properties that connected with specific distribution of fibers in samples

  17. STUDY OF DEPENDENCE OF POLYETHYLENE AND CARBON FIBERS COMPOSITES PROPERNIES ON SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER AND TYPE OF SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Petukhova E. S.

    2015-01-01

    PE2NT11 and chopped carbon fibers and PE2NT11 and modified carbon fibers composites were investigated. It was shown that the mechanical properties depend on the surface characteristics of fibers. It was found that laboratory and tube samples have some difference in mechanical properties that connected with specific distribution of fibers in samples

  18. Some radiopharmaceuticals derived from carbon-eleven labelled phosgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with some applications of the short lived cyclotron produced radioisotope carbon-11 (half life 20.4 min.) For medical use. Both chemical manipulation of highly radioactive gamma emitting material in order to prepare suitable 11C-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and two clinical studies are discussed. The first chapter comprises a general introduction concerning the application of the ''tracer principle'' to the short lived positron emitting radionuclides 18F, 11C, 13N and 15O in medicine. Chapter two deals with the synthesis of 11COCl2. This product is a useful new 11C-synthon with many potential applications. In chapter three the synthesis of 11C-urea from 11C-phosgene for medical use is described. The method uses the reaction of 11COCl2 with aqueous ammonia. Chapter four deals with the synthesis of 11C-barbituric acids and 11C-hydantoins and presents a clinical study on epilepsy, using 2-11C-5,5-diphenylhydantoin (11C-DPH). Patients having intractable epilepsy and patients having no epilepsy were given intravenously a single dose of 11C-DPH after which the accumulation of the radioactivity in the brain was followed by positron emission tomography. No regional concentration differences could be found near epileptic foci. There was a faint indication that there are some differences in uptake for whole brain between the two categories of patients. (Auth.)

  19. Soil Carbon Sequestration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a large land area and diverse ecoregions, there is a considerable potential of terrestrial/soil carbon sequestration in India. Of the total land area of 329 million hectares (Mha), 297 Mha is the land area comprising 162 Mha of arable land, 69 Mha of forest and woodland, 11 Mha of permanent pasture, 8 Mha of permanent crops and 58 Mha is other land uses. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is estimated at 21 Pg (petagram = Pg = 1 x 1015 g billion ton) to 30-cm depth and 63 Pg to 150-cm depth. The soil inorganic carbon (SIC) pool is estimated at 196 Pg to 1-m depth. The SOC concentration in most cultivated soils is less than 5 g/kg compared with 15 to 20 g/kg in uncultivated soils. Low SOC concentration is attributed to plowing, removal of crop residue and other biosolids, and mining of soil fertility. Accelerated soil erosion by water leads to emission of 6 Tg C/y. Important strategies of soil C sequestration include restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs) of agricultural and forestry soils. Potential of soil C sequestration in India is estimated at 7 to 10 Tg C/y for restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems, 5 to 7 Tg C/y for erosion control, 6 to 7 Tg C/y for adoption of RMPs on agricultural soils, and 22 to 26 Tg C/y for secondary carbonates. Thus, total potential of soil C sequestration is 39 to 49 (44± 5) Tg C/y

  20. Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks for Indoors Applications Using IEEE 802.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Sørensen, Thomas; Madsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting low-power sensing applications. The investigation is based on a prototype carbon dioxide sensor node that is powered by artificial indoors light. The wireless communication module of the sensor node is based on the RTX......4100 module. RTX4100 incorporates a wireless protocol that duty-cycles the radio while being compatible with IEEE 802.11 access points. The presented experiments demonstrate sustainable operation but indicate a trade-off between the benefits of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting applications and...... the energy-efficiency of the system....

  1. 11C-PET imaging reveals transport dynamics and sectorial plasticity of oak phloem after girdling

    OpenAIRE

    De Schepper, Veerle; Bühler, Jonas; Thorpe, Michael; Roeb, Gerhard; Huber, Gregor; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Jahnke, Siegfried; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Carbon transport processes in plants can be followed non-invasively by repeated application of the short-lived positron-emitting radioisotope 11C, a technique which has rarely been used with trees. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) allowing 3D visualisation has been adapted for use with plants. To investigate the effects of stem girdling on the flow of assimilates, leaves on first order branches of two-year-old oak (Quercus robur L.) trees were labelled with 11C by supplying 11CO2-...

  2. Annual Report 2010-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual report of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad, Pakistan for the year 2010-11 has been compiled which describe a concise but comprehensive description of R and D activities conducted during this period. PINSTECH has contributed considerably in the discipline of chemical, engineering, environmental and physical sciences. It has always been extending technical help and services to Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as well as other organizations. There are about 90 publications in summary form which gives the main theme of the research activities. At the end of this report different institute activities like courses organized, collaboration with universities, internship, honours /awards and list of publications during the year is also presented. (A.B.)

  3. 11th International Conference Mechatronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the most rapidly changing areas of mechatronics, this book discusses signals and system control, mechatronic products, metrology and nanometrology, automatic control & robotics, biomedical engineering, photonics, design manufacturing and testing of MEMS. It is reflected in the list of contributors, including an international group of 302 leading researchers representing 12 countries. The book is intended for use in academic, government and industry R&D departments, as an indispensable reference tool for the years to come. Thid volume can serve a global community as the definitive reference source in Mechatronics. The book comprises carefully selected 93 contributions presented at the 11th International Conference Mechatronics 2015, organized by Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, on September 21-23, in Warsaw, Poland. .

