WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 11

  1. GHGT-11 - Integrated Carbon Risk Assessment (ICARAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Busby, D.; Wessel-Berg, D.; Nepveu, M.; Bossie Codreanu, D.; Grimstad, A-A.; Sijacic, D.; Maurand, N.; Lothe, A.; Wahl, F.; Polak, S.; Boot, H.; Grøver, A.; Wildenborg, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an integrated workflow is described for risk assessment within CCS. IFPEN, SINTEF and TNO joined forces to define a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment methodology. The tools developed in these institutes are thereby integrated. The workflow can be applied to proposed carbon

  2. Carbon-11 labelling of an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase: [[sup 11]C]physostigmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnot-Lours, S.; Crouzel, C.; Prenant, C.; Hinnen, F. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1993-01-01

    Physostigmine, an alkaloid from calabar bean is a strong inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and has been used clinically in the treatment of glaucoma, atropine intoxication, myasthenia gravis and more recently, in experimental trials in Alzheimer's disease. In order to study the AChE activity in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have undertaken the labelling of physostigmine with carbon-11. The synthesis involves the reaction of [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate with eseroline. [[sup 11]C]Methylisocyanate was obtained by heating [[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with tetrabutylammonium azide in toluene. The synthesis of [[sup 11]C]CH[sub 3]COC1 involves the carbonation of methylmagnesium bromide in THF with cyclotron produced [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide and the addition of phthaloyl dichloride. The [[sup 11]C]methylisocyanate is distilled into a solution of eseroline in ether with a small piece of sodium. After 10 minutes at 25[sup o]C, the solution is purified by HPLC and the appropriate fraction collected. Starting with 55.5 GBq (1.5 Ci) of [[sup 11]C]carbon dioxide, 0.92-1.48 GBq (25-40 mCi) of [[sup 11]C]Physostigmine are obtained 57 minutes after EOB. (author).

  3. One carbon metabolism in SAR11 pelagic marine bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    Full Text Available The SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria are the most abundant heterotrophs in the oceans and are believed to play a major role in mineralizing marine dissolved organic carbon. Their genomes are among the smallest known for free-living heterotrophic cells, raising questions about how they successfully utilize complex organic matter with a limited metabolic repertoire. Here we show that conserved genes in SAR11 subgroup Ia (Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique genomes encode pathways for the oxidation of a variety of one-carbon compounds and methyl functional groups from methylated compounds. These pathways were predicted to produce energy by tetrahydrofolate (THF-mediated oxidation, but not to support the net assimilation of biomass from C1 compounds. Measurements of cellular ATP content and the oxidation of (14C-labeled compounds to (14CO(2 indicated that methanol, formaldehyde, methylamine, and methyl groups from glycine betaine (GBT, trimethylamine (TMA, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP were oxidized by axenic cultures of the SAR11 strain Ca. P. ubique HTCC1062. Analyses of metagenomic data showed that genes for C1 metabolism occur at a high frequency in natural SAR11 populations. In short term incubations, natural communities of Sargasso Sea microbial plankton expressed a potential for the oxidation of (14C-labeled formate, formaldehyde, methanol and TMAO that was similar to cultured SAR11 cells and, like cultured SAR11 cells, incorporated a much larger percentage of pyruvate and glucose (27-35% than of C1 compounds (2-6% into biomass. Collectively, these genomic, cellular and environmental data show a surprising capacity for demethylation and C1 oxidation in SAR11 cultures and in natural microbial communities dominated by SAR11, and support the conclusion that C1 oxidation might be a significant conduit by which dissolved organic carbon is recycled to CO(2 in the upper ocean.

  4. Solid-phase reversible trap for [11C]carbon dioxide using carbon molecular sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, B H; Vavrek, M T; Mulholland, G K

    1995-07-01

    A simple, maintenance-free trapping technique which concentrates and purifies no-carrier-added 11CO2 from gas targets is described. The trap requires no liquid nitrogen cooling and has no moving parts besides solenoid valves. It employs carbon molecular sieves to adsorb 11CO2 selectively from gas targets at room temperature. Nitrogen, O2, CO, NO and moisture in the target gas which could interfere with subsequent radiochemical steps are not retained. Trapping efficiency of 1 g of sieve for 11CO2 from a 240 cm3 target gas dump and helium flush cycle is > 99%, and the adsorbed 11CO2 is recovered quantitatively as a small concentrated bolus from the carbon sieve trap by thermal desorption. This durable trap has performed reliably for more than 1 y with a single charge of carbon sieve. It has simplified the production, and improved the yields of several 11C-radiochemicals at this laboratory.

  5. Ethanolic Carbon-11 Chemistry: the Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. PMID:24631743

  6. Ethanolic Carbon-11 Chemistry: the Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinica...

  7. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: the introduction of green radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J H

    2014-07-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use.

  8. Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion by 11-aminoundecanoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ghareba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports results on the investigation of the possibility of using 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AA as an inhibitor of general corrosion of carbon steel (CS in HCl under a range of experimental conditions: inhibitor concentration, exposure time, electrolyte temperature and pH and CS surface roughness. It was found that AA acts as a mixed-type inhibitor, yielding maximum inhibition efficiency of 97 %. The adsorption of AA onto the CS surface was described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The corresponding apparent Gibbs free energy of AA adsorption on CS at 295 K was calculated to be −30.2 kJ mol–1. The adsorption process was found to be driven by a positive change in entropy of the system. PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the adsorbed AA layer is amorphous, which can be attributed to the repulsion between the neighboring positively charged amine groups and a high heterogeneity of the CS surface. It was also found that the AA provides very good corrosion protection of CS of various surface roughness, and over a prolonged time.

  9. The Precambrian marine carbonate isotope database: version 1.1.

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Shields; Veizer, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a compilation of strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotope compositions of roughly 10,000 marine carbonate rocks of Archean - Ordovician age (3800 Ma – 450 Ma). The Precambrian Marine Carbonate Isotope Database (PMCID) has been compiled from 152 published and 3 unpublished articles and books of the past 40 years. Also included are 30 categories of relevant “metadata” that allow detailed comparisons and quality assessments of the isotope data to be made. The PMCID will be updated period...

  10. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.; Gratz, K.F. (McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-04-01

    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, {sup 11}C-serotonin as the substrate, and {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later {sup 11}C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of {sup 11}C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of {sup 11}C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium.

  11. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-(/sup 11/C)dimethyltryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Ido, Tatsuo; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Iwata, Ren; Hatazawa, Jun; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1986-07-01

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. (/sup 11/C)DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of (/sup 11/C)DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of (/sup 11/C)DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors.

  12. Synthesis of n. c. a. PET-radiotracers with carbon-11. Zur Synthese traegerarme PET-Radiotracer mit Kohlenstoff-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirbel, A.

    1998-11-01

    Carbon-11 offers the unique possibility of authentic labelling of molecules as radioindicators for non invasive and quantitative determination of physiological functions via positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to synthesize of different n.c.a. [sup 11]C-labelled pharmaceuticals for in vivo distribution studies with PET. For the determination of the pharmacokinetics of [1-[sup 11]C]acetate in porcine myocardium during prolonged ischemia, n.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetate was synthesized via carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide with in target produced n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 68 [+-] 7%. The fast (18 min) and reliable radiosynthesis allowed for repeated tracer administration at short intervals (<20 min). In order to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin[sup R]c) in humans, [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid, acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid and [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid were prepared. N.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized via the reaction of [1-[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with salicylic acid salts. The use of the silver salt proved to be superior to the sodium salt and resulted in radiochemical yields of 32 [+-] 5%. Base-line (clean) separation of the labelled product was achieved using radio-HPLC. With regard to the preparation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid, several protected and unprotected phenol derivates were metallated and subsequently carboxylated using n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2]. Best results (87 [+-] 3% RCY) could be achieved with 2-(methoxymethoxy)-phenylmagnesium iodide as a precursor and subsequent quantitative cleavage of the MOM-group. Acetylation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid to acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid was performed using acetylchloride in CH[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield of 65 [+-] 4%. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive properties of nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Fei; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaohua, E-mail: mickyxie@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Jinhua, E-mail: chenjinhua@hnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were prepared from ZIF-11. • The activated N-PCMPs with fused KOH (N-PCMPs-A) have high specific surface area. • N-PCMPs-A exhibits high specific capacitance. • N-PCMPs-A reveals good cycling performance even at a high current density. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were successfully prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-11 polyhedra and further activated with fused KOH to obtain N-PCMPs-A. The morphology and microstructure of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micropore and chemisorption analyzer. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge method in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution on a standard three-electrode system. Results show that, compared with N-PCMPs, N-PCMPs-A has higher specific surface area (2188 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and exhibits improved electrochemical capacitive properties (307 F g{sup −1} at 1.0 A g{sup −1}). The mass specific capacitance of N-PCMPs-A is also higher than that of most MOF-derived carbons, some carbide-derived carbons and carbon aerogel-derived carbons. In addition, the capacitance of the N-PCMPs-A retains 90% after 4000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g{sup −1}. These imply that N-PCMPs-A is the promising materials for the construction of a high-performance supercapacitor.

  14. A quartz-lined carbon-11 target: striving for increased yield and specific activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, Jacek; Larsen, Peter; Gillings, Nic

    2010-01-01

    The increased demand for high specific radioactivity neuroreceptor ligands for positron emission tomography (PET) requires the production of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 in high yields. We have attempted to address this issue with the development of a new quartz-lined aluminium target fo...

  15. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  16. Carbon-11 radiolabeling of iron-oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality PET/MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Schueller, Michael J.; Alexoff, David; Smith, S. David; Wang, Wei; Schlyer, David

    2013-07-01

    Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled SPIO NPs was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled

  17. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled dexetimide and levetimide for studying muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannals, R.F.; Langstrom, B.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    The localization and quantitation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m-AChR) in the living human brain using a non-invasive method, such as positron emission tomography (PET), may provide valuable information about receptor changes which have been observed post mortem in patients with Huntington's chorea and Alzheimer's dementia, as well as normal brain mechanisms mediated by the m-AChR. Although quinuclidinyl benzilate has been radioiodinated and radiomethylatd, the former is not useful with PET and the latter does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier; therefore, the authors chose to radiolabel dexetimide, a ligand which labels m-AChR in vitro and in vivo, and levetimide, its inactive enantiomer. Carbon-11 labeled carbon dioxide is bubbled through a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of phenylmagnesium chloride (1 M, l ml) after which 2 mg of lithium aluminium hydride is added in THF (500 ..mu..l). After evaporation of the solvent, 48% hydriodic acid (l ml) is added and the solution is heated for 1 minute. Carbon-11 labeled benzyl iodide is extracted into methylene chloride, added to a solution of nor-benzyl dexetimide or levetimide, and heated for several minutes. Purification is accomplished using semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analytical HPLC is used to determine the radiochemical purity and specific activity.

  18. Pairing Correlations in Odd-Mass Carbon Isotopes and in 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Samana, A R; Krmpotic, F; Tarutina, T

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present an exploratory study of structure of the odd-mass carbon isotopes 15C, 17C and 19C, using the BCS and the projected BCS (PBCS) models to assess the importance of pairing correlations in these light nuclei. Further, we consider the structure of 13C and 11Be using the quasiparticle-rotor model to better understand the origin of spin and parity of the levels and the degree of deformation of the corresponding cores. The quasiparticle-vibrator model is also employed as an alternative model. Comparison of our results with several recent papers on the same subject is also presented. We have shown that the inclusion of the pairing interaction and of the concomitant Pauli principle is imperative for a realistic description of heavy odd-mass carbon isotopes and in the core-coupling models for 13C and 11Be. The important role played by the particle number conservation in relatively light and/or exotic nuclei has been confirmed as well.

  19. Modelled interglacial carbon cycle dynamics during the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Munhoven, Guy

    2016-11-01

    Trends in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during three recent interglacials - the Holocene, the Eemian and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 - are investigated using an earth system model of intermediate complexity, which we extended with process-based modules to consider two slow carbon cycle processes - peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation (coral reef formation). For all three interglacials, model simulations considering peat accumulation and shallow-water CaCO3 sedimentation substantially improve the agreement between model results and ice core CO2 reconstructions in comparison to a carbon cycle set-up neglecting these processes. This enables us to model the trends in atmospheric CO2, with modelled trends similar to the ice core data, forcing the model only with orbital and sea level changes. During the Holocene, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are required to match the observed rise in atmospheric CO2 after 3 ka BP but are not relevant before this time. Our model experiments show a considerable improvement in the modelled CO2 trends by the inclusion of the slow carbon cycle processes, allowing us to explain the CO2 evolution during the Holocene and two recent interglacials consistently using an identical model set-up.

  20. Experience with carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzerke, J.; Neumaier, B.; Guhlmann, A.; Reske, S.N. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Prang, J.; Volkmer, B.; Kleinschmidt, K.; Hautmann, R. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of lymph node and bone metastases in prostate cancer. A total of 23 patients were studied (known metastases: 8; suspicion of metastases: 3; primary staging: 12). Whole-body PET imaging was performed 5 min after injection of the tracer and completed within 1 h. Focally increased tracer uptake in bone or abdominal lymph node regions was interpreted as representing tumour involvement. All known bone and lymph node metastases could be recognized by [{sup 11}C]choline PET. One out of ten negative scans for primary staging was false-negative (lymph node <1 cm) and one out of two positive scans was false-positive with regard to lymph node involvement (focal bowel activity). It is concluded that [{sup 11}C]choline PET is a promising new tool for the primary staging of prostate cancer, with lymph node and bone metastases demonstrating high tracer uptake. Therapeutic management could be influenced by these results in that the technique may permit avoidance of surgical lymph node exploration. (orig.)

  1. Carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol for signal transduction imaging by positron CT. Evaluation of the quality and safety for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ryou [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio; Ido, Tatsuo [and others

    1995-02-01

    To elucidate the synaptic transmission in the neural system, we have been developing fundamental studies for intracellular signaling. For clinical application of carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol (1-[1-{sup 11}C]butyryl-2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol: {sup 11}C-DAG) using positron emission computed tomography (PET), we evaluated the quality and the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG as the solution for injection. As a result, {sup 11}C-DAG was synthesized within 50 minutes, including the preparation step for injection. The half life time and energy spectrum of {sup 11}C-DAG were the same as the physical character of carbon-11, and other radioisotopes were not detected. In the quality control, {sup 11}C-DAG solution was negative in the examination of bacterial contamination and the pyrogen test in three successive synthesis procedures. In the acute toxicity test by administration of {sup 11}C-DAG and 100 {mu}mol/kg of non-radioactive DAG to the rat intravenously, the systemic condition of the rat was not changed and no abnormalities were found in any organ 24 hours after administration. These findings indicated the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG solution. Clinical application of {sup 11}C-DAG using positron emission tomography may be useful to elucidate the dysfunction of intracellular signaling in disorders of higher cortical function such as Alzheimer disease. (author).

  2. Kinetics of Carbon Deposition on Hexaaluminate LaNiAl11O19 Catalyst During CO2 Reforming of Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanlin Xu; Shuyong Jia; Lina Zhao; Yurong Ren; Yan Liu; Yingli Bi; Kaiji Zhen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of carbon deposited on hexaaluminate LaNiAl11O19 catalyst were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in the meantime, the amount of carbon deposited on the catalyst, after both CH4 decomposition and CO2 reforming of CH4, was determined by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The rates of carbon deposited on the catalyst were also investigated and the apparent kinetic equation of CO2 reforming of CH4:carbon and the pressure ratio of CH4 and CO2.

  3. Carbon-11 labeled cathepsin K inhibitors: syntheses and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnick, Melissa E; Shao, Xia; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Scott, Peter J H; Kilbourn, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K is a cysteine peptidase primarily located in osteoclasts, cells involved in normal growth and remodeling of bone but that are also responsible for bone loss in osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis. In vivo imaging of cathepsin K may provide a method to assess changes in osteoclast numbers in such disease states. To that end, two high-affinity and selective cathepsin K inhibitors were radiolabeled with carbon-11. In vivo microPET imaging studies demonstrated uptake and prolonged retention of radioactivity in actively growing or remodeling bone regions (e.g., distal ulnar, carpal, distal and proximal humeral, distal femur, proximal tibia, tail vertebrae). Uptake into bone could be blocked by pre- or co-injection of unlabeled ligand, supporting a specific and saturable binding mechanism for radiotracer localization. These proof-of-concept studies indicate that radiolabeled cathepsin K inhibitors may have potential as in vivo imaging radiotracers for assessing changes of osteoclast numbers in osteolytic diseases.

  4. Studies of cryocooler based cryosorption pump with activated carbon panels operating at 11K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Gangradey, Ranjana; Udgata, Swarup; Krishnamoorthy, V.

    2012-11-01

    Cryosorption pump is the only solution for pumping helium and hydrogen in fusion reactors. It is chosen because it offers highest pumping speed as well as the only suitable pump for the harsh environments in a tokamak. Towards the development of such cryosorption pumps, the optimal choice of the right activated carbon panels is essential. In order to characterize the performance of the panels with indigenously developed activated carbon, a cryocooler based cryosorption pump with scaled down sizes of panels is experimented. The results are compared with the commercial cryopanel used in a CTI cryosorption (model: Cryotorr 7) pump. The cryopanel is mounted on the cold head of the second stage GM cryocooler which cools the cryopanel down to 11K with first stage reaching about ~50K. With no heat load, cryopump gives the ultimate vacuum of 2.1E-7 mbar. The pumping speed of different gases such as nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, helium are tested both on indigenous and commercial cryopanel. These studies serve as a bench mark towards the development of better cryopanels to be cooled by liquid helium for use with tokamak.

  5. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the UV photolysis of CFC-11 and CFC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuiderweg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2 are stable atmospheric compounds that are produced at the earth's surface, but removed only at high altitudes in the stratosphere, where their removal liberates atomic chlorine that then catalytically destroys stratospheric ozone. For such long-lived compounds, isotope effects in the stratospheric removal reactions have a large effect on their global isotope budgets. We have determined the photolytic isotope fractionation for stable carbon isotopes of CFC-11 and CFC-12 in laboratory experiments. 13C/12C isotope fractionations (ϵ range from (−23.7 ± 0.9 to (−17.5 ± 0.4‰ for CFC-11 and (−69.2 ± 3.4 to (−49.4 ± 2.3‰ for CFC-12 between 203 and 288 K, a temperature range relevant to conditions in the troposphere and stratosphere. These results suggest that CFCs should become strongly enriched in 13C with decreasing mixing ratio in the stratosphere, similar to what has been recently observed for CFC chlorine isotopes. In conjunction with the strong variations in CFC emissions before and after the Montréal Protocol, the stratospheric enrichments should also lead to a significant temporal increase in the 13C content of the CFCs at the surface over the past decades, which should be recorded in atmospheric air archives such as firn air.

  6. Radio-metabolite analysis of carbon-11 biochemical partitioning to non-structural carbohydrates for integrated metabolism and transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Benjamin A; Karve, Abhijit A; Judt, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Metabolism and phloem transport of carbohydrates are interactive processes, yet each is often studied in isolation from the other. Carbon-11 ((11)C) has been successfully used to study transport and allocation processes dynamically over time. There is a need for techniques to determine metabolic partitioning of newly fixed carbon that are compatible with existing non-invasive (11)C-based methodologies for the study of phloem transport. In this report, we present methods using (11)C-labeled CO2 to trace carbon partitioning to the major non-structural carbohydrates in leaves-sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) was adapted to provide multisample throughput, raising the possibility of measuring different tissues of the same individual plant, or for screening multiple plants. An additional advantage of HPTLC was that phosphor plate imaging of radioactivity had a much higher sensitivity and broader range of sensitivity than radio-HPLC detection, allowing measurement of (11)C partitioning to starch, which was previously not possible. Because of the high specific activity of (11)C and high sensitivity of detection, our method may have additional applications in the study of rapid metabolic responses to environmental changes that occur on a time scale of minutes. The use of this method in tandem with other (11)C assays for transport dynamics and whole-plant partitioning makes a powerful combination of tools to study carbohydrate metabolism and whole-plant transport as integrated processes.

  7. Propionyl-l-carnitine: Labelling in the N-methyl position with Carbon-11 and pharmacokinetic studies in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Raymond J.; Law, Marilyn P.; Pike, Victor W.; Osman, Safiye; Poole, Keith G

    1995-08-01

    The prospective therapeutic, propionyl-l-carnitine, was labelled in the N-methyl position with the positron-emitter, carbon-11 (t{sub (1(2))} = 20.4 min), with a view to studying its pharmacokinetics in humans using PET. Labelling was achieved by methylating nor-propionyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride with no-carrier-added [{sup 11}C]iodomethane (produced from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide) in ethanol in the presence of 1,2,2,6,6,-pentamethylpiperidine. HPLC of the reaction mixture on a strong cation exchange column provided high purity [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl-l-carnitine in 62% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected from [{sup 11}C]iodomethane), ready for intravenous administration within 35 min from the end of radionuclide production. [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]Propionyl-l-carnitine, given intravenously to rats, cleared rapidly from plasma. A slow uptake of radioactivity into myocardium and striated muscle was observed. In plasma, unchanged tracer represented 84% of the radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.5% of the radioactivity at 60 min. In heart, unchanged tracer represented 18% of radioactivity at 2.5 min and 2.4% at 15 min. The remainder of radioactivity detected in plasma and heart was identified as [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]l-carnitine and [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]acetyl-l-carnitine.

  8. Carbon-11 and iodine-123 labelled iomazenil: a direct PET-SPET comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westera, G. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Buck, A. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Burger, C. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Leenders, K.L. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Schulthess, G.K. von [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Schubiger, A.P. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor ligand iomazenil was labelled with carbon-11 to allow a direct positron emission tomography/single-photon emission tomography (PET/SPET) comparison with the well-known iodine-123 labelled compound. Imaging showed the same regional distribution for both modalities. Blood sample activity was corrected for metabolites by extraction with chloroform and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Metabolism is very fast: 5 Min after application more than 85% of the plasma activity is present as hydrophilic metabolites. Kinetic methods were used to obtain regional estimates of transport rate constants and receptor concentrations. A three-compartment model was employed which gave transport rate constants for brain uptake (K{sub 1}) and the distribution volume for the specifically receptor bound compartment (DV{sub S}). K{sub 1} varied from 0.32 to 0.50 ml/min per gram for the cortical regions, cerebellum, thalamus and striatum for PET and SPET. The coefficient of variation of the SPET parameters was quite comparable to that of the PET parameters, especially after 180 min (PET 90 min) study duration. Thus quantitative benzodiazepine receptor information can be obtained from dynamic SPET imaging in the same way as with PET. (orig./MG)

  9. Chiral dimethylamine flutamide derivatives-modeling, synthesis, androgen receptor affinities and carbon-11 labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Orit [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Laky, Desideriu [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Carlson, Kathryn E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Elgavish, Sharona [Bioinformatics Unit, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Gozin, Michael [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Even-Sapir, Einat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel); Leibovitc, Ilan [Department of Urology, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar Sava 44281 (Israel); Gutman, Mordechai [Department of Surgery A, Sapir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar Sava 44281 (Israel); Chisin, Roland [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Katzenellenbogen, John A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mishani, Eyal [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)]. E-mail: mishani@md.huji.ac.il

    2006-08-15

    Most prostate cancers are androgen dependent upon initial diagnosis. On the other hand, some very aggressive forms of prostate cancer were shown to have lost the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Although the AR is routinely targeted in endocrine treatment, the clinical outcome remains suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the presence and activity of the AR in each case of prostate cancer, before and after treatment. While noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to determine AR expression of tumor cells in vivo, fully optimized PET imaging agents are not yet available. Based on molecular modeling, three novel derivatives of hydroxyflutamide (Compounds 1-3) were designed and synthesized. They contain an electron-rich group (dimethylamine) located on the methyl moiety, which may confer a better stability to the molecule in vivo. Compounds 1-3 have AR binding that is similar or higher than that of the currently used commercial drugs. An automated carbon-11 radiolabeling route was developed, and the compounds were successfully labeled with a 10-15% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 4Ci/{mu}mol end of bombardment (n=15). These labeled biomarkers may facilitate the future quantitative molecular imaging of AR-positive prostate cancer using PET and may also allow for image-guided treatment of prostate cancer.

  10. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S

    2011-01-01

    Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acu...

  11. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]D.P.A.-713, [{sup 11}C]D.P.A.-715 and [{sup 11}C]clinme, selected carbon-11-labelled novel potential radioligands for imaging the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, F.; Thominiaux, C.; Hinnen, F.; Demphel, S.; Le helleix, S.; Chauveau, F.; Boutin, H.; Herard, A.S.; Hantraye, P.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Kassiou, M.; James, M.; Creelman, A.; Fulton, R. [Sydney Univ., Brain and Mind Research Institute, NSW (Australia); Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., Discipline of Medical Radiations, Sciences and School of Chemistry, NSW (Australia); Katsifis, A.; Greguric, I.; Mattner, F.; Loch, C. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, ANSTO, NSW (Australia); Selleri, S. [Degli Studi di Firenze Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Farmaceutiche (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    {sup 11}C P.K.11195 is not only the oldest, but also the most widely used PET radiotracer for in vivo imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (P.B.R. or translocator protein (18 kDa, T.S.P.O.). With the aim of developing a new PET imaging probe for the in vivo study of the P.B.R., two pyrazol [1,5-a]pyrimidineacetamides (D.P.A.-713 and D.P.A.-715) and one imidazol[1,2-a]pyridine-acetamide (C.L.I.N.M.E.) were radiolabelled with the positron emitters carbon{sup 11} (half life: 20.38 min) [1-5]. Briefly, C.L.I.N.M.E. (2-[6-chloro-2(4-iodophenyl)-imidazol[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl] -N-ethyl-N-methyl-acetamide) was labelled at its methyl-acetamide moity chain from the corresponding nor-analogue using[{sup 11}C]methyl iodide (in D.M.S.O./D.M.F (100/200 {mu}L) containing powdered K.O.H. (3-5 mg) at 110 degrees C for 3 min. D.P.A.-713 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin -3-yl]acetamide) and D.P.A.-715 (N,N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-bis-tri-fluoro-methyl-pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]acetamide) were labelled at their aromatic methoxy groups from the corresponding nor-derivatives using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate (in acetone (300{mu}L) containing aq. 3 M NaOH (4{mu}L) at 110 degrees C for 1 min). All radioligands were purified using semi preparative Zorbax reverse phase H.P.L.C., were adequately formulated for in vivo injection within 30 min and were found to be > 95% chemically and radiochemically pure. (N.C.)