  4. Emisacrectomy, experience in 11 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solini, Antonio; Fronda, Gianruggero; De Paolis, Paolo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Garino, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Emisacrectomy is a challenging surgery in the treatment of tumours that affect the sacrum. Authors report their experience in 11 cases affected by tumours of the sacrum (9 chordomas, 1 ependymoma, 1 monostotic bladder metastasis) operated on at the Orthopaedic Department of A.S.O S. Giovanni Battista Molinette in Turin, Italy, from 1998 through 2005 discussing planning surgery, level of osteotomy, functional and oncological results and complications of the treatment at a median follow-up of 5 years (range 2–9), describing the surgical and medical teaching learned from the treatment of these patients. Despite the potential complications, emisacrectomy can be performed successfully and is an important procedure in the treatment of sacral tumours. PMID:19468760

  5. Emisacrectomy, experience in 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solini, Antonio; Gargiulo, Giosuè; Fronda, Gianruggero; De Paolis, Paolo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Garino, Mauro

    2009-06-01

    Emisacrectomy is a challenging surgery in the treatment of tumours that affect the sacrum. Authors report their experience in 11 cases affected by tumours of the sacrum (9 chordomas, 1 ependymoma, 1 monostotic bladder metastasis) operated on at the Orthopaedic Department of A.S.O S. Giovanni Battista Molinette in Turin, Italy, from 1998 through 2005 discussing planning surgery, level of osteotomy, functional and oncological results and complications of the treatment at a median follow-up of 5 years (range 2-9), describing the surgical and medical teaching learned from the treatment of these patients. Despite the potential complications, emisacrectomy can be performed successfully and is an important procedure in the treatment of sacral tumours. PMID:19468760

  6. Ocean sciences after September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    The terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on September 11, 2001 shocked the world with their audacity and destruction. Shortly thereafter, bioterrorists struck through the U.S. postal system. Virtually overnight, major policy shifts took place in the United States that catapulted national security and homeland defense to the top of the political agenda. The consequences were unimaginable just a few months before: an international coalition at war against the Taliban in Afghanistan, major increases in U.S. defense spending, tightened security measures at airports, government facilities, and research laboratories, and a new sense of vulnerability in the post-cold war era. AGU itself was directly affected: three of its members perished in the hijacked planes, or on the ground in New York City.

  7. Calcium silicate structure and carbonation shrinkage of a tobermorite-based material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonated autoclaved aerated concretes (AACs) show no shrinkage at a degree of carbonation approximately less than 20%. The 29Si MAS NMR spectrum showed that at a degree of carbonation less than 25%, the typical double-chain silicate anion structure of tobermorite-11A was well maintained and interlayer Ca ions were exchanged with protons. This corresponded to the absence of carbonation shrinkage at a degree of carbonation less than 20%. When the degree of carbonation increased from 25% to 50% up to 60%, the double-chain silicate anion structure of tobermorite-11A was decomposed and Ca ions in the Ca-O layers were dissolved, showing a possible mechanism of carbonation shrinkage

  8. Mechanisms of soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeiss, S.; Temperton, V. M.; Gleixner, G.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the fate of root and litter derived carbon into soil organic matter and dissolved organic matter in soil profiles, in order to explain unexpected positive effects of plant diversity on carbon storage. A time series of soil and soil solution samples was investigated at the field site of The Jena Experiment. In addition to the main biodiversity experiment with C3 plants, a C4 species (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) naturally labeled with 13C was grown on an extra plot. Changes in organic carbon concentration in soil and soil solution were combined with stable isotope measurements to follow the fate of plant carbon into the soil and soil solution. A split plot design with plant litter removal versus double litter input simulated differences in biomass input. After 2 years, the no litter and double litter treatment, respectively, showed an increase of 381 g C m-2 and 263 g C m-2 to 20 cm depth, while 71 g C m-2 and 393 g C m-2 were lost between 20 and 30 cm depth. The isotopic label in the top 5 cm indicated that 11 and 15% of soil organic carbon were derived from plant material on the no litter and the double litter treatment, respectively. Without litter, this equals the total amount of carbon newly stored in soil, whereas with double litter this corresponds to twice the amount of stored carbon. Our results indicate that litter input resulted in lower carbon storage and larger carbon losses and consequently accelerated turnover of soil organic carbon. Isotopic evidence showed that inherited soil organic carbon was replaced by fresh plant carbon near the soil surface. Our results suggest that primarily carbon released from soil organic matter, not newly introduced plant organic matter, was transported in the soil solution and contributed to the observed carbon storage in deeper horizons.

  9. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  10. Stable carbon isotope analysis of heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fixari, B.; Le Perchec, P.; Bigois, M.; Casabianca, H.; Jame, P. [CNRS, Vernaison (France). Lab. des Materiaux Organiques

    1994-03-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of various heavy oils and some thermo-catalytically converted products was performed with a thermal analyser coupled with an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer. The temperature-programmed oxidative pyroanalysis technique subdivides the classical {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio, affording new insights into the structural composition of heavy oils such as the contribution of naphthenoaromatics, and appears to be of interest for following their thermal refining. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Production of activated carbon from microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Férez, María del Remedio; Valdés Barceló, Francisco Javier; García Cortés, Ángela Nuria; Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Chápuli Fernández, Eloy

    2008-01-01

    Presentado como póster en el 11th Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering, Barcelona 2008. Resumen publicado en el libro de actas del congreso. Activated carbon is an important filter material for the removal of different compounds such as hazardous components in exhaust gases, for purification of drinking water, waste water treatment, adsorption of pollution from liquid phases, in catalysis, electrochemistry or for gas storage and present an important demand. Theoretically, activat...

  12. Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire is recognised as driving most of the boreal forest carbon balance in North America, therefore fires not only impact on carbon sequestration by forests, but emit greenhouse gases that have the potential to affect the environment. In this paper direct emissions of carbon from Canadian forest fires were estimated for all of Canada and for each ecozone for the period 1959 to 1999. Estimates were based on large fires ; fuel consumption for each fire was calculated using the Canadian Forest Fire Behaviour Prediction System. There were about 11,400 forest fires, averaging 2 x 106 hectare per year during this period. Boreal and taiga areas experienced the greatest area burned, releasing most of the carbon. The mean area-weighted fuel consumption for all fires was 2.6 kg of dry fuel per m2 (1.3 kg carbon per m2) varying from 1.8 kg to 3.9 kg per m2 among ecozones. The mean annual direct carbon emission was estimated at 27 + or - 6 Tg carbon per year, or about 18 per cent of current carbon dioxide emissions from the Canadian energy sector, on average. This excludes post-fire effects, which cause an additional loss of carbon; changes to the forest also affect the strength of the forest carbon sink. Fire emissions have shown an increase over the past two decades and are likely to remain high due to anticipated changes in fire weather resulting from climate warming. 48 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  13. The impact of a unilateral carbon tax on carbon-intensive industries: evidence from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.

    1996-02-01

    This publication identifies the impact of a unilateral Norwegian carbon tax on the profitability and the exit probability in 12 carbon intensive manufacturing sectors. The study uses Norwegian panel data for manufacturing firms and focuses both on a tax on burning of fossil fuels and a tax on all emissions of carbon. It is demonstrated that for most carbon intensive sectors the impact on both profits and the exit probability of a tax on burning of fossil fuel is negligible or moderate. That is, the increase in the average sectorial exit probability is always less that one percentage point when the tax is 75 USD per tonne carbon dioxide. On the other hand, for sectors where carbon emissions are due to both burning of fossil fuels and the production process, the impact of a general tax on carbon dioxide (at 75 USD) is significant. In particular, in the manufacture of ferro alloys the average exit probability may increase by more than 15 percentage points. 15 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, F. M.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.

    We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14), and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

  15. Synthesis and 11C-Radiolabelling of 2-Carboranyl Benzothiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Gona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes, commonly known as carboranes, possess unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as hydrophobic moieties during the design of new drugs or radiotracers. In this work, we report the synthesis of two analogues of 2-(4-aminophenylbenzothiazole (a compound that was found to elicit pronounced inhibitory effects against certain breast cancer cell lines in vitro in which the phenyl ring has been substituted by a m-carborane cage. Two different synthetic strategies have been used. For the preparation of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl-benzo-thiazole, the benzothiazole group was first introduced on one of the cluster carbon atoms of m-carborane and the amine group was further attached in three steps. For the synthesis of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, iodination was performed before introducing the benzothiazole group, and the amino group was subsequently introduced in six steps. Both compounds were radiolabelled with carbon-11 using [11C]CH3OTf as the labelling agent. Radiolabelling yields and radiochemical purities achieved should enable subsequent in vitro and in vivo investigations.

  16. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  17. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 1599, 1/11/2011) and the application has... Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ...

  18. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  19. Capturing [11C]CO2 for use in aqueous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method for trapping [11C]CO2 gas and releasing it into a buffered solution using an ion-exchange cartridge. Sodium hydroxide cartridges captured >99% of [11C]CO2 following NaOH activation. A sodium bicarbonate solution eluted >99% of trapped radioactivity. Trapping [11C]CO2 directly in small volumes of several solutions was less effective than cartridge methods. The recommended methods allow for fast and simple production of highly concentrated carbon-11 containing aqueous solutions for use in filling phantoms, calibrating detectors, or (bio)geochemical experiments. - Highlights: • An ion exchange resin can trap [11C]CO2 gas and release it with saturated bicarbonate. • Elution from cartridge requires as little as 300 µL volume, with eluant at pH=10. • SPE trap-and-release provided better results than trapping in solution

  20. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum HSP-TCC SPG11-related hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus ... A, Stevanin G, Santorelli FM. Screening of ARHSP-TCC patients expands the spectrum of SPG11 mutations and ...

  1. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  2. Mechanical Testing of Carbon-Carbon Composite for Applications in Human Spine Surgery in the Form of Intervertebral Cages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sochor, M.; Balík, Karel; Suchý, Tomáš; Sedláček, R.; Tichý, P.

    Praha : Ústav struktury a mechaniky hornin AV ČR, 2003 - (Kolář, F.), s. - [Czech-Polish Workshop on Testing of Composite Materials. Praha (CZ), 11.09.2003-12.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : carbon-carbon composite * mechanical testing * biocompatibility Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  3. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC11) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  4. 11 CFR 9032.1 - Authorized committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.1 Authorized committee. (a) Notwithstanding the definition at 11 CFR 100.5, authorized committee means with respect to candidates (as defined at 11 CFR 9032.2) seeking the nomination of... CFR 102.12, any political committee authorized in writing by the candidate in accordance with 11...

  5. 42 CFR 491.11 - Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program evaluation. 491.11 Section 491.11 Public... Certification; and FQHCs Conditions for Coverage § 491.11 Program evaluation. (a) The clinic or center carries out, or arranges for, an annual evaluation of its total program. (b) The evaluation includes review...

  6. 14 CFR 60.11 - FSTD use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSTD use. 60.11 Section 60.11 Aeronautics... SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.11 FSTD use. No person may use or allow the use of or offer the use of an FSTD for flight crewmember training or evaluation or...

  7. 9 CFR 121.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 121.11 Section 121.11... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security plan. The security plan must be sufficient to...

  8. 7 CFR 331.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 331.11 Section 331.11 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security...

  9. 16 CFR 1115.11 - Imputed knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imputed knowledge. 1115.11 Section 1115.11... PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.11 Imputed knowledge. (a) In evaluating whether or... care to ascertain the truth of complaints or other representations. This includes the knowledge a...

  10. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be...

  11. 49 CFR 701.11 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees. 701.11 Section 701.11 Transportation Other... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.11 Fees. (a) General. Amtrak shall charge for processing requests under the FOIA in accordance with this section. A fee of $9.50 per quarter hour shall be charged...

  12. 49 CFR 510.11 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees. 510.11 Section 510.11 Transportation Other... OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.11 Fees. Any person compelled to appear in... administrative deposition is paid the same attendance and mileage fees as are paid witnesses in the courts of...

  13. 22 CFR 505.11 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fees. 505.11 Section 505.11 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PRIVACY ACT REGULATION § 505.11 Fees. (a) The first copy of any Agency record about you will be provided free of charge. A fee of $0.15 per page will be charged for any...

  14. 46 CFR 163.003-11 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 163.003-11 Section 163.003-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-11 Materials. (a) Suspension members....

  15. 46 CFR 163.002-11 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 163.002-11 Section 163.002-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Hoist § 163.002-11 Materials. (a) Gears. Each gear in a...

  16. 46 CFR 160.017-11 - Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 160.017-11 Section 160.017-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-11 Materials. (a) Suspension...

  17. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  18. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  19. 23 CFR 652.11 - Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Planning. 652.11 Section 652.11 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... ACCOMMODATIONS AND PROJECTS § 652.11 Planning. Federally aided bicycle and pedestrian projects implemented within... unless excluded by agreement between the State and the metropolitan planning organization....

  20. 32 CFR 1605.11 - Governor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governor. 1605.11 Section 1605.11 National... ORGANIZATION State Administration § 1605.11 Governor. The Governor is authorized to recommend a person to be... Governor in all Selective Service matters....

  1. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if... threatens to: (1) Commit any criminal offense; or (2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or (3) Take...

  2. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.410 Criminal mischief. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if... another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat. (b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if...

  3. 25 CFR 11.411 - Criminal trespass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal trespass. 11.411 Section 11.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.411 Criminal trespass. (a) A person commits an offense if,...

  4. 10 CFR 11.32 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 11.32 Section 11.32 Energy NUCLEAR... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Violations § 11.32 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation...