  12. In vivo evaluation of carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-based glycine transporter 1 inhibitors in mice and conscious monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyohara, Jun [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan 173-0022 (Japan); Ishiwata, Kiichi; Sakata, Muneyuki [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan 173-0022 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka, Japan 434-8601 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashimoto@faculty.chiba-u.j [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is an attractive target in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of three carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-type GlyT-1 inhibitors - [{sup 11}C]SA1, [{sup 11}C]SA2 and [{sup 11}C]SA3 - as novel PET tracers for GlyT-1. Methods: The regional brain distributions of the three compounds in mice were studied at baseline and under receptor-blockade conditions with co-injection of carrier loading or pretreatment with an excess of selective GlyT-1 inhibitors (ALX-5407 and SSR504734). Metabolic stability was investigated by radio high-performance liquid chromatography. Dynamic PET scans in conscious monkeys were performed with/without selective GlyT-1 inhibitors. Results: The IC{sub 50} values of SA1, SA2 and SA3 were 9.0, 6400 and 39.7 nM, respectively. The regional brain uptakes of [{sup 11}C]SA1 and [{sup 11}C]SA3 in mice were heterogeneous and consistent with the known distribution of GlyT-1. [{sup 11}C]SA2 showed low and homogeneous uptake in the brain. Most radioactivity in the brain was detected in unchanged form, although peripherally these compounds were degraded. Carrier loading decreased the uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. However, similar reductions were not observed with [{sup 11}C]SA3. Pretreatment with ALX-5407 decreased the uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. In the monkey at baseline, regional brain uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 was heterogeneous and consistent with the known GlyT-1 distribution. Pretreatment with selective GlyT-1 inhibitors significantly decreased the distribution volume ratio of [{sup 11}C] SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C]SA1 has the most suitable profile among the three carbon-11-labelled GlyT-1 inhibitors. Lead optimization of [{sup 11}C]SA1 structure will be required to achieve in vivo selective GlyT-1 imaging.

  13. Permeability of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen gases using a composite membrane of polyethersulfone/polyamide 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahreini Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the refining industry, processing and transportation of gas in Iran, it is of high importance to use new technologies of gas separation. Membrane methods, in particular, separation process through polymeric membranes have been growingly used in recent years. The results of multiple studies show that polyether sulfone compounds have a very good performance in manufacturing polymeric membranes in the area of gas separation. However, efforts are ongoing to improve the permeability and selectivity properties of the membranes. This study investigated separation of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen gases using composite membranes including, polyethersulfone/ polyamide 11 as the polymer. The membrane was made by molding solution with a composition of 9% to 1% polyethersulfone/polyamide -11. Morphology and structure of the membrane made were examined by Fourier infrared transform (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The level of permeability of the membranes was measured by a fixed volume-variable pressure. Overall results indicated that with 6 time increase of pressure, the amount of permeability of carbon dioxide reduced and then increased. Selectivity for dual gases of carbon dioxide- nitrogen increased by the increase in pressure and maximum amount of pressure is 11/187 at 8 times of increase. The selectivity of carbon dioxide- nitrogen has the greatest value among dual gases.

  14. Non-detection of HC11N towards TMC-1: constraining the chemistry of large carbon-chain molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A.; Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2016-12-01

    Bell et al. reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC11N towards the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported towards any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules towards TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analysed Green Bank Telescope observations of HC9N and HC11N towards TMC-1. Although we find an HC9N column density consistent with previous values, HC11N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC11N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown carbon-chain chemistry. We propose that cyclization reactions may be responsible for the depleted HC11N abundance, and that products of these cyclization reactions should be investigated as candidate interstellar molecules.

  15. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Magoon, Orville T.; Robbins, Lisa L.; Ewing, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is

  16. Synthesis and in vivo brain distribution of carbon-11-labeled {delta}-opioid receptor agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama, E-mail: rpichika@ucsd.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jewett, Douglas M.; Sherman, Philip S. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Traynor, John R. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Husbands, Stephen M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Woods, James H. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Three new radiolabeled compounds, [{sup 11}C]SNC80 ((+)-4-[({alpha}R)-{alpha}-{l_brace}(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl{r_brace}-3-[{sup 11}C] methoxybenzyl-N,N-diethylbenzamide), N,N-diethyl-4-[3-methoxyphenyl-1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl) benzamide and N,N-diethyl-4-[(1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamide, were prepared as potential in vivo radiotracers for the {delta}-opioid receptor. Each compound was synthesized by alkylation of the appropriate desmethyl compounds using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. In vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed very low initial brain uptake of all three compounds and no regional specific binding for [{sup 11}C]SNC80. A monkey positron emission tomography study of [{sup 11}C]SNC80 confirmed low brain permeability and uniform regional distribution of this class of opioid agonists in a higher species. Opioid receptor ligands of this structural class are thus unlikely to succeed as in vivo radiotracers, likely due to efficient exclusion from the brain by the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter.

  17. Study on EOR by carbon Dioxide Injection Process in R11 Carbonate Reservoir%任11碳酸盐岩油藏注CO2提高采收率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭平; 周耐强; 张茂林; 张晓辉

    2012-01-01

    许多碳酸盐岩油藏进入高含水开发期,如何挖潜,进一步提高采收率是目前的主要工作方向.目前任11碳酸盐岩油藏存在单井产油量低,注入水利用系数低,水驱效率越来越差的问题.因此需要探索新途径,以便进一步发挥油藏生产潜力.分析了任11油藏注CO2提高采收率的机理,开展了任11油藏注CO2提高采收率的数值模拟研究.针对研究区块的地质及开发特点,建立了相应的三维数值模型,在水驱历史拟合的基础上,应用数值模拟技术从注气强度、注气方式、注气部位,生产气油比控制等方面进行了优化研究.油藏注CO2方案模拟计算20年,产油量显著上升,采用注CO2可比目前开发方式提高采收率3.5%左右.%Many carbonate reservoir have been into high water-cut development stage. How to dig the remaining oil potential and enhancing oil recovery further is dominant work target now. There are many problems in carbonate reservoir of Rl 1, such as low oil production of single well, inefficient utilization of injected water, and worsening of the water-flood efficiency. Therefore it is necessary to find a new way to dig reservoir production potential. The EOR mechanism by Carbon dioxide injection process in Rl 1 is analyzed and the numerical simulation research on EQR by Carbon dioxide injection process in Rl 1 reservoir is completed. Aimed at reservoir properties and development characteristic the three-dimensional numerical model is setup. Based on the fitting history of water flooding, the gas injection rate, gas injection mode, gas injection position and the gas-oil ratio control are optimized. The plan of Carbon dioxide injection is predicted for 20 years and the result shows that oil production rise obviously and it can enhance oil recovery about 3.5% more than the current exploitation mode.

  18. Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TEMPERATURE ON CARBON MONOXIDE TOXICITY INTRODUCTION The use of the laboratory rat as an animal model for determining the toxicity of combustion gases is...response of rats during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1968; 24:747-50. 7. Hubbard RW, Matthew WT, Linduska JD, et al. The laboratory rat as a model for

  19. Dynamics of carbon dioxide transport in a multiple sink network (GHGT-11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    As Carbon Capture and Storage slowly gets accepted and integrated as a mean for cleaner utilization of fossil fuels, the integration of capture, transport and storage becomes a key component to properly design a CO2 network. While the boundary conditions set by the capture and storage units have bee

  20. Imaging of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor in tumor: carbon ion irradiation reduced the uptake of a positron emission tomography ligand [11C]DAC in tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Koike, Sachiko; Hatori, Akiko; Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Yui, Joji; Kumata, Katsushi; Ando, Koichi; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of carbon ion irradiation on the uptake of N-benzyl-N-11C-methyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([(11)C]DAC), a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), in tumor cells and tumor-bearing mice. Spontaneous murine fibrosarcoma (NFSa) cells were implanted into the right hind legs of syngeneic C3H male mice. Conditioning irradiation with 290 MeV/u carbon ions was delivered to the 7- to 8-mm tumors In vitro uptake of [(11)C]DAC was measured in single NFSa cells isolated from NFSa-bearing mice after irradiation. In vivo biodistribution of [(11)C]DAC in NFSa-bearing mice was determined by small animal PET scanning and dissection. In vitro autoradiography was performed using tumor sections prepared from mice after PET scanning. In vitro and in vivo uptake of [(11)C]DAC in single NFSa cells and NFSa-bearing mice was significantly reduced by carbon ion irradiation. The decrease in [(11)C]DAC uptake in the tumor sections was mainly due to the change in PBR expression. In conclusion, [(11)C]DAC PET responded to the change in PBR expression in tumors caused by carbon ion irradiation in this study. Thus, [(11)C]DAC is a promising predictor for evaluating the effect of carbon ion radiotherapy.

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Carbon-11 Labelled alpha-Amino Acids for PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popkov, Alexander; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For PET applications in oncological and neurological diagnostics, amino acids have been studied both clinically and pre-clinically during the last 35 years. Nowadays two applications of labelled amino acids for visualisation of tumours attract the main attention: [C-11] or [F-18]amino acids as subst

  2. Studies of One-Nucleon Transfer Reactions on Boron -11 and CARBON-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Penelope Bernadette

    This thesis describes a study of the ^{11}B(d,n)^{12 }C and ^{12}C(t, alpha)^{11} B reactions. The Indiana University Cyclotron Facility produced the 79 MeV deuterons for the ^{11} B(d,n)^{12}C experiment. Time of flight measurements were performed to obtain neutron energy spectra. The energy resolution was typically 300 keV (~{1over 2} nsec). Cross sections were extracted for five well-resolved bound states in ^{12}C at 0.00, 4.44, 9.64, 12.71 and 15.11 MeV. The experimental cross sections were compared with the results of theoretical predictions. The effect of including, in these calculations, the breakup of the deuteron into low energy relative S states during the course of the reaction was investigated. Spectroscopic factors were then determined for the above five states in ^{12}C and compared with theoretical values. A subsequent experiment was performed at the same energy with vector polarized deuterons in order to study the effects of deuteron breakup on the corresponding analysing powers. This was the first time that analysing powers had been measured for this reaction. The effects on the cross section and analysing power calculations of exact finite range and the D state of the deuteron were investigated using the Reid soft-core potential for the proton-neutron interaction. The possible role of a two step process in the population of the 2 ^{+} state at 4.44 MeV in ^{12}C was examined. The effects on the analysing power for this state, of contributions from the 2p-1f shell in the 4.44 MeV wavefunction, were also discussed. Differential cross sections for the ^ {12}C(t,alpha) ^{11}B reaction, using 33 MeV tritons from the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility, were extracted for transitions to the 0.00, 2.125, 4.445, 5.021, 6.743, 7.286, 7.978 and 8.559 MeV states in ^{11 }B. The results of CRC calculations were compared with DWBA and CCBA calculation for the single step and two step transitions respectively. The spin of the 8.559 MeV state in ^{11}B, which

  3. Non-Detection of HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1: Constraining the Chemistry of Large Carbon-Chain Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Ryan A; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A; Dollhopf, Niklaus M; Burkhardt, Andrew M; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T; Carroll, P Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Bell et al. (1997) reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC$_{11}$N toward the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported toward any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules toward TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analyzed GBT observations of HC$_9$N and HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1. Although we find an HC$_9$N column density consistent with previous values, HC$_{11}$N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC$_{11}$N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown ...

  4. Carbon-11 labelled ketamine-synthesis, distribution in mice and PET studies in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, C.-Y.; Vallabhahosula, Shankar; Wolf, Alfred P.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Schlyer, David J.; Arnett, Carroll D.; Zhou Yiguo

    1997-02-01

    No-carrier-added (NCA)[{sup 11}C]({+-})-ketamine (2a) and its enantiomers (+)-2b and (-)-2c were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding norketamine (1a-c) with [{sup 11}C]H{sub 3}I in an overall radiochemical yield of 20% (EOB) with specific activities of 0.35-0.45 Ci/{mu}mole at EOB in a synthesis time of 40 min from EOB. Compound 2a was metabolized rapidly in mouse brain and labeled metabolites appeared in baboon plasma. PET studies of compounds 2a-c in a baboon showed that influx of compounds 2a-c into the brain was high for the first few min but radioactivity then declined rapidly. Although the retention of radioactivity in the baboon striatum was not significantly different for 2a-c 20 min post-injection, graphical analysis of time-activity data for each enantiomer and for the racemate in baboon striatum suggested that (+)-ketamine may interact with receptors slightly more effectively than its (-)-enantiomer or racemate. However, due to its rapid metabolism in the brain and a similar uptake in the striatum and cerebellum, [{sup 11}C]ketamine may not be an ideal tracer for studying NMDA receptor with PET.

  5. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT. Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C−neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C. The 1−σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1 of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  6. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer E-mail: christer.halldin@neuro.ks.se; Dolle, Frederic; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Olsson, Hans; Lundkvist, Per Karlsson; Hall, Haakan; Sandell, Johan; Vaufrey, Camilla; Loc' h, Christian; Franzoise; Crouzel, Christian; Maziere, Bernard; Farde, Lars

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride {l_brace}(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide= {r_brace} binds with a picomolar affinity (K{sub i}=24 pM) to the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/{mu}mol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [{sup 11}C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 11}C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]epidepride. The availability of [{sup 11}C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with

  7. Facile synthesis of carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives as new PET radioligands for imaging of 5-HT{sub 1A}R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2111 (United States); Zheng Qihuang, E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L3-208, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2111 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives, 2-((4-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)benzo[d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5a), 2-((4-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)-5,7-dimethylbenzo [d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5c), 2-((4-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)thio)benzo[d]thiazole ([{sup 11}C]5e), 2-((6-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)benzo[d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5g), 2-((6-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)-5,7-dimethylbenzo [d]oxazole ([{sup 11}C]5i), and 2-((6-(4-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexyl)thio)benzo[d]thiazole ([{sup 11}C]5k), were prepared from their corresponding phenol precursors with [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}OTf through O-[{sup 11}C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge in 50-60% (n=5) radiochemical yields based on [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The overall synthesis time from EOB was 23 min, the radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 277.5{+-}92.5 GBq/{mu}mol (n=5). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New carbon-11-labeled arylpiperazinylthioalkyl derivatives were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  8. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  9. Inverse agonist histamine H3 receptor PET tracers labelled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Terence G; Sato, Nagaaki; Jitsuoka, Makoto; Tokita, Shigeru; Sanabria, Sandra; Eng, Waisi; Ryan, Christine; Krause, Stephen; Takenaga, Norihiro; Patel, Shil; Zeng, Zhizhen; Williams, David; Sur, Cyrille; Hargreaves, Richard; Burns, H Donald

    2009-12-01

    Two histamine H3 receptor (H3R) inverse agonist PET tracers have been synthesized and characterized in preclinical studies. Each tracer has high affinity for the histamine H3 receptor, has suitable lipophilicity, and neither is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. A common phenolic precursor was used to synthesize each tracer with high specific activity and radiochemical purity by an alkylation reaction using either [(11)C]MeI or [(18)F]FCD(2)Br. Autoradiographic studies in rhesus monkey and human brain slices showed that each tracer had a widespread distribution with high binding densities in frontal cortex, globus pallidus and striatum, and lower uptake in cerebellum. The specificity of this expression pattern was demonstrated by the blockade of the autoradiographic signal by either the H3R agonist R-alpha-methylhistamine or a histamine H3R inverse agonist. In vivo PET imaging studies in rhesus monkey showed rapid uptake of each tracer into the brain with the same distribution seen in the autoradiographic studies. Each tracer could be blocked by pretreatment with a histamine H3R inverse agonist giving a good specific signal. Comparison of the in vitro metabolism of each compound showed slower metabolism in human liver microsomes than in rhesus monkey liver microsomes, with each compound having a similar clearance rate in humans. The in vivo metabolism of 1b in rhesus monkey showed that at 60 min, approximately 35% of the circulating counts were due to the parent. These tracers are very promising candidates as clinical PET tracers to both study the histamine H3R system and measure receptor occupancy of H3R therapeutic compounds.

  10. Study on Biomass and Carbonized Mass of 11 Eucalyptus Clones at age 6- years%6年生11种桉树无性系生物量与炭化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩斐扬; 周群英; 陈少雄

    2012-01-01

    对雷州半岛6年生11种桉树无性系的林分生长量、生物量、炭化量进行了研究。结果表明:11种桉树无性系林分蓄积量大小排序为:GL4〉GL9〉DH32-22〉LH5〉DH201-2〉LH1〉M1〉EC34〉柳桉1〉UC184-1〉SH7,林分蓄积量最大的GL4是最小的SH7的2.12倍。11种桉树无性系各组分生物量变化不一致,但都以树干的最大,叶片的最小。LH5和GL4的林分生物量最大,均高于180t·hm^-2,SH7和UC184-1林分生物量较小,均低于130t·hm^-2,其它几种较为平均,在140-170t·hm^-2之间。11种桉树无性系炭化量受林分生物量和炭化率影响,林分生物量和炭化率越大,炭化量越大。LH5、DH201-2、LH1和GL4的炭化率较高,均大于20%,UC184-1和SH7的炭化率最低。11种桉树无性系中LH5林分生物量最大,炭化率最高,故炭化量最高;其次为GL4和LH1,其炭化量均高于60t·hm^-2,EC34、GL9、柳桉1、M1和DH32-22均大于50 t·hm^-2,UC184-1的炭化量低于40 t·hm^-2为最低。综合生长量、生物量和炭化率分析,GL4、LH5、GL9和DH32-224个无性系为一类,可作为薪炭林品系发展;LH1、EC34、DH201-2和M14个无性系划分为一类,作为薪炭林发展潜力较低;柳桉1、UC184-1和SH73个无性系为一类,不适合作为薪炭林发展。%The increment,biomass and carbonized mass of 11 Eucalyptus clones at age 6-years were examined from trials on the Leizhou Peninsula.By stand volume the 11 Eucalyptus clones were ranked as follows: GL4〉GL9〉DH32-22〉LH5〉DH201-2〉LH1〉M1〉EC34〉E.saligna No.1〉UC184-1〉SH7.Stand volume of GL4,the largest of the 11 clones,was 2.1 times that of SH7,the smallest one.The biomass of various organs of the 11 Eucalyptus clones varied markedly;stem mass accounted for the greatest proportion of total biomass while leaf mass accounted for the lowest proportion out of the five organs assessed.Clones LH5 and GL4 had the highest stand biomass of the 11 clones,at 180 t·hm-2,whilst SH7

  11. Myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A study with carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Sugao; Maruno, Hirotaka; Nishiyama, Shinichiro; Seki, Akira [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Senda, Michio; Toyama, Hinako

    1997-03-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is still unclear. Positron emission tomography is a suitable and promising technique for the detection of possible metabolic consequences of the disease. To assess regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism, 19 asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic patients with HCM and 10 normal control subjects were studied using carbon-11 acetate and fluorine-18-labelled deoxyglucose (FDG) as tracers of myocardial blood flow (Ao), oxygen consumption (k), and exogenous glucose utilization. In the patients, regional Ao in the hypertrophied septum and apex (H) was similar to that in the nonhypertrophied free wall (N) (91.3{+-}3.9% vs 92.9{+-}3.1%; p=NS). However, the k values were significantly lower in H than in N (0.044{+-}0.012 vs 0.060{+-}0.016/min, p<0.0001). The k value in N and normal control subjects (0.062{+-}0.013) was similar. Postprandial FDG uptake was lower in H than in N (70{+-}16 vs 91{+-}7%; p<0.0001) in 16 patients and slightly higher in 3 patients. Fasting FDG study showed increased FDG uptake in H in 3 out of 13 patients, suggesting a disorder of the myocardial microvascular circulation. A relative decrease in hypertrophied septal and apical oxidative metabolism and glucose utilization without any corresponding perfusion defect could reflect abnormal regional aerobic metabolism in the disproportionately thickened myocardium in patients with HCM. This suggests that a primary myocardial metabolic defect might be present in patients with HCM. (author)

  12. Air-tolerant Fabrication and Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Encapsulating 1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iihara, Yu; Ohashi, Kenji; Murayama, Tomoko; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The thermally-triggered n-type doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated using 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, a novel n-type dopant. Through a simple thermal vacuum process, the phosphine compounds are moderately encapsulated inside single-walled carbon nanotubes. The encapsulation into SWNTs is carefully characterized using Raman/X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This easy-to-handle doping with air-stable precursors for n-type SWNTs enables the large-scale fabrication of thermoelectric materials showing an excellent power factor exceeding approximately 240 μW mK(-2) .

  13. USGS Arctic Ocean carbon cruise 2011: field activity H-01-11-AR to collect carbon data in the Arctic Ocean, August - September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Wynn, Jonathan; Lisle, John; Buczkowski, Brian J.; Moore, Barbara; Mayer, Larry; Armstrong, Andrew; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the surface of the ocean by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (Sabine and others, 2004). Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Orr and others, 2005; Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats (Raven and others, 2005; Ruttiman, 2006). The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  14. Effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang Huang; Hui-min Meng; Li-kang Liang; Sen Li; Jin-hui Shi

    2015-01-01

    LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were applied to carbon steels with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat by plasma spraying. The effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs were investigated in 3.5wt% NaCl solution using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The results show that a large number of cracks are found in the LaMgAl11O19 TBCs after the samples are heat-treated, including some through-thickness cracks. The corrosion forms of the as-sprayed and heat-treated TBCs are uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion, respectively. The as-sprayed TBCs exhibit three EIS time constants after being immersed for less than 7 d, and then a new time constant ap-pears because of steel substrate corrosion. When the immersion time is increased to 56 d, a Warburg impedance (W) component appears in the EIS data. The EIS data for the heat-treated TBCs exhibit only two time constants after the samples are immersed for less than 14 d, and a new time constant appears when the immersion time is increased further. The heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs. The corrosion products are primarilyγ-FeOOH and Fe3O4.

  15. Carbon-11 labeled stilbene derivatives from natural products for the imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mengchao; Tang, Ruikun; Li, Zijing; Jia, Hongmei; Liu, Boli [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-04-01

    Four stilbene derivatives from natural products were screened as novel β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging ligands. In vitro binding assay showed that the methylated ligand, (E)-1-methoxy-4-styrylbenzene (8) displayed high binding affinity to Aβ{sub 1-42} aggregates (K{sub i} = 19.5 nM). Moreover, the {sup 11}C-labeled ligand, [{sup 11}C]8 was prepared through an O-methylation reaction using [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}OTf. In vitro autoradiography with sections of transgenic mouse brain also confirmed the high and specific binding of [{sup 11}C]8 to Aβ plaques. In vivo biodistribution experiments in normal mice indicated that [{sup 11}C]8 displayed high initial uptake (9.41 ± 0.51% ID/g at 5 min post-injection) into and rapid washout from the brain, with a brain{sub 5} {sub min}/brain{sub 30} {sub min} ratio of 6.63. These preliminary results suggest that [{sup 11}C]8 may be served as a novel Aβ imaging probe for PET. (orig.)

  16. Understanding Climate Policy Data Needs. NASA Carbon Monitoring System Briefing: Characterizing Flux Uncertainty, Washington D.C., 11 January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Climate policy in the United States is currently guided by public-private partnerships and actions at the local and state levels. This mitigation strategy is made up of programs that focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, agricultural practices and implementation of technologies to reduce greenhouse gases. How will policy makers know if these strategies are working, particularly at the scales at which they are being implemented? The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) will provide information on carbon dioxide fluxes derived from observations of earth's land, ocean and atmosphere used in state of the art models describing their interactions. This new modeling system could be used to assess the impact of specific policy interventions on CO2 reductions, enabling an iterative, results-oriented policy process. In January of 2012, the CMS team held a meeting with carbon policy and decision makers in Washington DC to describe the developing modeling system to policy makers. The NASA CMS will develop pilot studies to provide information across a range of spatial scales, consider carbon storage in biomass, and improve measures of the atmospheric distribution of carbon dioxide. The pilot involves multiple institutions (four NASA centers as well as several universities) and over 20 scientists in its work. This pilot study will generate CO2 flux maps for two years using observational constraints in NASA's state-of -the-art models. Bottom-up surface flux estimates will be computed using data-constrained land and ocean models; comparison of the different techniques will provide some knowledge of uncertainty in these estimates. Ensembles of atmospheric carbon distributions will be computed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GEOS-5), with perturbations to the surface fluxes and to transport. Top-down flux estimates will be computed from observed atmospheric CO2 distributions (ACOS/GOSAT retrievals) alongside the forward-model fields, in conjunction with an

  17. Specific activity of [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I synthesized by the 'wet' method: Main sources of non-radioactive carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vallejo, Vanessa [Institut Alta Tecnologia PRBB-Fundacio Privada, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C/Dr. Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Llop, Jordi [Institut Alta Tecnologia PRBB-Fundacio Privada, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C/Dr. Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jllop@cicbiomagune.es

    2009-01-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful molecular imaging technique based on the administration and detection of radioactive (positron emitting) species. In some applications, the concept of specific activity becomes especially important in order to prevent undesired pharmacological and/or toxic effects after injection of the radiotracer. Problems to obtain high specific activities are found when {sup 11}C-labeled compounds are prepared by methylation following the so called 'wet' method, which consists of a simple route but usually yields radiotracers highly diluted with the stable specie. In the present work, the main sources of contamination by stable carbon in the [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I synthesis following the 'wet' method have been analyzed and their individual contribution has been quantified. The results show that the most relevant contamination of CO{sub 2} is generated during the bombardment process.