  5. 25 CFR 11.443 - Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Harassment. 11.443 Section 11.443 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.443 Harassment. A person commits a petty misdemeanor if, with purpose to...

  6. 14 CFR 389.11 - Services available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Services available. 389.11 Section 389.11...) ORGANIZATION FEES AND CHARGES FOR SPECIAL SERVICES Fees for Special Services § 389.11 Services available. Upon... documents subject to inspection, services as follows: (a) Locating and copying records and documents....

  7. 39 CFR 3030.11 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service. 3030.11 Section 3030.11 Postal Service... Pleadings § 3030.11 Service. Any person filing a complaint must simultaneously serve a copy of the complaint on the Postal Service at the following address: PRCCOMPLAINTS@usps.gov. A complaint is not...

  8. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  9. 27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.4 Jurisdictional limits....

  10. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  11. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  12. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  13. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  14. Reference: CONSERVED11NTZMATP1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CONSERVED11NTZMATP1 Rapp WD, Stern DB A conserved 11 nucleotide sequence contains a...n essential promoter element of the maize mitochondrial atp1 gene EMBO J 11: 1065-1073 (1992) PubMed: 1372246 ...

  15. 22 CFR 901.11 - Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Agency. 901.11 Section 901.11 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.11 Agency. Agency means the Department of State, the Agency for International Development, the U.S. Information...

  16. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and...) of this chapter must be considered. (d) When noise abatement measures are being considered,...

  17. 25 CFR 11.601 - Marriage licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under...

  18. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  19. 42 CFR 9.11 - Animal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal transport. 9.11 Section 9.11 Public Health... CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.11 Animal transport. The transportation of... and Regulations and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations...

  20. 40 CFR 440.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 440.11 Section 440.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.11...

  1. 21 CFR 701.11 - Identity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling. 701.11 Section 701.11 Food and... COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.11 Identity labeling. (a) The principal display panel of a cosmetic in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity....

  2. 7 CFR 1205.11 - Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator. 1205.11 Section 1205.11 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.11 Administrator. The term Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, or any officer or employee of USDA to...

  3. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the inventory of the registered location to which they are subject to control or to which the person... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each...

  4. 9 CFR 11.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 11.1 Section 11.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.1 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, unless the...

  5. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on...

  6. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  7. 22 CFR 143.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... out in part 90 (primarily subpart B) of 45 CFR. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 143.11 Section 143.11 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 143.11 Standards....

  8. 29 CFR 1911.11 - Other standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other standards. 1911.11 Section 1911.11 Labor Regulations...) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR PROMULGATING, MODIFYING, OR REVOKING OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY OR HEALTH STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.11 Other standards. The Assistant Secretary may promulgate, modify, or...

  9. 32 CFR 553.11 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement. 553.11 Section 553.11 National... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.11 Procurement. Cemetery supplies and services will be procured in accordance with the provisions of the Armed Services Procurement Regulation (ASPR) and the Army...

  10. 30 CFR 48.11 - Hazard training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard training. 48.11 Section 48.11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Underground Miners § 48.11 Hazard training. (a)...

  11. 50 CFR 11.26 - Reporting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting service. 11.26 Section 11.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... PROCEDURES Hearing and Appeal Procedures § 11.26 Reporting service. Copies of decisions in civil...

  12. 25 CFR 11.415 - Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud. 11.415 Section 11.415 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Criminal Offenses § 11.415 Fraud. A person who shall by willful misrepresentation or deceit, or by false... fraud, a misdemeanor....

  13. 25 CFR 117.11 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance. 117.11 Section 117.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.11 Insurance. The superintendent may obtain policies of insurance covering the restricted property, real or personal, of...

  14. 29 CFR 4281.11 - Valuation dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation dates. 4281.11 Section 4281.11 Labor Regulations... Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.11 Valuation dates. (a) Annual valuations of mass-withdrawal-terminated plans. The valuation dates for the annual valuation required under section 4281(b)...

  15. 25 CFR 11.1014 - Medical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical examination. 11.1014 Section 11.1014 Indians... ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1014 Medical examination. The children's court may order a medical examination for a minor who is alleged to be a juvenile offender....

  16. 22 CFR 191.11 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.11 Section 191.11...' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act § 191.11 Applicable benefits. (a) Eligible persons are entitled to the benefits provided by the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 501, et...

  17. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits....

  18. 22 CFR 192.11 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.11 Section 192.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Payment of Salary and Other Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.11 Applicable benefits. (a) Captives are entitled...

  19. 46 CFR 98.33-11 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking. 98.33-11 Section 98.33-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT... Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-11 Smoking. No person may smoke when— (a) Within...

  20. 29 CFR 4002.11 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 4002.11 Section 4002.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL BYLAWS OF THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.11 Seal. The seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as may be approved from time...

  1. 46 CFR 501.11 - Official seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official seal. 501.11 Section 501.11 Shipping FEDERAL... Seal § 501.11 Official seal. (a) Description. Pursuant to section 201(c) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 301(d)), the Commission prescribes its official seal, as adopted by...

  2. 12 CFR 1780.11 - Computing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing time. 1780.11 Section 1780.11 Banks... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules § 1780.11 Computing time. (a) General rule. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this subpart, the...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.11 - Warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse receipts. 1427.11 Section 1427.11... Deficiency Payments § 1427.11 Warehouse receipts. (a) Producers may obtain loans on eligible cotton represented by warehouse receipts only if the warehouse receipts meet the definition of a warehouse...

  4. 7 CFR 614.11 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 614.11 Section 614.11 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS NRCS APPEAL PROCEDURES § 614.11 Mediation. (a) A participant who wishes to pursue mediation must file request for mediation under this part with the NRCS official designated in...

  5. 39 CFR 965.11 - Initial decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 965.11 Section 965.11 Postal... § 965.11 Initial decision. The presiding officer shall render an initial decision in writing, based on... establish the date for commencement of time for requesting review of the initial decision....

  6. 45 CFR 5b.11 - Exempt systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempt systems. 5b.11 Section 5b.11 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.11 Exempt systems. (a) General policy. The Act permits certain types of specific systems of records to be exempt...

  7. 16 CFR 1207.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.11 References. (a) “Statistical Abstract of the United States...

  8. 40 CFR 260.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of approval and a notice... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 260.11 Section 260.11... WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Definitions § 260.11 References. (a) When used in parts 260 through...

  9. 40 CFR 312.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 312.11 Section 312.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Definitions and References § 312.11 References. The following industry standards may be used to comply...

  10. 34 CFR 5b.11 - Exempt systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chief Information Officer, Regulatory Information Management Group, Washington, DC 20202-4651. (f... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt systems. 5b.11 Section 5b.11 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.11 Exempt systems. (a)...

  11. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  12. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection...

  13. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  14. 28 CFR 548.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 548.11 Section 548.11 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.11 Definition. For purposes of...

  15. 10 CFR 150.11 - Critical mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical mass. 150.11 Section 150.11 Energy NUCLEAR... OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Exemptions in Agreement States § 150.11 Critical mass. (a) For the purposes of this part, special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass...

  16. 20 CFR 636.11 - Final action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final action. 636.11 Section 636.11 Employees... HEARINGS § 636.11 Final action. The final decision of the Secretary pursuant to section 166(b) of the Act... Officer's final determination where there has been no such hearing, constitutes final agency action...

  17. 32 CFR 518.11 - Other materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Other materials. 518.11 Section 518.11 National... RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM FOIA Reading Rooms § 518.11 Other materials. (a) Any available index of Army material published in the Federal Register, such as material required to...

  18. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  19. 45 CFR 503.11 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 503.11 Section 503.11 Public Welfare... Regulations § 503.11 Reports. (a) The Administrative Officer or designee will provide adequate advance notice... separately listed and reported to the Office of Management and Budget....

  20. 7 CFR 11.21 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 11.21 Section 11.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION Organization And Functions § 11.21 Organization. NAD was established on October 13, 1994. Delegation of authority to the Director, NAD, appears...

  1. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and... General Provisions § 70.11 Related substances. (a) Different color additives may cause similar or related... activity (such as cholinesterase inhibition) produced by such substance....

  2. 25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing, humiliating, harassing, or degrading the victim. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual assault. 11.407 Section 11.407 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.407 Sexual assault. (a) A person who has sexual contact with another person not...

  3. 30 CFR 775.11 - Administrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., assignment, or sale of permit rights shall be of record and governed by 5 U.S.C. 554 and 43 CFR part 4. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative review. 775.11 Section 775.11... ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL REVIEW OF DECISIONS § 775.11 Administrative review. (a) General. Within 30 days...

  4. 46 CFR 249.11 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 249.11 Section 249.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS APPROVAL OF UNDERWRITERS FOR MARINE HULL INSURANCE § 249.11 Confidentiality. (a) If the data submitted under this...

  5. 49 CFR 179.400-11 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.400-11 Section 179.400-11...-11 Welding. (a) Except for closure of openings and a maximum of two circumferential closing joints in... subchapter). (d) Each welding procedure, welder, and fabricator must be approved....

  6. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.11 - Housekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housekeeping. 1917.11 Section 1917.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.11 Housekeeping. (a) Active work areas shall be...

  8. 47 CFR 78.11 - Permissible service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible service. 78.11 Section 78.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.11 Permissible service. (a) CARS stations are authorized to...

  9. 11 CFR 9007.7 - Administrative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative record for final determinations under 11 CFR 9004.9 and 9005.1, and for repayment determinations... the administrative record by submitting them within the time periods set forth at 11 CFR 9004.9(f)(2... administrative record for determinations under 11 CFR 9004.9, 9005.1 and 9007.2 does not include: (1)...

  10. 10 CFR 706.11 - Consent elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consent elections. 706.11 Section 706.11 Energy DEPARTMENT... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.11 Consent elections. In accordance... determine bargaining units and representatives by agreement and consent elections in preference to...

  11. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  12. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  13. 25 CFR 11.709 - Final account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final account. 11.709 Section 11.709 Indians BUREAU OF... Probate Proceedings § 11.709 Final account. (a) When the affairs of an estate have been fully administered, the executor or administrator shall file a final account with the court, verified by his or her...

  14. 9 CFR 311.11 - Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neoplasms. 311.11 Section 311.11... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.11 Neoplasms. (a) An individual organ or other part of a carcass affected with a neoplasm shall be condemned. If there is...

  15. 11 CFR 9007.1 - Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Such examination and audit will include, but will not be limited to, expenditures pursuant to 11 CFR... containing the data listed in 11 CFR 9003.6, the Commission will give the candidate's authorized committee at... candidate and committee agreement under 11 CFR 9003.1(b)(6). (ii) Availability of committee personnel....

  16. 11 CFR 9038.1 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... audit and examination conducted under 11 CFR 9038.1(a) (1) and (2) may be used by the Commission as the... 11 CFR 9033.1(b)(6). (ii) Availability of committee personnel. On the date scheduled for the... findings; (ii) Financial activity of the committee subsequent to the fieldwork conducted pursuant to 11...

  17. 10 CFR 470.11 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effort be pointed toward specific energy problem areas to develop and evaluate the feasibility and... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 470.11 Section 470.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.11...

  18. 12 CFR 23.11 - Lease term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lease term. 23.11 Section 23.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING CEBA Leases § 23.11 Lease term. A CEBA Lease must have an initial term of not less than 90 days. A national bank may acquire...

  19. 46 CFR 160.176-11 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 160.176-11 Section 160.176-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Lifejackets § 160.176-11 Performance. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  1. 29 CFR 11.14 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the preparation and submission of legislative proposals and the requirements of 40 CFR 1506.8. ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legislation. 11.14 Section 11.14 Labor Office of the... Administrative Procedures § 11.14 Legislation. Notwithstanding any provisions of this part,...

  2. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, R.J.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.; Turton, D.R.; Poole, K. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Cyclotron Unit

    1997-07-30

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via {sup 11}C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [{sup 11}C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [{sup 11}C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [{sup 11}C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [{sup 11}C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. (Author).