  18. PET study of carbon-11-PK 11195 binding to peripheral type benzodiazepine sites in glioblastoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappata, S.; Cornu, P.; Samson, Y.; Prenant, C.; Benavides, J.; Scatton, B.; Crouzel, C.; Hauw, J.J.; Syrota, A. (INSERM U. 334 Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Paris (France))

    1991-08-01

    The utility of the peripheral type benzodiazepine site ligand 11C-PK 11195, for imaging human glioma in conjunction with Positron Emission Tomography, relies on a high specific binding of the tracer to tumoral peripheral type benzodiazepines sites. In a patient with glioblastoma, the authors found that 11C-PK 11195 binding was two-fold higher in the tumor than in normal gray matter and that 30% of tumoral binding could be displaced by a large excess of unlabeled drug. These findings suggest that tumoral retention of the ligand is due, in part, to specific binding.

  19. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled SCH 39166, a new selective dopamine D-1 receptor ligand, and preliminary PET investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Sedvall, Goeran (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychology); Barnett, Allen (Schering-Plough Corp., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo(d)naphtho-(2,1-b)azepine ) is a new more selective dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist than the widely used SCH 23390. ({sup 11}C)SCH 39166 was prepared by N-methylation of the desmethyl compound SCH 40853 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-5H-benzo(d)naphtho -(2,1-b)azepine) with ({sup 11}C)methyl iodide. Reaction in acetone with subsequent straight-phase semi-preparative HPLC resulted in 20-30% radiochemical yield (from EOB and decay-corrected) with a total synthesis time of 35-40 min and a radiochemical purity >99%. The specific activity obtained at EOS was about 1500 Ci/mmol (55 GBq/{mu}mol). ({sup 11}C)SCH 39166 was injected into a Cynomolgus monkey. PET-analysis demonstrated accumulation in the striatum, a region known to have a high density of dopamine D-1 receptors. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum was markedly reduced after injection of 6 mg unlabelled SCH 23390, thus demonstrating the specificity and reversibility of ({sup 11}C)SCH 39166 binding to dopamine D-1 receptors. (author).

  20. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for (carbon dioxide + 1,1-difluoroethane) system at temperatures from (258 to 343) K and pressures up to about 8 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, Hakim [Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes d' Environnement, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria); Valtz, Alain; Coquelet, Christophe [Centre Energetique et Procedes (CEP-TEP), Mines Paris-ParisTech, CNRS FRE 2861, 35 Rue Saint Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau (France); Meniai, Abdeslam Hassen [Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes d' Environnement, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria); Richon, Dominique [Centre Energetique et Procedes (CEP-TEP), Mines Paris-ParisTech, CNRS FRE 2861, 35 Rue Saint Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau (France)], E-mail: richon@ensmp.fr

    2008-10-15

    Accurate thermo-physical data are of utmost interest for the development of new efficient refrigeration systems. Carbon dioxide (R744) and 1,1-difluoroethane (R152a) are addressed here. Isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data are reported herein for (R744 + R152a) binary system in the (258-343) K temperature range and in the (0.14 to 7.65) MPa pressure range. A reliable 'static-analytic' method taking advantage of two online ROLSI{sup TM} micro capillary samplers is used for all thermodynamic measurements. The data are correlated using our in-house ThermoSoft thermodynamic model using the Peng-Robinson equation of state, the Mathias-Copeman alpha function, the Wong-Sandler mixing rules, and the NRTL model.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled 2-oxoquinoline derivatives for type 2 cannabinoid receptor positron emission tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evens, Nele [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Muccioli, Giulio G. [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, U.C. Louvain, 1200 Bruxelles (Belgium); Houbrechts, Nele [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Lambert, Didier M. [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, U.C. Louvain, 1200 Bruxelles (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons M. [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Van Laere, Koen [Division of Nuclear Medicine, K.U. Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Bormans, Guy M. [Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, K.U. Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: guy.bormans@pharm.kuleuven.be

    2009-05-15

    Introduction: The type 2 cannabinoid (CB{sub 2}) receptor is part of the endocannabinoid system and has been suggested as a mediator of several central and peripheral inflammatory processes. Imaging of the CB{sub 2} receptor has been unsuccessful so far. We synthesized and evaluated a carbon-11- and a fluorine-18-labeled 2-oxoquinoline derivative as new PET tracers with high specificity and affinity for the CB{sub 2} receptor. Methods: Two 2-oxoquinoline derivatives were synthesized and radiolabeled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Their affinity and selectivity for the human CB{sub 2} receptor were determined. Biological evaluation was done by biodistribution, radiometabolite and autoradiography studies in mice. Results: In vitro studies showed that both compounds are high affinity CB{sub 2}-specific inverse agonists. Biodistribution study of the tracers in mice showed a high in vivo initial brain uptake and fast brain washout, in accordance with the low CB{sub 2} receptor expression levels in normal brain. A persistently high in vivo binding to the spleen was observed, which was inhibited by pretreatment with two structurally unrelated CB{sub 2} selective inverse agonists. In vitro autoradiography studies with the radioligands confirmed CB{sub 2}-specific binding to the mouse spleen. Conclusion: We synthesized two novel CB{sub 2} receptor PET tracers that show high affinity/selectivity for CB{sub 2} receptors. Both tracers show favourable characteristics as radioligands for central and peripheral in vivo visualization of the CB{sub 2} receptor and are promising candidates for primate and human CB{sub 2} PET imaging.

  2. Bromine-76 and carbon-11 labelled NNC 13-8199, metabolically stable benzodiazepine receptor agonists as radioligands for positron emission tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foged, C. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Novo Nordisk A/S, Health Care Discovery and Development, Maaloev (Denmark); Halldin, C.; Pauli, S.; Suhara, T.; Swahn, C.G.; Karlsson, P.; Farde, L. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Loc`h, C.; Maziere, B.; Maziere, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA, Orsay (France); Hansen, H.C. [Novo Nordisk A/S, Health Care Discovery and Development, Maaloev (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    NNC 13-8241 has recently been labelled with iodine-123 and developed as a metabolically stable benzodiazepine receptor ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in monkeys and man. NNC 13-8199 is a bromo-analogue of NNC 13-8241. This partial agonist binds selectively and with subnanomolar affinity to the benzodiazepine receptors. We prepared {sup 76}Br labelled NNC 13-8199 from the trimethyltin precursor by the chloramine-T method. Carbon-11 labelled NNC 13-8199 was synthesised by N-alkylation of the nitrogen of the amide group with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide. Positron emission tomography (PET) examination with the two radioligands in monkeys demonstrated a high uptake of radioactivity in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex. In the study with [{sup 76}Br]NNC 13-8199, the monkey brain uptake continued to increase until the time of displacement with flumazenil at 215 min after injection. For both radioligands the radioactivity in the cortical brain regions was markedly reduced after displacement with flumazenil. More than 98% of the radioactivity in monkey plasma represented unchanged radioligand 40 min after injection. The low degree of metabolism indicates that NNC 13-8199 is metabolically much more stable than hitherto developed PET radioligands for imaging of benzodiazepine receptors in the primate brain. [{sup 76}Br]NNC 13-8199 has potential as a radioligand in human PET studies using models where a slow metabolism is an advantage. (orig.) With 8 figs., 28 refs.

  3. Carbon-11 pb-12: an attempt to visualize the dopamine d{sub 4} receptor in the primate brain with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver E-mail: oliver.langer@psyk.ks.se; Halldin, Christer; Chou Yuanhwa; Sandell, Johan; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Naagren, Kjell; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco; Leopoldo, Marcello; Farde, Lars

    2000-11-01

    The dopamine D{sub 4} receptor (D{sub 4}R) is expressed in low density in various extrastriatal brain regions. This receptor subtype is discussed in relation to the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia but no selective positron emission tomography (PET) ligand is available to date to study the distribution in vivo. The arylpiperazine derivative N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-methoxybenzamide (PB-12) is a novel, high-affinity ( K{sub i}=0.040 nM) and selective D{sub 4}R ligand. We radiolabeled PB-12 with carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} 20.4 min) by O-methylation of the corresponding desmethyl analogue N-[2-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-hydroxybenzamide (LM-190) with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Derivative LM-190 was prepared by condensing 3-hydroxybenzoic acid with the appropriate amine. For the radiolabeling, the incorporation yield was >90% and the total synthesis time including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification was about 35 min. The specific radioactivity of [{sup 11}C]PB-12 at time of injection was 67-118 GBq{center_dot}{mu}mol{sup -1}. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey showed a high uptake and widespread distribution of radioactivity in the brain, including the neocortex and thalamus. About 40% of total radioactivity in plasma represented unchanged radioligand at 60 min after injection as determined by HPLC. Pretreatment with the D{sub 4}R ligand 3-{l_brace}[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl{r_brace}-1H-pyrollo[2,3-b]pyridine (L-745,870) prior to radioligand injection failed to demonstrate receptor-specific binding in the monkey brain. Furthermore, the brain radioactivity distribution was left unaffected by pretreating with unlabeled PB-12. This failure to detect a D{sub 4}R-specific signal may be related to a very low density of the D{sub 4}R in primate brain, insufficient binding affinity of the radioligand, and a high background of nonspecific binding. It can be concluded from these findings that

  4. Reconstruction of the carbon isotopic composition of methane over the last 50 yr based on firn air measurements at 11 polar sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Sapart

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and large uncertainties exist concerning the future evolution of its atmospheric abundance. Analyzing methane atmospheric mixing and stable isotope ratios in air trapped in polar ice sheets helps reconstructing the evolution of its sources and sinks in the past. This is important to improve predictions of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios in the future under the influence of a changing climate. We present an attempt to reconcile methane carbon isotope records from 11 firn sites from both Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct a consistent δ13C(CH4 history over the last 50 yr. In the firn, the atmospheric signal is altered mainly by diffusion and gravitation. These processes are taken into account by firn transport models. We show that isotope reconstructions from individual sites are not always mutually consistent among the different sites. Therefore we apply for the first time a multisite isotope inversion to reconstruct an atmospheric isotope history that is constrained by all individual sites, generating a multisite "best-estimate" scenario. This scenario is compared to ice core data, atmospheric air archive results and direct atmospheric monitoring data.

  5. Implications and Challenges for the Energy Sector in Brazil and Mexico to Meet the Carbon Emission Reductions Committed in Their INDC during the COP 21-CMP11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Camile Pasqual

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite contributing only 1% to global emissions each, two of the largest economies in Latin America, Brazil and Mexico, are strongly committed to reducing their carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions by 43% and 40% respectively by the year 2030. Achieving these goals, however, will not only necessitate the implementation of technical innovations, cleaner energy sources and active participation of all sectors, but will also require significant changes in the energy policies of both countries. This article will identify the goals stated by Brazil and Mexico in their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs, and examine the actual and prospective primary energy mixes and consequent CO2 emissions. In addition, strategies related to technical, economic and social efforts needed to achieve these purposes are explored. Finally, the opportunities for achieving COP21-CMP11 commitments through the implementation of renewable energy in different sectors will be discussed; while showing their potential for also providing energy sovereignty and potential economic benefits for both nations.

  6. Combined δ11B, δ13C, and δ18O analyses of coccolithophore calcite constrains the response of coccolith vesicle carbonate chemistry to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Tripati, Robert; Aciego, Sarah; Gilmore, Rosaleen; Ries, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophorid algae play a central role in the biological carbon pump, oceanic carbon sequestration, and in marine food webs. It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification on these organisms. Differences in the regulation of carbonate chemistry, pH, and carbon sources of the intracellular compartments where coccolith formation occurs may underlie the diverse calcification and growth responses to acidified seawater observed in prior experiments. Here we measured stable isotopes of boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) within coccolith calcite, and δ13C of algal tissue to constrain carbonate system parameters in two strains of Pleurochrysis carterae (P. carterae). The two strains were cultured under variable pCO2, with water temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity monitored. Notably, PIC, POC, and PIC/POC ratio did not vary across treatments, indicating that P. carterae is able to calcify and photosynthesize at relatively constant rates irrespective of pCO2 treatment. The δ11B data indicate that mean pH at the site of coccolith formation did not vary significantly in response to elevated CO2. These results suggest that P. carterae regulates calcifying vesicle pH, even amidst changes in external seawater pH. Furthermore, δ13C and δ18O data suggest that P. carterae may utilize carbon from a single internal DIC pool for both calcification and photosynthesis, and that a greater proportion of dissolved CO2 relative to HCO3- enters the internal DIC pool under acidified conditions. These results suggest that P. carterae is able to calcifyand photosynthesize at relatively constant rates across pCO2 treatments by maintaining pH homeostasis at their site of calcification and utilizing a greater proportion of aqueous CO2.

  7. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  8. Tetra- and mono-organotin reagents in palladium-mediated cross-coupling reactions for the labeling with carbon-11 of PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, T.; Huiban, M.; Sobrio, F.; Perrio, C.; Barre, E. [Groupe de Dev Methodol en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, UMR CEA 2E, Universite deCaen, Centre Cyceron, F-14070 Caen Cedex (France); Fouquet, A.; Huet, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR CNRS 3802, Univ Bordeaux I, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions between a (trimethylstannyl)arene and [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide (Stille reaction) or between an aryl halide and a [{sup 11}C]monomethyltin reagent issued from Lappert's stannylene, were developed for the synthesis of polyfunctional [{sup 11}C]methyl quinolines and quinoline-imides as potential tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). (authors)

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2012-02-29 to 2012-05-11 (NODC Accession 0123315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  10. C-11 radiochemistry in cancer imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Z; Mach, R H

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-11 (C-11) radiotracers are widely used for the early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring therapeutic response to cancer treatment, and pharmacokinetic investigations of anticancer drugs. PET imaging permits non-invasive monitoring of metabolic processes and molecular targets, while carbon-11 radiotracers allow a "hot-for cold" substitution of biologically active molecules. Advances in organic synthetic chemistry and radiochemistry as well as improved automated techniques for radiosynthesis have encouraged investigators in developing carbon-11 tracers for use in oncology imaging studies. The short half-life of carbon-11 (20.38 minutes) creates special challenges for the synthesis of C-11 labeled tracers; these include the challenges of synthesizing C-11 target compounds with high radiochemical yield, high radiochemical purity and high specific activity in a short time and on a very small scale. The optimization of conditions for making a carbon-11 tracer include the late introduction of the C-11 isotope, the rapid formation and purification of the target compound, and the use of automated systems to afford a high yield of the target compound in a short time. In this review paper, we first briefly introduce some basic principles of PET imaging of cancer; we then discuss principles of carbon-11 radiochemistry, focus on specific advances in radiochemistry, and describe the synthesis of C-11 radiopharmaceuticals developed for cancer imaging. The carbon-11 radiochemistry approaches described include the N,O, and S-alkylations of [(11)C]methyl iodide/[(11)C]methyl triflate and analogues of [(11)C]methyl iodide and their applications for making carbon-11 tracers; we then address recent advances in exploring a transmetallic complex mediated [(11)C]carbonyl reaction for oncologic targets.

  11. Fabrication of very-low-density, high-stiffness carbon fiber/aluminum hybridized composite with ultra-low density and high stiffness (M-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoo

    1993-01-01

    Fabrication of a composite material with ultra-low density and high stiffness in microgravity is the objective of the investigation. The composite structure to be obtained is a random three-dimensional array of high modulus, short carbon fibers bonded at contact points by an aluminum alloy coated on the fibers. The material is highly porous and thus has a very low density. The motivation toward the investigation, simulation experiments, choice of the component materials, and on-flight experiment during ballistic trajectory of a NASDA rocket, are described.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical Study of Carbon Monoxide and Ethanol Oxidation on Pt/C, PtSn(3:1/C and PtSn(1:1/C Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Rizo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PtSn-based catalysts are one of the most active materials toward that contribute ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR. In order to gain a better understanding of the Sn influence on the carbon monoxide (principal catalyst poison and ethanol oxidation reactions in acidic media, a systematic spectroelectrochemical study was carried out. With this end, carbon-supported PtSnx (x = 0, 1/3 and 1 materials were synthesized and employed as anodic catalysts for both reactions. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS indicate that Sn diminishes the amount of bridge bonded CO (COB and greatly improves the CO tolerance of Pt-based catalysts. Regarding the effect of Sn loading on the EOR, it enhances the catalytic activity and decreases the onset potential. FTIRS and DEMS analysis indicate that the C-C bond scission occurs at low overpotentials and at the same potential values regardless of the Sn loading, although the amount of C-C bond breaking decreases with the rise of Sn in the catalytic material. Therefore, the elevated catalytic activity toward the EOR at PtSn-based electrodes is mainly associated with the improved CO tolerance and the incomplete oxidation of ethanol to form acetic acid and acetaldehyde species, causing the formation of a higher amount of both C2 products with the rise of Sn loading.

  13. Performance characteristics and relationship of PSA value/kinetics on carbon-11 acetate PET/CT imaging in biochemical relapse of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabio D; Yen, Chi-Kwan; Scholz, Mark C; Lam, Richard Y; Turner, Jeffrey; Bans, Larry L; Lipson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    An elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level alone cannot distinguish between local-regional recurrences and distant metastases after treatment with curative intent. With available salvage treatments, it has become important to localize the site of recurrence. 11C-Acetate PET/CT was performed in patients with rising PSA, with statistical analysis of detection rates, sites/location of detection, PSA kinetics and comparison with other tracers (FDG and Choline). Correlation to biopsy, subsequent imaging and PSA response to focal treatment was also performed. 88% (637) of 721 11C-Acetate PET/CT scans performed were positive. There was a statistically significant difference in PSA values between the positive and negative scans (P cancer (88% overall detection rate, PPV 90.8%). This analysis suggests an optimal PSA threshold of > 1.09 ng/mL or a PSAdT of < 3.8 months when the PSA is below 1.0 ng/mL as independent predictors of positive findings.

  14. In vivo visualization of alpha-synuclein deposition by carbon-11-labelled 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl)ethenyl]-6-[2-(fluoro)ethoxy]benzoxazole positron emission tomography in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Akio; Takeda, Atsushi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Furumoto, Shozo; Kobayashi, Michiko; Sugeno, Naoto; Baba, Toru; Miki, Yasuo; Mori, Fumiaki; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Takahashi, Shoki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2010-06-01

    The histopathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy is the appearance of intracellular inclusion bodies, named glial cytoplasmic inclusions, which are mainly composed of alpha-synuclein fibrils. In vivo visualization of alpha-synuclein deposition should be used for the diagnosis and assessment of therapy and severity of pathological progression in multiple system atrophy. Because 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl)ethenyl]-6-[2-(fluoro)ethoxy] benzoxazole could stain alpha-synuclein-containing glial cytoplasmic inclusions in post-mortem brains, we compared the carbon-11-labelled 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl)ethenyl]-6-[2-(fluoro)ethoxy] benzoxazole positron emission tomography findings of eight multiple system atrophy cases to those of age-matched normal controls. The positron emission tomography data demonstrated high distribution volumes in the subcortical white matter (uncorrected P benzoxazole positron emission tomography is a promising surrogate marker for monitoring intracellular alpha-synuclein deposition in living brains.

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to 1997-11-11 (NODC Accession 0115176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115176 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to...

  16. High pressure study of low compressibility tetracalcium aluminum carbonate hydrates 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·11H2O

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Juhyuk

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data was collected from a sample of monocarboaluminate 3CaO•Al2O3•CaCO 3•11H2O from ambient pressure to 4.3 GPa. The refined crystal structure at ambient pressure is triclinic with parameters a = 5.77(2) Å, b = 8.47(5) Å, c = 9.93(4) Å, α = 64.6(2)°, β = 82.8(3)°, γ = 81.4(4)°, and space group of P1 or P1̄. It showed some degree of perfectly reversible pressure-induced dehydration with a non-hygroscopic pressure-transmitting medium. However the dehydration effect does not critically affect a bulk modulus due to its strong framework. The isothermal bulk modulus of monocarboaluminate was found to be 53(5) GPa and 54(4) GPa with 3rd order and 2nd order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of state, respectively. That value is higher than for any other reported AFm or AFt phase. The pressure-volume behavior of the monocarboaluminate was compared with that of previous studied hemicarboaluminate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GF11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetem, J.; Denneau, M.; Weingarten, D.

    1986-06-01

    GF11 is a parallel processor currently under construction at the IBM Yorktown Research Center. The machine incorporates 576 floating-point boards. Each board has space for 2 × 106 bytes of memory and is capable of 2 × 107 floating point operations per second, given the total machine a peak of 1.15 × 109 bytes of memory and 1.15× 1010 floating point operations per second. The floating-point processors are interconnected by a dynamically reconfigurable switching network. At each machine cycle any of 1024 preselected permutations of data can be realized among the processors. The main intended application of GF11 is a class of calculations arising from quantum chormodynamics.

  18. A comparative study of carbon-11 methionine PET and Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET for the differentiation of benign lesion and low grade glioma%11碳-蛋氨酸与18氟-脱氧葡萄糖在脑良性病变及低级别胶质瘤诊断中的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣璐; 韩立新; 尹吉林; 王成; 姜丽莎; 谭思婷; 王伟民

    2015-01-01

    界的显示均明显优于18 F-FDG FDG,11 C-MET 还可检测和随访低级别胶质瘤(即惰性肿瘤)的生长情况,可为临床提供更多诊断、预后及治疗信息,因此,11 C-MET 可常规应用于脑内占位病变的显示,且其效果优于18 F-FDG.%Aim:As the study of Carbon-11 methionine (MET)and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)in differentiating brain benign and low grade glioma was seldom.The aim of this study was to de-termine the effect of these two tracers for distinguishing two groups of patients and evaluating the extent of lesions.Methods:Both carbon-11 MET and fluorine-18 FDG have been used to evaluate brain benign and low grade glioma (LGG).MET positron emission tomography (PET)and FDG PET were all per-formed in 22 patients (5 brain benign lesions,17 low grade glioma WHO grade I and II)within one week for a single patient,Both MET and FDG uptake of the lesions were evaluated by a semiquantitative analy-sis using the standardized uptake value.The Tumor/normal brain uptake ratio (T/N ratio)were calculat-ed in two groups of patients.Results:MET uptake was not significantly different among these two groups (benign:1.59 ±0.28 and LGG:1.52 ±0.48).Similarily,FDG uptake was not significantly different among the two groups (benign:0.91 ±0.48 and 0.77 ±0.65)also.No significantly correlation was ob-served between MET uptake and FDG uptake.19 /22 hypermetabolization of patients were found in MET PET and 17 /22 hypometabolization of patients were found in FDG PET.The extents of increased MET uptake in 17 cases were larger than that of the increased FDG uptake.Conclusion:It is found that both MET and FDG are not useful for distinguishing with benign and LGG.MET was found to be highly useful for detecting benign and LGG,and for evaluating the extent of these lesions which were blurred in FDG PET.MET was also useful for monitoring the growth of LGG.In a word,MET was considered as routine examination for brain lesions.

  19. Voltammetric determination of dopamine in the presence of uric acid using a 2-hydroxy-1-(1-hydroxynaphthyl-2-azo-naphthalin-4-sulfonic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI ASGHAR ENSAF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A polymerized film of 2-hydroxy-1-(1-hydroxynaphthyl-2-azo-naphthalin-4-sulfonic acid (HHNANSA was prepared at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization. The modified electrode was used for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA and uric acid (UA. The electrochemical behaviors of the compounds at the surface of the modified electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The experimental results indicated that the modified electrode exhibited an efficient electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and UA, with a peak separation of about 140 mV at pH 5.0. Using chronoamperometry, the catalytic reaction rate constant was measured and found to equal to 1.23×104 mol-1 L s-1. At pH 5.0, the catalytic peak currents linearly depended on the DA and/or UA concentrations in the range of 1.0–300 µmol L-1 DA (two linear segments with different slopes and 6.7–20 µmol L-1 UA, using SWV. The detection limits for DA and UA were 0.25 and 1.17 µmol L-1, respectively. The RSD % for 40.0 and 140.0 µmol L-1 DA were 1.9 and 2.2 %, respectively, whereas for 10.0 and 20.0 µmol L-1 UA, they were 1.8 and 1.2 %, respectively. The modified electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. It was successfully applied for the determination of DA and UA in real samples, such as drugs and urine.

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2013-02-18 (NODC Accession 0117059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117059 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2013-02-18 and retrieved during cruise...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_SOFS_142W_46S in the Indian Ocean from 2011-11-24 to 2012-09-24 (NODC Accession 0118546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118546 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_SOFS_142W_46S in the Indian Ocean from 2011-11-24 to...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0144246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144246 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05. These data include AIR...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25 (NODC Accession 0100084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100084 includes chemical, physical, and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25. These data...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2010-11-06 (NODC Accession 0100076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100076 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2010-11-06. These data...

  5. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  6. Difference in brain distributions of carbon 11-labeled 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolones as PET radioligands for the glycine-binding site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Haradahira, Terushi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: terushi@niu.ac.jp; Fujimoto, Noriko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okauchi, Takashi; Maeda, Jun; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Sasaki, Shigeki; Mukai, Takahiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Maeda, Minoru [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    High-affinity iodine- and ethyl-C-5 substituted analogs of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)-2(1H)-quinolone ([{sup 11}C]4HQ) were synthesized as new positron emission tomography radioligands for the glycine-binding sites of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel. Although both radioligands showed high in vitro specific binding to rat brain slices, their binding characteristics were quite different from each other. 5-Ethyl-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed higher in vitro binding in the forebrain regions than in the cerebellum, bindings that were strongly inhibited by both glycine-site agonists and antagonists. In contrast, 5-iodo-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed a homogeneous in vitro binding throughout the brain, which was inhibited by antagonists but not by agonists. This difference in in vitro binding between 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ was quite similar to that previously observed between [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 and [{sup 11}C]4HQ, both glycine-site antagonists. In vivo brain uptakes of these {sup 11}C-labeled 4-hydroxyquinolones were examined in mice. Initial brain uptakes of 5Et- and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ at 1 min after intravenous injections were comparable to that of [{sup 11}C]4HQ, but they were 1.3-2.1 times higher than that of [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The treatment with an anticoagulant, warfarin, only slightly increased the initial uptakes of [{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ in contrast to [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The in vivo regional brain distributions were slightly different between the two radioligands. Pretreatment with nonradioactive ligand (2 mg/kg) slightly inhibited the binding of 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (16-36% inhibition) but not that of 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ. In this study, it was found that a small structural change in [{sup 11}C]4HQ resulted in a major change in binding characteristics and distributions, suggesting the existence of two binding sites for [{sup 11}C]4-hydroxyquinolones on the NMDA ion channel

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 (NODC Accession 0109920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109920 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 and...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-11 to 1997-12-04 (NODC Accession 0112250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112250 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-11 to 1997-12-04...