  3. Ring contraction of 2,5-dihydrobenzo[f][1,2,5]thiadiazepine 1,1-dioxides: access to 4H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine 1,1-dioxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöpová, Veronika; Krchňáková, Anna; Schütznerová, Eva; Zajíček, Jaroslav; Krchňák, Viktor

    2015-02-01

    We report an efficient synthesis of 4H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine 1,1-dioxides via unprecedented ring contraction of 2,5-dihydrobenzo[f][1,2,5]thiadiazepine 1,1-dioxides under mild conditions involving carbon-sulfur bond formation. 2,5-Dihydrobenzo[f][1,2,5]thiadiazepine 1,1-dioxides are easily accessible from commercially available building blocks, including Fmoc-protected amino acids, 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chlorides, and bromo ketones. Benzothiazine 1,1-dioxides represent pharmacologically relevant derivatives with biological, medicinal, and industrial applications. PMID:25564930

  4. September 11 and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terrible September 11 attacks have demonstrated the ability of international terrorists to carry out well-planned and complex operations that can kill thousands of citizens. The potential for biological, chemical and nuclear terrorism has increased and will remain as long as their underlying causes. Nuclear installations could be the targets, or the sources of materials usable for terrorism. Whilst thick containment buildings around nuclear reactors are unlikely to be breached, some installations, such as spent fuel pond are more vulnerable. The safety of nuclear installations must be reconsidered taking into account some new initiating events hitherto considered of very low probability. A resistance against nuclear power plant sabotage by terrorist group penetrating into reactor building, is a controversial topic. Measures against diversion of nuclear materials, which could be used in nuclear terrorism, must be reviewed. The danger of diversion from giant military stocks of highly enriched uranium and plutonium by far exceeds that from peaceful use of nuclear energy. Measures to neutralize these stocks, such as dilution of highly enriched uranium, should be speeded up and have a priority in public concern. As for the nuclear power stations, public should be informed about the recommendations of IAEA for better physical protection of nuclear materials prepared in 1999 (INFCIRC 225/Rev.4) and about Additional protocol to inadequate Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials from 1980, which is in a process of ratification. For acceptable nuclear future public must be aware that all required measures to eliminate unacceptable risks resulting from terrorist activity against nuclear installations will be undertaken. (author)

  5. Synthesis of hollow carbon nitride microspheres by an electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow carbon nitride microspheres have been synthesized using a novel liquid phase electrodeposition technique. The microspheres are composed of numerous nanoparticles with size of about 5-30 nm. The diameters of the spheres range from 800 nm to 1.1 μm, and shell thickness is about 80-250 nm. This is the first attempt to synthesize carbon nitride with specific nanostructure by the electrodeposition method, which is proved to be facile and effective, and can be performed in an atmospheric environment and at a rather low temperature. The hollow carbon nitride may have potential applications as lubrication, catalysis, biomolecule adsorption, drug delivery, electronic materials, etc. in the future.

  6. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  7. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  8. [Study on absorbing volatile oil with mesoporous carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Yang Nan

    2014-11-01

    Clove oil and turmeric oil were absorbed by mesoporous carbon. The absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria Curing powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorietry (DSC). The effects of mesoporous carbon on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. They reached high adsorption rate when the absorption ratio of mesoporous carbon to volatile oil was 1:1. When volatile oil was absorbed, dissolution rate of active components had a little improvement and their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was absorbed by the loss rate decreasing more than 50%. Absorbing herbal volatile oil with mesoporous carbon deserves further studying. PMID:25850263

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful...

  10. The carbon dioxide cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Kent; Smollin, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The main symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are non-specific in nature and relate to effects on the brain and heart. The symptoms correlate poorly with serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels. People with comorbidity, elderly or very young people, and pregnant women are most susceptible.Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, including inadequately ventilated heaters and car exhausts, or from chemicals such as methylene chloride paint stripper.Poisoning is cons...

  12. Carbon nanotubes decorating methods

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz; D. Łukowiec; D. Cichock; W. Wolany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The work is to present and characterise various methods of depositing carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles of precious metals, and also to present the results of own works concerning carbon nanotubes coated with platinum nanoparticles.Design/methodology/approach: Electron transmission and scanning microscopy has been used for imaging the structure and morphology of the nanocomposites obtained and the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes.Findings: The studie...

  13. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have an enormous potential due to their outstanding electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. However, any technological application is still hindered due to problems regarding the processibility of the pristine carbon nanotubes. In the past few years, it has been shown that the chemical modification of the carbon nanotubes is an inevitable step prior to their application. The first part of this work (chapter 3.1) was focused on the purification of pristine laser ablati...

  14. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  15. Spatial dynamics of carbon storage: a case study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrikaya, Fatih; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Bozali, Nuri

    2013-11-01

    Forest ecosystems have an important role in carbon cycle at both regional and global scales as an important carbon sink. Forest degradation and land cover changes, caused by deforestation and conversion to non-forest area, have a strong impact on carbon storage. The carbon storage of forest biomass and its changes over time in the Hartlap planning unit of the southeastern part of Turkey have been estimated using the biomass expansion factor method based on field measurements of forests plots with forest inventory data between 1991 and 2002. The amount of carbon storage associated with land use and land cover changes were also analyzed. The results showed that the total forested area of the Hartlap planning unit slightly increased by 2.1%, from 27,978.7 ha to 28,282.6 ha during the 11-year period, and carbon storage increased by 9.6%, from 390,367.6 to 427,826.9 tons. Carbon storage of conifer and mixed forests accounted for about 70.6% of carbon storage in 1991, and 67.8% in 2002 which increased by 14,274.6 tons. Land use change and increasing forest area have a strong influence on increasing biomass and carbon storage. PMID:23771281

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation on mechanical property of carbon nanotube torsional deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming-Jun; Liang Ying-Chun; Li Hong-Zhu; Li Dan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper torsional deformation of the carbon nanotubes is simulated by molecular dynamics method. The Brenner potential is used to set up the simulation system. Simulation results show that the carbon nanotubes can bear larger torsional deformation, for the armchair type (10,10) single wall carbon nanotubes, with a yielding phenomenon taking place when the torsional angle is up to 63°(1.1rad). The influence of carbon nanotube helicity in torsional deformation is very small. The shear modulus of single wall carbon nanotubes should be several hundred GPa, not 1 GPa as others reports.

  17. Effects of Carbonization Temperature and Component Ratio on Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of Woodceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Tao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Woodceramics were fabricated in a vacuum through carbonization of wood powder impregnated with phenol formaldehyde (PF resin. The effects of carbonization temperature and mass ratio of wood/resin on electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding effectiveness (SE and morphology of woodceramics were explored. The PF resin made wood cell walls have the characteristics of glassy carbon. Wood axial tracheid and ray cells were filled with more glassy carbon by increasing addition of PF resin. Moreover, the increase of carbonization temperature was beneficial to improving SE. Woodceramics (mass ratio 1:1 obtained at 1000 °C presented a medium SE level between 30 MHz and 1.5 GHz.

  18. Towards Low-cost Activated Carbons as Promising Adsorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirilä, M.; Cruz, G.; Matějová, Lenka; Ainassari, K.; Solis, J.; Šolcová, Olga; Keiski, R.L.

    Oulu: Juvenes Print, 2013 - (Pitkäaho, S.; Pruikkonen, H.; Pongrácz, E.; Keiski, R.), s. 111-115 ISBN 978-952-62-0292-1. [SkyPro Conference /2./. University of Oulu (FI), 12.11.2013] Grant ostatní: FFETI(FI) 40262/11; CONCYTEC(PE) 002/PE/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : VOCs * carbons * distillation process Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  19. Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide-Methane Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchytil, Petr; Schauer, Jan; Pientka, Zbyněk; Petričkovič, Roman; Suen, S.-Y.

    2010, s. 1. ISBN N. [AMS6/IMSTEC10. Sydney (AU), 22.11.2010-25.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1165; GA ČR GCP106/10/J038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbon dioxide * methane * ionic liquid membranes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. Contrasting vulnerability of drained tropical and high-latitude peatlands to fluvial loss of stored carbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, C. D.; Page, S. E.; Jones, T.; Moore, S.; Gauci, V.; Laiho, R.; Hruška, Jakub; Allott, T. E. H.; Billet, M. F.; Tipping, E.; Freeman, Ch.; Garnett, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2014), s. 1215-1234. ISSN 0886-6236 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : peatland * drainage * dissolved organic carbon * radiocarbon Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.965, year: 2014

  1. Physics of carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon is a prominent element that appears in various structures with new promising technological applications. The physics of carbon nanostructures is one of the hot topics in modern condensed matter theory. I plan to present a brief introduction into the theory of variously shaped carbon nanostructures paying special attention to generic field-theory models. The preliminary plan is the following: (1) a brief historical excursus, (2) the most interesting experimental observations, (3) generic models for the description of electronic states in carbon nanoparticles (Dirac-type equations, defects, geometry, etc.), (4) open problems. (author)

  2. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  3. Nanoindentation of Carbon Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Karamjit; Verma, Veena; Bhatti, H S

    2016-06-01

    In the present research paper carbon nanostructures viz. single walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nanohorns and graphene nanoplatelets have been synthesized by CVD technique, hydrothermal method, DC arc discharge method in liquid nitrogen and microwave technique respectively. After synthesis 5 mm thick pallets of given nanomaterial are prepared by making a paste in isopropyl alcohol and using polyvinylidene difluoride as a binder and then these pallets were used for nanoindentation measurements. Hardness, reduced modulus, stiffness, contact height and contact area have been measured using nanoindenter. PMID:27427726

  4. Global Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Jean-Luc; Faure, Hugues; Veizer, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The European Union of Geosciences held its 9th biannual meeting in Strasbourg, March 23–27, 1997. During this meeting, Symposium N8 18, Global carbon Cycle, was held under the sponsorship of the IGCP 1 n8404 on the «Terrestrial Carbon in the past 125 Ka», the INQUA 2 Carbon Commission and the ESCOBA-Biosphere 3 project of the EC Environment and Climate Programme. The «Global Carbon Cycle» Symposium attracted 28 oral and poster presentations and about one hundred par...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  6. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  7. Molybdosphoric Acid Mixed with Titania Used as a Catalyst to Synthesize Diphenyl Carbonate via Transesterification of Dimethyl Carbonate and Phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Chen; Huajun Han; Zhiping Du; Jie Yao; Gongying Wang; Dachuan Shi; Desheng Zhang; Zhiming Chen

    2006-01-01

    The 12-molybdosphoric acid mixed with titania (MPA-TiO2) was found to be a novel and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of diphenyl carbonate (DPC) via transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and phenol. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) techniques were employed to characterize the prepared catalysts. The effect of the weight ratio of the 12-molybdosphoric acid to titania on the transesterification was investigated. A 13.1% yield of DPC and an 11.6% yield of methyl phenyl carbonate (MPC) were obtained over MPA-TiO2 with the weight ratio of MPA to TiO2 as 5:1.

  8. Carbon Storage of Forest Vegetation in China and its Relationship with Climatic Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of forest vegetation carbon storage in China varied due to different methods used in the assessments. In this paper, we estimated the forest vegetation carbon storage from the Fourth Forest Inventory Data (FFID) in China using a modified volume-derived method. Results showed that total carbon storage and mean carbon density of forest vegetation in China were 3.8 Pg C (about 1.1% of the global vegetation carbon stock) and 41.32 Mg/ha, respectively. In addition, based on linear multiple regression equation and factor analysis method, we analyzed contributions of biotic and abiotic factors (including mean forest age, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and altitude) to forest carbon storage. Our results indicated that forest vegetation carbon storage was more sensitive to changes of mean annual temperature than other factors, suggesting that global warming would seriously affect the forest carbon storage

  9. Carbon fluxes from an urban tropical grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turfgrass covers a large fraction of the urbanized landscape, but the carbon exchange of urban lawns is poorly understood. We used eddy covariance and flux chambers in a grassland field manipulative experiment to quantify the carbon mass balance in a Singapore tropical turfgrass. We also assessed how management and variations in environmental factors influenced CO2 respiration. Standing aboveground turfgrass biomass was 80 gC m−2, with a mean ecosystem respiration of 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m−2 s−1. The contribution of autotrophic respiration was 49–76% of total ecosystem respiration. Both chamber and eddy covariance measurements suggest the system was in approximate carbon balance. While we did not observe a significant relationship between the respiration rates and soil temperature or moisture, daytime fluxes increased during the rainy interval, indicating strong overall moisture sensitivity. Turfgrass biomass is small, but given its abundance across the urban landscape, it significantly influences diurnal CO2 concentrations. - Highlights: • We measured urban turfgrass CO2 respiration rates and soil characteristics. • Mean observed ecosystem respiration was 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m−2 s−1. • Soil temperature and moisture were largely insignificant drivers of observed flux. - We found a Singapore urban turfgrass to be approximately carbon neutral, with a mean ecosystem respiration of 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m−2 s−1

  10. The Carbon-Rich Dust Sequence: Infrared Spectral Classification of Carbon Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, G. C.; Little-Marenin, I. R.; Price, S. D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a classification system for the infrared spectral emission from carbon stars, using a sample of 96 bright carbon-rich variables associated with the asymptotic giant branch. In addition to the stellar contribution, most spectra include the 11.2 micron emission feature from SiC and either a smooth cool continuum from amorphous carbon or a secondary emission feature at 9.0 microns. We have identified a carbon-rich dust sequence along which the amorphous carbon component grows while the 9.0 micron feature declines in strength. Along this spectral sequence, the fraction of Miras increases, as does the period of variability, the mass-loss rate, and the thickness of the circumstellar shell. Thus the carbon-rich dust sequence appears to be an evolutionary sequence. One class of spectra shows a particularly strong 9.0 micron feature, Enhanced C/O ratio, and several other unusual properties that suggest a different sequence, perhaps related to J stars.