  9. 11CO2 fixation: a renaissance in PET radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Benjamin H; Liang, Steven H; Holland, Jason P; Collier, Thomas Lee; Hooker, Jacob M; Wilson, Alan A; Vasdev, Neil

    2013-06-25

    Carbon-11 labelled carbon dioxide is the cyclotron-generated feedstock reagent for most positron emission tomography (PET) tracers using this radionuclide. Most carbon-11 labels, however, are installed using derivative reagents generated from [(11)C]CO2. In recent years, [(11)C]CO2 has seen a revival in applications for the direct incorporation of carbon-11 into functional groups such as ureas, carbamates, oxazolidinones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides. This review summarizes classical [(11)C]CO2 fixation strategies using organometallic reagents and then focuses on newly developed methods that employ strong organic bases to reversibly capture [(11)C]CO2 into solution, thereby enabling highly functionalized labelled compounds to be prepared. Labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals that have been translated to the clinic are highlighted.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 (NODC Accession 0117354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117354 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 and retrieved during cruise LaPa20100121,...

  11. Tendances Carbone n. 11 Feb. 2007; Tendances Carbone n. 11 Fevrier 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemaere, M

    2007-07-01

    This newsletter treats, first, of the introduction of aviation industry into the European emissions trading scheme. Then it makes a synthesis of the European CO{sub 2} market over the last 13 months: traded volumes, spot prices, climate indexes (temperature, precipitations), economic activity indicators (industrial production index, business leaders' confidence index, changes in energy prices, CO{sub 2} quotas allocated to European Union countries, and detailed indicators of CO{sub 2} market, climate, economic activity and energy prices. (J.S.)

  12. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  13. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  14. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  15. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  16. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, May 23, 2005 - November 11, 2006 (NODC Accession 0038513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from May 23, 2005 to November 11, 2006....

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to 2011-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0144622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144622 includes Surface underway data collected from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the WAKATAKA MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2002-11-07 to 2002-11-22 (NODC Accession 0112359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112359 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from WAKATAKA MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2002-11-07 to...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-11 to 2002-11-06 (NODC Accession 0112258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112258 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-11...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-11 to 1997-08-11 (NODC Accession 0112236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112236 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-11 to...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2008-10-11 to 2008-11-07 (NODC Accession 0112271)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112271 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2008-10-11...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to 1996-11-30 (NODC Accession 0113544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113544 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to...

  3. The series of carbon-chain complexes {Ru(dppe)Cp*}₂{μ-(C≡C)x} (x = 4–8, 11): Synthesis, structures, properties and some reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Michael I. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Cole, Marcus L. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Ellis, Benjamin G. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Gaudio, Maryka [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Nicholson, Brian K. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Parker, Christian R. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Skelton, Brian W. [Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley (Western Australia); White, Allan H. [Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley (Western Australia)

    2015-01-28

    The construction of a series of compounds {Ru(dppe)Cp*}2(μ-C2x) (Ru*-C2x-Ru*, x = 4–8, 11)) is described. A direct reaction between RuCl(dppe)Cp* and Me3Si(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4SiMe3 afforded Ru*-C8-Ru* in 89% yield. The Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalysed coupling of Ru{Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCAu(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C4-Au (2 equiv.) with diiodoethyne gave Ru*-C10-Ru* (64%), or of 1 equiv. with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C14-Ru* (36%); similarly, Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4Au(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C8-Au and I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C22-Ru* (12%). Desilylation (TBAF) of Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)xSiMe3}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 3, 4) followed by oxidative coupling [Cu(OAc)2/py] gave Ru*-C12-Ru* (82%) and Ru*-C16-Ru* (58%), respectively. Similar oxidative coupling of Ru(Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCH)(dppe)Cp* was a second route to Ru*-C8-Ru* (82%). Appropriate precursors are already known, or obtained by coupling of Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 2, 4) with AuCl(PPh3)/NaOMe [Ru*-C4-Au, 95%; Ru*-C8-Au, 74%] or from Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysed coupling of Ru*-C2x-Au (x = 2, 3) with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2SiMe3 (Ru*-C8-Si, 64%; Ru*-C10-Si, 2%). Reactions between Ru*-C2x-Ru* (x = 3, 4) and Fe2(CO)9 gave {Fe3(CO)9}{μ3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}2Fe(C3-Ru*)2 and {Fe3(CO)9}{μ3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}{μ3-C(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2[Ru(dppe)Cp*]} Fe(C3-Ru*)(C5-Ru*), respectively. The redox properties of the series of complexes with 2x = 2–16 were measured and showed a diminution of the

  4. Complexes with biologically active ligands. Part 11. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity of metal complexes of 4,5-disubstituted-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, A; Cavazza, C; Supuran, C T; Saramet, I; Briganti, F; Banciu, M D

    1998-01-01

    Complexes containing five 4,5-disubstituted-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles and Zn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(I) were synthesized and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis; IR, electronic and NMR spectroscopy, conductimetry and TG analysis). Both the thione as well as the thiolate forms of the ligands were evidenced to interact with the metal ions in the prepared complexes. The original mercaptans and their metal complexes behave as inhibitors of three carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes, CA I, II and IV, but did not lower intraocular pressure in rabbits in animal models of glaucoma.

  5. Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the nu4 (sigma u) fundamental and associated nu11(pi u) hot band of C7 - Evidence for alternating rigidity in linear carbon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. R.; Saykally, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The first characterization of the bending potential of the C7 cluster is reported via the observation of the v = 1(1) and v = 2 deg levels of the nu11 (pi u) bend as hot bands associated with the nu4 (sigma u) antisymmetric stretch fundamental. The lower state hot band rotational constants are measured to be 1004.4(1.3) and 1123.6(9.0) MHz, constituting a 9.3 and 22 percent increase over the ground state rotational constant, 918.89 (41) MHz. These large increases are strong quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants determined for the ground and nu 4 = 1 states are found to be anomalously large and negative, evidencing strong perturbations between stretching and bending modes.

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using infrared dissolved inorganic carbon analyzer, alkalinity titrator and other instruments from the North Atlantic Ocean near Key West, Florida (Class III climate monitoring sites) from 2012-03-23 to 2014-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0132022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data collected to monitor changes to coral reef carbonate chemistry over time, at US affiliated coral reef sites, through quantifying...

  8. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B;

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...

  9. Carbon isotope anomalies in carbonates of the Karelian series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudovich, Ia. E.; Makarikhin, V. V.; Medvedev, P. V.; Sukhanov, N. V.

    1990-07-01

    Results are presented on carbon isotope distributions in carbonates of the Karelian complex. A highly anomalous isotopic composition was found in carbonate rocks aged from 2.6 to 1.9 b.y. In the stromatolitic carbonates of the Onega water table, delta-(C-13) reaches a value of +18 percent, while the shungite layer of the Zaonega horizon is characterized by a wide dispersion (from +7.9 to -11.8 percent). These data are in good agreement with the known geochemical boundary (about 2.2 b.y. ago) in the history of the earth.

  10. Studio 1:1

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Projekteerimis- ja disainistuudiost STUDIO 1:1 (Eindhoven), mis tegeleb avaliku ruumi loomise ja selle kasutamise kujundamisega. Projektidest "Linnulinn - linn lindude segakogukonna jaoks" ja ICT kogemuskeskus "De Verdieping"

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to 2015-07-29 (NODC Accession 0112926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112926 includes discrete sample, profile and time series profile data collected from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-05-11 to 1989-06-07 (NODC Accession 0113530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113530 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-05-11 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-03-29 to 1994-05-11 (NODC Accession 0115177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115177 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-03-29 to 1994-05-11...

  14. Synthesis of some /sup 11/C-labelled alkaloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Halldin, H.; Svaerd, H.; Bergson, G. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden) Inst. of Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    Using (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-morphine, N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. (/sup 11/C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from (/sup 11/C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the /sup 14/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reaction.

  15. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  16. Carbon storage in US wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, A. M.; Fennessy, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in our remaining wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. Here we use field data from the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment to provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales. We find that wetlands in the conterminous United States store a total of 11.52 PgC, much of which is within soils deeper than 30 cm. Freshwater inland wetlands, in part due to their substantial areal extent, hold nearly ten-fold more carbon than tidal saltwater sites--indicating their importance in regional carbon storage. Our data suggest a possible relationship between carbon stocks and anthropogenic disturbance. These data highlight the need to protect wetlands to mitigate the risk of avoidable contributions to climate change.

  17. The GF11 supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetem, J.; Denneau, M.; Weingarten, D.

    1987-01-01

    GF11 is a parallel computer currently under construction at the IBM Yorktown Research Center. The machine incorporates 576 floating-point processors arranged in a modified SIMD architecture. Each has space for 2 Mbytes of memory and is capable of 20 Mflops, giving the total machine a peak of 1.125 Gbytes of memory and 11.52 Gflops. The floating-point processors are interconnected by a dynamically reconfigurable non-blocking switching network. At each machine cycle any of 1024 pre-selected permutations of data can be realized among the processors. The main intended application of GF11 is a class of calculations arising from quantum chromodynamics.

  18. Sensitivity study in vitro in clinical isolated strains in the previous five years for erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate%环酯红霉素对近5年临床分离菌株的体外敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立涛; 孙韵; 卢涛; 谭显曙; 秦盼立; 周黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility to clinically isolated strains in the previous five years and the drug resistance to antimicrobial agents so as to realize the antibacterial activity to erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate in vitro. Methods Agar dilution method was used to detect the drug susceptibility to the 220 clinical isolates. Results Susceptibility test showed the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and H. Influenzae to erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate were 35.0%, 55.0%, 35.0%, 36.7% and 70.0%. The MIC50 of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and H. Influenzae were 1, 1, 32, 0.5 and 64ug/mL, and the MIC90 were 32, 8, 256, 32 and 128μg/mL. Conclusion The resistance of clinical isolates indicated that erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate was comparative with azithromycin in the antibacterial activity, presenting no statistically significant between erythromycin cyclic 1 l,12-carbonate and azithromycin by SPSS17.0 (P>0.05).%目的 通过比较近五年临床分离菌株对多种抗菌药物的药物敏感性及耐药性研究,了解环酯红霉素的体外抗菌活性.方法 利用琼脂平板稀释法对临床分离220株细菌进行药敏性分析.结果 药物敏感性实验表明肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和流感嗜血菌对环酯红霉素的耐药率分别为35.0%、55.0%、35.0%、36.7 %和70.0 %.肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和流感嗜血菌对环酯红霉素的MIC50和MIC90分别为1、1、32、0.5、64μg/mL和32、8、256、32、128μg/mL.结论 经SPSS17.0统计分析后,发现临床分离菌株对环酯红霉素和阿奇霉素的耐药率表明两者的抗菌活性相当,不存在统计学差异(P>0.05).

  19. The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig; Duffin, Rodger; Bonner, James

    2012-06-01

    1. Carbon nanotube structure, synthesis and applications C. Singh and W. Song; 2. The aerodynamic behaviour and pulmonary deposition of carbon nanotubes A. Buckley, R. Smith and R Maynard; 3. Utilising the concept of the biologically effective dose to define the particle and fibre hazards of carbon nanotubes K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, F. Murphy and C. Poland; 4. CNT, biopersistence and the fibre paradigm D. Warheit and M. DeLorme; 5. Length-dependent retention of fibres in the pleural space C. Poland, F. Murphy and K. Donaldson; 6. Experimental carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes in the context of other fibres K. Unfried; 7. Fate and effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. Ryman-Rasmussen, M. Andersen and J. Bonner; 8. Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes V. Castranova and R. Mercer; 9. Genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes R. Schins, C. Albrecht, K. Gerloff and D. van Berlo; 10. Carbon nanotube-cellular interactions; macrophages, epithelial and mesothelial cells V. Stone, M. Boyles, A. Kermanizadeh, J. Varet and H. Johnston; 11. Systemic health effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. McDonald; 12. Dosimetry and metrology of carbon nanotubes L. Tran, L. MacCalman and R. Aitken; Index.

  20. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  1. Impacts of March 11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Feng: The world-shocking September 11 terrorist attacks occurred in the United States in 2001, and two and a half years late the world saw panic-stricken terrorist attacks of the same kind in Spain. Ever since then March 11 has become another day that is engraved on the mind of the people all over the world. The terrorist event in Madrid has not only produced great impact on Spain and other European nations as well as on the common people, but also spurred the European nations to reflect on a series of important issues and to make some adjustments of their policies.

  2. 50 CFR 11.11 - Notice of violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of violation. 11.11 Section 11.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... be a waiver of the notice ef assessment required by § 11.14, and of the opportunity for a...

  3. The RD11 Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    1993-01-01

    Presentation of the RD11 Collaboration which is specialized in elaborating the second level trigger for the LHC. Also named EAST (Embedded Architectures for Second-level Triggering) in LHC Experiments.With John Strong, Rudy Bock, Werner Krischer, Gennaddi Klioutchnikov, Claudia Bondila, Iosif Legrand and Erwin Denes.

  4. Reference: SURECOREATSULTR11 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Yamaya T, Takahashi H. Identification of a novel cis-acting element conferring sulfur deficiency response in Arabidopsis roots. Plant J. 42: 305-314 (2005). PubMed: 15842617 ... ...SURECOREATSULTR11 Maruyama-Nakashita A, Nakamura Y, Watanabe-Takahashi A, Inoue E,

  5. 11.RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    11.1.Lung function930671 The effects of persantine on pulmonary arte-rial pressure of rats exposed to hypoxia.RAN Pixin,Respir Dis Instit,Tongji Hosp,TongjiMed Univ,Wuhan,430030.Chin J Tuberc & RespirDis 1993;16(4):216—217.In the chronic hypoxic model of pulmonary hyper-

  6. 11C-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Michael R; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Herth, Matthias Manfred

    2007-01-01

    The long-distance transport and actions of the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were investigated by using the short-lived positron-emitting isotope 11C to label both MeJA and photoassimilate, and compare their transport properties in the same tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). There was ...

  7. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  8. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    How does a corporation know it emits carbon? Acquiring such knowledge starts with the classification of environmentally relevant consumption information. This paper visits the corporate location at which this underlying element for their knowledge is assembled to give rise to carbon emissions. Us...

  9. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  10. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  11. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures is disclosed. The improvement consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat.No. 4,909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially, the carbon fabric of tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar, or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U"-channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  12. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of H2O2 at a Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with a Nickel (Ⅱ)-5, 11,17, 23-Tetra-Tert-Butyl-25,27-Bis ( Diethylcarbamoylmethoxy ) Calix[ 4 ] Arene Complex and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiChun-ya; ChertYong; WangChang-fa; LiHai-bing; ChenYuan-yin

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of a carbon paste elec-trode (CPE) modified with nickel(Ⅱ)-5, 11, 17, 23-tetra-tert-butyl-25, 27-bis (diethylcarhamoylmethoxy) calix[4] arene (Ni(Ⅱ)-L) complex and its electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voham-metric technique in a 5.0 × 10-2 mol/L NaClO4 + 1. 0× 10-3 mol/L NaOH solution. It was found that Ni(Ⅱ)-L acts as an effective catalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide. The modified electrode exhibited a linear response over a hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the range of 2. 0 × 10-6--1.0 × 10-4 mol/L with a detection limit as low as 1.0× 10-6 mol/L. The relative standard deviation was 3. 5% for 5 successive determi-nations of H2O2 at 1.0×10-5 mol/L. The modified electrode was used successfully in rainwater analysis.

  13. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using spectrophotometer and other instruments from NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow off the northeastern coast of the United States from 2014-09-10 to 2014-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0138983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbon chemistry resulting in a reduction in...

  15. Carbon cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A satellite launched in early August as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth could dramatically increase understanding of how carbon cycles through the Earth's biosphere and living organisms and how this process influences global climate. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) will measure the color of the oceans with a radiometer to determine the concentration of chlorophyll found in oceanic phytoplankton. The single-celled plants, at the base of food chains around the world, remove carbon dioxide from seawater through photosynthesis, which allows oceans to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    together in hexagons and pentagons forming a sphere like a soccer ball. Fullerenes of all sizes are single molecules, which is uniquely different from the...10] Bhushan, B. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. Springer - Verlag. 2007 [11] Pierson, H. Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes

  17. In vivo detection of cranial dopaminergic processes: studies with L-1-C-11-Dopa and C-11-labelled ADTN derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von der Werf, J.F.; Kuilman, T.; von der Molen, H.D.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wiegman, T.; Korf, J.; Vaalburg, W. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1982-01-01

    In this article, probably the first in literature, some results are presented of in vivo studies of carbon-11-labelled dopamine agonists in cats and dogs with positron emission tomography. Recently a method for the separation of D- and L-dopa enantiomers from the DL-dopa mixture was developed. These three compounds were injected intravenously and with PET cold spots in the striatium of dog's brains could be obtained, independently of pretreatment with carbidopa. The synthesis of carbon-11-labelled ADTN derivatives and their uses is discussed.

  18. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  19. Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by the first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT transistors [1,2], and reinvigorated with the isolation of graphene [3], the field of carbon-based nanoscale electronic devices and components (Carbon Nanoelectronics for short has developed at a blistering pace [4]. Comprising a vast number of scientists and engineers that span materials science, physics, chemistry, and electronics, this field seeks to provide an evolutionary transition path to address the fundamental scaling limitations of silicon CMOS [5]. Concurrently, researchers are actively investigating the use of carbon nanomaterials in applications including back-end interconnects, high-speed optoelectronic applications [6], spin-transport [7], spin tunnel barrier [8], flexible electronics, and many more.

  20. At WA11

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Starting with february 1977 the WA5 spectrometer of the Indiana-Saclay Collaboration originally designed to study hadron backward scattering on protons, and later modified by the Indiana-Imperial College (London)-Saclay-Southampton Collaboration, was used (experiment WA11) to search for high mass states produced with the J/psi. On the left, Tom Marshall moves in a beam hodoscope. On the right, at the entrance of the Goliath magnet, one sees the 1 m long hydrogen target. (Later the set-up was reshuffled, and the hydrogen target was replaced by a set of Be targets located upstream of the magnet.)

  1. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  2. The Biological carbon pump in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Richard; Henson, Stephanie A.; Koski, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Mediated principally by the sinking of organic rich particles from the upper ocean, the Biological Carbon Pump (BCP) is a significant component of the global carbon cycle. It transfers roughly 11 Gt C yr−1 into the ocean’s interior and maintains atmospheric carbon dioxide at significantly lower l...

  3. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Talhelm, Alan F.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Zak, Donald R.; Campany, Courtney E.; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 d...

  4. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo;

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their su...

  5. 11 CFR 9033.11 - Documentation of disbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation of disbursements. 9033.11 Section 9033.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL..., ledgers, fundraising solicitation material, accounting systems documentation, and any related...

  6. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  7. Carbon 14 dating; La datation par le carbone 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laj, C.; Mazaud, A.; Duplessy, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-03-01

    In this article time dating based on carbon 14 method is reviewed, its limits are explained and recent improvements are presented. Carbon 14 is a by-product of the interactions of cosmic protons with air molecules. The fluctuations of the quantity of carbon 14 present in the atmosphere are responsible for the shift observed between the result given by the method and the real age. This shift appears for ages greater than 2000 years and is estimated to 1000 years for an age of 10.000 years. As a consequence carbon 14 dating method requires calibration by comparing with other methods like dendrochronology (till 11.000 years) and time dating of fossil corals (till 26.000 years and soon till 50.000 years). It is assumed that the fluctuations of carbon 14 in the atmosphere are due to: - the changes in the intensity and composition of cosmic radiations itself (due to the motion of the sun system through the galaxy or due to the explosion of a super-novae in the surroundings of the sun system); - the changes of the earth magnetic field that diverts cosmic rays; and - the changes in the interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans knowing that 40 tons of carbon 14 are dissolved in seas while only 1 ton belongs to the atmosphere. (A.C.)

  8. (/sup 11/C)clorgyline and (/sup 11/C)-L-deprenyl and their use in measuring functional monoamine oxidase activity in the brain using positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1986-04-17

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase in the living body by using /sup 11/C-labeled enzyme inhibitors which bind irreversibly to an enzyme as a result of catalysis. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  9. Development of additive [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [{sup 11}C]radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Technical Support Team, Duchembio, Seoul 121-844 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Chul, E-mail: leebc2001@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Eun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Smart Humanity Convergence Center, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 11}C]PIB, [{sup 11}C]DASB, [{sup 11}C]PBR28, [{sup 11}C]Methionine and [{sup 11}C]Clozapine, the radiochemical

  10. Hydrodynamic properties of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, J H; Werder, T; Jaffe, R L; Koumoutsakos, P

    2004-06-01

    We study water flowing past an array of single walled carbon nanotubes using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. For carbon nanotubes mounted with a tube spacing of 16.4 x 16.4 nm and diameters of 1.25 and 2.50 nm, respectively, we find drag coefficients in reasonable agreement with the macroscopic, Stokes-Oseen solution. The slip length is -0.11 nm for the 1.25 nm carbon nanotube, and 0.49 for the 2.50 nm tube for a flow speed of 50 m/s, respectively, and 0.28 nm for the 2.50 nm tube at 200 m/s. A slanted flow configuration with a stream- and spanwise velocity component of 100 ms(-1) recovers the two-dimensional results, but exhibits a significant 88 nm slip along the axis of the tube. These results indicate that slip depends on the particular flow configuration.

  11. Carbonic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  12. Opportunities and Challenges for Being a Carbon Black Great Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1. The "Uth Five-year Plan" Lay- ing the Foundation for Carbon Black Great Power 1.1 Rapid growth of carbon black output and production capacity During the "llth Five-year Plan" Period, China carbon black output was increased by 1.1 times and realized doubling; and the production capacity of carbon black realized an average annu- al growth of 16.9%. In 2011, the carbon black output was 3.853 million tons, increased by 14.2% compared with that of the last year, and the pro- portion of carbon black output in the world carbon black output was increased from 16% to 36%. The carbon black production capacity was 5.345 mil- lion tons, increased by 6% compared with that of the last year, and the proportion of carbon black production capacity in the world carbon black out- put reached 38%. Chinese carbon black output has been ranking the 1st place throughout the world for 6 years successively, and China has become a great power of carbon black production in the world.

  13. The synthesis of 5-(1- sup 11 C)ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 11}C)phenobarbital, ({sup 11}C)pentobarbital and({sup 11}C)amobarbital labelled in the 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO{sub 2}Et){sub 2} R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with (1-{sup 11}C)ethyl iodide prepared from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from ({sup 11}C) carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author).

  14. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  15. Controllable fabrication of carbon aerogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya'ning; MIAO Lei; TANEMURA Sakae; TANEMURA Masaki; SUZUKI Kenzi

    2006-01-01

    Nano-pore carbon aerogels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene)(C6H4(OH)2) with formaldehyde (HCHO) in a slightly basic aqueous solution, followed by super-critical drying under liquid carbon dioxide as super-critical media and carbonization at 700 ℃ under N2 gas atmosphere. The key of the work is to fabricate carbon aerogels with controllable nano-pore structure, which means extremely high surface area and sharp pore size distribution. Aiming to investigate the effects of preparation conditions on the gelation process, the bulk density, and the physical and chemical structure of the resultant carbon aerogels, the molar ratio of R/C (resorcinol to catalyst) and the amount of distilled water were varied, consequently two different sets of samples, with series of R/C ratio and RF/W (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde to water, or the content of reactant) ratio, were prepared. The result of N2 adsorption/desorption experiment at 77 K shows that the pore sizes decreasing from 11.4 down tO2.2 nm with the increasing of the molar ratio of R/C from 100 to 400, and/or, the pore sizes decreasing from 3.8 down to 1.6 nm with the increasing of reactant content from 0.4 to 0.6.

  16. Pd-mediated rapid cross-couplings using [(11) C]methyl iodide: groundbreaking labeling methods in (11) C radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hisashi

    2015-03-01

    Prof. Bengt Långström is a pioneer in the field of chemistry-driven positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. He has developed a variety of excellent radiolabeling methodologies using the methods of organic chemistry, with the aim of widening the potential of PET in the study of life. Among his groundbreaking achievements in (11) C radiochemistry, there is the discovery of the Pd-mediated rapid cross-coupling reaction using [(11) C]methyl iodide. It was first reported by his Uppsala group in 1994-1995 and was further investigated by his and other groups with a view of enhancing its generality and practicability. This reaction is currently considered one of the basic methods for (11) C-labeling of low-weight organic compounds. This paper presents a short summary of the background and the development of Pd-mediated rapid cross-couplings of [(11) C]methyl iodide, with a focus not only on organostannanes, but also on organoboranes, organozincs, and terminal acetylene compounds. All these reactions have proven to be dependable (11) C-labeling methodologies that use chemically reliable carbon-carbon bond formation reactions.

  17. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  18. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in ... with these messages and free materials. What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is ...

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  20. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  1. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs.

  2. Syntheses of 11-hydroxylated guaianolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, A.; Cornett, Claus; Vulpius, T.;

    1996-01-01

    Two epimeric guaianolides, both prepared from alpha-santonin, were 11-hydroxylated using 2-phenylsulfonyl-3-phenyloxaziridine as a reagent. Extensive use of protecting groups enabled selective acylation of the 3- and 10-hydroxy groups....

  3. Turning physics up to 11

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rock guitars, superstrings, 11 dimensions and the world's largest and highest energy particle accelerator are the lead instruments for the Institute of Physics' latest drive to get kids interested in science.

  4. 11 Theses on Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per

    2015-01-01

    . These theses are formulated around questions of the ontology of entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurial process, entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneurship education. Results The 11 theses are short, precise and constitute a framework, which educators and researchers can use either for agreeing or disagreeing......Questions I care about How can I best contribute to establishing clarity and precision to the way we develop the central elements of entrepreneurship education research? Approach Inspired by Karl Marx´s 11 theses on Feuerbach the paper establishes 11 short theses on entrepreneurship education...... on what should be the foundation of entrepreneurship education research. Implications The paper produces a few central statements (theses) that entrepreneurship educators and entrepreneurship education researchers would benefit from either agreeing or disagreeing on. Value/Originality The 11 theses...

  5. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. HUC 8-11 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  7. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  9. Carbon Residence Times in Pedogenic Carbonate Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, H.; Feng, Y.; Karnjanapiboonwang, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soil carbonate is a huge pool of terrestrial carbon that contains at least 930 to 940 Pg C and has influx rates on the order of 1 to 12 g CaCO3/m2/yr. Such large mass to flux ratios yield long mean residence times for carbon (e.g., 85,000 years)--assuming steady state. Like other global carbon pools, the soil carbonate pool has smaller sub-pools with higher influx rates and shorter mean residence times. For example, pedogenic carbonate in coppice dunes known to have formed since 1858 and carbonate formed on lithic artifacts in soils at archaeology sites suggests mean residence times can be as short as 120 years--again assuming steady state. Harder to assess are efflux rates as CO2 emissions or bicarbonate leaching. Some Bowen-ratio studies have nevertheless found evidence for CO2 emissions resulting from carbonate dissolution, and other studies have found evidence for bicarbonate leaching based on dissolution pipes through calcic horizons using soil morphology studies. Since an understanding of mean residence times are prerequisite for a better understanding of soil carbonate in the global carbon cycle, especially in a scenario of an expanding Aridosphere, more influx and efflux measurements are needed to evaluate the possibility of carbon sequestration by soil carbonate in hyperarid, arid, semiarid, or subhumid soils.

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-10-13 to 2004-11-08 (NODC Accession 0112262)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112262 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-10-13 to 2004-11-08...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-07 to 2012-03-11 (NCEI Accession 0144341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144341 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-01-07 to 2012-03-11. These data...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12 (NODC Accession 0113580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113580 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-03-11 to 2003-03-20 (NODC Accession 0112273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112273 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-03-11 to...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea from 1999-09-11 to 1999-10-05 (NODC Accession 0112350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112350 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea from 1999-09-11 to...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-08-11 to 2003-08-25 (NODC Accession 0112276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112276 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2003-08-11 to...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 1993-06-11 to 1993-06-20 (NODC Accession 0115404)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115404 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OSHORO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 1993-06-11 to...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-07-31 to 1989-09-11 (NODC Accession 0113604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113604 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from TYRO in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-07-31 to 1989-09-11...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-10-05 to 1997-11-19 (NODC Accession 0113567)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113567 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-10-05 to 1997-11-19...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-10 (NODC Accession 0113555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113555 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-10...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16 (NODC Accession 0113553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113553 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-22 (NODC Accession 0108064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108064 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-22...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-11-28 to 2008-02-04 (NODC Accession 0108067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108067 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-11-28 to...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean from 2004-11-03 to 2004-12-10 (NODC Accession 0113537)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113537 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean from 2004-11-03 to 2004-12-10 and...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 2000-09-26 to 2000-11-12 (NODC Accession 0108074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108074 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 2000-09-26 to 2000-11-12 and...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 2000-10-11 to 2000-10-19 (NODC Accession 0112315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112315 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 2000-10-11 to...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-03-11 to 2004-04-13 (NODC Accession 0113892)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113892 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-03-11 to 2004-04-13...

  7. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  8. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    , H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa. (2011). Carbon balance of South Asia constrained by passenger aircraft CO2 measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss, 11, 5379-5405. Ram, A.S.P., S. Nair, D. Chandramohan, (2003). Seasonal shift in net ecosystem production...

  10. Carbon Nanomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2017-03-01

    This chapter describes the formation and properties of one nanometer thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs), made by electron induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The cross-linked SAMs are robust enough to be released from the surface and placed on solid support or over holes as free-standing membranes. Annealing at 1000K transforms CNMs into graphene accompanied by a change of mechanical stiffness and electrical resistance. The developed fabrication approach is scalable and provides molecular level control over thickness and homogeneity of the produced CNMs. The mechanisms of electron-induced cross-linking process are discussed in details. A variety of polyaromatic thiols: oligophenyls as well as small and extended condensed polycyclic hydrocarbons have been successfully employed, demonstrating that the structural and functional properties of the resulting nanomembranes are strongly determined by the structure of molecular monolayers. The mechanical properties of CNMs (Young's modulus, tensile strength and prestress) are characterized by bulge testing. The interpretation of the bulge test data relates the Young's modulus to the properties of single molecules and to the structure of the pristine SAMs. The gas transport through the CNM is measured onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - thin film composite membrane. The established relationship of permeance and molecular size determines the molecular sieving mechanism of permeation through this ultrathin sheet.

  11. Boron and diagenesis: Questioning the fidelity of Snowball δ11B excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G. L.; Stewart, J.; Gutjahr, M.; Pearce, F.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Large negative carbon (δ13C) and boron (δ11B) isotope excursions (both >6‰) within the widely distributed Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" cap carbonates are interpreted as evidence for considerable perturbation of the carbon cycle and the associated reduction, then recovery of global ocean pH. Yet, before conclusive interpretations may be drawn, isotopic data must first be shown to be primary in origin and non-diagenetic. Recent studies of Quaternary carbonate platform sediments from a number of locations worldwide reveal δ13C excursions of similar magnitude and distribution to the "Snowball Earth" excursions. However, these recent analogues were formed following eustatic sea level fall and exposure of recent carbonates to meteoric diagenesis (Swart and Kennedy, 2012). Here we present δ11B and B/Ca data from Pleistocene-aged carbonate platform sediments recovered by the Clino Core from the Bahamas to examine the effects of diagenesis on the boron system. We find that within the interval of meteoric diagenesis the δ11B of bulk carbonate is substantially reduced by approximately 6‰ in conjunction with a drop in B/Ca of 90%. These isotopic and elemental down-core patterns are strikingly similar to those reported for δ11B and B/Ca in the cap carbonates of the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth events (Kasemann et al., 2005; Kasemann et al., 2010). Our results may therefore question the primary nature of "Snowball Earth" isotope excursions. We recommend more rigorous assessment of the diagenetic history of these ancient carbonates to ensure palaeoclimatological interpretations are robust.

  12. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  13. SAR11 Bacteria: The Most Abundant Plankton in the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    SAR11 is a group of small, carbon-oxidizing bacteria that reach a global estimated population size of 2.4×1028 cells—approximately 25% of all plankton. They are found throughout the oceans but reach their largest numbers in stratified, oligotrophic gyres, which are an expanding habitat in the warming oceans. SAR11 likely had a Precambrian origin and, over geological time, evolved into the niche of harvesting labile, low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM). SAR11 cells are minimal in size and complexity, a phenomenon known as streamlining that is thought to benefit them by lowering the material costs of replication and maximizing transport functions that are essential to competition at ultralow nutrient concentrations. One of the surprises in SAR11 metabolism is their ability to both oxidize and produce a variety of volatile organic compounds that can diffuse into the atmosphere. SAR11 cells divide slowly and lack many forms of regulation commonly used by bacterial cells to adjust to changing environmental conditions. As a result of genome reduction, they require an unusual range of nutrients, which leads to complex biochemical interactions with other plankton. The study of SAR11 is providing insight into the biogeochemistry of labile DOM and is affecting microbiology beyond marine science by providing a model for understanding the evolution and function of streamlined cells.

  14. SAR11 Bacteria: The Most Abundant Plankton in the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2017-01-03

    SAR11 is a group of small, carbon-oxidizing bacteria that reach a global estimated population size of 2.4×10(28) cells-approximately 25% of all plankton. They are found throughout the oceans but reach their largest numbers in stratified, oligotrophic gyres, which are an expanding habitat in the warming oceans. SAR11 likely had a Precambrian origin and, over geological time, evolved into the niche of harvesting labile, low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM). SAR11 cells are minimal in size and complexity, a phenomenon known as streamlining that is thought to benefit them by lowering the material costs of replication and maximizing transport functions that are essential to competition at ultralow nutrient concentrations. One of the surprises in SAR11 metabolism is their ability to both oxidize and produce a variety of volatile organic compounds that can diffuse into the atmosphere. SAR11 cells divide slowly and lack many forms of regulation commonly used by bacterial cells to adjust to changing environmental conditions. As a result of genome reduction, they require an unusual range of nutrients, which leads to complex biochemical interactions with other plankton. The study of SAR11 is providing insight into the biogeochemistry of labile DOM and is affecting microbiology beyond marine science by providing a model for understanding the evolution and function of streamlined cells.

  15. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  16. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A;

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  17. Carbon fiber resin matrix interphase: effect of carbon fiber surface treatment on composite performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, S.; Megerdigian, C.; Papalia, R.

    1985-04-01

    Carbon fibers are supplied by various manufacturers with a predetermined level of surface treatment and matrix compatible sizings. Surface treatment of the carbon fiber increases the active oxygen content, the polarity and the total free surface energy of the fiber surface. This study is directed toward determining the effect of varying carbon fiber surface treatment on the composite performance of thermoset matrix resins. The effect of varying fiber surface treatment on performance of a promising proprietary sizing is also presented. 6 references, 11 figures.

  18. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  19. FY11 Force Structure Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    D-9) Rep E. Towns (D-10) Rep Y. Clarke (D-11) Rep N. Velazquez (D-12) Rep M. McMahon (D-13) Rep C. Maloney (D-14) Rep C. Rangel (D-15) Rep J. Serrano...D-9) Rep E. Towns (D-10) Rep Y. Clarke (D-11) Rep N. Velazquez (D-12) Rep M. McMahon (D-13) Rep C. Maloney (D-14) Rep C. Rangel (D-15) Rep J. Serrano... Velazquez (D-12) Rep M. McMahon (D-13) Rep C. Maloney (D-14) Rep C. Rangel (D-15) Rep J. Serrano (D-16) Rep E. Engel (D-17) Rep N. Lowey (D-18) Rep J

  20. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  1. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  2. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle.

  3. American Literature after September 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår de amerikanske romaner, der behandler terrorangrebene 11. september og tiden derefter. Opsummerer fælles træk ved romanerne og fokuserer til sidst på Don DeLillos Falling Man. Udgivelsesdato: Februar 2009...

  4. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-03

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  6. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  7. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Guo; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of CO2 on a raw activated carbon A and three modified activated carbon samples B, C, and D at temperatures ranging from 303 to 333 K and the thermodynamics of adsorption have been investigated using a vacuum adsorption apparatus in order to obtain more information about the effect of CO2 on removal of organic sulfur-containing compounds in industrial gases. The active ingredients impregnated in the carbon samples show significant influence on the adsorption for CO2 and its volumes adsorbed on modified carbon samples B, C, and D are all larger than that on the raw carbon sample A. On the other hand, the physical parameters such as surface area, pore volume, and micropore volume of carbon samples show no influence on the adsorbed amount of CO2. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation was the best model for fitting the adsorption data on carbon samples A and B, while the Freundlich equation was the best fit for the adsorption on carbon samples C and D. The isosteric heats of adsorption on carbon samples A, B, C, and D derived from the adsorption isotherms using the Clapeyron equation decreased slightly increasing surface loading. The heat of adsorption lay between 10.5 and 28.4 kJ/mol, with the carbon sample D having the highest value at all surface coverages that were studied. The observed entropy change associated with the adsorption for the carbon samples A, B, and C (above the surface coverage of 7 ml/g) was lower than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption. However, it was higher than the theoretical value for mobile adsorption but lower than the theoretical value for localized adsorption for carbon sample D.

  8. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelVecchia, Amanda G; Bruno, John F; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; Banerjee, Ovik; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks.

  9. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  10. 1+1 Gaudin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zotov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We study 1+1 field-generalizations of the rational and elliptic Gaudin models. For sl(N case we introduce equations of motion and L-A pair with spectral parameter on the Riemann sphere and elliptic curve. In sl(2 case we study the equations in detail and find the corresponding Hamiltonian densities. The n-site model describes n interacting Landau-Lifshitz models of magnets. The interaction depends on position of the sites (marked points on the curve. We also analyze the 2-site case in its own right and describe its relation to the principal chiral model. We emphasize that 1+1 version impose a restriction on a choice of flows on the level of the corresponding 0+1 classical mechanics.

  11. 1+1 Gaudin Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zotov, A

    2010-01-01

    We study 1+1 field-generalizations of the rational and elliptic Gaudin models. For sl(N) case we introduce equations of motion and L-A pair with spectral parameter on the Riemann sphere and elliptic cure. In sl(2) case we study the equations in details and find the corresponding Hamiltonian densities. The n-site model describes n interacting Landau-Lifshitz models of magnets. The interaction depends on position of the sites (marked points on the curve). We also analyze the 2-site case in its own right and describe its relation to the principle chiral model. We emphasize that 1+1 version impose a restriction on a choice of flows on the level of the corresponding 0+1 classical mechanics.

  12. N-Cyclohexyl-11-(octylthioundecanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Schön

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical synthesis of N-cyclohexyl-11-(octylthioundecanamide by thiol-ene click coupling reaction under UV light irradiation is reported. The title compound was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. This molecule was found to be an efficient gelator for fluid oils, and the main physical parameters of the formed gels were also examined.

  13. Advances in magnetic resonance 11

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 11, presents a variety of contributions to the theory and practice of magnetic resonance. The book contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the principles and applications of dynamic nuclear polarization, with emphasis on molecular motions and collisions, intermolecular couplings, and chemical interactions. Subsequent chapters focus on the assessment of a proposed broadband decoupling method and studies of time-domain (or Fourier transform) multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance.

  14. Metallic carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.L.; Crespi, V.H.; Louie, S.G.S.; Zettl, A.K.

    1999-11-30

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Kalpana; Srivastava, Anchal; Srivastava, O N

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes play a fundamental role in the rapidly developing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their unique properties and high potential for applications. In this article, the different synthesis methods of carbon nanotubes (both multi-walled and single-walled) are reviewed. From the industrial point of view, the chemical vapor deposition method has shown advantages over laser vaporization and electric arc discharge methods. This article also presents recent work in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes with ordered architectures. Special carbon nanotube configurations, such as nanocoils, nanohorns, bamboo-shaped and carbon cylinder made up from carbon nanotubes are also discussed.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions spastic paraplegia type 11 spastic paraplegia type 11 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spastic paraplegia type 11 is part of a group of ...

  17. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  18. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  19. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  20. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  3. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Carbon Monoxide's Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... length of exposure. Top of Page Sources of Carbon Monoxide Sources of CO include: unvented kerosene and ...

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  5. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  6. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  7. Synthesis of N1`-([{sup 11}C]methyl)naltrindole ([{sup 11}C]MeMNTI): a radioligand for positron emission tomographic studies of delta opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Dannals, R.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences]|[TRW Space Technology Labs., Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Kinter, C.M.; Mathews, W.B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Ravert, H.T.; Musachio, J.L. [TRW Space Technology Labs., Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A delta opioid receptor antagonist, Nl`-methylnaltrindole (MeNTI), has been labeled with carbon-11. The precursor for radiolabeling was prepared in 71% yield by benzylation of the phenolic moiety of naltrindole. Alkylation of the indole nitrogen using [{sup 11}C]iodomethane and aqueous tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hydroxide at 80{sup o}C in dimethylformamide followed by hydrogenolysis (H{sub 2}, 10% Pd-C) of the benzyl protecting group gave [{sup 11}C]MeNTI. The average (n = 10) time for radiosynthesis, HPLC purification and formulation was 24 min from end-of-bombardment. [{sup 11}C]MeNTI of high radiochemical purity was obtained at end-of-synthesis with an average specific activity of 2050 mCi/{mu}mol and radiochemical yield, based on [{sup 11}C]iodomethane, of 6%. (Author).

  8. Performance of a bench-scale fast fluidized bed carbonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2014-01-01

    The carbonate looping process is a promising technology for CO2 capture from flue gas. In this process, the CO2 capture efficiency depends on the performance of a carbonator that may be operated as a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). In this paper, the carbonator performance is investigated...... by applying a new experimental method with accurate control of the particle recirculation rate. The experimental results show that the inlet calcium to carbon molar ratio is the main factor on the CO2 capture efficiency in the carbonator, that is, increasing the inlet Ca/C from 4 to 13 results in increasing...... the CO2 capture efficiency from 40 to 85% with limestone having a maximum CO2 capture capacity of only 11.5%. Furthermore, a reactor model for a carbonator is developed based on the Kunii-Levenspiels model. A key parameter in the model is the particle distribution along the height of the reactor, which...

  9. SILICA SURFACED CARBON FIBERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    carbon fibers . Several economical and simple processes were developed for obtaining research quantities of silica surfaced carbon filaments. Vat dipping processes were utilized to deposit an oxide such as silica onto the surface and into the micropores of available carbon or graphite base fibers. High performance composite materials were prepared with the surface treated carbon fibers and various resin matrices. The ablative characteristics of these composites were very promising and exhibited fewer limitations than either silica or...treated

  10. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-04

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  11. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  12. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  13. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  14. Carbon sequestration on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    On Earth, carbon sequestration in geologic units plays an important role in the carbon cycle, scrubbing CO_2 from the atmosphere for long-term storage. While carbonate is identified in low abundances within the dust and soils of Mars, at

  15. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project futur

  16. Preparation of (/sup 11/C)buprenorphine - a potential radioligand for the study of the opiate receptor system in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthra, S.K.; Pike, V.W.; Brady, F.; Horlock, P.L.; Prenant, C.; Crouzel, C.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of (/sup 11/C)buprenorphine in high specific activity, based on the reaction of N-(de-cyclopropylmethyl)buprenorphine with ''no carrier added'' (1-/sup 11/C)cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride followed by reduction with lithium aluminium hydride. The (1-/sup 11/C)cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride is itself prepared from cyclotron-produced (/sup 11/C)carbon dioxide. The overall preparation time is 57 min from the end of radionuclide production, and the radiochemical yield is ca 20%, (decay-corrected from (/sup 11/C)-carbon dioxide). (/sup 11/C)Buprenophine has potential as a radio-ligand for the study of the opiate receptor system in vivo by means of position emission tomography.

  17. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not...

  18. Effect of Synthesis Technique and Carbonate Content on the Crystallinity and Morphology of Carbonated Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia Ching Kee; Hanafi Ismail; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The syntheses of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) were performed by comparing dropwise and direct pouring of acetone solution of Ca(NO3)2.4H20 into mixture of (NH4)2HP04 and NH4HC03 at room temperature controlled at pH 11.Direct pouring method was later applied to study the increment of carbonate content in syntheses.The as-synthesized powders were characterized by various characterization techniques.The crystallographic results of the produced powders were obtained from X-ray diffraction analysis,whilst the carbonate content in the produced powders was determined by the CHNS/O elemental analyzer.Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed that the CHA powders formed were B-type.Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the powders were highly agglomerated in nanosized range and hence energy filtered transmission electron microscopy was employed to show elongated particles which decreased with increasing carbonate content.

  19. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    exothermic than that of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). This suggests that enthalpy of crystallization in carbonate systems is ionic-size controlled, which may have significant implications in a wide variety of conditions, including geological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.......Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  20. Perturbations in the carbon budget of the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, John; Mitchard, Edward; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    The carbon budget of the tropics has been perturbed as a result of human influences. Here, we attempt to construct a 'bottom-up' analysis of the biological components of the budget as they are affected by human activities. There are major uncertainties in the extent and carbon content of different vegetation types, the rates of land-use change and forest degradation, but recent developments in satellite remote sensing have gone far towards reducing these uncertainties. Stocks of carbon as biomass in tropical forests and woodlands add up to 271 ± 16 Pg with an even greater quantity of carbon as soil organic matter. Carbon loss from deforestation, degradation, harvesting and peat fires is estimated as 2.01 ± 1.1 Pg annum(-1); while carbon gain from forest and woodland growth is 1.85 ± 0.09 Pg annum(-1). We conclude that tropical lands are on average a small carbon source to the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with the 'top-down' result from measurements in the atmosphere. If they were to be conserved, they would be a substantial carbon sink. Release of carbon as carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in the tropics is 0.74 Pg annum(-1) or 0.57 MgC person(-1) annum(-1) , much lower than the corresponding figures from developed regions of the world.

  1. The impact of a unilateral carbon tax on carbon-intensive industries: evidence from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.

    1996-02-01

    This publication identifies the impact of a unilateral Norwegian carbon tax on the profitability and the exit probability in 12 carbon intensive manufacturing sectors. The study uses Norwegian panel data for manufacturing firms and focuses both on a tax on burning of fossil fuels and a tax on all emissions of carbon. It is demonstrated that for most carbon intensive sectors the impact on both profits and the exit probability of a tax on burning of fossil fuel is negligible or moderate. That is, the increase in the average sectorial exit probability is always less that one percentage point when the tax is 75 USD per tonne carbon dioxide. On the other hand, for sectors where carbon emissions are due to both burning of fossil fuels and the production process, the impact of a general tax on carbon dioxide (at 75 USD) is significant. In particular, in the manufacture of ferro alloys the average exit probability may increase by more than 15 percentage points. 15 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  3. Ocean sciences after September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    The terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on September 11, 2001 shocked the world with their audacity and destruction. Shortly thereafter, bioterrorists struck through the U.S. postal system. Virtually overnight, major policy shifts took place in the United States that catapulted national security and homeland defense to the top of the political agenda. The consequences were unimaginable just a few months before: an international coalition at war against the Taliban in Afghanistan, major increases in U.S. defense spending, tightened security measures at airports, government facilities, and research laboratories, and a new sense of vulnerability in the post-cold war era. AGU itself was directly affected: three of its members perished in the hijacked planes, or on the ground in New York City.

  4. 11th International Conference Mechatronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the most rapidly changing areas of mechatronics, this book discusses signals and system control, mechatronic products, metrology and nanometrology, automatic control & robotics, biomedical engineering, photonics, design manufacturing and testing of MEMS. It is reflected in the list of contributors, including an international group of 302 leading researchers representing 12 countries. The book is intended for use in academic, government and industry R&D departments, as an indispensable reference tool for the years to come. Thid volume can serve a global community as the definitive reference source in Mechatronics. The book comprises carefully selected 93 contributions presented at the 11th International Conference Mechatronics 2015, organized by Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, on September 21-23, in Warsaw, Poland. .

  5. STUDY OF DEPENDENCE OF POLYETHYLENE AND CARBON FIBERS COMPOSITES PROPERNIES ON SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER AND TYPE OF SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petukhova E. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PE2NT11 and chopped carbon fibers and PE2NT11 and modified carbon fibers composites were investigated. It was shown that the mechanical properties depend on the surface characteristics of fibers. It was found that laboratory and tube samples have some difference in mechanical properties that connected with specific distribution of fibers in samples

  6. STUDY OF DEPENDENCE OF POLYETHYLENE AND CARBON FIBERS COMPOSITES PROPERNIES ON SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER AND TYPE OF SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Petukhova E. S.

    2015-01-01

    PE2NT11 and chopped carbon fibers and PE2NT11 and modified carbon fibers composites were investigated. It was shown that the mechanical properties depend on the surface characteristics of fibers. It was found that laboratory and tube samples have some difference in mechanical properties that connected with specific distribution of fibers in samples

  7. Nanoparticle Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes by Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    on metal morphology, as does diffusion activation energy. Comparison of the metal– graphene interfa- cial energy to the surface energy of the metal...Nanotechnology 2009;20:375501–11. [17] O. Yaglioglu, Thesis . Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering; 2007. [18] Venables...25] Osswald S, Flahaut E, Ye H, Gogotsi Y. Elimination of D-band in Raman spectra of double-wall carbon nanotubes by oxidation . Chem Phys Lett

  8. Studies on carbon budget score remarkable progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 23 November, 2006, a key CAS research project on carbon budget passed the review by a panel of experts under the joint auspices of the CAS Bureau of Comprehensive Planning and the CAS Bureau of Science and Technology for Resourc es and Environment. The panel was made up of 11 prestigious experts, led by CHEN Yiyu, a CAS Member and President of National Natural Sciences Foundation of China.

  9. Benzodiazepine receptor quantification in vivo in humans using [11C]flumazenil and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Bartenstein, P A; Lammertsma, A A

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled flumazenil combined with positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure the concentration (Bmax) of the benzodiazepine (Bz) receptor in the brain and its equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for flumazenil in five normal subjects. The steady-state approach was used inj...

  10. Synthesis and 11C-Radiolabelling of 2-Carboranyl Benzothiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran B. Gona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes, commonly known as carboranes, possess unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as hydrophobic moieties during the design of new drugs or radiotracers. In this work, we report the synthesis of two analogues of 2-(4-aminophenylbenzothiazole (a compound that was found to elicit pronounced inhibitory effects against certain breast cancer cell lines in vitro in which the phenyl ring has been substituted by a m-carborane cage. Two different synthetic strategies have been used. For the preparation of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl-benzo-thiazole, the benzothiazole group was first introduced on one of the cluster carbon atoms of m-carborane and the amine group was further attached in three steps. For the synthesis of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, iodination was performed before introducing the benzothiazole group, and the amino group was subsequently introduced in six steps. Both compounds were radiolabelled with carbon-11 using [11C]CH3OTf as the labelling agent. Radiolabelling yields and radiochemical purities achieved should enable subsequent in vitro and in vivo investigations.

  11. Catalysts in syntheses of carbon and carbon precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Mochida, Isao; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Qiao, Wenming

    2006-01-01

    Carbon materials have been applied in different fields because of their unique performances. Naturally, the physical and chemical structures of carbon precursors and carbon materials decide their properties and applications. Catalysts play a very important role in the synthesis of carbon precursors and carbon materials by controlling the molecular and compositional chemistry at the transformation of organic substrates into carbon through carbonaceous intermediates. Carbon materials of high pe...

  12. Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks for Indoors Applications Using IEEE 802.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Sørensen, Thomas; Madsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting low-power sensing applications. The investigation is based on a prototype carbon dioxide sensor node that is powered by artificial indoors light. The wireless communication module of the sensor node is based on the RTX......4100 module. RTX4100 incorporates a wireless protocol that duty-cycles the radio while being compatible with IEEE 802.11 access points. The presented experiments demonstrate sustainable operation but indicate a trade-off between the benefits of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting applications...

  13. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  14. Synthesis of 1-/sup 11/C-labelled ethyl, propyl, butyl and isobutyl iodides and examples of alkylation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Gullberg, P.; Halldin, C.; Naagren, K.; Rimland, A.; Svaerd, H.

    1986-01-01

    New /sup 11/C-labelled precursors (1-/sup 11/C)ethyl,(1-/sup 11/C)propyl, (1-/sup 11/C)butyl, and (1-/sup 11/C)isobutyl iodides have been prepared by a 3-step reaction route using a one-pot system. The labelled iodides were obtained in 20-55% radiochemical yields and 65-95% radiochemical purities, with a total time for synthesis of the order of 10-14 min. The labelled iodides have been used in alkylation reactions with nitrogen, oxygen and carbon nucleophiles. The nitrogen alkylation reactions are exemplified by the synthesis of the analgetics N-(1-/sup 11/C-ethyl)iodocaine and N-(1-/sup 11/C-butyl) bupivacaine. The synthesis of 3-nitrophenyl(1-/sup 11/C)propyl ether is also presented in this paper as an example of an oxygen alkylation.

  15. Majorana fermion wavefunctions in carbon nanotubes and carbynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, N. R.; Aporoski, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Electron properties of semiconducting zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be described by two uncoupled Dirac equations of dimension (1+1) for the particle with nonzero mass. The solutions of these equations are two charge-neutral Majorana fields. An analogous equation is obtained for the carbon chains. We use the approach, wherein wavefunction of charged particle is represented as the production of a rapidly oscillating exponent and the slowly varying function amplitude depending on the longitudinal coordinate.

  16. Graphitic Carbons and Biosignatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, S.; Papineau, D

    2014-01-01

    The unambiguous identification of graphitic carbons as remains of life in ancient rocks is challenging because fossilized biogenic molecules are inevitably altered and degraded during diagenesis and metamorphism of the host rocks. Yet, recent studies have highlighted the possible preservation of biosignatures carried by some of the oldest graphitic carbons. Laboratory simulations are increasingly being used to better constrain the transformations of organic molecules into graphitic carbons in...

  17. Carbon Dioxide Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-05-17

    carbondioxide content of the solution was then determined. A gas mixture containing 2.6% carbon dioxide and 97.4% nitrogen was prepared in the...which carbon dioxide is removed by heat0 Since this step is usually carried out by "steam stripping ", that is, contacting the solution at its boiling...required to produce the steam required for stripping the carbon dioxide from the s olution. The method ueed in this investigation for determining the

  18. Carbon emissions Inventory Games

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Emadi, Eiman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions reduction has been the center of attention in many organizations during the past few decades. Many international entities developed rules and regulations to monitor and control carbon emissions especially under supply chain context. Furthermore, researchers investigated techniques and methods on how reduce carbon emissions under operational adjustment which can be done by cooperation or coordination. The main contribution of this thesis is to measure to what extend cooperatio...

  19. Animating the Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  20. 16 CFR 1031.11 - Procedural safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.11 Procedural... involvement in voluntary standards activities set forth in subpart A of this part. (b) Commission...

  1. Nanographene reinforced carbon/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dhruv

    Carbon/Carbon Composites (CCC) are made of carbon reinforcement in carbon matrix and have high thermal stability and fatigue resistance. CCC are used in nose cones, heat shields and disc brakes of aircrafts due to their exceptional mechanical properties at high temperature. The manufacturing process of CCC involves a carbonization stage in which unwanted elements, except carbon, are eliminated from the polymer precursor. Carbonization results in the formation of voids and cracks due to the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix and expulsion of volatiles from the polymer matrix. Thermal cracks and voids decrease the density and mechanical properties of the manufactured CCC. In this work, Nanographene Platelets (NGP) were explored as nanofillers to fill the voids/cracks and reduce thermal shrinkage in CCC. They were first compared with Vapor Grown Carbon Nanofibers (VGCNF) by dispersion of different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%) in resole-type phenolic resin and were characterized to explore their effect on rheology, heat of reaction and wetting behavior. The dispersions were then cured to form nanocomposites and were characterized for morphology, flexure and thermal properties. Finally, NGP were introduced into the carbon/carboncomposites in two stages, first by spraying in different concentrations (0.5wt%, 1.5wt%, 3wt%, 5wt %) during the prepreg formation and later during densification by directly mixing in the corresponding densification mix. The manufactured NGP reinforced CCC were characterized for microstructure, porosity, bulk density and mechanical properties (Flexure and ILSS) which were further cross-checked by non-destructive techniques (vibration and ultrasonic). In this study, it was further found that at low concentration (≤ 1.5 wt%) NGP were more effective in increasing the heat of reaction and in decreasing the viscosity of the phenolic resin. The decrease in viscosity led to better wetting properties of NGP / phenolic

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  3. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  4. Cadherin-11 endocytosis through binding to clathrin promotes cadherin-11-mediated migration in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, Robert L; Pan, Tianhong; Bilen, Mehmet A; Li, Xiaoxia; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ortiz, Angelica; Kowalczyk, Andrew P; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2015-12-15

    Cadherin-11 (Cad11) cell adhesion molecule plays a role in prostate cancer cell migration. Because disassembly of adhesion complexes through endocytosis of adhesion proteins has been shown to play a role in cell migration, we examined whether Cad11 endocytosis plays a role in Cad11-mediated migration. The mechanism by which Cad11 is internalized is unknown. Using a GST pulldown assay, we found that clathrin binds to the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain but not to that of E-cadherin. Using deletion analysis, we identified a unique sequence motif, VFEEE, in the Cad11 membrane proximal region (amino acid residues 11-15) that binds to clathrin. Endocytosis assays using K(+)-depletion buffer showed that Cad11 internalization is clathrin dependent. Proximity ligation assays showed that Cad11 colocalizes with clathrin, and immunofluorescence assays showed that Cad11 localizes in vesicles that stain for the early endosomal marker Rab5. Deletion of the VFEEE sequence from the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain (Cad11-cla-Δ5) leads to inhibition of Cad11 internalization and reduces Cad11-mediated cell migration in C4-2B and PC3-mm2 prostate cancer cells. These observations suggest that clathrin-mediated internalization of Cad11 regulates surface trafficking of Cad11 and that dynamic turnover of Cad11 regulates the migratory function of Cad11 in prostate cancer cells.

  5. The Adsorption Mechanism of Modified Activated Carbon on Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified activated carbon was prepared by thermal treatment at high temperature under nitrogen flow. The surface properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Boehm titration, BET and point of zero charge determination. The adsorption mechanism of phenol on modified activated carbon was explained and the adsorption capacity of modified activated carbon for phenol when compared to plain activated carbon was evaluated through the analysis of adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic and kinetic properties. Results shows that after modification the surface alkaline property and pHpzc value of the activated carbon increase and the surface oxygen-containing functional groups decrease. The adsorption processes of the plain and modified carbon fit with Langmuir isotherm equation well, and the maximum adsorption capacity increase from 123.46, 111.11, 103.09mg/g to 192.31, 178.57, 163,93mg/g under 15, 25 and 35°C after modification, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of phenol on activated carbon is a spontaneously exothermic process of entropy reduction, implying that the adsorption is a physical adsorption. The adsorption of phenol on activated carbon follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2>0.99. The optimum pH of adsorption is 6~8.

  6. 16 CFR 309.11 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification. 309.11 Section 309.11... Manufacturers of Electric Vehicle Fuel Dispensing Systems § 309.11 Certification. (a) For non-liquid alternative.... This letter of certification will be good until you transfer non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel...

  7. 25 CFR 11.601 - Marriage licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under...

  8. 42 CFR 9.11 - Animal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal transport. 9.11 Section 9.11 Public Health... CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.11 Animal transport. The transportation of... and Regulations and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations...

  9. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be...

  10. 10 CFR 150.11 - Critical mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical mass. 150.11 Section 150.11 Energy NUCLEAR... OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Exemptions in Agreement States § 150.11 Critical mass. (a) For the purposes of this part, special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass...

  11. 23 CFR 652.11 - Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Planning. 652.11 Section 652.11 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... ACCOMMODATIONS AND PROJECTS § 652.11 Planning. Federally aided bicycle and pedestrian projects implemented within... unless excluded by agreement between the State and the metropolitan planning organization....

  12. 40 CFR 81.11 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.11 Section 81.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.11 Scope....

  13. 12 CFR 23.11 - Lease term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lease term. 23.11 Section 23.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING CEBA Leases § 23.11 Lease term. A CEBA Lease must have an initial term of not less than 90 days. A national bank may acquire...

  14. 40 CFR 247.11 - Vehicular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicular products. 247.11 Section 247.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES COMPREHENSIVE PROCUREMENT GUIDELINE FOR PRODUCTS CONTAINING RECOVERED MATERIALS Item Designations § 247.11 Vehicular products. (a) Lubricating oils...

  15. 32 CFR 553.11 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement. 553.11 Section 553.11 National... CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.11 Procurement. Cemetery supplies and services will be procured in accordance with the provisions of the Armed Services Procurement Regulation (ASPR) and the Army...

  16. 40 CFR 444.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 444.11 Section 444.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS WASTE COMBUSTORS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Commercial Hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory § 444.11 Definitions....

  17. 7 CFR 1427.11 - Warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse receipts. 1427.11 Section 1427.11... Deficiency Payments § 1427.11 Warehouse receipts. (a) Producers may obtain loans on eligible cotton represented by warehouse receipts only if the warehouse receipts meet the definition of a warehouse...

  18. 25 CFR 11.415 - Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud. 11.415 Section 11.415 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Criminal Offenses § 11.415 Fraud. A person who shall by willful misrepresentation or deceit, or by false... fraud, a misdemeanor....

  19. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits....

  20. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition...

  1. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  2. 32 CFR 231.11 - Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines. 231.11 Section 231.11 National... PROCEDURES GOVERNING BANKS, CREDIT UNIONS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS Guidelines for Application of the Privacy Act to Financial Institution Operations § 231.11 Guidelines. (a)...

  3. 12 CFR 412.11 - Payment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment guidelines. 412.11 Section 412.11 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES § 412.11 Payment guidelines. (a) Payments from a non-Federal source, other...

  4. 7 CFR 275.11 - Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling. 275.11 Section 275.11 Agriculture... § 275.11 Sampling. (a) Sampling plan. Each State agency shall develop a quality control sampling plan which demonstrates the integrity of its sampling procedures. (1) Content. The sampling plan...

  5. 15 CFR 9.11 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report. 9.11 Section 9.11... FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.11 Annual report. The Secretary will prepare an annual report of activities under the program, including an evaluation of...

  6. 7 CFR 503.11 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 503.11 Section 503.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.11 Pets. No pets or animals of any kind may be...

  7. 7 CFR 502.11 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 502.11 Section 502.11 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.11 Pets. Pets... vaccinations. Pets that are the property of employees residing on BARC must be up to date on their...

  8. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  9. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  10. 34 CFR 31.11 - Offset process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset process. 31.11 Section 31.11 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education SALARY OFFSET FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES WHO ARE INDEBTED TO THE UNITED STATES UNDER PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION § 31.11 Offset process. (a)...

  11. 28 CFR 11.8 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 11.8 Section 11.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.8 Salary offset. (a) Notice requirements before offset. Deductions under the authority of 5 U.S.C. 5514 will not be...

  12. 45 CFR 1705.11 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalties. 1705.11 Section 1705.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PRIVACY REGULATIONS § 1705.11 Penalties. Title 18 U.S.C. 1001, Crimes and Criminal Procedures, makes it...

  13. 14 CFR 35.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 35.11 Section 35.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.11...

  14. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  15. 40 CFR 258.11 - Floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floodplains. 258.11 Section 258.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.11 Floodplains. (a) Owners or operators of new...

  16. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 292.11 Section 292.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction....

  17. 49 CFR 1150.11 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1150.11 Section 1150.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Designated Operators § 1150.11 Introduction. A certificate of designated operator will be issued to...

  18. 27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.4 Jurisdictional limits....

  19. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be... safely pass the fire without stopping. (b) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation...

  20. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  2. 14 CFR 147.11 - Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings. 147.11 Section 147.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Certification Requirements § 147.11 Ratings....

  3. 10 CFR 602.11 - Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding. 602.11 Section 602.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.11 Funding. (a) The project period during which DOE expects to provide support for an...

  4. 10 CFR 35.11 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 35.11 Section 35.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.11 License required. (a) A... for medical use only in accordance with a specific license issued by the Commission or an...

  5. 7 CFR 614.11 - Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation. 614.11 Section 614.11 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS NRCS APPEAL PROCEDURES § 614.11 Mediation. (a) A participant who wishes to pursue mediation must file request for mediation under this part with the NRCS official designated in...

  6. 29 CFR 1604.11 - Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604.11 Labor... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.11 Sexual harassment. (a) Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of section... physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1) submission to such conduct...

  7. 42 CFR 491.11 - Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program evaluation. 491.11 Section 491.11 Public... Certification; and FQHCs Conditions for Coverage § 491.11 Program evaluation. (a) The clinic or center carries out, or arranges for, an annual evaluation of its total program. (b) The evaluation includes review...

  8. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  9. 7 CFR 905.11 - Fiscal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 905.11 Section 905.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.11 Fiscal period. Fiscal period...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.11 - Fiscal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal year. 1216.11 Section 1216.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.11 Fiscal year....

  11. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal....

  12. 42 CFR 73.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security. 73.11 Section 73.11 Public Health PUBLIC... AND TOXINS § 73.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security plan. The security plan must be sufficient to safeguard...

  13. 7 CFR 331.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 331.11 Section 331.11 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POSSESSION, USE, AND TRANSFER OF SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 331.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security...

  14. 9 CFR 121.11 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 121.11 Section 121.11... AGENTS AND TOXINS § 121.11 Security. (a) An individual or entity required to register under this part must develop and implement a written security plan. The security plan must be sufficient to...

  15. 40 CFR 440.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 440.11 Section 440.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.11...

  16. 40 CFR 11.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 11.3 Section 11.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL SECURITY CLASSIFICATION REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO EXECUTIVE ORDER 11652 § 11.3 Responsibilities. (a) Classification and...

  17. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  18. 7 CFR 11.21 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 11.21 Section 11.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION Organization And Functions § 11.21 Organization. NAD was established on October 13, 1994. Delegation of authority to the Director, NAD, appears...

  19. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled....

  20. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection...

  1. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded...

  2. 46 CFR 98.33-11 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking. 98.33-11 Section 98.33-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT... Combustible Liquids and Other Regulated Materials § 98.33-11 Smoking. No person may smoke when— (a) Within...

  3. 29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General principles. The following general principles will be observed in granting or denying requests for...

  4. 43 CFR 36.11 - Special access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special access. 36.11 Section 36.11 Public..., AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.11 Special access. (a) This section... this section. The use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a national park...

  5. 25 CFR 11.1010 - Adjudicatory hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjudicatory hearing. 11.1010 Section 11.1010 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1010 Adjudicatory hearing. (a) The children's court...

  6. 46 CFR 11.493 - Master (OSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master (OSV). 11.493 Section 11.493 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.493 Master (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Master (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence...

  7. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.11 Mangos. Mangos means...

  8. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of...

  9. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  10. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  11. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-11 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.400-11 Section 179.400-11...-11 Welding. (a) Except for closure of openings and a maximum of two circumferential closing joints in... subchapter). (d) Each welding procedure, welder, and fabricator must be approved. [Amdt. 179-32, 48 FR...

  13. 16 CFR 1115.11 - Imputed knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imputed knowledge. 1115.11 Section 1115.11... PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.11 Imputed knowledge. (a) In evaluating whether or... care to ascertain the truth of complaints or other representations. This includes the knowledge a...

  14. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies...

  15. 46 CFR 97.11-1 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting. 97.11-1 Section 97.11-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Stability Letter § 97.11-1 Posting. If a stability letter is issued under § 170.120 of this chapter, it must be...

  16. 7 CFR 11.22 - Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions. 11.22 Section 11.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION Organization And Functions § 11.22 Functions... Director for Hearings and Administration. Responsible for all administrative functions of NAD,...

  17. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excess of the aggregate payments to which they will be entitled under 11 CFR part 9004. (2) That no... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures in excess of the limitations of 11 CFR 110.8(a), the Commission may seek civil penalties under...

  18. 12 CFR 370.11 - Enforcement mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement mechanisms. 370.11 Section 370.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.11 Enforcement mechanisms. (a) Termination of Participation....

  19. 21 CFR 11.50 - Signature manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Signature manifestations. 11.50 Section 11.50 Food... RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Records § 11.50 Signature manifestations. (a) Signed electronic...: (1) The printed name of the signer; (2) The date and time when the signature was executed; and...

  20. 46 CFR 310.11 - Cadet uniforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.11 Cadet uniforms. Cadet uniforms shall be supplied at the school in accordance with the uniform regulations of the School. Those... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cadet uniforms. 310.11 Section 310.11 Shipping...

  1. 10 CFR 63.11 - Deliberate misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deliberate misconduct. 63.11 Section 63.11 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.11 Deliberate misconduct. (a) Any licensee, applicant for a..., may not: (1) Engage in deliberate misconduct that causes or would have caused, if not detected,...

  2. 10 CFR 60.11 - Deliberate misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deliberate misconduct. 60.11 Section 60.11 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 60.11 Deliberate misconduct. (a) Any licensee, applicant for a license, employee of a licensee... misconduct that causes or would have caused, if not detected, a licensee or applicant to be in violation...

  3. 10 CFR 4.11 - General prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibition. 4.11 Section 4.11 Energy NUCLEAR... and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Discrimination Prohibited § 4.11 General... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  4. 46 CFR 160.171-11 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 160.171-11 Section 160.171-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Immersion Suits § 160.171-11 Performance. (a) Buoyancy....

  5. 46 CFR 160.176-11 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 160.176-11 Section 160.176-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Lifejackets § 160.176-11 Performance. (a)...

  6. 22 CFR 143.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 143.11 Section 143.11 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 143.11 Standards. The standards each agency uses to determine whether an age distinction or age-related term is prohibited are...

  7. 49 CFR 91.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 91.11 Section 91.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORTATION FAIR COMPETITIVE PRACTICES § 91.11 Standards. (a) To minimize the burden of implementing this part on the United States, on...

  8. 22 CFR 218.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 218.11 Section 218.11 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 218.11 Standards. The standards each agency uses to determine whether an age distinction or age-related term...

  9. 29 CFR 1911.11 - Other standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other standards. 1911.11 Section 1911.11 Labor Regulations...) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR PROMULGATING, MODIFYING, OR REVOKING OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY OR HEALTH STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.11 Other standards. The Assistant Secretary may promulgate, modify, or...

  10. 25 CFR 43.11 - Informal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal proceedings. 43.11 Section 43.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL OF STUDENT RECORDS IN BUREAU SCHOOLS § 43.11 Informal proceedings. Educational institutions may attempt to resolve...

  11. 25 CFR 11.606 - Dissolution proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution proceedings. 11.606 Section 11.606 Indians... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.606 Dissolution proceedings. (a) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate dissolution proceedings. (b) If a proceeding is commenced by one of the parties,...

  12. 30 CFR 48.11 - Hazard training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard training. 48.11 Section 48.11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Underground Miners § 48.11 Hazard training. (a)...

  13. Exciton Dynamics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Matt [University of California, Berkeley; Chmeliov, Javgenij [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Ma, Yingzhong [ORNL; Shinohara, Nori [Nagoya University, Japan; Green, Alexander A. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Valkunas, Leonas [Vilnius University, Lithuania; Fleming, Graham [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    We report femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic study on the (6, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes and the (7, 5) inner tubes of a dominant double-walled carbon nanotube species. We found that the dynamics of exciton relaxation probed at the first transition-allowed state (E11) of a given tube type exhibits a markedly slower decay when the second transition-allowed state (E22) is excited than that measured by exciting its first transition-allowed state (E11). A linear intensity dependence of the maximal amplitude of the transient absorption signal is found for the E22 excitation, whereas the corresponding amplitude scales linearly with the square root of the E11 excitation intensity. Theoretical modeling of these experimental findings was performed by developing a continuum model and a stochastic model with explicit consideration of the annihilation of coherent excitons. Our detailed numerical simulations show that both models can reproduce reasonably well the initial portion of decay kinetics measured upon the E22 and E11 excitation of the chosen tube species, but the stochastic model gives qualitatively better agreement with the intensity dependence observed experimentally than those obtained with the continuum model.

  14. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC11) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation on mechanical property of carbon nanotube torsional deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ming-Jun; Liang Ying-Chun; Li Hong-Zhu; Li Dan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper torsional deformation of the carbon nanotubes is simulated by molecular dynamics method. The Brenner potential is used to set up the simulation system. Simulation results show that the carbon nanotubes can bear larger torsional deformation, for the armchair type (10,10) single wall carbon nanotubes, with a yielding phenomenon taking place when the torsional angle is up to 63°(1.1rad). The influence of carbon nanotube helicity in torsional deformation is very small. The shear modulus of single wall carbon nanotubes should be several hundred GPa, not 1 GPa as others reports.

  16. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  17. Molybdosphoric Acid Mixed with Titania Used as a Catalyst to Synthesize Diphenyl Carbonate via Transesterification of Dimethyl Carbonate and Phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Chen; Huajun Han; Zhiping Du; Jie Yao; Gongying Wang; Dachuan Shi; Desheng Zhang; Zhiming Chen

    2006-01-01

    The 12-molybdosphoric acid mixed with titania (MPA-TiO2) was found to be a novel and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of diphenyl carbonate (DPC) via transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and phenol. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) techniques were employed to characterize the prepared catalysts. The effect of the weight ratio of the 12-molybdosphoric acid to titania on the transesterification was investigated. A 13.1% yield of DPC and an 11.6% yield of methyl phenyl carbonate (MPC) were obtained over MPA-TiO2 with the weight ratio of MPA to TiO2 as 5:1.

  18. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  19. Regional prediction of carbon isotopes in soil carbonates for Asian dust source tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Cui, Xinjuan; Wang, Yaqiang

    2016-10-01

    Dust particles emitted from deserts and semi-arid lands in northern China cause particulate pollution that increases the burden of disease particularly for urban population in East Asia. The stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of carbonates in soils and dust aerosols in northern China were investigated. We found that the δ13C of carbonates in surface soils in northern China showed clearly the negative correlation (R2 = 0.73) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived NDVI, we predicted the regional distribution of δ13C of soil carbonates in deserts, sandy lands, and steppe areas. The predictions show the mean δ13C of -0.4 ± 0.7‰ in soil carbonates in Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Deserts, and the isotope values decrease to -3.3 ± 1.1‰ in sandy lands. The increase in vegetation coverage depletes 13C in soil carbonates, thus the steppe areas are predicted by the lowest δ13C levels (-8.1 ± 1.7‰). The measurements of atmospheric dust samples at eight sites showed that the Asian dust sources were well assigned by the 13C mapping in surface soils. Predicting 13C in large geographical areas with fine resolution offers a cost-effective tracer to monitor dust emissions from sandy lands and steppe areas which show an increasing role in Asian dust loading driven by climate change and human activities.

  20. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11s PSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Nazrul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of IEEE 802.11 power save mode (PSM, a lot of work has been done to enhance the energy saving ability of the wireless nodes. The ultimate goal of the research is to make the networking equipment carbon neutral and prolong the lifetime of the energy limited device for various applications; in some cases it is a trade-off between energy efficiency and delay. However, few studies have been made until now in the area of IEEE 802.11s based link specific power mode. The essence of this method is the ability of a node to maintain different power modes with its different peer nodes at the same time. A new peer service period (PSP mechanism is also proposed in IEEE 802.11s amendment for transmitting to a receiver operating in PSM. In this paper the performance of the link specific power mode is studied for a single- and a multilink network in terms of energy, delay throughput, and sleep duration. It is found that at small load the energy saving could be as high as eighty percent when compared with the active mode operation. A stochastic model, based on discrete time discrete state Markov chain, is developed for one peer link operation to study the system behavior closely during PSM operation.

  1. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, R.J.; Pike, V.W.; Dowsett, K.; Turton, D.R.; Poole, K. [Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Cyclotron Unit

    1997-07-30

    Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is under development as a therapeutic for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Three methods were examined for labelling PLC in its propionyl group with positron-emitting carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2} = 20.3 min), one chemical and two chemoenzymatic. The former was based on the preparation of [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride as labelling agent via {sup 11}C-carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and subsequent chlorination. Reaction of carrier-added [{sup 11}C]propionyl chloride with L-carnitine in trifluoroacetic acid gave [{sup 11}C]PLC in 12% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from cyclotron-produced [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide. However, the radiosynthesis was unsuccessful at the no-carrier added (NCA) level of specific radioactivity. [{sup 11}C]Propionate, as a radioactive precursor for chemoenzymatic routes, was prepared via carboxylation of ethylmagnesium bromide with [{sup 11}C]carbon dioxide and hydrolysis. NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was prepared in 68 min in 14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from [{sup 11}C]propionate via sequential conversions catalysed by acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase and carnitine acetyltransferase. A superior chemoenzymatic synthesis of NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC was developed, based on the use of a novel supported Grignard reagent for the synthesis of [{sup 11}C]propionate and conversions by S-acetyl-CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase. This gave an overall radiochemical yield of 30-48% (decay-corrected). This synthesis was automated for radiation safety and provides pure NCA [{sup 11}C]PLC in high radioactivities ready for intravenous administration within 25 min from radionuclide production. The [{sup 11}C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. (Author).

  2. A rare case of trisomy 11q23.3-11q25 and trisomy 22q11.1-22q11.21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, P-S; Li, H-F; Chen, L-S; Ma, M; Chen, X-H; Xue, D; Cao, D-H

    2016-05-09

    Partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 11 and the partial trisomy of 22q are uncommon karyotypic abnormalities. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl who showed partial trisomy of 11q and 22q, as a result of a maternal balanced reciprocal translocation (11;22), and exhibited dysmorphic features, severe intellectual disability, brain malformations, and speech delay related to this unique chromosomal abnormality. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) revealed a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 11, spanning at least 18.22 Mb. Additionally, there was a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 22, spanning at least 3.46 Mb. FISH analysis using a chromosome 11 short arm telomere probe (11p14.2), a chromosome 11 long arm telomere probe (11q24.3), and a chromosome 22 long arm telomere probe (22q13.33) confirmed the origin of the marker chromosome. It has been confirmed by the State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of China that this is the first reported instance of the karyotype 47,XX, +der(22)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.1)mat in the world. Our study reports an additional case that can be used to further characterize and delineate the clinical ramifications of partial trisomy of 11q and 22q.

  3. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-03-06

    There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentration and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, mean PIC accumulation rates in seagrass sediments is 126.3 ± 0.7 g PIC m-2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  4. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, I.; Marbà, N.; Lovelock, C. E.; Serrano, O.; Lavery, P. S.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Kennedy, H.; Mateo, M. A.; Krause-Jensen, D.; Steven, A. D. L.; Duarte, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m-2 yr-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrated by the comparison of carbon (PIC and POC) stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  5. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazarrasa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic carbon (POC stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the inorganic carbon (PIC fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 402 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m sediments ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha-1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha-1, exceeding about 5 fold those of POC reported in previous studies. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of -8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha-1 degree-1 of latitude (GLM, p -2 y-1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2, these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top meter of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 76 Tg PIC y-1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2 emissions from precipitation, seagrass meadows are still strong CO2 sinks as demonstrates the comparison of carbon (POC and POC stocks between vegetated and adjacent un-vegetated sediments.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  7. De-carbonizingChina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zhou; Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in the energy sector will pave the way for the country’slow-carbon future Although its per-capita emission is roughly on par with the world’s average, China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter,

  8. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  9. China's carbon conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Wu, Tong; He, Jiankun; King, David A.

    2013-07-01

    China's carbon dioxide emissions are rising fast. Yet, per capita, gross domestic product and energy use are only a fraction of their United States equivalents. With a growing urban middle class, the trend will continue, but there is progress on the path to a low-carbon economy.

  10. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R.M.; Canadell, J.G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J.I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G.P.; Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Houghton, R.A.; House, J.I.; Keeling, R.F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L.P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R.A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A.K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I.D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D.R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J.E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F.F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B.D.; Sutton, A.J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Laan-Luijkx, Van Der I.T.; Werf, Van Der G.R.; Heuven, Van S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we de

  12. Global carbon budget 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T. A.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C E; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Maignan, F.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G. H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, Piere; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; Van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  13. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  14. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  15. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  16. COMMITTED TO CARBON REDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chinese efforts to lower carbon emissions through environmentally friendly means begin gaining momentum Efforts to curb carbon emissions continue to take shape as China adheres to its pledge for a brighter, greener future. More importantly, as environmental measures take hold and develop

  17. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le C.; Peters, W.; Moriarty, R.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we descr

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  19. Radiosynthesis and ex vivo evaluation of (R)-(-)-2-chloro-N-[1-11C-propyl]n-propylnorapomorphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; McCormick, Patrick; Gillings, Nicolas;

    2010-01-01

    Several dopamine D(2) agonist radioligands have been used with positron emission tomography (PET), including [(11)C-]-(-)-MNPA, [(11)C-]-(-)-NPA and [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO. These radioligands are considered particularly powerful for detection of endogenous dopamine release, but they either provide PET...... brain images with limited contrast or have affinity for both D(2) and D(3) receptors. We here present the carbon-11 radiolabeling and ex vivo evaluation of 2-Cl-(-)-NPA, a novel PET-tracer candidate with high in vitro D(2)/D(3) selectivity....

  20. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    The Lomagundi (2.22-2.1 Ga) positive carbon isotope excursion in shallow-marine sedimentary carbonates has been associated with the rise in atmospheric oxygen, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that the carbon isotope excursion was preceded by the rise in atmospheric oxygen. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon, which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected. We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2.22 and 2.06 Ga along the margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in an open-marine deltaic setting and experienced lower greenschist facies metamorphism. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8.3 to 11.2‰ vs. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents range from 0.01 to 0.6% and δ13C values range from - 24.8 to - 13.9‰. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average 30.3 ± 2.8‰ ( n = 32) in the shallow-marine environment. The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents (0.14 to 21.94%) and δ13C values (- 33.7 to - 20.8‰) with an average of - 27.0 ± 3.0‰ ( n = 50). Considering that the shales were also deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, and taking δ13C values of the overlying carbonates as representative of the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon during shale deposition, a carbon

  1. Development of New Photovoltaic Devices Based on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0014 Development of new photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles... photovoltaic devices based on multi wall carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-11-1-3036 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 11...response is registered in all the photon spectral range studied. The new kind of Graetzel-like solar cell device was built without dye and TiO2 , showing

  2. Carbon dynamics in an Imperata grassland in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrabati Thokchom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon stocks and soil CO2 flux were assessed in an Imperata cylindrica grassland of Manipur, Northeast India. Carbon stocks in the vegetative components were estimated to be 11.17 t C/ha and soil organic carbon stocks were 55.94 t C/ha to a depth of 30 cm. The rates of carbon accumulation in above-ground and below-ground biomass were estimated to be 11.85 t C/ha/yr and 11.71 t C/ha/yr, respectively. Annual soil CO2 flux was evaluated as 6.95 t C/ha and was highly influenced by soil moisture, soil temperature and soil organic carbon as well as by C stocks in above-ground biomass. Our study on the carbon budget of the grassland ecosystem revealed that annually 23.56 t C/ha was captured by the vegetation through photosynthesis, and 6.95 t C/ha was returned to the atmosphere through roots and microbial respiration, with a net balance of 16.61 t C/ha/yr being retained in the grassland ecosystem. Thus the present Imperata grassland exhibited a high capacity to remove atmospheric CO2 and to induce high C stocks in the soil provided it is protected from burning and overgrazing.Keywords: Above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, carbon stocks, carbon storage, net primary productivity, soil CO2 flux.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(419-28  

  3. Synthesis of hydrated lutetium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Liu [South China Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Guangdong (China); Rong-jun Ma [Changsha Research Institute of Minig and Metallurgy, Hunan (China)

    1997-09-01

    Crystalline lutetium carbonate was synthesized for the corresponding chloride using ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant. The chemical analyses suggest that the synthesized lutetium carbonate is a hydrated basic carbonate or oxycarbonate. The X-ray powder diffraction data are presented. The IR data for the compound show the presence of two different carbonate groups. There is no stable intermediate carbonate in the process of thermal decomposition of the lutetium carbonate. (au) 15 refs.

  4. Abundances in red giant stars - Carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbon-rich molecular envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannier, P. G.; Sahai, R.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter-wave observations have been made of isotopically substituted CO toward the envelopes of 11 carbon-rich stars. In every case, C-13O was detected and model calculations were used to estimate the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio. C-17O was detected toward three, and possibly four, envelopes, with sensitive upper limits for two others. The CO-18 variant was detected in two envelopes. New results include determinations of oxygen isotopic ratios in the two carbon-rich protoplanetary nebulae CRL 26688 and CRL 618. As with other classes of red giant stars, the carbon-rich giants seem to be significantly, though variably, enriched in O-17. These results, in combination with observations in interstellar molecular clouds, indicate that current knowledge of stellar production of the CNO nuclides is far from satisfactory.

  5. In vivo evaluation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists [11C]A-582941 and [11C]A-844606 in mice and conscious monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Toyohara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the two carbon-11-labeled alpha7 nAChR agonists [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 for their potential as novel positron emission tomography (PET tracers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two tracers were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding desmethyl precursors using [(11C]methyl triflate. Effects of receptor blockade in mice were determined by coinjection of either tracer along with a carrier or an excess amount of a selective alpha7 nAChR agonist (SSR180711. Metabolic stability was investigated using radio-HPLC. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys with/without SSR180711-treatment. [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 showed high uptake in the mouse brain. Most radioactive compounds in the brain were detected as an unchanged form. However, regional selectivity and selective receptor blockade were not clearly observed for either compound in the mouse brain. On the other hand, the total distribution volume of [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 was high in the hippocampus and thalamus but low in the cerebellum in the conscious monkey brain, and reduced by pretreatment with SSR180711. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A nonhuman primate study suggests that [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 would be potential PET ligands for imaging alpha7 nAChRs in the human brain.

  6. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  7. Dense high-aspect ratio 3D carbon pillars on interdigitated microelectrode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Heiskanen, Arto; Hansen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present high-aspect ratio carbon pillars (1.4 μm in diameter and ∼11 μm in height) on top of interdigitated electrode arrays to be used for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, different types of 2D and 3D pyrolysed carbon structures were fabricated and characterised...

  8. 75 FR 6307 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Control of Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... . COMAR 26.11.10.06 required a person who operated a blast furnace, grey iron cupola or BOF to burn the... Carbon Monoxide Emissions From Basic Oxygen Furnaces AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... current SIP requirements for the control of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from basic oxygen...

  9. The production of a homogeneous and well-attached layer of carbon nanofibers on metal foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco Benito, S.; Lefferts, L.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were deposited on metal foils including nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), stainless steel (Fe:Ni; 70:11 wt.%) and mumetal (Ni:Fe; 77:14 wt.%) by the decomposition of C2H4 at 600 °C. The effect of pretreatment and the addition of H2 on the rate of carbon formation, as well

  10. A designer hyper interleukin 11 (H11 is a biologically active cytokine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dams-Kozlowska Hanna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 11 (IL-11 is a pleiotropic cytokine with anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and hematopoietic potential. The IL-11 activity is determined by the expression of the IL-11R receptor alpha (IL-11Rα and the signal transducing subunit β (gp130 on the cell membrane. A recombinant soluble form of the IL-11Rα (sIL-11Rα in combination with IL-11 acts as an agonist on cells expressing the gp130 molecule. We constructed a designer cytokine Hyper IL-11 (H11, which is exclusively composed of naturally existing components. It contains the full length sIL-11Rα connected with the mature IL-11 protein using their natural sequences only. Such a construct has two major advantages: (i its components are as close as possible to the natural forms of both proteins and (ii it lacks an artificial linker what should avoid induction of antibody production. Results The H11 construct was generated, the protein was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was then purified by using ion exchange chromatography. The H11 protein displayed activity in three independent bioassays, (i it induced acute phase proteins production in HepG2 cells expressing IL-11, IL-11Rα and gp130, (ii it stimulated the proliferation of B9 cells (cells expressing IL-11Rα and gp130 and (iii proliferation of Baf/3-gp130 cells (cells not expressing IL-11 and IL-11Rα but gp130. Moreover, the preliminary data indicated that H11 was functionally distinct from Hyper-IL-6, a molecule which utilizes the same homodimer of signal transducing receptor (gp130. Conclusions The biologically active H11 may be potentially useful for treatment of thrombocytopenia, infertility, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases or inflammatory disorders.

  11. Effects of Designer Hyper-Interleukin 11 (H11 on Hematopoiesis in Myelosuppressed Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dams-Kozlowska

    Full Text Available The incidence of cancer is constantly increasing. Chemo/radiotherapy is one of major methods of treating cancer. Although adverse chemo/radiotherapy events, such as anemia and neutropenia, can be successfully cured, thrombocytopenia is still problematic. We constructed the Hyper-IL11 (H11 cytokine by linking soluble interleukin 11 receptor alpha (sIL-11Ralpha with IL-11. In vivo H11 activity was examined in myelosuppressed mice. Myelosuppression was induced by either i sublethal irradiation and carboplatin administration or ii sublethal irradiation. A dose of 100 μg/kg of H11 or IL-11 was administered subcutaneously for 7 days. IL-11 and H11 accelerated leukocyte, hematocrit and platelet recovery. The effect on the attenuation of thrombocytopenia was significant. Moreover, both cytokines increased the cellularity and numbers of megakaryocyte, erythroid, and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the bone morrow and spleen compared with the control. Although H11 was administered at a molar concentration that was three times lower, its effects were comparable with or better than those of IL-11; thus, the activity of H11 was superior to that of IL-11. Because no toxicity was observed after the intravenous administration of H11, this hyper-cytokine may be potentially useful for treatment of thrombocytopenia and other IL-11-dependent disorders.

  12. The F11 receptor (F11R/JAM-A) in atherothrombosis: overexpression of F11R in atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinska, Anna; Azari, Bani M; Salifu, Moro O; Liu, Ruijie; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Sobocka, Malgorzata B; Boo, Dorothy; Al Khoury, George; Deitch, Jonathan S; Marmur, Jonathan D; Ehrlich, Yigal H; Kornecki, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    F11R is the gene name for an adhesion protein, called the F11-receptor, aka JAM-A, which under normal physiological conditions is expressed constitutively on the surface of platelets and localized within tight junctions of endothelial cells (EC). Previous studies of the interactions between human platelets and EC suggested that F11R/JAM-A plays a crucial role in inflammatory thrombosis and atherosclerosis. The study reported here obtained in-vivo confirmation of this conclusion by investigating F11R/JAM-A protein and mRNA in patients with aortic and peripheral vascular disease and in an animal model of atherosclerosis. Molecular and immunofluorescence determinations revealed very high levels of F11R/JAM-A mRNA and F11R/JAM-A protein in atherosclerotic plaques of cardiovascular patients. Similar results were obtained with 12-week-old atherosclerosis-prone apoE-/- mice, an age in which atherosclerotic plaques are well established. Enhanced expression of the F11R/JAM-A message in cultured EC from human aortic and venous vessels was observed following exposure of the cells to cytokines. Determinations of platelet adhesion to cultured EC inflamed by combined cytokine treatment in the presence of F11R/JAM-A - antagonists provided data indicating that de novo expression of F11R/JAM-A on the luminal surface of inflamed EC has an important role in the conversion of EC to a thrombogenic surface. Further studies of these interactions under flow conditions and under in-vivo settings could provide a final proof of a causal role for F11R/JAM-A in the initiation of thrombosis. Based on our in-vitro and in-vivo studies to date, we propose that therapeutic drugs which antagonize the function of F11R/JAM-A should be tested as novel means for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, heart attacks and stroke.

  13. Boron isotopic fractionation in laboratory inorganic carbonate precipitation: Evidence for the incorpora-tion of B(OH)3 into carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory inorganic carbonate precipitation experiment at high pH of 8.96 to 9.34 was conducted, and the boron isotopic fractionations of the precipitated carbonate were measured. The data show that boron isotopic fractionation factors (αcarb-3) between carbonate and B(OH)3 in seawater range 0.937 and 0.965, with an average value of 0.953. Our results together with those reported by Sanyal and collabo-rators show that the αcarb-3 values between carbonate and B(OH)3 in solution are not constant but are negatively correlated with the pH of seawater. The measured boron isotopic compositions of carbonate precipitation (δ11Bcarb) do not exactly lie on the best-fit theoretical δ 11B4-pH curves and neither do they exactly parallel any theoretical δ 11B4-pH curves. Therefore, it is reasonable to argue that a changeable proportion of B(OH)3 with pH of seawater should also be incorporated into carbonate except for the dominant incorporation of B(OH)4- in carbonate . Hence, in the reconstruction of the paleo-pH of sea-water from boron isotopes in marine biogenic carbonates, the use of theoretical boron isotopic frac-tionation factor (α4-3) between B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 is not suitable. Instead, an empirical equation should be established.

  14. Temporary stabilization of air pollution control residues using carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Carbonation presents a good prospect for stabilizing alkaline waste materials. The risk of metal leaching from carbonated waste was investigated in the present study; in particular, the effect of the carbonation process and leachate pH on the leaching toxicity of the alkaline air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator was evaluated. The pH varying test was conducted to characterize the leaching characteristics of the raw and carbonated residue over a broad range of pH. Partial least square modeling and thermodynamic modeling using Visual MINTEQ were applied to highlight the significant process parameters that controlled metal leaching from the carbonated residue. By lowering the pH to 8-11, the carbonation process reduced markedly the leaching toxicity of the alkaline APC residue; however, the treated APC residue showed similar potential risk of heavy metal release as the raw ash when subjected to an acid shock. The carbonated waste could, thereby, not be disposed of safely. Nonetheless, carbonation could be applied as a temporary stabilization process for heavy metals in APC residues in order to reduce the leaching risk during its transportation and storage before final disposal.

  15. Characteristics of permeability in carbonate areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Permeability (hydraulic conductivity) in carbonate areas is affected by various factors such as fracture, pore and degree of weathering and diagenesis. Also, caves developed in carbonate area are main factors. This study was performed to understand factors controlling the permeability in carbonate areas in Korea. In order to conduct this study, the permeability and well logging data (n=30) were collected from many literatures and rock samples were collected around wells. Vertical profile of the carbonate areas can be classified into soil, weathered carbonate and fresh carbonate zone. They show a different range at each region. Most of the rock samples were hardly weathered. The permeability showed wide ranges (0.009 to 1.1 m/day). The average value of the permeability was 0.159 m/day. However, 80% (n=24) of total data had the permeability valves lower than 0.1 m/day. The permeability values were distinguished according to degree of development of fractures. The permeability showed low values (approximately 0.5 m/day) in highly fractured carbonate. These results mean that fractures are dominant factors controlling the permeability in carbonate areas of Korea than others. This work was supported by Energy Resource R&D program (2009T100200058) under the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

  16. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  17. Investigating the expression of F10 and G11 xylanases in Aspergillus niger A09 with qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shixiu; Wang, Tianwen; Hu, Hong; Liu, Liangwei; Song, Andong; Chen, Hongge

    2016-09-01

    There exist significant differences between the 2 main types of xylanases, family F10 and G11. A clear understanding of the expression pattern of microbial F10 and G11 under different culture conditions would facilitate better production and industrial application of xylanase. In this study, the fungal xylanase producer Aspergillus niger A09 was systematically investigated in terms of induced expression of xylanase F10 and G11. Results showed that carbon and nitrogen sources could influence xylanase F10 and G11 transcript abundance, with G11 more susceptible to changes in culture media composition. The most favorable carbon and nitrogen sources for high G11 and low F10 production by A. niger A09 were xylan (2%) and (NH4)2C2O4 (0.3%), respectively. Following cultivation at 33 °C for 60 h, the highest xylanase activity (1132 IU per gram of wet mycelia) was observed. On the basis of differential gene expression of F10 and G11, as well as their different properties, we deduced that the F10 protein initially targeted xylan and hydrolyzed it into fragments including xylose, after which xylose acted as the inducer of F10 and G11 gene expression. These speculations also accounted for our failure to identify conditions favoring the high production of F10 but a low production of G11.

  18. 25 CFR 11.605 - Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution. 11.605 Section 11.605 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.605 Dissolution. (a) The Court of Indian Offenses shall enter a decree of dissolution of marriage if: (1) The court...

  19. 12 CFR 791.11 - Open meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 791.11 Section 791.11 Banks and... OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Public Observation of NCUA Board Meetings Under the Sunshine Act § 791.11 Open meetings. Except as provided in § 791.12(a), any portion of any meeting of the Board shall be...

  20. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU OF... Minor-in-Need-of-Care Procedure § 11.1104 Shelter care. (a) A minor alleged to be a minor-in-need-of-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care...

  1. 46 CFR 160.174-11 - Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance. 160.174-11 Section 160.174-11 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-11 Performance. (a) Thermal... between −30 °C (−22 °F) and +65 C (149 °F). (d) In water performance. The thermal protective aid must...

  2. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  3. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    ., and Alewell, C. 2014. Degradation changes stable carbon isotope depth profiles in palsa peatlands. Biogeosciences, 11, 3369-3380. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J., Glatzel, S., Szidat, S., and Alewell, C. 2015: Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation - a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany, Biogeosciences, 12, 2861-2871. Krüger, J. P., Alewell, C., Minkkinen, K., Szidat, S., and Leifeld, J. 2016: Calculating carbon changes in peat soils drained for forestry with four different profile-based methods (under review).

  4. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; Yang, Clayton S.-C.; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6 μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10 μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5 μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  5. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; S-C Yang, Clayton; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-05

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  6. 11.3.Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930295 Factors influencing carboxyhemog-lobin kinetics in inhalation lung injury.WU Wenxi (吴文溪).ist Affili Hosp,Nanjing MedCoil,210029.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31 (11):689—691.Anesthetized dogs were ventilated with 1%carbon monoxide (CO) in air for 10 minutes toproduce CO poisoning and then with room air (n=5) or pure oxygen (n=5) for 3 hours as con-trol.Acute lung injury was produced by intratra-cheal injection of 0.1 N HC1 (2 ml/kg) 30 min-utes before CO poisoning in another 10 experi-mental dogs.Arterial blood gas and earboxyhe-moglobin (COHb) were monitored before andafter CO poisoning.Pharmacokinetic analysis

  7. Carbon Superatom Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canning, A. [Cray Research, PSE, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Canning, A.; Galli, G. [Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux (IRRMA), IN-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kim, J. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We report on quantum molecular dynamics simulations of C{sub 28} deposition on a semiconducting surface. Our results show that under certain deposition conditions C{sub 28} {close_quote}s act as building blocks on a nanometer scale to form a thin film of nearly defect-free molecules. The C{sub 28} {close_quote}s behave as carbon superatoms, with the majority of them being threefold or fourfold coordinated, similar to carbon atoms in amorphous systems. The microscopic structure of the deposited film supports recent suggestions about the stability of a new form of carbon, the hyperdiamond solid. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Production of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, C.; Bernier, P.

    Carbon nanostructures such as single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs) or graphitic polyhedral nanoparticles can be produced using various methods. Most of them are based on the sublimation of carbon under an inert atmosphere, such as the electric arc discharge process, the laser ablation method, or the solar technique. But chemical methods can also be used to synthesize these kinds of carbon materials: the catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons, the production by electrolysis, the heat treatment of a polymer, the low temperature solid pyrolysis, or the in situ catalysis.

  9. 28 CFR 542.11 - Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REMEDY Administrative Remedy Program § 542.11 Responsibility. (a) The Community Corrections Manager (CCM... the Administrative Remedy Program at the Community Corrections Center (CCC), institution, regional...

  10. Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns and Their Toxicities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Miyawaki; Masako; Yudasaka; Sumio; Iijima

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregate ,composed of thousands of graphitic tubules (2 -5nmin diameter and 40 -50 nminlength) with a conical"horn-like"cap,has spherical structure with a diam-eter of about 100 nm(Fig.1)[1].The SWNHs contain no metal catalyst ,because they are produced bylaserablation of pure graphite targets .

  11. L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid: enzymatic synthesis, myocardial uptake, and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, J.R.; Egbert, J.E.; Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Baumgartner, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sterile, pyrogen-free L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid was prepared from /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ using phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glutamic/oxaloacetic acid transaminase immobilized on Sepharose supports to determine if it is a useful indicator for in vivo, noninvasive determination of myocardial metabolism. An intracoronary bolus injection of L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid into dog myocardium showed a triexponential clearance curve with maximal production of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ 100 s after injection. Inactivation of myocardial transaminase activity modified the tracer clearance and inhibited the production of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/. Positron-computed tomography imaging showed that the /sup 11/C activities retained in rhesus monkey myocardium are higher than those observed in dog heart after intravenous injection of L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid. These findings demonstrated the rapid incorporation of the carbon skeleton of L-aspartic acid into the tricarboxylic acid cycle after enzymatic transamination in myocardium and suggested that L-(4-/sup 11/C)aspartic acid could be of value for in vivo, noninvasive assessment of local myocardial metabolism.

  12. [{sup 11}]Cocaine: PET studies of cocaine pharmacokinetics, dopamine transporter availability and dopamine transporter occupancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Joanna S. E-mail: fowler@bnl.gov; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Gatley, S. John; Logan, Jean

    2001-07-01

    Cocaine was initially labeled with carbon-11 in order to track the distribution and pharmacokinetics of this powerful stimulant and drug of abuse in the human brain and body. It was soon discovered that [{sup 11}C]cocaine was not only useful for measuring cocaine pharmacokinetics and its relationship to behavior but that it is also a sensitive radiotracer for dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. Measures of DAT availability were facilitated by the development of a graphical analysis method (Logan Plot) for reversible systems which streamlined kinetic analysis. This expanded the applications of [{sup 11}C]cocaine to studies of DAT availability in the human brain and allowed the first comparative measures of the degree of DAT occupancy by cocaine and another stimulant drug methylphenidate. This article will summarize preclinical and clinical research with [{sup 11}C]cocaine.

  13. Facile synthesis of ( sup 11 C)buprenorphine for positron emission tomographic studies of opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Hygiene and Public Health Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology); Mazza, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Hygiene and Public Health); Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a simple and rapid method for the production of buprenorphine (BPN), a potent opioid partial agonist, labelled with carbon-11 at the 6-methoxy position. The procedure uses a precursor synthesized in high yield (89%) from BPN in two steps and employs ({sup 11}C)iodomethane as the radiolabelling reagent. ({sup 11}C)BPN of 97% radiochemical purity can be prepared in high specific activity (41 GBq/{mu}mol; 1120 mCi/{mu}mol) in a radiochemical yield of 10% at end-of-synthesis (not decay corrected). The ({sup 11}C)BPN is available for use in studies of cerebral opioid receptors by positron emission tomography within 24 min from end-of-bombardment, including radiosynthesis, purification, formulation for i.v. injection and determination of specific activity. (author).

  14. Authigenic Carbonate and the History of the Global Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Higgins, John. A.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-02-01

    We present a framework for interpreting the carbon isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks, which in turn requires a fundamental reinterpretation of the carbon cycle and redox budgets over Earth's history. We propose that authigenic carbonate, produced in sediment pore fluids during early diagenesis, has played a major role in the carbon cycle in the past. This sink constitutes a minor component of the carbon isotope mass balance under the modern, high levels of atmospheric oxygen but was much larger in times of low atmospheric O2 or widespread marine anoxia. Waxing and waning of a global authigenic carbonate sink helps to explain extreme carbon isotope variations in the Proterozoic, Paleozoic, and Triassic.

  15. Carbon Stock and Carbon Cycle of Wetland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANG; Jiao; LI; Nan; YANG; Xihao; LI; Yandong; NIU; Zijian; WU

    2014-01-01

    Wetland ecosystem is an essential ecosystem in the world. Its organic carbon stock and carbon cycle are important basis of global carbon cycle researches and also major contents of global climate change researches. Researches have shown that wetland protection and restoration can promote carbon accumulation and reduce emission of greenhouse gases. This paper discussed influence of carbon stock and carbon balance of wetland ecosystem and emission of greenhouse gases,as well as the relationship between wetland and global climate changes. Finally,it made prospect on researches about carbon cycle of Dongting Lake.

  16. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  17. Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Mishra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their unique surface morphology. In the present work, we have demonstrated the CO2 adsorption capacity of graphene, prepared via hydrogen induced exfoliation of graphitic oxide at moderate temperatures. The CO2 adsorption study was performed using high pressure Sieverts apparatus and capacity was calculated by gas equation using van der Waals corrections. Physical adsorption of CO2 molecules in graphene was confirmed by FTIR study. Synthesis of graphene sheets via hydrogen exfoliation is possible at large scale and lower cost and higher adsorption capacity of as prepared graphene compared to other carbon nanostructures suggests its possible use as CO2 adsorbent for industrial application. Maximum adsorption capacity of 21.6 mmole/g was observed at 11 bar pressure and room temperature (25 ºC.

  18. Functionalization of Carboxylated Multi-Wall Nanotubes with Derivatives of N1-(11H-Indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-ylidenebenzene-1,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Azizian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxaline derivatives are compounds with pharmaceutical applications. In this study, derivatives of N1-(11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-ylidenebenzene-1,4-diamine were synthesized and attached to carboxylated multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT–COOH. Functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM to study the shape of structures, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fast Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental analysis.

  19. High performance carbon-carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalit M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon-carbon composites rank first among ceramic composite materials with a spectrum of properties and applications in various sectors. These composites are made of fibres in various directions and carbonaceous polymers and hydrocarbons as matrix precursors. Their density and properties depend on the type and volume fraction of reinforcement, matrix precursor used and end heat treatment temperature. Composites made with thermosetting resins as matrix precursors possess low densities (1.55–1.75 g/cm3) and well-distributed microporosity whereas those made with pitch as the matrix precursor, after densification exhibit densities of 1.8–2.0 g/cm3 with some mesopores, and those made by the CVD technique with hydrocarbon gases, possess intermediate densities and matrices with close porosities. The former (resin-based) composites exhibit high flexural strength, low toughness and low thermal conductivity, whereas the latter (pitch- and CVD-based) can be made with very high thermal conductivity (400–700 W/MK) in the fibre direction. Carbon-carbon composites are used in a variety of sectors requiring high mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, good frictional properties for brake pads in high speed vehicles or high thermal conductivity for thermal management applications. However, for extended life applications, these composites need to be protected against oxidation either through matrix modification with Si, Zr, Hf etc. or by multilayer oxidation protection coatings consisting of SiC, silica, zircon etc.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  1. [Particle therapy: carbon ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Pascal; Hu, Yi; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Chapet, Olivier; Balosso, Jacques

    2010-07-01

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiation therapy. It has been first proposed in the forties by Robert Wilson, however the first dedicated centres for human care have been build up only recently in Japan and Germany. The interest of carbon ion is twofold: 1) the very sharp targeting of the tumour with the so called spread out Bragg peak that delivers most of the beam energy in the tumour and nothing beyond it, sparing very efficiently the healthy tissues; 2) the higher relative biological efficiency compared to X rays or protons, able to kill radioresistant tumour cells. Both properties make carbon ions the elective therapy for non resectable radioresistant tumours loco-regionally threatening. The technical and clinical experience accumulated during the recent decades is summarized in this paper along with a detailed presentation of the elective indications. A short comparison between conventional radiotherapy and hadrontherapy is proposed for the indications which are considered as priority for carbon ions.

  2. Global carbon budget 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, andterrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the globalcarbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and projectfuture climate change. Here we describe

  3. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  7. Carbon partitioning in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2013-06-01

    The work seeks to raise awareness of a fundamental problem that impacts the renewable generation of fuels and chemicals via (photo)synthetic biology. At issue is regulation of the endogenous cellular carbon partitioning between different biosynthetic pathways, over which the living cell exerts stringent control. The regulation of carbon partitioning in photosynthesis is not understood. In plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria, methods need be devised to alter photosynthetic carbon partitioning between the sugar, terpenoid, and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, to lower the prevalence of sugar biosynthesis and correspondingly upregulate terpenoid and fatty acid hydrocarbons production in the cell. Insight from unusual but naturally occurring carbon-partitioning processes can help in the design of blueprints for improved photosynthetic fuels and chemicals production.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  9. Investigation of SN2 [11C]cyanation for base-sensitive substrates: an improved radiosynthesis of L-[5-11C]-glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleede, Tassilo; Riehl, Barbara; Shea, Colleen; Kersting, Lena; Cankaya, Aylin Sibel; Alexoff, David; Schueller, Michael; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-11 (β(+) emitter, t1/2 = 20.4 min) radiolabeled L-glutamine is a potentially useful molecular imaging agent that can be utilized with positron emission tomography for both human oncological diagnosis and plant imaging research. Based upon a previously reported [(11)C]cyanide end-capping labeling method, a systematic investigation of nucleophilic cyanation reactions and acidic hydrolysis reaction parameters, including base, metal ion source, phase transfer catalyst, solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time, was conducted. The result was a milder, more reliable, two-step method which provides L-[5-(11)C]-glutamine with a radiochemical yield of 63.8 ± 8.7% (range from 51 to 74%, n = 10) with >90% radiochemical purity and >90 % enantiomeric purity. The total synthesis time was 40-50 min from the end of bombardment. In addition, an Fmoc derivatization method was developed to measure the specific activity of this radiotracer.

  10. Applications for alliform carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym; McDonough, IV, John Kenneth; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre Louis

    2017-02-21

    This invention relates to novel applications for alliform carbon, useful in conductors and energy storage devices, including electrical double layer capacitor devices and articles incorporating such conductors and devices. Said alliform carbon particles are in the range of 2 to about 20 percent by weight, relative to the weight of the entire electrode. Said novel applications include supercapacitors and associated electrode devices, batteries, bandages and wound healing, and thin-film devices, including display devices.

  11. Carbon footprint of thermowood

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to evaluate the carbon footprint of thermally modified wood and its manufacturing process and transportation cycle for several different ThermoWood producer. Research included the whole production cycle from harvesting raw wood to ThermoWood transportation in destination area. Carbon dioxide emissions from these areas were determined and calculated for every ThermoWood producer at first hand. Calculations were based on the PAS 2050:2011, which is ...

  12. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 331.11..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.11 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water... charged any fee by the sponsor of such permitted event unless the District Engineer has approved...

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-11 - Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation. 31.205-11....205-11 Depreciation. (a) Depreciation on a contractor's plant, equipment, and other capital facilities... method of depreciation or the class life asset depreciation range system is used, the residual value...

  14. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund....

  15. 40 CFR 405.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 405.11 Section 405.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... process. It can be calculated by multiplying the fats, proteins and carbohydrates by factors of 0.890,...

  16. 44 CFR 12.11 - Public notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public notice. 12.11 Section 12.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... and purpose of the committee, should be published in the Federal Register at least 15 days prior...

  17. 5 CFR 2430.11 - Further proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Further proceedings. 2430.11 Section 2430.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... scheduling oral argument, additional written submissions, or an evidentiary hearing, shall specify the...

  18. 7 CFR 920.11 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle. 920.11 Section 920.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  20. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.142 Section 100.142 Federal... Expenditures § 100.142 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. Repayment of a loan of money to a candidate or a... basis that assures repayment. (f) This section shall not apply to loans described in 11 CFR 100.83...

  1. 32 CFR 727.11 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision. 727.11 Section 727.11 National... Supervision. The Judge Advocate General will exercise supervision over all legal assistance activities in the Department of the Navy. Subject to the supervision of the Judge Advocate General, officers in charge of...

  2. 9 CFR 145.11 - Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision. 145.11 Section 145.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Supervision. (a) The Official State Agency may designate qualified persons as Authorized Agents to do...

  3. 48 CFR 11.203 - Customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer satisfaction. 11... PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 11.203 Customer satisfaction. Acquisition organizations shall communicate with customers to determine how well the requirements...

  4. Performance evaluation of PL-11 platelet analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and report the performance of PL-11 platelet analyzer. Methods Intravenous blood sam-ples anticoagulated with EDTA-K2 and sodium citrate were tested by the PL-11 platelet analyzer to evaluate the intra-assay and interassay coefficient of variation(CV),

  5. 24 CFR 3500.11 - Mailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mailing. 3500.11 Section 3500.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  6. 42 CFR 136a.11 - Services available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., public health nursing and preventive care including immunizations, and health examination of special... same health services in each area served. The services provided to any particular Indian community will... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services available. 136a.11 Section 136a.11...

  7. 42 CFR 136.11 - Services available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., public health nursing and preventive care (including immunizations), and health examination of special... same health services in each area served. The services provided to any particular Indian community will... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services available. 136.11 Section 136.11...

  8. 40 CFR 130.11 - Program management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program management. 130.11 Section 130... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.11 Program management. (a) State agencies may apply for grants under sections 106, 205(j) and 205(g) to carry out water quality planning and management activities....

  9. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  10. 28 CFR 11.9 - Administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative offset. 11.9 Section 11.9... Administrative offset. (a) Collection. The organization head may collect a claim pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3716 from... administrative offset of monies other than salaries payable by the government. Collection by...

  11. 14 CFR 21.11 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Procedural requirements for the issue of type certificates for aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability. 21.11 Section 21.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  12. 7 CFR 953.11 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 953.11 Section 953.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements.... District No. 3. James City and Nansemond Counties and the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in...

  13. 16 CFR 312.11 - Rulemaking review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rulemaking review. 312.11 Section 312.11 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE... information relating to children, children's ability to obtain access to information of their choice...

  14. 36 CFR 293.11 - Water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water rights. 293.11 Section...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.11 Water rights. Nothing in the regulations in this part constitutes an expressed or implied claim or denial on the part of the Department of Agriculture as to exemption from State water laws....

  15. 30 CFR 795.11 - Assistance funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance funding. 795.11 Section 795.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SMALL... funding. (a) Use of funds. Funds specifically authorized for this program shall be used to provide...

  16. 50 CFR 300.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 300.11 Section 300.11 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS... exploitation of living marine resources as a harvesting vessel, mothership, or any other support...

  17. 41 CFR 50-203.11 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Review. 50-203.11 Section...-Healey Public Contracts Act § 50-203.11 Review. (a) Within twenty (20) days after service of the decision... administrative law judge an original and four copies of a petition for review of the decision. The petition...

  18. 26 CFR 1.61-11 - Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Code and the regulations thereunder. Amounts received as pensions or annuities under the Social... retirement annuities and pensions, section 122. ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pensions. 1.61-11 Section 1.61-11...

  19. Meeting March 11 / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    Leedus tähistatakse 11. märtsil 2010 iseseisvuse taastamise 20. aastapäeva. Vilniusesse saabuvatest külalistest, kelle seas on ka Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Töövisiit Vilniusesse 11.03.2010

  20. 9 CFR 4.11 - Stipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stipulations. 4.11 Section 4.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules...

  1. 12 CFR 1780.11 - Computing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing time. 1780.11 Section 1780.11 Banks... time. (a) General rule. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this subpart, the date of the act or event that commences the designated period of time is not included. The last day...

  2. 36 CFR 294.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Petitions for Inventoried Roadless Area Management § 294.11 Definition. Inventoried roadless areas... subsequent update or revision of those maps through the land management planning process. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 294.11...

  3. 7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1212.11 Section 1212.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  4. 37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11 Section... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a) All meetings of a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel shall be open to the public, with the exception of meetings that are listed in §...

  5. 11 CFR 9004.1 - Major parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Price Index in the manner described in 11 CFR 110.17(a). ... ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.1 Major parties. The eligible candidates of each major party in a Presidential election shall be entitled to equal payments under 11...

  6. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  7. 28 CFR 11.2 - Pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pilot program. 11.2 Section 11.2 Judicial... Pilot program. The Assistant Attorney General for Administration, in consultation with the Executive Office for United States Attorneys, shall designate the districts that will participate in the...

  8. 25 CFR 11.1115 - Information collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND... collected to obtain a marriage license (§ 11.600) and a divorce decree (§ 11.606) from the Courts of Indian Offenses, and will be used by the courts to issue a marriage license or divorce decree. Response to...

  9. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., e.g., printed directories, electronic bulletin boards, or other means to ensure accessibility by all... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Listings. 286.11 Section 286.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE...

  10. 36 CFR 64.11 - Project performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project performance. 64.11 Section 64.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS... Project performance. The State or local applicant shall be responsible for insuring the project is...

  11. 11 CFR 9006.2 - Filing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing dates. 9006.2 Section 9006.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING REPORTS AND RECORDKEEPING § 9006.2 Filing dates. The reports required to be filed under 11 CFR...

  12. 18 CFR 11.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 11.7... Dams § 11.7 Effective date. All annual charges imposed under this subpart will be computed beginning on the effective date of the license unless some other date is fixed in the license....

  13. 44 CFR 75.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 75.11 Section 75... PROPERTIES UNDER SELF-INSURANCE PLAN Standards for Exemption § 75.11 Standards. (a) In order to be exempt... hazards which are covered under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (3) Provide coverage to...

  14. 46 CFR 11.901 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... horsepower restrictions. (c) Except as provided in §§ 11.202 and 10.227, each applicant for an STCW... competence as set out under the appropriate STCW Regulations (incorporated by reference in § 11.102): (1... meet the appropriate performance standards set out in Section A-I/12 of the STCW Code....

  15. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  16. Nano-Carbons as Theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Liu, Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-carbons, including fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nano-diamonds, are an important class of nanostructures attracting tremendous interests in the past two decades. In this special issue, seven review articles and research reports are collected, to summarize and present the latest progress in the exploration of various nano-carbons for theranostic applications.

  17. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  18. The detection of C60 in the well-characterized planetary nebula M1-11

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Hyung, S; Sargent, B A; Meixner, M; Tajitsu, A; Yanagisawa, K

    2013-01-01

    We performed multiwavelength observations of the young planetary nebula (PN) M1-11 and obtained its elemental abundances, dust mass, and the evolutionary status of the central star. The AKARI/IRC, VLT/VISIR, and Spitzer/IRS spectra show features due to carbon-rich dust, such as the 3.3, 8.6, and 11.3 um features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a smooth continuum attributable to amorphous carbon, and the broad 11.5 and 30 um features often ascribed to SiC and MgS, respectively. We also report the presence of an unidentified broad feature at 16-22 um, similar to the feature found in Magellanic Cloud PNe with either C-rich or O-rich gas-phase compositions. We identify for the first time in M1-11 spectral lines at 8.5 (blended with PAH), 17.3, and 18.9 um that we attribute to the C60 fullerene. This identification is strengthened by the fact that other Galactic PNe in which fullerenes are detected, have similar central stars, similar gas-phase abundances, and a similar dust composition to M1-11. T...

  19. An Empirical Riverine Carbon Budget for New Zealand: National scale estimate of organic and inorganic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. T.; Baisden, W. T.; Davies-Colley, R.; Trustrum, N.

    2002-12-01

    New Zealand rivers contribute a large amount of sediment to the ocean, partially attributable to tectonic uplift combined with softer rocks under inappropriate land-use and high-frequency rain events. Preliminary calculations suggest that in NZ between 3-11 Mt carbon is transported annually through erosion, compared with about 8.5 Mt per yr released from fossil fuel burning. Therefore, if a large proportion of this erosional carbon is oxidized before sequestration in sedimentary basins, soil erosion may represent a major greenhouse contribution. Our current study aims to refine a national estimate of both particulate and dissolved organic carbon leaving New Zealand through rivers. We are also attempting to understand both the biochemical processing of organic matter in transit to the ocean, as well as the resulting evasional flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Initial estimates of these fluxes based on measurements collected over a 12-month period from 50 rivers, as well as from a number of flood snapshots around the country, will be presented. Using surrogates such as spectrophotometric absorbance for DOC developed using this year's dataset, these measurements will be used to quantify the annual riverine flux of particulate and organic carbon from a 12-year record. Carbon fluxes from individual catchments will also be compared to landscape properties (soil parent material, slope, climate, and land-use patterns). The relationship between the solute flux from and landscape properties within a catchment is crucial to extending the estimates of carbon flux to ungauged catchments to estimate total carbon flux in river drainage from the NZ landmass.

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSES FOR SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 AND MCU-11-319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A; . Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) periodically analyses solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 and MCU-11-319 have been previously reported. MCU has experienced a modest decline in cesium removal efficiency while processing the current feed, 'Macrobatch 3'. While the target decontamination factor (DF) is 200, the fiscal year 2011 DF average is 161. The results of the prior solvent analysis report did not identify a specific factor that would correlate with the poor cesium decontamination beyond a low concentration of the suppressor, trioctylamine. New analyses of the quarterly sample are reported in this document, as well as a cross-check of {sup 137}Cs measurements for SRNL and F/H lab. Furthermore, in an attempt to discover the reason for the decline in DF at MCU, SRNL was tasked with analyzing numerous Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and chemical feed samples.

  1. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  2. Synthesis, characterization and application of functional carbon nano materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jin

    The synthesis, characterizations and applications of carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanorods, carbon nanosheets, carbon nanohoneycombs and carbon nanotubes were demonstrated. Different growth techniques such as pulsed laser deposition, DC/RF sputtering, hot filament physical vapour deposition, evaporative casting and vacuum filtration methods were introduced or applied for synthesizing carbon nanomaterials. The morphology, chemical compositions, bond structures, electronic, mechanical and sensing properties of the obtained samples were investigated. Tilted well-aligned carbon micro- and nano- hybrid rods were fabricated on Si at different substrate temperatures and incident angles of carbon source beam using the hot filament physical vapour deposition technique. The morphologic surfaces and bond structures of the oblique carbon rod-like structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The field emission behaviour of the fabricated samples was also tested. Carbon nanosheets and nanohoneycombs were also synthesized on Si substrates using a hot filament physical vapor deposition technique under methane ambient and vacuum, respectively. The four-point Au electrodes are then sputtered on the surface of the nanostructured carbon films to form prototypical humidity sensors. The sensing properties of prototypical sensors at different temperature, humidity, direct current, and alternative current voltage were characterized. Linear sensing response of sensors to relative humidity ranging from 11% to 95% is observed at room temperature. Experimental data indicate that the carbon nanosheets based sensors exhibit an excellent reversible behavior and long-term stability. It also has higher response than that of the humidity sensor with carbon nanohoneycombs materials. Conducting composite films containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared in

  3. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  4. Effect of carbon fiber on calcium phosphate bone cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴红莲; 王欣宇; 黄健; 闫玉华; 李世普

    2004-01-01

    The calcium phosphate cement (α-TCP/TTCP) was reinforced with oxidation-treated carbon fibers. The effect of aspect ratio and content of carbon fiber on the compression strength and bending strength of the hardened body was discussed. The results show that the reinforcing effect is optimal as the aspect ratio is 375 and the additive amount is 0.3% (mass fraction). Under this condition, the compressive strength is increased by 55% (maximum 63.46 MPa), and the bending strength is nearly increased by 100% (maximum 11.95 MPa), respectively. However, if the additive quantity and aspect ratio are too high, the effect of the carbon fibers is limited because it can not be dispersed uniformly in the hardened body. The biological evaluation indicates that the calcium phosphate cement reinforced by carbon fibers has good biocompatibility.

  5. The Chitinolytic Activities of Streptomyces sp. TH-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Liau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is an abundant biopolymer composed of units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked by b-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Chitin is the main component of the shells of mollusks, the cell wall of fungi and yeast and of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. The degradation of chitin is catalyzed by chitinases that occur in a wide range of organisms. Among them, the chitinases from microorganisms are extremely important for the degradation and recycling of the carbon and nitrogen trapped in the large amount of insoluble chitin in nature. Streptomyces sp. TH-11 was isolated from the sediment of the Tou-Chien River, Taiwan. The chitinolytic enzyme activities were detected using a rapid in-gel detection method from the cell-free preparation of the culture medium of TH-11. The chitinolytic enzyme activity during prolonged liquid culturing was also analyzed by direct measurement of the chitin consumption. Decomposition of the exoskeleton of shrimps was demonstrated using electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  6. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  7. Substantial stores of sedimentary carbon held in mid-latitude fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnès; Abell, Richard E.; Howe, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Quantifying marine sedimentary carbon stocks is key to improving our understanding of long-term storage of carbon in the coastal ocean and to further constraining the global carbon cycle. Here we present a methodological approach which combines seismic geophysics and geochemical measurements to quantitatively estimate the total stock of carbon held within marine sediment. Through the application of this methodology to Loch Sunart, a fjord on the west coast of Scotland, we have generated the first full sedimentary carbon inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments of Loch Sunart hold 26.9 ± 0.5 Mt of carbon split between 11.5 ± 0.2 and 15.0 ± 0.4 Mt of organic and inorganic carbon respectively. These new quantitative estimates of carbon stored in coastal sediments are significantly higher than previous estimates. Through an area-normalised comparison to adjacent Scottish peatland carbon stocks, we have determined that these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as carbon stores than their terrestrial counterparts. This initial work supports the concept that fjords are important environments for the burial and long-term storage of carbon and therefore should be considered and treated as unique environments within the global carbon cycle.

  8. Implications of carbon dust emission for terrestrail carbon cycling and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution are not considered in most carbon cycle models,...

  9. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patra, P.K.; Canadell, J.G.; Houghton, R.A.; Piao, S.L.; Oh, N.-H.; Ciais, P.; Manjunath, K.R.; Chhabra, A.; Wang, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Bousquet, P.; Hartman, J.; Ito, A.; Mayorga, E.; Niwa, Y.; Raymond, P.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Lasco, R.

    , K. R. Manjunath7, A. Chhabra7, T. Wang6, T. Bhattacharya8, P. Bousquet6, J. Hartman9, A. Ito10, E. Mayorga11, Y. Niwa12, P. A. Raymond13, V. V. S. S. Sarma14, and R. Lasco15 1Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama 236 0001, Japan 2... Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia 3Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540, USA 4Peeking University, Beijing 100871, China 5Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak...

  10. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X-N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  11. TAMARIND SEEDS CARBON: PREPRARTION AND METHANE UPTAKE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Munusamy; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj

    2011-01-01

    Tamarind seeds carbon (TSC) from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds, an agro-byproduct and waste that is available abundantly in the southern states of India, was prepared by chemical activation with KOH. The influence of tamarind seeds char to KOH weight ratio (1:1 to 1:4) and activation temperature (400 to 800 °C) were investigated. TSC having micro-pore volume as high as 1.0 cm3/g with surface area 2673 m2/g was obtained. TSC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray ...

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  13. Isomer Spectrum of Small Carbon Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yang; LI Peng; NING Xi-Jing

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical method is developed to find isomers of cluster particles, and the isomer spectrum of carbon clusters Cn (n = 3-44) is obtained. It is found that the isomers of 3-11 atoms are in either mono-ring or line shapes,while the isomers of 12-18 atoms show flat sheet shapes. As cluster size increases, bowl isomers become more (n > 19) until cage isomers dominate the structures (n > 27). Based on the isomer spectrum, results of a previous experiment are interpreted.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Isolated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Their Molar Absorbance Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Kuwahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molar absorbance coefficients of metallic, semiconducting, and (6,5 chirality enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes were evaluated by a spray technique combined with atomic force microscopy. Single-wall carbon nanotubes with isolated and a single predominant electronic type were obtained by using the density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique. In the visible region, all coefficients had similar values around 2–5 × 109/mL mol−1 cm−1, independent of their diameter distribution and the electronic types of single-wall carbon nanotubes, and the εS22/εM11  and εS11/εM11 were estimated to be 1.0 and 4.0, respectively. The coefficient strongly depends on the length of single-wall carbon nanotubes, independent of their electronic types and chirality.

  15. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  16. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  17. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  18. Biodegradation of pitch-based high performance carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi, (Japan). Faculty of Education)

    1992-09-10

    Although carbon fibers are widely used in various purposes because of their excellent mechanical properties, their behavior under biodegradation by microorganisms has not been elucidated. To elucidate the process of biodegradation of carbon fibers is important for understanding thoroughly the durability and the functionality of the fibers. In this article, a study has been made on biodegradation of pitch-based high performance carbon fibers by microorganisms. The fiber which was degraded has been examined with a scanning electron microscope. Aspergillus flavus has broken surface areas of high performance carbon fibers in 60 days and the fibril structure under the surface layer of the fiber has been exfoliated by degradation. The fibrils on the second layer have been 100-110nm wide. The fibrils have been in line nearly parallel to the fiber axis. The above carbon fibers are carbon type, but in case of graphite type high performance carbon fibers, its broken areas have not been shown and they have shown much stronger resistance against microbial attacks. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The preparation, properties and application of carbon fibers for SPME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierak, A; Seredych, M; Bartnicki, A

    2006-07-15

    The conditions of preparation of new types of carbon fibers for solid phase micro extraction (SPME) prepared by methylene chloride pyrolysis (at 600 degrees C) on the quartz fiber (100 microm) as well as by supporting synthetic active carbon (prepared especially for this purposes) supported in a special epoxide-acrylic polymer is described. The properties of such carbon fibers for SPME were defined by determination of the partition coefficient of the tested substances (i.e., benzene, toluene, xylenes, trichloromethane and tetrachloromethane) and by the microscopic investigations with the application of the optical and scanning electron microscope. The obtained carbon SPME fibers were applied to the analysis of some volatile organic compounds from its aqueous matrix. During chromatographic GC test, at the investigated SPME carbon fibers, we obtained different but mostly high partition coefficients for the determined compounds (Kfs from 120 for trichloromethane up to 11,500 for tetrachloromethane). Owing to the high partition coefficients of the studied substances obtained on carbon fibers, it was possible to do the analysis of organic substances occurring in trace amounts in different matrices. In this paper, we present the analysis of BTX contents in the petrol analyzed with the application carbonized with CH(2)Cl(2) SPME fiber (C1NM) and a headspace over the petrol sample (concentration of each BTX approximately g/dm(3)).

  20. 26 CFR 11.401(a)-11 - Qualified joint and survivor annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified joint and survivor annuities. 11.401... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 11.401(a)-11 Qualified joint and survivor annuities. (a) In general—(1) General rule... provides that these benefits must be paid in a form having the effect of a qualified joint and...