  11. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  12. Novel carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 opened up a challenging new area of research, because they are expected to be ideal building blocks for nanoscale applications due to their extraordinary mechanical and electronic properties. Various production methods have been developed, however precise control of nanotube morphology (e.g. length, diameter) has yet to be realised, a fact which has delayed industrial exploitation. Thus a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growth is essential, and this thesis is concerned with this important problem, i.e. the controlled production of novel carbon nanomaterials. Chapter 1 surveys production methods for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and other carbon-based materials, such as fibres, particles etc. The sophisticated tools required for this work, e.g. high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), etc. are reviewed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes a novel approach to carbon nanotubes, using laser etching techniques, which generates aligned tubes of uniform diameter and length. The mode of catalyst preparation, as well as the nature of the precursor, play crucial roles in this process. The preparation of modified carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of metallocene, e.g. ferrocene in conjunction with various hydrocarbons, is discussed in Chapter 4. Superconducting interference device measurements (SQUID) show that Fe-filled carbon nanotubes exhibit enhanced coercivities in the 430-1070 Oe range, i.e. greater than those reported for Ni and Co nanowires. Carbon nanotubes can be also modified by replacing atoms of the carbon network with nitrogen, boron or both. The creation of large arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, for example CNx nanofibres, as well as the formation of BxCyNz onions is described in Chapter 5. Electron irradiation of these onions generates pure carbon onions. Finally (Chapter 6), the catalytic behaviour of metal particles in different

  13. Method for Making a Carbon-Carbon Cylinder Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, Phillip O. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for making a lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials. such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  14. Effects of Designer Hyper-Interleukin 11 (H11) on Hematopoiesis in Myelosuppressed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams-Kozlowska, Hanna; Kwiatkowska-Borowczyk, Eliza; Gryska, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Marszalek, Andrzej; Adamczyk, Sebastian; Kowalik, Anna; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is constantly increasing. Chemo/radiotherapy is one of major methods of treating cancer. Although adverse chemo/radiotherapy events, such as anemia and neutropenia, can be successfully cured, thrombocytopenia is still problematic. We constructed the Hyper-IL11 (H11) cytokine by linking soluble interleukin 11 receptor alpha (sIL-11Ralpha) with IL-11. In vivo H11 activity was examined in myelosuppressed mice. Myelosuppression was induced by either i) sublethal irradiation and carboplatin administration or ii) sublethal irradiation. A dose of 100 μg/kg of H11 or IL-11 was administered subcutaneously for 7 days. IL-11 and H11 accelerated leukocyte, hematocrit and platelet recovery. The effect on the attenuation of thrombocytopenia was significant. Moreover, both cytokines increased the cellularity and numbers of megakaryocyte, erythroid, and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the bone morrow and spleen compared with the control. Although H11 was administered at a molar concentration that was three times lower, its effects were comparable with or better than those of IL-11; thus, the activity of H11 was superior to that of IL-11. Because no toxicity was observed after the intravenous administration of H11, this hyper-cytokine may be potentially useful for treatment of thrombocytopenia and other IL-11-dependent disorders. PMID:27144685

  15. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-03-06

    There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentration and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, mean PIC accumulation rates in seagrass sediments is 126.3 ± 0.7 g PIC m-2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  16. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazarrasa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p -2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2, these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  17. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m-2 yr-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrated by the comparison of carbon (PIC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  18. Radiosynthesis of [11C]glyburide for in vivo imaging of BCRP function with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) belongs to the ABC-transporter super-family in which P-gp (MDR1/ABCB1) is probably the most emblematic and best known member. BCRP, which was initially discovered in multidrug resistant breast cancer cell lines, is also highly expressed in numerous tissues e.g. the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BCRP confers upon these tissues resistance to chemotherapeutic agents but also transports drugs and xenobiotics thus participating to the ADME processes although the biochemical mechanisms remain largely unknown to date. The hypoglycaemic sulfonylurea glyburide (glibenclamide) has been described as a specific substrate of BCRP in vitro and in vivo. Its isotopic labelling with the positron emitter carbon-11 (20.4 min) would provide a valuable tool to study in vivo with PET the BCRP transport activity. Herein are reported the synthesis of desmethyl-glyburide (2), as precursor, as well as the preparation of [11C]glyburide ([11C]-1) using [11C]methyl triflate as radio-methylation agent. Methods: Chemistry: Desmethyl-glyburide (2), as precursor for [11C]labelling, was obtained in one chemical step by treating glyburide (1) with a 1 M solution of BBr3 (4 eq.) in dichloromethane at low temperature (-90 C to - 20 C). Radiochemistry: Carbon-11 labeling of glyburide (1) was performed using a TRACERLab FX-C Pro synthesizer (GEMS) and comprised (1) trapping at -10 C of [11C]MeOTf in acetone (0.3 mL) containing the precursor 2 (0.5-0.8 mg) and aq. 3N NaOH (5 μL); (2) heating at 110 C for 2 min; (3) dilution in 1.0 mL of the HPLC mobile phase and purification using semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC (Waters SymmetryR C-18 - eluent: CH3CN / H2O / TFA: 45 / 55 / 0.1 (v:v:v) - flow rate: 5 mL/min - detection at 254 nm) and (4) SepPakR Plus C-18-based formulation for i.v. injection. The measurement of log P and log D7.4 was performed using the shaked flask method. Results: The desmethyl

  19. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Zhangquan; Zhang, Canming; LI, JIAO; Yang, Nan; Li, Xiquan; Niu, Yandong; Wu, Zijian

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the relationshi...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Businesses Contact CPSC Website Design Feedback Consumers: Español Businesses: Español , 中文 , Tiếng Việt Connect with Us : Twitter YouTube ... Safely Home / Safety Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon ...