WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 11 target

  1. A quartz-lined carbon-11 target: striving for increased yield and specific activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, Jacek; Larsen, Peter; Gillings, Nic

    2010-01-01

    The increased demand for high specific radioactivity neuroreceptor ligands for positron emission tomography (PET) requires the production of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 in high yields. We have attempted to address this issue with the development of a new quartz-lined aluminium target fo...

  2. Study the structure of neutron deficient carbon isotopes: 10C and 11C. Elastic and inelastic scattering on proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the study of the structure of neutron-deficient carbon isotopes: 10C and 11C. A theoretical model predicts a special behaviour for these nuclei: different deformations for neutron and proton densities. To test these predictions and to obtain information on the structure of these nuclei, we measured angular distribution for elastic and inelastic scattering on proton target with inverse kinematics at 40 MeV per nucleon. The angular distribution is deduced from the proton energy and angle scattering, measured by the MUST detector. Experimental set-up is completed with plastic detectors for scattered nucleus identification and with two CATS detectors for measurement of position and angle for each beam particle on the target. Angular distributions are calculated with an analytic method. This method is tested with a simulation and with 12C + p scattering analysis. Angular distributions are analysed in terms of a complex microscopic potential JLM with different microscopic matter densities. Elastic scattering gives an information on 10C and 11C matter root mean square radii. Both radii are larger than the one for the stable 12C isotope. Inelastic scattering is treated in DWBA approximation with microscopic transition densities. 10C inelastic scattering gives an information on neutron contribution of nucleus excitation. With 11C inelastic scattering, we could constrain transition densities and we could extract an information on the type of the transition. However, it is very difficult to confirm or to annul predictions of different deformations for proton and neutrons densities. (author)

  3. The potential of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry: illustration through the development of positron emission tomography radioligands targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TSPO (translocator protein), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is up-regulated in the brain of subjects suffering from neuro-degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Moreover, this overexpression has been proved to be linked to micro-glia activation making thus the TSPO a marker of choice of neuro-inflammatory processes and therefore a potential target for the development of radioligands for positron emission tomography imaging. The discovery of selective TSPO ligands and their labelling with the short-lived positron-emitter isotopes carbon-11 and fluorine-18 emerged in the mid-1980's with the preparation of the 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [11C]PK11195. To date, an impressive number of promising compounds - [11C]PK11195-challengers - have been developed; some radioligands - for example, [11C]PBR28, [11C]DPA-713, [18F]FEDAA1106 and [18F]DPA-714 - are currently used in clinical trials. As illustrated in this review, the methodologies applied for the preparation of these compounds remain mainly [11C]methylations using [11C]MeI or [11C]MeOTf and SN2- type nucleophilic aliphatic [18F]fluorinations - two processes illustrating the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions that involves these two short-lived radioisotopes - but alternative processes, such as [11C]carbonylations using [11C]CO and [11C]COCl2 as well as SNAr-type nucleophilic [18F]fluorinations, have also been reported and as such, reviewed herein. (authors)

  4. Studies to label Alfentanil with carbon-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, A.L. (Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie I)

    1992-09-01

    Methodology applicable to the synthesis of no-carrier-added (O-methyl-{sup 11}C)alfentanil was developed. The sequence consisted of ({sup 11}C)methylation and propionylation of N-aryl-4-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(N-anilino)-piperidines 1a and 1c, followed by the chemoselective hydrolysis of bulk byproducts to facilitate isolation of the NCA carbon-11-labeled product by prep-HPLC. All three steps could be performed without isolation of intermediates in a single reaction vessel. (author).

  5. Development of additive [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [{sup 11}C]radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Technical Support Team, Duchembio, Seoul 121-844 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Chul, E-mail: leebc2001@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Eun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nanomolecular Imaging and Innovative Drug Development, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Smart Humanity Convergence Center, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 11}C]PIB, [{sup 11}C]DASB, [{sup 11}C]PBR28, [{sup 11}C]Methionine and [{sup 11}C]Clozapine, the radiochemical

  6. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25–38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  7. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful synthetic approach to carbon-11 labelled 1,4-dihydropyridines is described. Carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists 11C-Nifedipine, 11C-Nisoldipine, 11C-nitrendipine and 11C-CF3-Nifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch method using protected carboxy functions. Deprotection of the carboxylic acids by alkaline hydrolysis followed by conversion into the corresponding potassium salts and subsequent methylation with 11CH3I produced the labelled compounds in very good chemical and radiochemical yields (94%). (author)

  8. Laser ablation of carbon targets placed in a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Garnov, S. V.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Kucherik, A. O.; Nogtev, D. S.; Osipov, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental results on laser formation of carbon nanostructures produced during irradiation of a target placed in water. We have performed comparative experiments on laser heating of carbon targets by millisecond and femtosecond laser pulses. It is shown that under different conditions of laser irradiation of targets made of schungite, glassy carbon and pyrolytic graphite, different morphological types of micro- and nanostructured carbon are formed.

  9. GHGT-11 - Integrated Carbon Risk Assessment (ICARAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Busby, D.; Wessel-Berg, D.; Nepveu, M.; Bossie Codreanu, D.; Grimstad, A-A.; Sijacic, D.; Maurand, N.; Lothe, A.; Wahl, F.; Polak, S.; Boot, H.; Grøver, A.; Wildenborg, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an integrated workflow is described for risk assessment within CCS. IFPEN, SINTEF and TNO joined forces to define a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment methodology. The tools developed in these institutes are thereby integrated. The workflow can be applied to proposed carbon

  10. Fungal Taxa Target Different Carbon Substrates in Harvard Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. A.; Allison, S. D.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Mellilo, J. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    The mineralization of soil organic carbon is a major component of the global carbon cycle and is largely controlled by soil microbial communities. However, little is known about the functional roles of soil microbes or whether different microbial taxa target different carbon substrates under natural conditions. To examine this possibility, we assessed the community composition of active fungi by using a novel nucleotide analog technique in soils from the Harvard Forest. We hypothesized that fungal community composition would shift in response to the addition of different substrates and that specific fungal taxa would respond differentially to particular carbon sources. To test this hypothesis, we added a nucleotide analog probe directly to soils in conjunction with one of five carbon compounds of increasing recalcitrance: glycine, sucrose, cellulose, tannin-protein complex, and lignin. During 48 hour incubations, the nucleotide analog was incorporated into newly replicated DNA of soil organisms that proliferated following the addition of the substrates. In this way, we labeled the DNA of microbes that respond to a particular carbon source. Labeled DNA was isolated and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced and analyzed to identify active fungi to near-species resolution. Diversity analyses at the ≥97% sequence similarity level indicated that taxonomic richness was greater under cellulose (Shannon Index: 3.23 ± 0.11 with ± 95% CI) and lignin (2.87 ± 0.15) additions than the other treatments (2.34 ± 0.16 to 2.64 ± 0.13). In addition, community composition of active fungi shifted under glycine, sucrose, and cellulose additions. Specifically, the community under glycine was significantly different from communities under control, cellulose, and tannin-protein (Ptannin-protein and slightly increased in response to lignin and sucrose. This confirms our hypothesis that particular taxa respond differently to specific

  11. Carbonic anhydrases as targets for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. 16 different alpha-CA isoforms were isolated in mammals, where they play crucial physiological roles. Some of them are cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), others are membrane-bound (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV and CA XV), CA VA and CA VB are mitochondrial, and CA VI is secreted in saliva and milk. Three acatalytic forms are also known, the CA related proteins (CARP), CARP VIII, CARP X and CARP XI. Representatives of the beta-delta-CA family are highly abundant in plants, diatoms, eubacteria and archaea. The catalytic mechanism of the alpha-CAs is understood in detail: the active site consists of a Zn(II) ion co-ordinated by three histidine residues and a water molecule/hydroxide ion. The latter is the active species, acting as a potent nucleophile. For beta- and gamma-CAs, the zinc hydroxide mechanism is valid too, although at least some beta-class enzymes do not have water directly coordinated to the metal ion. CAs are inhibited primarily by two classes of compounds: the metal complexing anions and the sulfonamides/sulfamates/sulfamides possessing the general formula RXSO(2)NH(2) (R=aryl; hetaryl; perhaloalkyl; X=nothing, O or NH). Several important physiological and physio-pathological functions are played by CAs present in organisms all over the phylogenetic tree, related to respiration and transport of CO(2)/bicarbonate between metabolizing tissues and the lungs, pH and CO(2) homeostasis, electrolyte secretion in a variety of tissues/organs, biosynthetic reactions, such as the gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis among others (in animals), CO(2) fixation (in plants and algae), etc. The presence of these ubiquitous enzymes in so many tissues and in so different isoforms represents an attractive goal for the design of inhibitors with biomedical applications. Indeed, CA inhibitors are clinically used as

  12. Radiation dose estimates for carbon-11-labelled PET tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Carbon-11-labelled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers commonly used in biomedical research expose subjects to ionising radiation. Dosimetry is the measurement of radiation dose, but also commonly refers to the estimation of health risk associated with ionising radiation. This review describes radiation dosimetry of carbon-11-labelled molecules in the context of current PET research and the most widely used regulatory guidelines. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search returned 42 articles; 32 of these were based on human PET data dealing with radiation dosimetry of carbon-11 molecules. Radiation burden expressed as effective dose and maximum absorbed organ dose was compared between tracers. Results: All but one of the carbon-11-labelled PET tracers have an effective dose under 9 μSv/MBq, with a mean of 5.9 μSv/MBq. Data show that serial PET scans in a single subject are feasible for the majority of radiotracers. Conclusion: Although differing in approach, the two most widely used regulatory frameworks (those in the USA and the EU) do not differ substantially with regard to the maximum allowable injected activity per PET study. The predictive validity of animal dosimetry models is critically discussed in relation to human dosimetry. Finally, empirical PET data are related to human dose estimates based on homogenous distribution, generic models and maximum cumulated activities. Despite the contribution of these models to general risk estimation, human dosimetry studies are recommended where continued use of a new PET tracer is foreseen.

  13. One carbon metabolism in SAR11 pelagic marine bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    Full Text Available The SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria are the most abundant heterotrophs in the oceans and are believed to play a major role in mineralizing marine dissolved organic carbon. Their genomes are among the smallest known for free-living heterotrophic cells, raising questions about how they successfully utilize complex organic matter with a limited metabolic repertoire. Here we show that conserved genes in SAR11 subgroup Ia (Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique genomes encode pathways for the oxidation of a variety of one-carbon compounds and methyl functional groups from methylated compounds. These pathways were predicted to produce energy by tetrahydrofolate (THF-mediated oxidation, but not to support the net assimilation of biomass from C1 compounds. Measurements of cellular ATP content and the oxidation of (14C-labeled compounds to (14CO(2 indicated that methanol, formaldehyde, methylamine, and methyl groups from glycine betaine (GBT, trimethylamine (TMA, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP were oxidized by axenic cultures of the SAR11 strain Ca. P. ubique HTCC1062. Analyses of metagenomic data showed that genes for C1 metabolism occur at a high frequency in natural SAR11 populations. In short term incubations, natural communities of Sargasso Sea microbial plankton expressed a potential for the oxidation of (14C-labeled formate, formaldehyde, methanol and TMAO that was similar to cultured SAR11 cells and, like cultured SAR11 cells, incorporated a much larger percentage of pyruvate and glucose (27-35% than of C1 compounds (2-6% into biomass. Collectively, these genomic, cellular and environmental data show a surprising capacity for demethylation and C1 oxidation in SAR11 cultures and in natural microbial communities dominated by SAR11, and support the conclusion that C1 oxidation might be a significant conduit by which dissolved organic carbon is recycled to CO(2 in the upper ocean.

  14. Ethanolic Carbon-11 Chemistry: the Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. PMID:24631743

  15. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: the introduction of green radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J H

    2014-07-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use.

  16. Synthesis of n. c. a. PET-radiotracers with carbon-11. Zur Synthese traegerarme PET-Radiotracer mit Kohlenstoff-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirbel, A.

    1998-11-01

    Carbon-11 offers the unique possibility of authentic labelling of molecules as radioindicators for non invasive and quantitative determination of physiological functions via positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, the goal of this thesis was to synthesize of different n.c.a. [sup 11]C-labelled pharmaceuticals for in vivo distribution studies with PET. For the determination of the pharmacokinetics of [1-[sup 11]C]acetate in porcine myocardium during prolonged ischemia, n.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetate was synthesized via carboxylation of methylmagnesium bromide with in target produced n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 68 [+-] 7%. The fast (18 min) and reliable radiosynthesis allowed for repeated tracer administration at short intervals (<20 min). In order to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin[sup R]c) in humans, [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid, acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid and [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid were prepared. N.c.a. [1-[sup 11]C]acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized via the reaction of [1-[sup 11]C]acetylchloride with salicylic acid salts. The use of the silver salt proved to be superior to the sodium salt and resulted in radiochemical yields of 32 [+-] 5%. Base-line (clean) separation of the labelled product was achieved using radio-HPLC. With regard to the preparation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid, several protected and unprotected phenol derivates were metallated and subsequently carboxylated using n.c.a. [[sup 11]C]CO[sub 2]. Best results (87 [+-] 3% RCY) could be achieved with 2-(methoxymethoxy)-phenylmagnesium iodide as a precursor and subsequent quantitative cleavage of the MOM-group. Acetylation of n.c.a. [carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid to acetyl-[carboxy-[sup 11]C]salicylic acid was performed using acetylchloride in CH[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] with a radiochemical yield of 65 [+-] 4%. (orig.)

  17. Imaging and treating tumor vasculature with targeted radiolabeled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ruggiero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Ruggiero1*, Carlos H Villa1*, Jason P Holland1, Shanna R Sprinkle1, Chad May2, Jason S Lewis1, David A Scheinberg1, Michael R McDevitt11Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 2ImClone Systems, New York, USA; *Ruggiero and Villa contributed equally to this workAbstract: Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT constructs were covalently appended with radiometal-ion chelates (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA] or desferrioxamine B [DFO] and the tumor neovascular-targeting antibody E4G10. The E4G10 antibody specifically targeted the monomeric vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad epitope expressed in the tumor angiogenic vessels. The construct specific activity and blood compartment clearance kinetics were significantly improved relative to corresponding antibody-alone constructs. We performed targeted radioimmunotherapy with a SWCNT-([225Ac]DOTA(E4G10 construct directed at the tumor vasculature in a murine xenograft model of human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T. The specific construct reduced tumor volume and improved median survival relative to controls. We also performed positron emission tomographic (PET radioimmunoimaging of the tumor vessels with a SWCNT-([89Zr]DFO(E4G10 construct in the same murine LS174T xenograft model and compared the results to appropriate controls. Dynamic and longitudinal PET imaging of LS174T tumor-bearing mice demonstrated rapid blood clearance (<1 hour and specific tumor accumulation of the specific construct. Incorporation of the SWCNT scaffold into the construct design permitted us to amplify the specific activity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio without detrimentally impacting the immunoreactivity of the targeting antibody moiety. Furthermore, we were able to exploit the SWCNT pharmacokinetic (PK profile to favorably alter the blood clearance and provide an advantage for rapid

  18. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  19. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  20. Synthesis of colchicine and isocolchicine labelled with carbon-11 or carbon-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, P.J.; Finn, R.D.; Larson, S.M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The syntheses of isotopically labelled (-)-10-[{sup 11}C/{sup 13}C]-colchicine and (-)-9-[{sup 11}C/{sup 13}C]-isocolchicine have been achieved from the reaction of (-)desmethylcolchicine with [{sup 11}C/{sup 13}C]-iodomethane. The radiolabelled compounds, (-)-10-[{sup 11}C]-colchicine ({sup 11}C-n-colchicine) and (-)-9-[{sup 11}C]-isocolchicine ({sup 11}C-i-colchicine), were isolated by reversed phase HPLC. The total synthesis time was approximately 60 minutes for both radiolabelled compounds with an average specific activity of 240 mCi/{mu}mol calculated to EOB. Utilizing a similar synthetic strategy, we also reported the synthesis of milligram quantities of the carbon-13 enriched compounds and the magnetic resonance signal assignment for (-)-9-[{sup 13}C] isocolchicine. (Author).

  1. 26 CFR 1.338-11 - Effect of section 338 election on insurance company targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the reinsurer or acquiring company, at the close of the acquisition date. The Federal income tax... company targets. 1.338-11 Section 1.338-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... section 338 election on insurance company targets. (a) In general. This section provides rules that...

  2. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: The introduction of green radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. - Highlights: • We report application of the principles of green chemistry to a radiochemistry setting. • Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent. • Green radiochemistry simplifies production and QC in busy clinical production laboratories. • Residual solvent analysis can be relegated to a quarterly or annual QC test

  3. Bremsstrahlung in carbon thick targets by proton incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subtraction of the continuum from an X-ray spectrum emitted by proton bombardment is usually carried out by means of a mathematical fitting. The purpose of the present work is to develop an analytical function to model the continuous spectrum generated in a PIXE experiment for different incident beam energies in carbon thick targets. With this purpose, PIXE spectra of a carbon bulk sample were measured in an ion accelerator. The proton beam energies were varied between 0.7 MeV and 2 MeV and the X-rays generated were collected by an energy dispersive spectrometer. The spectra analysis was performed taking into account the main effects underlying the production of the continuous spectrum. Nevertheless, for the cases considered here, it was found that the atomic bremsstrahlung is the most important and other contributions were neglected. The experimental spectra from carbon thick targets were corrected by self-absorption and detector efficiency. The results show that the spectral shape corresponding to thick targets corrected by these effects is similar to the functional behavior presented by thin targets

  4. The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a ''dummy'' target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, 13C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized 13C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the ''high'' points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree

  5. Carbon-11-methionine positron emission tomography imaging of chordoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong [Department of Medical Imaging, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Medical Imaging, Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Tamura, Katsumi; Sagou, Kenji; Kandatsu, Susumu [Clinical Diagnosis Section, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tian, Mei; Suhara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Tanada, Shuji [Department of Medical Imaging, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that arises from notochord remnants. This is the first trial to investigate the utility of {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of chordoma before and after carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT). Fifteen patients with chordoma were investigated with MET-PET before and after CIRT and the findings analyzed visually and quantitatively. Tumor MET uptake was evaluated by tumor-to-nontumor ratio (T/N ratio). In 12 (80%) patients chordoma was clearly visible in the baseline MET-PET study with a mean T/N ratio of 3.3{+-}1.7. The MET uptake decreased significantly to 2.3{+-}1.4 after CIRT (P<0.05). A significant reduction in tumor MET uptake of 24% was observed after CIRT. Fourteen (93%) patients showed no local recurrence after CIRT with a median follow-up time of 20 months. This study has demonstrated that MET-PET is feasible for imaging of chordoma. MET-PET could provide important tumor metabolic information for the therapeutic monitoring of chordoma after CIRT. (orig.)

  6. The Precambrian marine carbonate isotope database: version 1.1.

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Shields; Veizer, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a compilation of strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotope compositions of roughly 10,000 marine carbonate rocks of Archean - Ordovician age (3800 Ma – 450 Ma). The Precambrian Marine Carbonate Isotope Database (PMCID) has been compiled from 152 published and 3 unpublished articles and books of the past 40 years. Also included are 30 categories of relevant “metadata” that allow detailed comparisons and quality assessments of the isotope data to be made. The PMCID will be updated period...

  7. Impact of [11C]Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Definition of Glioblastoma Multiforme in Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to define the optimal margins for gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) and T2-weighted MRI (T2-MRI) for delineating target volumes in planning radiation therapy for postoperative patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) by comparison to carbon-11-labeled methionine positron emission tomography ([11C]MET-PET) findings. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography (CT), MRI, and [11C]MET-PET were separately performed for radiation therapy planning for 32 patients newly diagnosed with GBM within 2 weeks after undergoing surgery. The extent of Gd-MRI (Gd-enhanced clinical target volume [CTV-Gd]) uptake and that of T2-MRI of the CTV (CTV-T2) were compared with the extent of [11C]MET-PET (CTV--[11C]MET-PET) uptake by using CT--MRI or CT--[11C]MET-PET fusion imaging. We defined CTV-Gd (x mm) and CTV-T2 (x mm) as the x-mm margins (where x = 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mm) outside the CTV-Gd and the CTV-T2, respectively. We evaluated the relationship between CTV-Gd (x mm) and CTV-- [11C]MET-PET and the relationship between CTV-T2 (x mm) and CTV-- [11C]MET-PET. Results: The sensitivity of CTV-Gd (20 mm) (86.4%) was significantly higher than that of the other CTV-Gd. The sensitivity of CTV-T2 (20 mm) (96.4%) was significantly higher than that of the other CTV-T2 (x = 0, 2, 5, 10 mm). The highest sensitivity and lowest specificity was found with CTV-T2 (x = 20 mm). Conclusions: It is necessary to use a margin of at least 2 cm for CTV-T2 for the initial target planning of radiation therapy. However, there is a limit to this setting in defining the optimal margin for Gd-MRI and T2-MRI for the precise delineation of target volumes in radiation therapy planning for postoperative patients with GBM.

  8. Isolation and characterization of DUSP11, a novel p53 target gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caprara, Greta; Zamponi, Raffaella; Melixetian, Marina;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that DUSP11 (Dual Specificity Phosphatase 11), a member of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase family that binds to RNA-RNP complexes and RNA splicing factors, is a p53...... target gene. Consistent with this, the expression of DUSP11 is induced in a p53-dependent manner after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that p53 binds to 2 putative p53 DNA binding sites in the promoter region of DUSP11. Colony formation and proliferation...... (Src-Associated protein in Mitotic cells) binds to DUSP11 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together these results suggest that DUSP11 contributes to p53-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and that it might be involved in regulating RNA splicing through SAM68....

  9. Carbon-11-labeled daunorubicin and verapamil for probing P-glycoprotein in tumors with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, PH; Franssen, EJF; Hendrikse, NH; Fluks, L; Weemaes, AMA; vanderGraaf, WTA; deVries, GE; Visser, GM; Vaalburg, W

    1996-01-01

    One of the mechanisms for multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumors is an overexpression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The cytostatic agent daunorubicin and the modulator verapamil were labeled with C-11 to probe P-gp with PET. Methods: Carbon-11-daunorubicin was prepared from (CCH2N2)-C-11 with an aldeh

  10. Kinesin family members KIF11 and KIF23 as potential therapeutic targets in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Lee, Daiyoon; Wu, Licun; Patel, Priya; Young, Ahn Jin; Wada, Hironobu; Hu, Hsin-Pei; Ujiie, Hideki; Kaji, Mitsuhito; Kano, Satoshi; Matsuge, Shinichi; Domen, Hiromitsu; Kaga, Kichizo; Matsui, Yoshiro; Kanno, Hiromi; Hatanaka, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; de Perrot, Marc; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive form of cancer commonly associated with asbestos exposure that stems from the thoracic mesothelium with high mortality rate. Currently, treatment options for MPM are limited, and new molecular targets for treatments are urgently needed. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an RNA interference-based screening, we screened two kinesin family members as potential therapeutic targets for MPM. Following in vitro investigation of the target silencing effects on MPM cells, a total of 53 MPMs were analyzed immunohistochemically with tissue microarray. KIF11 and KIF23 transcripts were found to be overexpressed in the majority of clinical MPM samples as well as human MPM cell lines as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene knockdown in MPM cell lines identified growth inhibition following knockdown of KIF11 and KIF23. High expression of KIF11 (KIF11-H) and KIF23 (KIF23-H) were found in 43.4 and 50.9% of all the MPM cases, respectively. Patients who received curative resection with tumors displaying KIF23-H showed shorter overall survival (P=0.0194). These results provide that inhibition of KIF11 and KIF23 may hold promise for treatment of MPMs, raising the possibility that kinesin-based drug targets may be developed in the future. PMID:27279560

  11. Targeting CDK11 in osteosarcoma cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Sassi, Slim; Shen, Jacson K; Yang, Xiaoqian; Gao, Yan; Osaka, Eiji; Zhang, Jianming; Yang, Shuhua; Yang, Cao; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type primary malignant tumor of bone. Patients with regional osteosarcoma are routinely treated with surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, many patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma show poor prognosis with current chemotherapy agents. Therefore, it is important to improve the general condition and the overall survival rate of patients with osteosarcoma by identifying novel therapeutic strategies. Recent studies have revealed that CDK11 is essential in osteosarcoma cell growth and survival by inhibiting CDK11 mRNA expression with RNAi. Here, we apply the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, a robust and highly efficient novel genome editing tool, to determine the effect of targeting endogenous CDK11 gene at the DNA level in osteosarcoma cell lines. We show that CDK11 can be efficiently silenced by CRISPR-Cas9. Inhibition of CDK11 is associated with decreased cell proliferation and viability, and induces cell death in osteosarcoma cell lines KHOS and U-2OS. Furthermore, the migration and invasion activities are also markedly reduced by CDK11 knockout. These results demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 system is a useful tool for the modification of endogenous CDK11 gene expression, and CRISPR-Cas9 targeted CDK11 knockout may be a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  12. Progress on polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous note reviewed methods for the paramagnetic doping of materials for spin-polarized solid targets and some of the history of attempts to apply those methods to hydrocarbons. Since the earlier work on hydrocarbons had yielded, at best, rather mediocre results, that note also speculated on some ways to extend and, possibly, to improve upon the earlier work. The sharpest focus was on the light (number of carbons less than six) alkanes, since these are the hydrocarbons that have the highest hydrogen contents (approx-gt 17wt %) and therefore require the least degree of polarization to be interesting. This present note summarizes the subsequent work done, to date, exploring some of the issues related to the chemical doping method. The main areas of progress have been in the literature search, experimental results on glass formation by alkanes, and a polarizing test of a ''prototype'' hydrocarbon

  13. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO₂ hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4-8.3) × 10⁵ s(-1) and kcat/KM values of (4.7-8.5) × 10⁷ M(-1)·s(-1). In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3-90.5 nM). The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2-88.5 nM). Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets. PMID:27322334

  14. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu T. Supuran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3 × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5 × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM. The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM. Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets.

  15. Studies and proposed changes to the RHIC p-Carbon polarimeters for the upcoming RUN-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makdisi, Y.; Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Morozov, B.; Svirida, D.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized proton complex utilizes polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow beams that measure the beam polarization through the p-Carbon elastic scattering process in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference kinematic region. This along with a Polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that utilizes the proton-proton elastic scattering process to first measure the analyzing power of the reaction and using the reverse process to measure the beam polarization. The latter is used to calibrate the p-Carbon polarimeters at the desired beam energy. In Run 9 RHIC ran with beams at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 500 GeV respectively. The higher beam intensities as well as the fact that the 250 GeV beam size is much smaller than that at 100 GeV resulted in significantly higher rates seen by the polarimeters and led to observed instability. In this paper, we will discuss the problems encountered and the tests that were carried out using the AGS as a proxy in an attempt to solve the problems and the path forward we took towards the upcoming polarized proton Run11.

  16. Studies and proposed changes to the RHIC p-Carbon polarimeters for the upcoming RUN-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC polarized proton complex utilizes polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow beams that measure the beam polarization through the p-Carbon elastic scattering process in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference kinematic region. This along with a Polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that utilizes the proton-proton elastic scattering process to first measure the analyzing power of the reaction and using the reverse process to measure the beam polarization. The latter is used to calibrate the p-Carbon polarimeters at the desired beam energy. In Run 9 RHIC ran with beams at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 500 GeV respectively. The higher beam intensities as well as the fact that the 250 GeV beam size is much smaller than that at 100 GeV resulted in significantly higher rates seen by the polarimeters and led to observed instability. In this paper, we will discuss the problems encountered and the tests that were carried out using the AGS as a proxy in an attempt to solve the problems and the path forward we took towards the upcoming polarized proton Run11.

  17. Groningen experience in production and application of fluorine-18 and carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the preparation of these tracers (fluorine-18 and carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals), as well as the present stage of development and evaluation, and the potential application in oncology will be discussed. (author)

  18. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-[11C]dimethyltryptamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. [11C]DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of [11C]DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of [11C]DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors. (orig.)

  19. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-(/sup 11/C)dimethyltryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Ido, Tatsuo; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Iwata, Ren; Hatazawa, Jun; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1986-07-01

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. (/sup 11/C)DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of (/sup 11/C)DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of (/sup 11/C)DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors.

  20. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-[11C]dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, K; Ido, T; Ishiwata, K; Hatazawa, J; Takahashi, T; Iwata, R; Matsuzawa, T

    1986-01-01

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. [11C]DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of [11C]DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of [11C]DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors. PMID:3489620

  1. Carbon-11 labelled analogs of alanine by the Strecker synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenant, C.; Theobald, A.; Siegel, T.; Joachim, J.; Weber, K.; Haberkorn, U.; Oberdorfer, F. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Derivatives of alanine, {alpha}-[2-sup(11)C]aminoisobutyric acid 1a and {alpha}-(N-methyl)-[2-{sup 11} C]aminoisobutyric acid 1b were prepared for the in-vivo study of amino acid transport phenomena by positron-emission-tomography (PET). Compounds 1a and 1b were obtained by a Zelinski-Stadnikoff variant of the Strecker {alpha}-amino acid synthesis from in-situ formed [{sup 11} C]acetone in presence of sodium cyanide and either ammonium sulfate (for 1a) or methylamine hydrochloride (for 1b). The complete preparation required 50 min from the end of [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production, and delivered 1.2 - 2 GBq of labelled product for application (2.4 -4%); not corrected for decay; related to trapped [{sup C}]CO{sub 2}. The specific activity of the labelled products was 16 to 20 GBq{center_dot}{mu}mol{sup -1}. The radiochemical and chemical purity of the preparations was greater than 98%. (Author).

  2. Measurement of proton-induced target fragmentation cross sections in carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K.; Nishio, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsuneda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Ieki, K.

    2016-02-01

    In proton therapy, positron emitter nuclei are generated via the target nuclear fragmentation reactions between irradiated proton and nuclei constituting a human body. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed with measurement of annihilation γ-rays from the generated positron emitter nuclei. To achieve the high accuracy of proton therapy, in vivo dosimetry, i.e., evaluation of the irradiated dose during the treatment is important. To convert the measured activity distribution to irradiated dose, cross-sectional data for positron emitter production is necessary, which is currently insufficient in the treatment area. The purpose of this study is to collect cross-sectional data of 12C (p , pn)11C and 12C (p , p 2 n)10C reactions between the incident proton and carbon nuclei, which are important target nuclear fragmentation reactions, to estimate the range and exposure dose distribution in the patient's body. Using planar-type PET capable of measuring annihilation γ-rays at high positional resolution and thick polyethylene target, we measured cross-sectional data in continuous wide energy range. The cross section of 12C (p , pn)11C is in good agreement with existing experimental data. The cross section of 12C (p , p 2 n)10C is reported for the first data in the low-energy range of 67.6-10.5 MeV near the Bragg peak of proton beam.

  3. 11C标记Tamoxifen的制备%PREPARATION OF CARBON-11 LABELLED TAMOXIFEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; Shi.,O.Y

    2000-01-01

    报道了N-去甲基-Tamoxifen (N-Demethyltamoxifen)和11C标记Tamoxifen (11C-Tamoxifen)的制备及高效液相色谱(HPLC)分离分析方法.先将Tamoxifen柠檬酸盐(Tamoxifen Citrate)转换成无盐Tamoxifen(Tamoxifen free base),然后与1-氯乙基-氯甲酸酯(ACE.Cl)反应生成N-去甲基-Tamoxifen.N-去甲基-Tamoxifen与11CH3I在130℃下反应10min,即生成11C- Tamoxifen.标记物用μBonapak TM C18柱HPLC进行分离纯化后,制成11C-Tamoxifen注射液.从停止核反应开始,整个标记及分离纯化过程需时50~60min,标记率可达60%.

  4. Target screening effect on the pre-emission of neutrons from Li11 halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrascu, M.; Constantinescu, A.; Cruceru, I.; Giurgiu, M.; Isbasescu, A.; Petrascu, H.; Bordeanu, C.; Serban, S.; Stoica, V.; Tanihata, I.; Lynch, W. G.; Famiano, M. A.; Lyuboshits, V. L.; Lyuboshits, V. V.; Ieki, K.

    2006-05-01

    For the first time to our knowledge the target screening effect on the pre-emission of halo neutrons from Li11 has been quantitatively analyzed. Our work has been performed in the 7.5 15 MeV neutron energy range. In this range the target nuclei are likely to behave as opaque, and therefore the sharp-cutoff calculations are most appropriate for the target screening determination. It has been observed that the ζ probability used in the sharp-cutoff calculations is an observable of the experiment, because it can be directly obtained from measured quantities, which are the number of single detected neutrons and the number of detected neutron pairs. The value of ζexp obtained this way in the case of a Si target appears to be close to the ζ value calculated for the Li11 halo radius RH=4.8 fm, independently determined in another experiment [Phys. Lett. B287, 307 (1992)]. This property also allows investigation of Borromean halo nuclei such as He6, Be14, and B17, for which RH was not yet measured. The calculated value within the present approach of the two-neutron pre-emission yield appears to be 3.5 times larger in the case of C12 than in the case of a Si target.

  5. Synthesis and positron emission tomography studies of carbon-11-labeled imatinib (Gleevec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Kun-Eek [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Ding Yushin [Department of Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States); Lin Kuoshyan [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Alexoff, David [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States); Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xu Youwen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 (United States)]. E-mail: fowler@bnl.gov

    2007-02-15

    Introduction: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) is a well known drug for treating chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Its active ingredient, imatinib ([4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-N-[4-methyl-3-[[4-(3-pyridyl) -2-pyrimidinyl]amino]phenyl]benzamide), blocks the activity of several tyrosine kinases. Here we labeled imatinib with carbon-11 as a tool for determining the drug distribution and pharmacokinetics of imatinib, and we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) studies in baboons. Methods: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib was synthesized from [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide and norimatinib was synthesized by the demethylation of imatinib (isolated from Gleevec tablets) according to a patent procedure [Collins JM, Klecker RW Jr, Anderson LW. Imaging of drug accumulation as a guide to antitumor therapy. US Patent 20030198594A1, 2003]. Norimatinib was also synthesized from the corresponding amine and acid. PET studies were carried out in three baboons to measure pharmacokinetics in the brain and peripheral organs and to determine the effect of a therapeutic dose of imatinib. Log D and plasma protein binding were also measured. Results: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib uptake in the brain is negligible (consistent with P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux); it peaks and clears rapidly from the heart, lungs and spleen. Peak uptake and clearance occur more slowly in the liver and kidneys, followed by accumulation in the gallbladder and urinary bladder. Pretreatment with imatinib did not change uptake in the heart, lungs, kidneys and spleen, and increased uptake in the liver and gallbladder. Conclusions: [N-{sup 11}C-methyl]imatinib has potential for assessing the regional distribution and kinetics of imatinib in the human body to determine whether the drug targets tumors and to identify other organs to which the drug or its labeled metabolites distribute. Paired with tracers such as 2'deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and 3&apos

  6. TRIM11 negatively regulates IFNβ production and antiviral activity by targeting TBK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younglang Lee

    Full Text Available The innate immune response is a host defense mechanism against infection by viruses and bacteria. Type I interferons (IFNα/β play a crucial role in innate immunity. If not tightly regulated under normal conditions and during immune responses, IFN production can become aberrant, leading to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified TRIM11 (tripartite motif containing 11 as a novel negative regulator of IFNβ production. Ectopic expression of TRIM11 decreased IFNβ promoter activity induced by poly (I:C stimulation or overexpression of RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling cascade components RIG-IN (constitutively active form of RIG-I, MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, or TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase-1. Conversely, TRIM11 knockdown enhanced IFNβ promoter activity induced by these stimuli. Moreover, TRIM11 overexpression inhibited the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 and expression of IFNβ mRNA. By contrast, TRIM11 knockdown increased the IRF3 phosphorylation and IFNβ mRNA expression. We also found that TRIM11 and TBK1, a key kinase that phosphorylates IRF3 in the RIG-I pathway, interacted with each other through CC and CC2 domain, respectively. This interaction was enhanced in the presence of the TBK1 adaptor proteins, NAP1 (NF-κB activating kinase-associated protein-1, SINTBAD (similar to NAP1 TBK1 adaptor or TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator. Consistent with its inhibitory role in RIG-I-mediated IFNβ signaling, TRIM11 overexpression enhanced viral infectivity, whereas TRIM11 knockdown produced the opposite effect. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM11 inhibits RIG-I-mediated IFNβ production by targeting the TBK1 signaling complex.

  7. In vivo evaluation of carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-based glycine transporter 1 inhibitors in mice and conscious monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyohara, Jun [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan 173-0022 (Japan); Ishiwata, Kiichi; Sakata, Muneyuki [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan 173-0022 (Japan); Wu, Jin [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka, Japan 434-8601 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashimoto@faculty.chiba-u.j [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan 260-8670 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) is an attractive target in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Here, we report the in vivo evaluation of three carbon-11-labelled non-sarcosine-type GlyT-1 inhibitors - [{sup 11}C]SA1, [{sup 11}C]SA2 and [{sup 11}C]SA3 - as novel PET tracers for GlyT-1. Methods: The regional brain distributions of the three compounds in mice were studied at baseline and under receptor-blockade conditions with co-injection of carrier loading or pretreatment with an excess of selective GlyT-1 inhibitors (ALX-5407 and SSR504734). Metabolic stability was investigated by radio high-performance liquid chromatography. Dynamic PET scans in conscious monkeys were performed with/without selective GlyT-1 inhibitors. Results: The IC{sub 50} values of SA1, SA2 and SA3 were 9.0, 6400 and 39.7 nM, respectively. The regional brain uptakes of [{sup 11}C]SA1 and [{sup 11}C]SA3 in mice were heterogeneous and consistent with the known distribution of GlyT-1. [{sup 11}C]SA2 showed low and homogeneous uptake in the brain. Most radioactivity in the brain was detected in unchanged form, although peripherally these compounds were degraded. Carrier loading decreased the uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. However, similar reductions were not observed with [{sup 11}C]SA3. Pretreatment with ALX-5407 decreased the uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. In the monkey at baseline, regional brain uptake of [{sup 11}C]SA1 was heterogeneous and consistent with the known GlyT-1 distribution. Pretreatment with selective GlyT-1 inhibitors significantly decreased the distribution volume ratio of [{sup 11}C] SA1 in GlyT-1-rich regions. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C]SA1 has the most suitable profile among the three carbon-11-labelled GlyT-1 inhibitors. Lead optimization of [{sup 11}C]SA1 structure will be required to achieve in vivo selective GlyT-1 imaging.

  8. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. - Highlights: • Measurement of cyanide mass contribution from different component of automated [11C]HCN production system. • Determination of specific activity of [11C]HCN by micro ion selective electrode

  9. One-neutron stripping reactions of 11Be and 19C on light target

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Kharab; Ravinder Kumar; Pradeep Singh; H C Sharma

    2007-05-01

    We have calculated the one-neutron absorption cross-section and the longitudinal momentum distribution of the core fragment coming out from the breakup of 11Be and 19C on 9Be target at 63 MeV/A and 88 MeV/A beam energies respectively. The reaction mechanism is treated within the framework of the eikonal approximation. The effective range of the nuclear interaction between the core and the valence neutron within the projectile has been determined by comparing the predicted stripping crosssection with the recently measured one. The effective range for 19C has been found to besmaller than that for 11Be. It qualitatively indicates that 19C is slightly more halo than 11Be. The smaller width, predicted as well as measured, of the LMD of 18C than 10Be also strengthens this fact. The experimental data concerning the LMD of core fragments have been well represented.

  10. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable. PMID:26954467

  11. BRD4-targeted therapy induces Myc-independent cytotoxicity in Gnaq/11-mutatant uveal melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Grazia; Sawle, Ashley D; Musi, Elgilda; Schwartz, Gary K

    2015-10-20

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is an aggressive intraocular malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Both primary and metastatic UM are characterized by oncogenic mutations in the G-protein alpha subunit q and 11. Furthermore, nearly 40% of UM has amplification of the chromosomal arm 8q and monosomy of chromosome 3, with consequent anomalies of MYC copy number. Chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy. In particular, the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 has shown selective inhibition of c-Myc expression with antiproliferative activity in hematopoietic and solid tumors. Here we provide evidence that JQ1 had cytotoxic activity in UM cell lines carrying Gnaq/11 mutations, while in cells without the mutations had little effects. Using microarray analysis, we identified a large subset of genes modulated by JQ1 involved in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Further analysis of selected genes determined that the concomitant silencing of Bcl-xL and Rad51 represented the minimal requirement to mimic the apoptotic effects of JQ1 in the mutant cells, independently of c-Myc. In addition, administration of JQ1 to mouse xenograft models of Gnaq-mutant UM resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth.Collectively, our results define BRD4 targeting as a novel therapeutic intervention against UM with Gnaq/Gna11 mutations. PMID:26397223

  12. Interleukin-11 Receptor Is a Candidate Target for Ligand-Directed Therapy in Lung Cancer: Analysis of Clinical Samples and BMTP-11 Preclinical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardó-Vila, Marina; Marchiò, Serena; Sato, Masanori; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Smith, Tracey L; Bronk, Julianna K; Yin, Guosheng; Zurita, Amado J; Sun, Menghong; Behrens, Carmen; Sidman, Richard L; Lee, J Jack; Hong, Waun K; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-08-01

    We previously isolated an IL-11-mimic motif (CGRRAGGSC) that binds to IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) in vitro and accumulates in IL-11R-expressing tumors in vivo. This synthetic peptide ligand was used as a tumor-targeting moiety in the rational design of BMTP-11, which is a drug candidate in clinical trials. Here, we investigated the specificity and accessibility of IL-11R as a target and the efficacy of BMTP-11 as a ligand-targeted drug in lung cancer. We observed high IL-11R expression levels in a large cohort of patients (n = 368). In matching surgical specimens (i.e., paired tumors and nonmalignant tissues), the cytoplasmic levels of IL-11R in tumor areas were significantly higher than in nonmalignant tissues (n = 36; P = 0.003). Notably, marked overexpression of IL-11R was observed in both tumor epithelial and vascular endothelial cell membranes (n = 301; P < 0.0001). BMTP-11 induced in vitro cell death in a representative panel of human lung cancer cell lines. BMTP-11 treatment attenuated the growth of subcutaneous xenografts and reduced the number of pulmonary tumors after tail vein injection of human lung cancer cells in mice. Our findings validate BMTP-11 as a pharmacologic candidate drug in preclinical models of lung cancer and patient-derived tumors. Moreover, the high expression level in patients with non-small cell lung cancer is a promising feature for potential translational applications. PMID:27317903

  13. Low carbon and clean energy scenarios for India: Analysis of targets approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon energy technologies are of increasing importance to India for reducing emissions and diversifying its energy supply mix. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model, this paper analyzes a targets approach for pushing solar, wind, and nuclear technologies in the Indian electricity generation sector from 2005 to 2095. Targets for these technologies have been constructed on the basis of Indian government documents, policy announcements, and expert opinions. Different targets have been set for the reference scenario and the carbon price scenario. In the reference scenario, wind and nuclear technologies exceed respective targets in the long run without any subsidy push, while solar energy requires subsidy push throughout the century in order to meet its high targets. In the short run, nuclear energy also requires significant subsidy, including a much higher initial subsidy relative to solar power, which is a result of its higher targets. Under a carbon price scenario, the carbon price drives the penetration of these technologies. Still, subsidy is required — especially in the short run when the carbon price is low. We also found that pushing solar, wind, and nuclear technologies leads to a decrease in share of CCS under the carbon price scenario and biomass under both the reference and carbon price scenarios. This is because low carbon technologies compete among themselves and substitute each other, thereby enhancing the need for subsidy or carbon price, highlighting that proposed targets are not set at efficient levels. In light of contemporary debate on external costs of nuclear energy, we also assess the sensitivity of the results to nuclear technology cost. We find that higher cost significantly decreases the share of nuclear power under both the reference and carbon price scenarios.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive properties of nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Fei; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaohua, E-mail: mickyxie@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Jinhua, E-mail: chenjinhua@hnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were prepared from ZIF-11. • The activated N-PCMPs with fused KOH (N-PCMPs-A) have high specific surface area. • N-PCMPs-A exhibits high specific capacitance. • N-PCMPs-A reveals good cycling performance even at a high current density. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were successfully prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-11 polyhedra and further activated with fused KOH to obtain N-PCMPs-A. The morphology and microstructure of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micropore and chemisorption analyzer. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge method in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution on a standard three-electrode system. Results show that, compared with N-PCMPs, N-PCMPs-A has higher specific surface area (2188 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and exhibits improved electrochemical capacitive properties (307 F g{sup −1} at 1.0 A g{sup −1}). The mass specific capacitance of N-PCMPs-A is also higher than that of most MOF-derived carbons, some carbide-derived carbons and carbon aerogel-derived carbons. In addition, the capacitance of the N-PCMPs-A retains 90% after 4000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g{sup −1}. These imply that N-PCMPs-A is the promising materials for the construction of a high-performance supercapacitor.

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive properties of nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were prepared from ZIF-11. • The activated N-PCMPs with fused KOH (N-PCMPs-A) have high specific surface area. • N-PCMPs-A exhibits high specific capacitance. • N-PCMPs-A reveals good cycling performance even at a high current density. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were successfully prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-11 polyhedra and further activated with fused KOH to obtain N-PCMPs-A. The morphology and microstructure of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micropore and chemisorption analyzer. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge method in 1.0 M H2SO4 aqueous solution on a standard three-electrode system. Results show that, compared with N-PCMPs, N-PCMPs-A has higher specific surface area (2188 m2 g−1) and exhibits improved electrochemical capacitive properties (307 F g−1 at 1.0 A g−1). The mass specific capacitance of N-PCMPs-A is also higher than that of most MOF-derived carbons, some carbide-derived carbons and carbon aerogel-derived carbons. In addition, the capacitance of the N-PCMPs-A retains 90% after 4000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g−1. These imply that N-PCMPs-A is the promising materials for the construction of a high-performance supercapacitor

  16. Genome-wide identification of Bcl11b gene targets reveals role in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    Full Text Available B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 11B (Bcl11b is a transcription factor showing predominant expression in the striatum. To date, there are no known gene targets of Bcl11b in the nervous system. Here, we define targets for Bcl11b in striatal cells by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq in combination with genome-wide expression profiling. Transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that 694 genes were significantly altered in striatal cells over-expressing Bcl11b, including genes showing striatal-enriched expression similar to Bcl11b. ChIP-seq analysis demonstrated that Bcl11b bound a mixture of coding and non-coding sequences that were within 10 kb of the transcription start site of an annotated gene. Integrating all ChIP-seq hits with the microarray expression data, 248 direct targets of Bcl11b were identified. Functional analysis on the integrated gene target list identified several zinc-finger encoding genes as Bcl11b targets, and further revealed a significant association of Bcl11b to brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin signaling. Analysis of ChIP-seq binding regions revealed significant consensus DNA binding motifs for Bcl11b. These data implicate Bcl11b as a novel regulator of the BDNF signaling pathway, which is disrupted in many neurological disorders. Specific targeting of the Bcl11b-DNA interaction could represent a novel therapeutic approach to lowering BDNF signaling specifically in striatal cells.

  17. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals. PMID:23560987

  18. Exploring halo effects in the scattering of $^{11}$Be on heavy targets at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the scattering of $^{11}$Be on heavy targets at energies around the Coulomb barrier with the aim to study the effect of the neutron halo on the reaction mechanisms. We expect to see deviations of the elastic cross sections with respect to Rutherford, even at energies below the barrier, due to the effect of dipole polarizability. We also expect to observe the inelastic excitation from the 1/2$^{+}$ ground state to the 1/2$^{-}$ excited state. One neutron transfer, as well as break-up cross sections will be obtained from the analysis of the $^{10}$Be fragments produced in the collision. We expect to obtain information on the B(E1) distribution in the low energy continuum of $^{11}$Be. \\\\ \\\\In a previous experiment, $^{11}$Be was produced and accelerated at REX-ISOLDE with an intensity of 10$^{5}$ pps. This beam intensity would allow us to measure the scattered fragments, at forward and backward angles, with a detector array based on silicon strip detectors. We ask for a total of 27 shift...

  19. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  20. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of 11C, 18F and 13N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume

  1. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3) × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM ...

  2. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created.

  3. Measurement of regional pulmonary function with carbon-11-labeled CO2 and CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide labelled with carbon-11 have been produced in the remotecontrolled system for a large scale production of short lived radioactive substance with cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The single breath measurement with 11CO2 and 11CO, using inhalation system and a coincidence positron camera combined with an on-line computer system (TOSBAC 3400 Model 31) has been employed to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow and diffusing capacity in three normal volunteers and seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), old lung tuberculosis and benign tumor. Regional clearance rate constant (lambda) and distribution index (lambda i/lambda t) were calculated from monoexponential removal curves measured by external counting over the chest in supine position. This process was performed in a short period of breath-holding (10 - 20 sec.) after a single breath of these radioactive gases mixed with room air. These parameters were calculated for each lung fields divided into four zones (bilateral upper and lower lung region). In our method, the activity of the inspired mixture were 5 - 35 mCi/L and each value in lung fields, divided into four zones, can be measured with time interval for one second. While the clearance rate of 11CO2 seemed to be mainly limited by pulmonary blood flow, it was considered that the rate of 11CO were limited by not only the diffusing capacity but also the perfusion in each lung fields. In normal subjects, the distribution of regional clearance rate was showed approximately even for 11CO2 and 11CO. It was caused of the measurement in supine position. In contrast, the distribution of these parameter was showed uneven in patients with lung disease, particularly with COPD. (author)

  4. Compositions and methods for cancer treatment using targeted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jr., Roger G; Resasco, Daniel E; Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    2013-08-27

    The present invention is a method for detecting and destroying cancer tumors. The method is based on the concept of associating a linking protein or linking peptide such as, but not limited to, annexin V or other annexins to carbon nanotubes such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form a protein-CNT complex. Said linking protein or peptide can selectively bind to cancerous cells, especially tumor vasculature endothelial cells, rather than to healthy ones by binding to cancer-specific external receptors such as anionic phospholipids including phosphatidylserine expressed on the outer surfaces of cancer cells only. Irradiation of bound CNTs with one or more specific electromagnetic wavelengths is then used to detect and destroy those cells to which the CNTs are bound via the linking protein or peptide thereby destroying the tumor or cancer cells and preferably an immunostimulant is provided to the patient to enhance the immune response against antigens released from the tumor or cancer cells.

  5. Design of an Intense Muon Source with a Carbon and Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven; Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Ding, Xiaoping [UCLA

    2015-06-01

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  6. Multi-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor cell targeting biological transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared and applied as tumor cell targeting biological transporters. A positive charge was introduced on SWNTs to get high loading efficiency of fluorescein (FAM) labeled short double strands DNA (20 base pairs). The SWNTs were encapsulated with the folic acid modified phospholipids for active targeting into tumor cell. The tumor cell-targeting properties of these multi-functionalized SWNTs were investigated by active targeting into mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells. The experimental results show that these multi-functionalized SWNTs have good tumor cell targeting property

  7. Carbon-11 radiolabeling of iron-oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality PET/MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Schueller, Michael J.; Alexoff, David; Smith, S. David; Wang, Wei; Schlyer, David

    2013-07-01

    Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled SPIO NPs was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled

  8. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  9. Targeted carbon conservation at national scales with high-resolution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Mascaro, Joseph; Sinca, Felipe; Chadwick, K Dana; Higgins, Mark; Farfan, William; Llactayo, William; Silman, Miles R

    2014-11-25

    Terrestrial carbon conservation can provide critical environmental, social, and climate benefits. Yet, the geographically complex mosaic of threats to, and opportunities for, conserving carbon in landscapes remain largely unresolved at national scales. Using a new high-resolution carbon mapping approach applied to Perú, a megadiverse country undergoing rapid land use change, we found that at least 0.8 Pg of aboveground carbon stocks are at imminent risk of emission from land use activities. Map-based information on the natural controls over carbon density, as well as current ecosystem threats and protections, revealed three biogeographically explicit strategies that fully offset forthcoming land-use emissions. High-resolution carbon mapping affords targeted interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in rapidly developing tropical nations.

  10. Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities - SATIF-11 Workshop Proceedings Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Clear synergies exist, therefore, with other technical work being carried out by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and its Nuclear Science Committee continues to sponsor activities in this domain. One of these activities concerns 'Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities' (SATIF). A series of workshops have been held over the last 18 years: SATIF-1 was held on 28-29 April 1994 in Arlington, Texas; SATIF-2 on 12-13 October 1995 at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland; SATIF-3 on 12-13 May 1997 at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan; SATIF-4 on 17-18 September 1998 in Knoxville, Tennessee; SATIF-5 on 17-21 July 2000 at the OECD in Paris, France; SATIF-6 on 10-12 April 2002 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Menlo Park, California; SATIF-7 on 17-18 May 2004 at ITN, Sacavem, Portugal; SATIF-8 on 22-24 May 2006 at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory in the Republic of Korea; SATIF-9 on 21-23 April 2008 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; SATIF-10 on 2-4 June 2010 at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The 11. workshop on Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities took place in Tsukuba, Japan and was jointly organised by the following bodies: - Expert Group on Radiation Transport and Shielding (EGRTS) of Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) of OECD/NEA; - High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK); - Technical Divisions of Radiation Science and Technology of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The workshop was sponsored by the OECD/NEA and its Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) and co-sponsored by the Technical Divisions of Radiation Science and Technology of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The current proceedings provide a summary of the discussions, decisions and conclusions as well as the text of the presentations made at the 11. workshop

  11. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luís F. F.; Krais, John J.; Van Rite, Brent D.; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper focuses on the targeting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for the treatment of breast cancer with minimal side effects using photothermal therapy. The human protein annexin V (AV) binds specifically to anionic phospholipids expressed externally on the surface of tumour cells and endothelial cells that line the tumour vasculature. A 2 h incubation of the SWNT-AV conjugate with proliferating endothelial cells followed by washing and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation at a wavelength of 980 nm was enough to induce significant cell death; there was no significant cell death with irradiation or the conjugate alone. Administration of the same conjugate i.v. in BALB/c female mice with implanted 4T1 murine mammary at a dose of 0.8 mg SWNT kg-1 and followed one day later by NIR irradiation of the tumour at a wavelength of 980 nm led to complete disappearance of implanted 4T1 mouse mammary tumours for the majority of the animals by 11 days since the irradiation. The combination of the photothermal therapy with the immunoadjuvant cyclophosphamide resulted in increased survival. The in vivo results suggest the SWNT-AV/NIR treatment is a promising approach to treat breast cancer.

  12. Experience with carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential of carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of lymph node and bone metastases in prostate cancer. A total of 23 patients were studied (known metastases: 8; suspicion of metastases: 3; primary staging: 12). Whole-body PET imaging was performed 5 min after injection of the tracer and completed within 1 h. Focally increased tracer uptake in bone or abdominal lymph node regions was interpreted as representing tumour involvement. All known bone and lymph node metastases could be recognized by [11C]choline PET. One out of ten negative scans for primary staging was false-negative (lymph node 11C]choline PET is a promising new tool for the primary staging of prostate cancer, with lymph node and bone metastases demonstrating high tracer uptake. Therapeutic management could be influenced by these results in that the technique may permit avoidance of surgical lymph node exploration. (orig.)

  13. Simple synthesis of carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer. The target tracers, X-[11C]methoxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; [11C]4a–d), were prepared from their corresponding precursors, X-hydroxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; 5a–d), with [11C]CH3OTf through O-[11C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a C-18 Sep-Pak Plus cartridge. The radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), from [11C]CO2, were 40–60%. The specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185–370 GBq/μmol. - Highlights: ► New chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► New carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► Simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  14. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  15. [11C]NS8880, a promising PET radiotracer targeting the norepinephrine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Karina Højrup; Peters, Dan; Nielsen, Elsebeth Ø;

    2014-01-01

    ]methanolate in a Boc-protected precursor. The isolated [11C]NS8880 was evaluated pre-clinically both in a pig model (PET scanning) and in a rat model (μPET scanning) and compared to (S,S)-[11C]-O-methylreboxetine ([11C]MeNER). RESULTS: The radiolabeling technique yielded [11C]NS8880 in low (

  16. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) Inhibitors Still Improve Metabolic Phenotype in Male 11β-HSD1 Knockout Mice Suggesting Off-Target Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Harno, Erika; Cottrell, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Alice; DeSchoolmeester, Joanne; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Denn, Mark; Swales, John G.; Goldberg, Fred W.; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersén, Harriet; Wild, Martin J.; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Leighton, Brendan; White, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a target for novel type 2 diabetes and obesity therapies based on the premise that lowering of tissue glucocorticoids will have positive effects on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. An 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound C) inhibited liver 11β-HSD1 by >90% but led to only small improvements in metabolic parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)–fed male C57BL/6J mice. A 4-fold higher concentration produced similar enzyme ...

  17. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled dexetimide and levetimide for studying muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization and quantitation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m-AChR) in the living human brain using a non-invasive method, such as positron emission tomography (PET), may provide valuable information about receptor changes which have been observed post mortem in patients with Huntington's chorea and Alzheimer's dementia, as well as normal brain mechanisms mediated by the m-AChR. Although quinuclidinyl benzilate has been radioiodinated and radiomethylatd, the former is not useful with PET and the latter does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier; therefore, the authors chose to radiolabel dexetimide, a ligand which labels m-AChR in vitro and in vivo, and levetimide, its inactive enantiomer. Carbon-11 labeled carbon dioxide is bubbled through a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of phenylmagnesium chloride (1 M, l ml) after which 2 mg of lithium aluminium hydride is added in THF (500 μl). After evaporation of the solvent, 48% hydriodic acid (l ml) is added and the solution is heated for 1 minute. Carbon-11 labeled benzyl iodide is extracted into methylene chloride, added to a solution of nor-benzyl dexetimide or levetimide, and heated for several minutes. Purification is accomplished using semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analytical HPLC is used to determine the radiochemical purity and specific activity

  18. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled dexetimide and levetimide for studying muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannals, R.F.; Langstrom, B.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    The localization and quantitation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m-AChR) in the living human brain using a non-invasive method, such as positron emission tomography (PET), may provide valuable information about receptor changes which have been observed post mortem in patients with Huntington's chorea and Alzheimer's dementia, as well as normal brain mechanisms mediated by the m-AChR. Although quinuclidinyl benzilate has been radioiodinated and radiomethylatd, the former is not useful with PET and the latter does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier; therefore, the authors chose to radiolabel dexetimide, a ligand which labels m-AChR in vitro and in vivo, and levetimide, its inactive enantiomer. Carbon-11 labeled carbon dioxide is bubbled through a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of phenylmagnesium chloride (1 M, l ml) after which 2 mg of lithium aluminium hydride is added in THF (500 ..mu..l). After evaporation of the solvent, 48% hydriodic acid (l ml) is added and the solution is heated for 1 minute. Carbon-11 labeled benzyl iodide is extracted into methylene chloride, added to a solution of nor-benzyl dexetimide or levetimide, and heated for several minutes. Purification is accomplished using semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analytical HPLC is used to determine the radiochemical purity and specific activity.

  19. GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Liang Cheng,1,* Fa-Zhen Huang,1,2,* Li-Fang Cheng,1 Ya-Qin Zhu,1 Qing Hu,1 Ling Li,1 Lin Wei1, Da-Wei Chen1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 2Department of Pharmacy, Central Hospital of Zaozhuang Minging Group, Zaozhuang, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is a serious threat to human health, and 40%–80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin

  20. Reduced myocardial carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine retention is associated with poor prognosis in chronic heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, M.; Ukkonen, H. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Malminiemi, K. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital (Finland); Saraste, M. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Naagren, K.; Lehikoinen, P. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Voipio-Pulkki, L.-M. [Dept. of Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital (Finland); Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    Abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system are known to be of prognostic significance in chronic heart failure (CHF). The prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cardiac autonomic innervation in CHF has not been explored previously. We retrospectively studied the survival data of 46 NYHA class II-III CHF patients (mean LVEF 35%{+-}8%) who had undergone carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine ({sup 11}C-HED) studies at the Turku PET Centre between August 1992 and March 1996. The origin of CHF was dilated cardiomyopathy in 13 of the 46 patients and coronary artery disease with at least one prior myocardial infarction in the remaining 33. Data on causes of death and heart transplantation were collected, and the statistically significant predictors of prognosis were analysed using Cox's proportional hazards regression. During the mean follow-up period of 55{+-}19 months, 11 deaths occurred and two patients underwent heart transplantation successfully. Eleven end-points were classified as cardiac (nine sudden cardiac deaths and two deaths due to progressive heart failure) and two as non-cardiac. When divided into two groups based on the median of {sup 11}C-HED retention (mean 0.184{+-}0.061, median 0.183), eight end-points (death or cardiac transplantation) were reached in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention below the median and three in the group with {sup 11}C-HED retention above the median (P<0.02). In proportional hazards regression analysis, only peak oxygen uptake (peak VO{sub 2}), left ventricular end-diastolic volume and HED retention were found to be statistically significant. It is concluded that {sup 11}C-HED PET provides independent prognostic information in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  1. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  2. Characterisation of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) laser targets by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, D.; Parker, T.; Spindloe, C.; Tolley, M.

    2016-04-01

    The search for target materials suitable for High Power Laser Experiments at ultralow thicknesses (below ten nanometres) is ongoing. Diamond-Like Carbon is investigated as an answer for a low-Z material that can survive target chamber pump-down and laser prepulse. DLC was produced using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition, using with varying gas flow mixtures of argon and methane. The methane plasma deposits amorphous carbon onto the substrate and the argon plasma re-sputters the weakly bonded carbon leaving a high proportion of diamond-like bonding. Bonding natures were probed using Raman spectroscopy; analysis of the resulting spectrum showed that flow rates of 40sccm/60sccm methane to argon produced DLC films with a diamond-like (sp 3) content of ∼20%. Increasing the methane gas flow decreased this value to less than 5%. DLC foils were processed into laser targets by method of float off; using a sodium chloride release layer and lowering into water, this was then lifted onto an array of apertures allowing for laser irradiation of the material with no backing. DLC with 20% sp 3 content showed superior yield when compared to other materials such as metals and some plastics of the same thickness, with ∼70% of the target positions surviving the float off procedure at <10nm. As a result of this work DLC targets have been available for a number of experiments at the Central Laser Facility.

  3. Pairing Correlations in Odd-Mass Carbon Isotopes and in 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Samana, A R; Krmpotic, F; Tarutina, T

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present an exploratory study of structure of the odd-mass carbon isotopes 15C, 17C and 19C, using the BCS and the projected BCS (PBCS) models to assess the importance of pairing correlations in these light nuclei. Further, we consider the structure of 13C and 11Be using the quasiparticle-rotor model to better understand the origin of spin and parity of the levels and the degree of deformation of the corresponding cores. The quasiparticle-vibrator model is also employed as an alternative model. Comparison of our results with several recent papers on the same subject is also presented. We have shown that the inclusion of the pairing interaction and of the concomitant Pauli principle is imperative for a realistic description of heavy odd-mass carbon isotopes and in the core-coupling models for 13C and 11Be. The important role played by the particle number conservation in relatively light and/or exotic nuclei has been confirmed as well.

  4. Target plane confidence boundaries: mathematics of the 1997 XF11 scare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, A.; Valsecchi, G. B.

    The uncertainty of the close approach distance of a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) can be represented on a Modified Target Plane (MTP), a modification of the one used by Opik. The MTP is orthogonal to the geocentric velocity at the closest approach point along the nominal orbit, solution of the least square adjustment to the astrometric observations. The confidence regions of this solution, in the 6-dimensional space of orbital elements, for an epoch close to the observations, are well approximated by a family of concentric ellipsoids if the observed arc is not too short. In the linear approximation, these ellipsoids are mapped on the MTP into concentric ellipses, which can be computed by solving the variational equation for the state transition matrix up to the close approach time. For an asteroid observed at only one opposition, however, if the close approach is expected after many revolutions, the ellipses on the MTP become extremely elongated and therefore the linear approximation may fail. In this case the confidence boundaries on the MTP, by definition the nonlinear images of the confidence ellipsoids, may not be well approximated by the ellipses. In theory the Monte Carlo method by Muinonen and Bowell (1993) can be used to explicitly compute the nonlinear confidence boundaries, but in practice the computational load is very heavy, since to estimate a low probability event, the number of test cases must be larger than the inverse of the probability. We propose a new method to compute semilinear confidence boundaries on the MTP, based on the theory developed by Milani (1998) to efficiently compute confidence boundaries for predicted observations. This method is a reasonable compromise between reliability and computational load, and can be used for real time risk assessment. We apply this technique to discuss the recent case of asteroid 1997 XF11, which appeared, on the basis of the observations available at the beginning of March 1998, to be on an orbit

  5. A feasibility study on L-[1-carbon-11]tyrosine and L-[methyl-carbon-11]methionine to assess liver protein synthesis by PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiwata, K; Enomoto, K; Elsinga, PH; Senda, M; Okazumi, SI; Isono, K; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W

    1996-01-01

    We studied the potential of L-[1-C-11]tyrosine ([1-C-11]Tyr) and L-[methyl-C-11]methionine ([Me-C-11]Met) as tracers for measuring protein synthesis rate (PSR) in the liver by PET and proposed their metabolic models. Methods: In the liver and plasma of control and cycloheximide-treated mice injected

  6. Is China's carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hao; Hua Liao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth "Five-year Plan" period (2011-2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 in...

  7. Carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol for signal transduction imaging by positron CT. Evaluation of the quality and safety for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ryou [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio; Ido, Tatsuo [and others

    1995-02-01

    To elucidate the synaptic transmission in the neural system, we have been developing fundamental studies for intracellular signaling. For clinical application of carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol (1-[1-{sup 11}C]butyryl-2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol: {sup 11}C-DAG) using positron emission computed tomography (PET), we evaluated the quality and the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG as the solution for injection. As a result, {sup 11}C-DAG was synthesized within 50 minutes, including the preparation step for injection. The half life time and energy spectrum of {sup 11}C-DAG were the same as the physical character of carbon-11, and other radioisotopes were not detected. In the quality control, {sup 11}C-DAG solution was negative in the examination of bacterial contamination and the pyrogen test in three successive synthesis procedures. In the acute toxicity test by administration of {sup 11}C-DAG and 100 {mu}mol/kg of non-radioactive DAG to the rat intravenously, the systemic condition of the rat was not changed and no abnormalities were found in any organ 24 hours after administration. These findings indicated the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG solution. Clinical application of {sup 11}C-DAG using positron emission tomography may be useful to elucidate the dysfunction of intracellular signaling in disorders of higher cortical function such as Alzheimer disease. (author).

  8. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Bayoumi, Maged Fouad

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Tracers development for the PET study of nicotinic receptors: [11C]-mecamylamine and [11C]-SIB 1553A. Tritium and carbon-11 radiolabelling of a serine proteinase inhibitor: the t-PAstop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop radiotracers for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we labelled both the mecamylamine and SIB-1553A with carbon-11 to study the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). The radiosynthesis of [11C]-t-PAstop and the labelling with tritium of one analogue were realized for cerebral ischemia PET studies. The [11C]-mecamylamine, a non-competitive and non-selective nAChRs antagonist was synthesized in 45 min via a N-[11C]-methylation reaction. In the rat brain, the ex vivo studies showed no radio-metabolite 45 min after the injection of [11C]-mecamylamine. The uptake kinetics in the rat brain or in vivo by PET in the anesthetized baboon or in the conscious monkey, reached a plateau around 45-50 min after injection. However, the saturation or displacement experiments did not permit to exhibit nor a significant difference of labelling between the different cerebral regions nor a specific uptake. In consequence, the [11C]-mecamylamine was not an appropriate radioligand for nAChRs PET study. The labelling of [11C]-SIB 1553A, a selective agonist for the nicotinic β4 subunit, required the synthesis in 5 steps (56% overall yield) of precursor for the incorporation of carbon-11. The radiosynthesis was performed in 36 min by a N-[11C]-methylation reaction (yield: 75%). The [11C]-t-PAstop was obtained from [11C]-KCN with yields from 80 to 90%. For the first time with carbon-11, the formation of an amidine group was realized from a nitrile group. The labelling by isotopic exchange of hydrogen by tritium of the t-PAstop did not permit to obtain the [3H]-t-PAstop but a tritiated analogue. This compound will be used to study its vectorization by micro-encapsulation. (author)

  10. Advances in cancer therapy through the use of carbon nanotube-mediated targeted hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cornel Iancu, Lucian Mocan3rd Surgery Clinic, Department of Nanomedicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging versatile tools in nanomedicine applications, particularly in the field of cancer targeting. Due to diverse surface chemistry and unique thermal properties, CNTs can act as strong optical absorbers in near infrared light where biological systems prove to be highly transparent. The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized CNTs is frequently termed “nanophotothermolysis.” This paper illustrates the potential of engineered CNTs as laser-activated photothermal agents for the selective nanophotothermolysis of cancer cells.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cancer targeting, functionalization, optical excitation, cancer treatment

  11. Carbon-11 labeled cathepsin K inhibitors: syntheses and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnick, Melissa E; Shao, Xia; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Scott, Peter J H; Kilbourn, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Cathepsin K is a cysteine peptidase primarily located in osteoclasts, cells involved in normal growth and remodeling of bone but that are also responsible for bone loss in osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis. In vivo imaging of cathepsin K may provide a method to assess changes in osteoclast numbers in such disease states. To that end, two high-affinity and selective cathepsin K inhibitors were radiolabeled with carbon-11. In vivo microPET imaging studies demonstrated uptake and prolonged retention of radioactivity in actively growing or remodeling bone regions (e.g., distal ulnar, carpal, distal and proximal humeral, distal femur, proximal tibia, tail vertebrae). Uptake into bone could be blocked by pre- or co-injection of unlabeled ligand, supporting a specific and saturable binding mechanism for radiotracer localization. These proof-of-concept studies indicate that radiolabeled cathepsin K inhibitors may have potential as in vivo imaging radiotracers for assessing changes of osteoclast numbers in osteolytic diseases.

  12. Study of facing target sputtered diamond-like carbon overcoats for hard disk drive media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seet, H.L., E-mail: SEET_Hang_Li@dsi.a-star.edu.sg [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Ng, K.K.; Chen, X.Y. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore); Yang, P. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, 117603 (Singapore); Shen, L. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Ji, R.; Ng, H.X.; Lim, C.B. [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608 (Singapore)

    2015-07-01

    The demand for higher areal density in the hard disk drive industry has fuelled extensive research efforts and focuses on magnetic spacing reduction. In the head–disk interface arena, one of the key focuses is to reduce the carbon overcoat thickness without compromising the overcoat protection performance. Thus, in the search for alternative methods to reduce the carbon overcoat thickness, the facing target sputtering (FTS) process for diamond-like carbon deposition has been investigated. The resulting properties have been presented in this paper, with comparison to conventional diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers by other processes such as chemical vapor deposition and reactive sputtering with nitrogen. X-ray reflectometry results showed that facing target sputtered DLC samples displayed significantly higher density, at 2.87 g/cm{sup 3}, as compared to hydrogenated and nitrogenated DLC samples. This was attributed to the higher sp{sup 3} content, as obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. As a result of the high sp{sup 3} content, hardness of the FTS deposited samples was higher than that of the hydrogenated and nitrogenated DLC samples. In addition, the surface energy of FTS samples was observed to be comparable, but lower, than that of nitrogenated DLC samples through contact angle measurements. Clearances comparable to that of conventional DLC samples were achieved and the sample disks were flyable. Wear performance tests also revealed more wear resistance for the FTS deposited DLC samples, but also higher head wear. - Highlights: • Facing target sputtered (FTS) diamond-like carbon (DLC) samples were studied. • FTS DLC samples possess higher density and hardness. • Surface conditions and flyability performances for FTS DLC samples were comparable. • Wear tests on FTS DLC samples showed lower media wear, but higher head wear.

  13. Targeting one carbon metabolism with an antimetabolite disrupts pyrimidine homeostasis and induces nucleotide overflow

    OpenAIRE

    Ser, Zheng; GAO, XIA; Johnson, Christelle; Mehrmohamadi, Mahya; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, SiQi; Locasale, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-metabolite agents that affect nucleotide metabolism are frontline chemotherapy agents in several cancers and often successfully target one carbon metabolism. However, the precise mechanisms and resulting determinants of their therapeutic value are unknown. We show that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a commonly used anti-metabolite therapeutic with varying efficacy, induces specific alterations to nucleotide metabolism by disrupting pyrimidine homeostasis. An integrative metabolomics analysis of ...

  14. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length11C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of11C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation

  15. Studies of cryocooler based cryosorption pump with activated carbon panels operating at 11K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Gangradey, Ranjana; Udgata, Swarup; Krishnamoorthy, V.

    2012-11-01

    Cryosorption pump is the only solution for pumping helium and hydrogen in fusion reactors. It is chosen because it offers highest pumping speed as well as the only suitable pump for the harsh environments in a tokamak. Towards the development of such cryosorption pumps, the optimal choice of the right activated carbon panels is essential. In order to characterize the performance of the panels with indigenously developed activated carbon, a cryocooler based cryosorption pump with scaled down sizes of panels is experimented. The results are compared with the commercial cryopanel used in a CTI cryosorption (model: Cryotorr 7) pump. The cryopanel is mounted on the cold head of the second stage GM cryocooler which cools the cryopanel down to 11K with first stage reaching about ~50K. With no heat load, cryopump gives the ultimate vacuum of 2.1E-7 mbar. The pumping speed of different gases such as nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, helium are tested both on indigenous and commercial cryopanel. These studies serve as a bench mark towards the development of better cryopanels to be cooled by liquid helium for use with tokamak.

  16. Pharmacological targeting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human erythrocytes by Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Giustarini, Daniela; Koralkova, Pavla; Köberle, Martin; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Dreischer, Peter; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Lang, Florian; Toulany, Mahmoud; Wieder, Thomas; Mojzikova, Renata; Rossi, Ranieri; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In mature erythrocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) yield NADPH, a crucial cofactor of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) converting glutathione disulfide (GSSG) into its reduced state (GSH). GSH is essential for detoxification processes in and survival of erythrocytes. We explored whether the anti-inflammatory compounds Bay 11–7082, parthenolide and dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were able to completely deplete a common target (GSH), and to impair the function of upstream enzymes of GSH recycling and replenishment. Treatment of erythrocytes with Bay 11–7082, parthenolide or DMF led to concentration-dependent eryptosis resulting from complete depletion of GSH. GSH depletion was due to strong inhibition of G6PDH activity. Bay 11–7082 and DMF, but not parthenolide, were able to inhibit the GR activity. This approach “Inhibitors, Detection of their common target that is completely depleted or inactivated when pharmacologically relevant concentrations of each single inhibitor are applied, Subsequent functional analysis of upstream enzymes for this target” (IDS), can be applied to a broad range of inhibitors and cell types according to the selected target. The specific G6PDH inhibitory effect of these compounds may be exploited for the treatment of human diseases with high NADPH and GSH consumption rates, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, cancer or obesity. PMID:27353740

  17. Biodistribution of a positron-emitting suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase, carbon-11 pargyline, in mice and a rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-11 (11C) pargyline, which is a suicide inactivator of Type B monoamine oxidase (MAO), was synthesized by the reaction of N-demethylpargyline with 11CH3l. Biodistribution was investigated in mice, and positron tomographic images of the heart and lung in a rabbit were obtained. The distribution of 11C after administration of [11C]pargyline was measured in several organs and blood at various time intervals. After 30 min its concentrations in the organs were constant. Subcellular distribution studies in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney showed that 59-70% of the 11C became acid-insoluble and 9-33% was present in the crude mitochondrial fraction at 60 min after injection. The uptakes of the 11C in each organ except for the kidney and spleen seemed to correlate with the in vitro enzymatic activity of Type B MAO. At high loading dose a nonspecific uptake was observed

  18. Target-plane deposition of diamond-like carbon in pulsed laser ablation of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, S.S. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my

    2007-10-15

    In pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at 10{sup -6} Torr, diamond-like carbon (DLC) are deposited at laser wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm on substrates placed in the target-plane. These target-plane samples are found to contain varying sp{sup 3} content and composed of nanostructures of 40-200 nm in size depending on the laser wavelength and laser fluence. The material and origin of sp{sup 3} in the target-plane samples is closely correlated to that in the laser-modified HOPG surface layer, and hardly from the backward deposition of ablated carbon plume. The surface morphology of the target-plane samples shows the columnar growth and with a tendency for agglomeration between nanograins, in particular for long laser wavelength at 1064 nm. It is also proposed that DLC formation mechanism at the laser-ablated HOPG is possibly via the laser-induced subsurface melting and resolidification.

  19. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradetti, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova (Italy); Biasetto, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali, Vicenza (Italy); Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Carturan, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Vasquez, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Padova (Italy); Zanonato, P. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova (Italy); Colombo, P. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Padova (Italy); Jost, C.U. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville (United States); Stracener, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community. (orig.)

  20. Neutron-Rich Isotope Production Using a Uranium Carbide Carbon Nanotubes SPES Target Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradetti, Stefano [ORNL; Biasetto, Lisa [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Manzolaro, Mattia [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Scarpa, Daniele [ORNL; Carturan, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Andrighetto, Alberto [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Prete, Gianfranco [ORNL; Vasquez, Jose L [ORNL; Zanonato, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova, Italy; Colombo, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Padova, Italy; Jost, Carola [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  1. Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Dual-Target Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cui; LI Guo-Qing; GOU Wei; MU Zong-Xin; ZHANG Cheng-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Smooth, dense and uniform diamond-like carbon films (DLC films) for industrial applications have successfully been prepared by dual-target unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the DLC characteristics of the films are confirmed by Raman spectra. It is found that the sputtering current of target plays an important role in the DLC film deposition. Deposition rate of 3.5μm/h is obtained by using the sputtering current of 30 A. The friction coefficient of the films is 0.2-0.225 measured by using a pin-on-disc microtribometer. The structure of the films tends to have a growth of sp3 bonds content at high sputtering current. The compressive residual stress in the films increases with the increasing sputtering current of the target.

  2. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Carturan, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Vasquez, J.; Zanonato, P.; Colombo, P.; Jost, C. U.; Stracener, D. W.

    2013-05-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  3. Carbon emission reduction targeting through process integration and fuel switching with mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► CO2 emissions reduction targeting for existing plant were categorized into three groups. ► Model for CO2 emissions reduction targeting via combination approach was developed. ► Effect of combination approach onto HEN area efficiency was discussed. ► Proposed execution strategy can avoid HEN area efficiency deterioration. -- Abstract: Carbon emission reduction targeting is an important and effective effort for industry to contribute in controlling greenhouse gases concentration in atmosphere. Graphical approach has been proposed for CO2 emissions reduction targeting via HEN retrofit and fuel switching. However, it involves potentially time consuming manual procedures and the quality of solutions produced greatly depends on designer’s experience and judgment. Besides, graphical approach hardly account for the cost factor during the design phase, thus potentially generate complex design. This paper introduces an MINLP model for simultaneous CO2 emissions reduction targeting via fuel switching and HEN retrofit. A sequential model execution was proposed along with the proposed model. The application of the model on a crude preheat train case study has demonstrated its workability to generate optimal solution for targeted CO2 emissions reduction at minimum payback period.

  4. Design of antibody-functionalized carbon nanotubes filled with radioactivable metals towards a targeted anticancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinato, Cinzia; Perez Ruiz de Garibay, Aritz; Kierkowicz, Magdalena; Pach, Elzbieta; Martincic, Markus; Klippstein, Rebecca; Bourgognon, Maxime; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Ballesteros, Belén; Tobias, Gerard; Bianco, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we have devised the synthesis of a novel promising carbon nanotube carrier for the targeted delivery of radioactivity, through a combination of endohedral and exohedral functionalization. Steam-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been initially filled with radioactive analogues (i.e. metal halides) and sealed by high temperature treatment, affording closed-ended CNTs with the filling material confined in the inner cavity. The external functionalization of these filled CNTs was then achieved by nitrene cycloaddition and followed by the derivatization with a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed by several cancer cells. The targeting efficiency of the so-obtained conjugate was evaluated by immunostaining with a secondary antibody and by incubation of the CNTs with EGFR positive cells (U87-EGFR+), followed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy or elemental analyses. We demonstrated that our filled and functionalized CNTs can internalize more efficiently in EGFR positive cancer cells.In the present work we have devised the synthesis of a novel promising carbon nanotube carrier for the targeted delivery of radioactivity, through a combination of endohedral and exohedral functionalization. Steam-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been initially filled with radioactive analogues (i.e. metal halides) and sealed by high temperature treatment, affording closed-ended CNTs with the filling material confined in the inner cavity. The external functionalization of these filled CNTs was then achieved by nitrene cycloaddition and followed by the derivatization with a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed by several cancer cells. The targeting efficiency of the so-obtained conjugate was evaluated by immunostaining with a secondary antibody and by incubation of the CNTs with EGFR positive cells (U87

  5. Fusion cross sections of carbon isotopes obtained with an ionization chamber in active target mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fusion has provided questions to both physicists and astronomers for at least the last 50 years. From fundamental nuclear structure to recent discoveries in stellar phenomena there are still open topics. Fusion in the 12C + 12C system show oscillations that are not present in neighboring systems and are yet not completely understood. Unexplained behavior in the threshold between 1p and 2s1d shells is seen as fusion cross sections show significant changes in systems which differ by only a nucleon. A new type of stellar explosions, called super bursts, in X-ray binaries were recently observed and are thought to require fusion of radioactive carbon isotopes for an explanation, opening new paths for stellar nucleosynthesis. These are a few interesting examples that motivated the development of a new measurement technique, which comprises a Multi Sampling Ionization Chamber (Music) operated in active target mode, with methane gas (C H4) as both counting gas and reaction target. This offers a high efficiency detection method where excitation functions can be sampled, using a single beam energy, in a range determined by the ionization gas pressure. This is a great advantage since it drastically reduces the measurement time and the data are automatically normalized. The high efficiency of the detector makes it ideal for experiments where the reaction cross section and/or the beam intensity are low, i.e. for processes involving radioactive nuclei. Using the Music, fusion cross sections in systems with carbon isotopes of mass numbers A = 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 impinging on a carbon-12 target have been measured. Beam energies of about 3 MeV/A were used for obtaining fusion excitation functions in the center of mass energy range between 10 and 20 MeV. In this contribution, the operation principle of the Music is discussed. Then, the experimental excitation functions are presented and compared with previous data (3when available) and different theoretical models

  6. Targeted NGS meets expert clinical characterization: Efficient diagnosis of spastic paraplegia type 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fernández, Cristina; Arias, Manuel; Blanco-Arias, Patricia; Santomé-Collazo, Luis; Amigo, Jorge; Carracedo, Ángel; Sobrido, Maria-Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is transforming the diagnostic approach for neurological disorders, since it allows simultaneous analysis of hundreds of genes, even based on just a broad, syndromic patient categorization. However, such an approach bears a high risk of incidental and uncertain genetic findings. We report a patient with spastic paraplegia whose comprehensive neurological and imaging examination raised a high clinical suspicion of SPG11. Thus, although our NGS pipeline for this group of disorders includes gene panel and exome sequencing, in this sample only the spatacsin gene region was captured and subsequently searched for mutations. Two probably pathogenic variants were quickly and clearly identified, confirming the diagnosis of SPG11. This case illustrates how combination of expert clinical characterization with highly oriented NGS protocols leads to a fast, cost-efficient diagnosis, minimizing the risk of findings with unclear significance.

  7. Targeted NGS meets expert clinical characterization: Efficient diagnosis of spastic paraplegia type 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Castro-Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS is transforming the diagnostic approach for neurological disorders, since it allows simultaneous analysis of hundreds of genes, even based on just a broad, syndromic patient categorization. However, such an approach bears a high risk of incidental and uncertain genetic findings. We report a patient with spastic paraplegia whose comprehensive neurological and imaging examination raised a high clinical suspicion of SPG11. Thus, although our NGS pipeline for this group of disorders includes gene panel and exome sequencing, in this sample only the spatacsin gene region was captured and subsequently searched for mutations. Two probably pathogenic variants were quickly and clearly identified, confirming the diagnosis of SPG11. This case illustrates how combination of expert clinical characterization with highly oriented NGS protocols leads to a fast, cost-efficient diagnosis, minimizing the risk of findings with unclear significance.

  8. Targeted NGS meets expert clinical characterization: Efficient diagnosis of spastic paraplegia type 11

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Castro-Fernández; Manuel Arias; Patricia Blanco-Arias; Luis Santomé-Collazo; Jorge Amigo; Ángel Carracedo; Maria-Jesús Sobrido

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is transforming the diagnostic approach for neurological disorders, since it allows simultaneous analysis of hundreds of genes, even based on just a broad, syndromic patient categorization. However, such an approach bears a high risk of incidental and uncertain genetic findings. We report a patient with spastic paraplegia whose comprehensive neurological and imaging examination raised a high clinical suspicion of SPG11. Thus, although our NGS pipeline for this...

  9. Studies in Multifunctional Drug Development: Preparation and Evaluation of 11beta-Substituted Estradiol-Drug Conjugates, Cell Membrane Targeting Imaging Agents, and Target Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, KinhLuan Lenny D.

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease in the United State. Despite extensive research in development of antitumor drugs, most of these therapeutic entities often possess nonspecific toxicity, thus they can only be used to treat tumors in higher doses or more frequently. Because of the cytotoxicity and severe side effects, the drug therapeutic window normally is limited. Beside the toxicity issue, antitumor drug are also not selectively taken up by tumor cells, thus the necessitating concentrations that would eradicate the tumor can often not be used. In addition, tumor cells tend to develop resistance against the anticancer drugs after prolonged treatment. Therefore, alleviating the systemic cytotoxicity and side effects, improving in tumor selectivity, high potency, and therapeutic efficacy are still major obstacles in the area of anticancer drug development. A more promising approach for developing a selective agent for cancer is to conjugate a potent therapeutic drug, or an imaging agent with a targeting group, such as antibody or a high binding-specificity small molecule, that selectively recognize the overexpressed antigens or proteins on tumor cells. My research combines several approaches to describe this strategy via using different targeting molecules to different diseases, as well as different potent cytotoxic drugs for different therapies. Three studies related to the preparation and biological evaluation of new therapeutic agents, such as estradiol-drug hybrids, cell membrane targeted molecular imaging agents, and multifunctional NPs will be discussed. The preliminary results of these studies indicated that our new reagents achieved their initial objectives and can be further improved for optimized synthesis and in vivo experiments. The first study describes the method in which we employed a modular assembly approach to synthesize a novel 11beta-substituted steroidal anti-estrogen. The key intermediate was synthesized

  10. Vascular targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for near-infrared light therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Whitney M.; Van Rite, Brent D.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2011-11-01

    A new approach for targeting carbon nanotubes to the tumor vasculature was tested using human endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with the F3 peptide using a polyethylene glycol linker to target nucleolin, a protein found on the surface of endothelial cells in the vasculature of solid tumors. Confocal microscopy and Raman analysis confirmed that the conjugate was internalized by actively dividing endothelial cells. Dividing endothelial cells were used to mimic these cells in the tumor vasculature. Incubation with the conjugate for 8 h or more caused significant cell death in both actively dividing endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, an effect that is hypothesized to be due to the massive uptake of the conjugate. This targeted cell killing was further enhanced when coupled with near-infrared laser treatment. For confluent (non-dividing) endothelial cells, no cytotoxic effect was seen for incubation alone or incubation coupled with laser treatment. These results are promising and warrant further studies using this conjugate for cancer treatment in vivo.

  11. Nuclear Structure Studies in the 132Sn Region: Safe Coulex with Carbon Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmond, James M [ORNL; Stuchbery, Andrew E [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Radford, David C [ORNL; Batchelder, J. C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Stone, N. J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Varner, Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The collective and single-particle structure of nuclei in the 132Sn region was recently studied by Coulomb excitation and heavy-ion induced transfer reactions using carbon, beryllium, and titanium targets. In particular, Coulomb excitation was used determine a complete set of electromagnetic moments for the first 2+ states and one-neutron transfer was used to probe the purity and evolution of single-neutron states. These recent experiments were conducted at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL using a CsI-HPGe detector array (BareBall- CLARION) to detect scattered particles and emitted gamma rays from the in-beam reactions. A Bragg-curve detector was used to measure the energy loss of the various beams through the targets and to measure the radioactive beam compositions. A sample of the Coulomb excitation results is presented here with an emphasis placed on 116Sn. In particular, the safe Coulex criterion for carbon targets will be analyzed and discussed.

  12. Vascular targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for near-infrared light therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for targeting carbon nanotubes to the tumor vasculature was tested using human endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with the F3 peptide using a polyethylene glycol linker to target nucleolin, a protein found on the surface of endothelial cells in the vasculature of solid tumors. Confocal microscopy and Raman analysis confirmed that the conjugate was internalized by actively dividing endothelial cells. Dividing endothelial cells were used to mimic these cells in the tumor vasculature. Incubation with the conjugate for 8 h or more caused significant cell death in both actively dividing endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, an effect that is hypothesized to be due to the massive uptake of the conjugate. This targeted cell killing was further enhanced when coupled with near-infrared laser treatment. For confluent (non-dividing) endothelial cells, no cytotoxic effect was seen for incubation alone or incubation coupled with laser treatment. These results are promising and warrant further studies using this conjugate for cancer treatment in vivo.

  13. Influence of carbon on the giant magnetocaloric effect of LaFe11.7Si1.3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junqin; LIU Fusheng; AO Weiqin; ZHUANG Yinghong; ZHOU Kaiwen

    2006-01-01

    The influences of carbon on phase formation, Curie temperature, and magnetic entropy change of the NaZn13-type LaFe11.7Si1.3 were investigated. Seven carbon-containing alloys, LaFe11.7Si1.3Cx with x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50, respectively, were prepared for this investigation. Experimental results show that addition of a small amount of carbon in LaFe11.7Si1.3 is favorable for the formation of the NaZn13-type structure of LaFe11.7Si1.3Cx. The lattice constant increases with C addition and x increases in the alloy because of the introduction of C as interstitial atoms. The Cu rie temperature of LaFe11.7Si1.3Cx increases from 194 K to 225 K as x increases from 0 to 0.5. Large magnetic entropy changes were observed in these carbon-hontaining alloys LaFe11.7Si1.3Cx because of their first-order structural/magnetic observed in the alloy with x = 0.06. The large magnetic-entropy changes corresponding to low magnetic field change, and the low cost of the material of LaFe11.7Si1.3Cx makes it a promising candidate to be used as magnetic refrigerants in the corresponding temperature range.

  14. Radiation protection problems in a laboratory for the labelling of molecules with carbon-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that the qualities of carbon-11, especially its short half-life, which suit it so well for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals prove to be a great handicap in the preparation of these substances. The operator has to make a fresh preparation for each examination and start with strong radioactivities (200 to 500 mCi) in order to obtain an adequate injected activity at the end of the process, the absorbed dose averaging 1.5 man-rem per manipulation at the fingertips. The development of an automatic preparation method involving as little manual interference as possible has halved the collective dose for twice the dose handled. The labelling of molecules used for diagnosis is now considered to take place under satisfactory radioprotection conditions. The fingertip irradiations are analysed in the light of CIPR recommendations, while regretting that in publication 26 this problem of partial external irradiation of the skin is not dealt with as clearly and precisely as before

  15. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography before and after repetitive ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, K F; Hansen, P R; Holm, S;

    2011-01-01

    Preserved myocardial oxygen consumption estimated by carbon 11-acetate and positron emission tomography (PET) in myocardial regions with chronic but reversibly depressed contractile function in patients with ischemic heart disease have been suggested to be caused by repeated short episodes of acute...

  16. Synthesis of suicide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase: carbon-11 labeled clorgyline, L-deprenyl and D-deprenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suicide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A and B, clorgyline and L-deprenyl have been labeled with carbon-11 by [11C]methylation of the norbases with [11C]H3I. The less active enantiomer of deprenyl (D-deprenyl) was also labeled using this procedure. The synthesis time was 35 minutes, the radiochemical yield was 25-40% and the specific activity was 0.8-2.0 Ci/μmol (calculated to EOB). Procedures for synthesis of the precursor norbases as well as the synthesis of unlabeled clorgyline, L-deprenyl and D-deprenyl are given. (author)

  17. Comparative evaluation of T11 target structure and its deglycosylated derivative nullifies the importance of glycan moieties in immunotherapeutic efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirshendu Chatterjee; Sagar Acharya; Pankaj Kumar; Ananya Chatterjee; Suhnrita Chaudhuri; Anirban Ghosh; Swapna Chaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Sheep red blood cell (SRBC),a non-specific biological response modifier that has long been used as a classical antigen,has been shown to exert an immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities in experimental animals.The active component of SRBC,which is responsible for such effects,was found to be a cell surface acidic glycoprotein molecule,known as T11 target structure (T11TS).In the present study,T11TS was isolated and purified to homogeneity using a five-step protocol involving isolation of sheep erythrocyte membrane from packed cell volume,20% ammonium sulfate cut of the crude membrane proteins mixture,immunoaffinity purification using mouse anti-sheep CD58 mAb (L180/1) tagged matrix,preparative gel electrophoresis,and gel electroelution process.Finally,the purity and identity of the proteins were confirmed by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric analysis.The in silico glycosylation site analysis showed that the extracellular domain contained three N-glycosylation sites (N-12,N-62,and N-111) and one O-glycosylation site (T-107).However,the experimental analysis negated the presence of O-linked glycan moieties on T11TS.To investigate the role of glycan moieties in the current immunotherapeutic regime,T11TS and its deglycosylated form (dT11TS) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in N-ethyl-N-nitrosoureainduced immune-compromised mice at 0.4 mg/kg body weight.It was observed that both the forms of T11TS could activate the compromised immune status of mice by augmenting immune receptor expression (CD2,CD25,CD8,and CD11b),T-helper 1 shift of cytokine network,enhanced cytotoxicity,and phagocytosis activity.Therefore,the results nullify the active involvement of the N-linked glycan moieties in immunotherapeutic efficacy of T11TS.

  18. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  19. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA; targeting oral cavity pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawl Abdul S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acids mixture of triterpenic acids obtained from the oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata and known for its effectiveness in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease including peritumor edema. Boswellic acids have been extensively studied for a number of activities including anti inflammatory, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study describes the antimicrobial activities of boswellic acid molecules against oral cavity pathogens. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, which exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, was further evaluated in time kill studies, mutation prevention frequency, postantibiotic effect (PAE and biofilm susceptibility assay against oral cavity pathogens. Findings AKBA exhibited an inhibitory effect on all the oral cavity pathogens tested (MIC of 2-4 μg/ml. It exhibited concentration dependent killing of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 up to 8 × MIC and also prevented the emergence of mutants of S.mutans ATCC 25175 at 8× MIC. AKBA demonstrated postantibiotic effect (PAE of 5.7 ± 0.1 h at 2 × MIC. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited the formation of biofilms generated by S.mutans and Actinomyces viscosus and also reduced the preformed biofilms by these bacteria. Conclusions AKBA can be useful compound for the development of antibacterial agent against oral pathogens and it has great potential for use in mouthwash for preventing and treating oral infections.

  20. Functional single-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan conjugate for tumor cells targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoyan; Ou, Zhongmin; Xing, Da

    2009-08-01

    The application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the field of biomedicine is becoming an exciting topic because of their flexible structure and propensity for chemical functionalization. In this assay, a novel noncovalently functional SWCNTs based on a natural biocompatible polymer chitosan has been developed for tumor cells targeting. First, SWCNTs were modified by chitosan (CHIT-SWCNT). Second, CHIT-SWCNT was coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), based on the reaction between the isothiocyanate group of FITC and the primary amino group of chitosan. Third, the FITC functionalized CHIT-SWCNT was conjugated with folic acid (FA) after activation with EDC/NHS, based on the reaction between the NHS group of FA and the primary free amino group of chitosan to construct the functional SWCNT/CHIT conjugate, CHIT-SWCNT-FA. The fluorescence CHIT-SWCNT-FA has been used to detect tumor cells with confocal microscopy imaging technology. Our experimental results indicate that the novel CHIT-SWCNT-FA is soluble and stable in PBS, and it can be readily transported inside tumor cells. Combining the intrinsic properties of carbon nanotubes and the versatility of chitosan, CHIT-SWCNT can be used as potential devices for targeted drug delivery and tumor cell sensing. The proposed assay could provide a feasible alternative to presently available functional SWCNTs in biological applications.

  1. Realization of an apparatus for the synthesis and detection of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids and of a data acquisition system for the study of the myocardial methabolism of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the study and the realization of an apparatus to synthesize fatty acids labelled with carbon 11, a radioactive isotope with an half-life of 20.38 minutes. A system of gamma-ray detection with data processing designed for the study of the myocardiac metabolism of radiopharmaceuticals using isolated rat hearts as experimental models. The synthesis of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids required a preliminary study of the manufacture of this isotope at the synchrocyclotron of the I.P.N. (Lyon). The method chosen is the nuclear reaction (d,xn) with naturally occurring boron trioxide as the target. The apparatus was designed so as extract carbon 11 from the target in the form of 11CO2 which can then be used in the synthesis of carbon 11 labelled hexadecanoique, heptadecanoic and beta-methyl hexadecanoic acids. The time scale of this synthesis must be compatible with the short half-like of the isotope. In order to study these compounds 'in vivo' on the experimental model of isolated rat hearts, a system of detection, which functions either in a simple gamma mode or in a gamma-gamma coincidence mode, was developed. This apparatus can attain a rate of approximately 50 000 counts/sec. per channel, thus it is possible to obtain information about rapid phases of metabolism with a satisfactory statistical precision. Moreover the spectral analysis of the gamma-ray permits the simultaneous detection of different radioisotopes. Hence it was possible to compare the behaviour of carbon 11 labelled fatty acids with homologous molecules marked with iodine 123. The analysis of the experimental results was achieved witha computer based on an I.B.M. compatible PC-XT. The essential parts of this system are a data-acquisition card for the PC, code for the acquisition and the data processing

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled tracers for in vivo visualization of PDE10A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In vivo visualization of PDE10A using PET provides a tool to evaluate the role of PDE10A in various neuropsychiatric diseases and can also be useful in the clinical evaluation of PDE10A inhibitor drug candidates. We evaluated several carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled PDE10A inhibitors as potential PDE10A PET radioligands. Materials and Methods: [11C]MP10, [11C]JNJ42071965 and four other tracers were developed. Their biodistribution was evaluated in rats. Rat plasma and brain radiometabolites were quantified. Baseline microPET imaging was performed in normal rats and PDE10A knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Blocking and displacement studies were conducted. The selectivity of the tracer binding was further studied in an ex vivo autoradiography experiment in PDE10A KO and WT mice. Results: Biodistribution showed brain uptake for all tracers in the striatum and wash-out from the cerebellum. [11C]1 (11C-MP10) had the highest specific uptake index (striatum (S) vs. cerebellum (C) ratios (S/C)-1) at 60 min (7.4). [11C]5 ([11C]JNJ42071965) had a high index at the early time points (1.0 and 3.7 at 2 and 30 min p.i., respectively). The affinity of [11C]4, [18 F]3 and [18 F]6 was too low to visualize PDE10A using microPET. [11C] 2 showed a specific binding, while kinetics of [11C]1 were too slow. [11C]5 reached equilibrium after 10 min (uptake index = 1.2). Blocking and displacement experiments in rats and baseline imaging in PDE10A KO mice showed specific and reversible binding of [11C]5 to PDE10A. Conclusions: We successfully radiolabeled and evaluated six radiotracers for their potential to visualize PDE10A in vivo. While [11C]1 had the highest striatal specific uptake index, its slow kinetics likely compromise clinical use of this tracer. [11C]5 has a relatively high striatum-to-background ratio and fast kinetic profile, which makes it a valuable carbon-11 alternative

  3. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  4. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country s gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates into an a...

  5. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Dotan

    Full Text Available The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining.TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls.A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam radiation or chemotherapy, with

  6. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Trifiro, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid) act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches. Methods Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin) were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm) was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining. Results TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls. Conclusion A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam

  7. China's Voluntary Mitigation Target and Road of Low-carbon Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jiankun

    2011-01-01

    China is going through a rapid development stage of industrialization and urbanization.Although tremendous achievements have been made in the aspects of energy conservation,improvement of energy effectiveness and development of new and renewable energies,because of the rapid development of economy,it is difficult to change the huge total amount and fast increase of CO2 emission in the near future.China has to confront the tough challenge to address global climate change.China plans to reduce carbon intensity,that is,CO2 emissions per unit GDP,by 40 to 45% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level.It is a strategic option to coordinate domestic sustainable development with coping with global climate change on the basis of China's national circumstances,representing the core content and key measures for transforming development pattern and realizing low-carbon development.To achieve the target,more capital and technology inputs are required for energy conservation and low-carbon development during the twelfth and Thirteenth Five Year Plan period than in the Eleventh Five Year Plan period.In addition,energy conservation achieved by structural adjustment,industrial upgrading and product value-added improvement is also expected to play a greater role.Therefore,China should strengthen technological innovation,make greater efforts to transform the development pattern,take advantage of the synergistic effect of policies and measures while coping with global climate change and building a domestic tow-oriented society.China should also establish an industrial system characterized by low-carbon emission.Then China will ultimately achieve a win-win situation in both domestic sustainable development and coping with global climate change.

  8. Non-Detection of HC11N toward TMC-1: Constraining the Chemistry of Large Carbon-Chain Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A.; Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2016-09-01

    Bell et al. (1997) reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC11N toward the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported toward any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules toward TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analyzed GBT observations of HC9N and HC11N toward TMC-1. Although we find an HC9N column density consistent with previous values, HC11N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. (1997). Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC11N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown carbon-chain chemistry. We propose that cyclization reactions may be responsible for the depleted HC11N abundance, and that products of these cyclization reactions should be investigated as candidate interstellar molecules.

  9. Synthesis and carbon-11 labeling of (R)- and (S)-thionisoxetine, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, potential radioligands for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards and des-methyl precursors of (R)- and (S)-thionisoxetine, potent and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, were synthesized and radiolabeled with carbon-11. Both enantiomers of the N-methyl-3-(2-thiomethylphenoxy)-3-phenylpropanamine and the 3-(2-thiomethylphenoxy)-3-phenylpropylamine were obtained via multi-step syntheses, while the radiosyntheses were carried out using [11C]CH3I. The radiochemical yields were 26%, decay corrected and the specific radioactivity ranging from 2 to 3 Ci/μmol. The HPLC analyses were performed using a chiral column: during the radiolabeling, no racemization occurred and the isomers were synthesized with high enantiomeric purity

  10. Framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon Emissions reduction target: Focused on educational facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has increased the global warming potential, an international agreement on carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) has been formulated in Kyoto Protocol (1997). This study aimed to develop a framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT. To verify the feasibility of the proposed framework, educational facilities were used for a case study. This study was conducted in six steps: (i) selection of the target school; (ii) establishment of the reference model for the target school; (iii) energy consumption pattern analysis by target school; (iv) establishment of the energy retrofit model for the target school; (v) economic and environmental assessment through the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analysis; and (vi) establishment of the low-carbon scenario in 2020 to achieve the national CERT. This study can help facility managers or policymakers establish the optimal retrofit strategy within the limited budget from a short-term perspective and the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT from the long-term perspective. The proposed framework could be also applied to any other building type or country in the global environment

  11. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting MRI contrast agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lin Hou,* Huijuan Zhang,* Yating Wang, Lili Wang, Xiaomin Yang, Zhenzhong ZhangSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A tumor-targeting carrier, hyaluronic acid (HA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, was explored to deliver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents (CAs targeting to the tumor cells specifically. In this system, HA surface modification for SWCNTs was simply accomplished by amidation process and could make this nanomaterial highly hydrophilic. Cellular uptake was performed to evaluate the intracellular transport capabilities of HA-SWCNTs for tumor cells and the uptake rank was HA-SWCNTs> SWCNTs owing to the presence of HA, which was also evidenced by flow cytometry. The safety evaluation of this MRI CAs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. It revealed that HA-SWCNTs could stand as a biocompatible nanocarrier and gadolinium (Gd/HA-SWCNTs demonstrated almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Moreover, GdCl3 bearing HA-SWCNTs could significantly increase the circulation time for MRI. Finally, to investigate the MRI contrast enhancing capabilities of Gd/HA-SWCNTs, T1-weighted MR images of tumor-bearing mice were acquired. The results suggested Gd/HA-SWCNTs had the highest tumor-targeting efficiency and T1-relaxivity enhancement, indicating HA-SWCNTs could be developed as a tumor-targeting carrier to deliver the CAs, GdCl3, for the identifiable diagnosis of tumor.Keywords: gadolinium, magnetic resonance, SWCNTs, hyaluronic acid, contrast agent

  12. Multifunctional hybrid-carbon nanotubes: new horizon in drug delivery and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as an intriguing nanotechnological tool for numerous biomedical applications including biocompatible modules for the bioactives delivery ascribed to their unique properties, such as greater loading efficiency, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high surface area and photoluminescence, that make them ideal candidate in pharmaceutical and biomedical science. The design of multifunctional hybrid-CNTs for drug delivery and targeting may differ from the conventional drug delivery system. The conventional nanocarriers have few limitations, such as inappropriate availability of surface-chemical functional groups for conjugation, low entrapment/loading efficiency as well as stability as per ICH guidelines with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) prominences. The multifunctional hybrid-CNTs will sparked and open a new door for researchers, scientist of the pharmaceutical and biomedical arena. This review summarizes the vivid aspects of CNTs like characterization, supramolecular chemistry of CNTs-dendrimer, CNTs-nanoparticles, CNTs-quantum dots conjugate for delivery of bioactives, not discussed so far. PMID:26147085

  13. Effects of functionalization on the targeting site of carbon nanotubes inside cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A E; Bendall, J S; Welland, M [UK SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gass, M [The Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 OFF (United Kingdom); Muller, K; Skepper, J [Multiimaging Centre, Department of PDN, Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Anatomy Building, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY (United Kingdom); Midgley, P, E-mail: a.porter@imperial.ac.u [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are currently being investigated for a variety of applications, including contrast agents for medical imaging{sup 1}. However before they can be used commercially it is necessary to assess whether they enter cells, the site they target within the cell and whether they cause any cytotoxicity. Here we characterize uptake of unlabelled, acid-treated, COO{sup -} functionalized SWNTs by human monocyte derived macrophage cells using both low-loss and energy loss spectroscopy and compare our findings to previous work on unpurified SWNTs. The acid-treated SWNTs were less aggregated within cells than unpurified SWNTs. Acid treatment was found to affect the distribution of intracellular SWNTs. Bundles, and also individual acid treated SWNTs, were found frequently inside lysosomes, cytoplasm and also inserting into the plasma membrane whereas unpurified non-functionalised SWNTs entered lysosomes and occasionally the nucleus.

  14. Construction of magnetic-carbon-quantum-dots-probe-labeled apoferritin nanocages for bioimaging and targeted therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hanchun; Su, Li; Zeng, Man; Cao, Li; Zhao, Weiwei; Chen, Chengqun; Du, Bin; Zhou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) are one of the most highlighted carbon-based materials for biological applications, such as optical imaging nanoprobes, which are used for labeling cells in cancer treatment mainly due to their biocompatibility and unique optical properties. In this study, gadolinium (Gd)-complex-containing CDs were obtained through a one-step microwave method to develop multimodal nanoprobes integrating the advantages of optical and magnetic imaging. The obtained Gd-CDs exhibited highly fluorescent properties with excellent water solubility and biological compatibility. Natural apoferritin (AFn) nanocages, an excellent drug delivery carrier, are hollow in structure, with their pH-dependent, unfolding–refolding process at pH 2.0 and 7.4. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be highly effective and encapsulated into AFn cavity. A widely used tumor-targeting molecule, folic acid (FA), functionalized the surface of AFn to obtain an active tumor targeting effect on MCF-7 cells and malignant tumors in mice models. In this study, an AFn nanocarrier encapsulating high concentration of DOX labeled with magnetic and fluorescent Gd-CDs probe was developed. Gd-CDs exhibited a unique green photoluminescence and almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Furthermore, Gd-doped CDs significantly increased the circulation time and decreased the toxicity of Gd3+ in in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated that the AFn nanocages labeled with Gd-CD compounds could serve as an excellent T1 contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The self-assembling multifunctional Gd-CDs/AFn (DOX)/FA nanoparticles have a great potential for cancer theranostic applications. PMID:27660437

  15. Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory%Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Gang

    2011-01-01

    Among all the emission reduction measures, carbon tax is recognized as the most effective way to protect our climate. That is why the Chinese government has recently taken it as a tax reform direction, In the current economic analysis, the design of carbon tax is mostly based on the target to maximize the efficiency However, based on the theory of tax system optimization, we should also consider other policy objectives, such as equity, revenue and cost, and then balance different objectives to achieve the suboptimum reform of carbon tax system in China.

  16. Rapid synthesis and purification of carbon-11 labelled DOPA: a potential agent for brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method for preparation and purification of β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-D,L-α-alanine-1-11C(11C-DOPA), using 11CO2 as the radioactive precursor is described. Carboxylation of an α-lithioisocyanide, containing protected hydroxylic groups, was followed by a three-step hydrolysis of the intermediate αioscyano carboxylic acid. Preliminary experiments in rats indicate that the compound is preferentially decarboxylated in brain areas rich in dopamine containing neurons. (author)

  17. Development of rapid multistep carbon-11 radiosynthesis of the myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 to assess brain exposure by PET microdosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The myeloperoxidase inhibitor AZD3241 has been selected as a candidate drug currently being developed to delay progression in patients with neurodegenerative brain disorders. Part of the decision tree for translation of AZD3241 into clinical studies included the need for assessment of brain exposure in non-human primates by PET microdosing. For that purpose a rapid multistep method for 11C-labeling of AZD3241 was developed. Methods: AZD3241 was labeled in the thio-carbonyl position starting from [11C]potassium cyanide in a 4-step procedure using microwave assisted heating. In the first step [11C]potassium cyanide was converted to [11C]potassium thiocyanate followed by reaction with benzoyl chloride to yield benzoyl [11C]isothiocyanate. The benzoyl [11C]isothiocyanate was subsequently reacted with the precursor ethyl 3-(2-isopropoxyethylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and the formed intermediate underwent a base catalyzed cyclization to obtain [11C]AZD3241 in the final step. To assess [11C]AZD3241 brain exposure PET measurements were performed in three cynomolgus monkeys. Results: [11C]AZD3241 was produced in good and reproducible radiochemical yield 710 ± 294 MBq (mean ± SD, n = 7). Total time of synthesis was 60 min from end of bombardment. The specific radioactivity was 9 ± 4 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity was > 98%. Following iv administration of [11C]AZD3241 there was a rapid presence of radioactivity in brain in each of the three monkeys. The distribution of [11C]AZD3241 to brain was fast and a Cmax of 1.9 to 2.6% of the injected radioactivity was observed within 1.5 min. [11C]AZD3241 was homogeneously distributed in brain. Conclusion: The MPO inhibitor AZD3241 was successfully labeled with carbon-11 in a challenging 4-step procedure in good radiochemical yield allowing PET microdosing studies in cynomolgus monkey. [11C]AZD3241 rapidly entered brain and confirmed adequate brain exposure to support translation of AZD3241 to phase 2a

  18. Plasmonic welded single walled carbon nanotubes on monolayer graphene for sensing target protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangheon; Kim, Gi Gyu; Kim, Soohyun; Jung, Wonsuk

    2016-05-01

    We developed plasmonic welded single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on monolayer graphene as a biosensor to detect target antigen molecules, fc fusion protein without any treatment to generate binder groups for linker and antibody. This plasmonic welding induces atomic networks between SWCNTs as junctions containing carboxylic groups and improves the electrical sensitivity of a SWCNTs and the graphene membrane to detect target protein. We investigated generation of the atomic networks between SWCNTs by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy after plasmonic welding process. We compared the intensity ratios of D to G peaks from the Raman spectra and electrical sheet resistance of welded SWCNTs with the results of normal SWCNTs, which decreased from 0.115 to 0.086 and from 10.5 to 4.12, respectively. Additionally, we measured the drain current via source/drain voltage after binding of the antigen to the antibody molecules. This electrical sensitivity of the welded SWCNTs was 1.55 times larger than normal SWCNTs.

  19. Phosphatidylserine targets single-walled carbon nanotubes to professional phagocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjun V Konduru

    Full Text Available Broad applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT dictate the necessity to better understand their health effects. Poor recognition of non-functionalized SWCNT by phagocytes is prohibitive towards controlling their biological action. We report that SWCNT coating with a phospholipid "eat-me" signal, phosphatidylserine (PS, makes them recognizable in vitro by different phagocytic cells - murine RAW264.7 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived human macrophages, dendritic cells, and rat brain microglia. Macrophage uptake of PS-coated nanotubes was suppressed by the PS-binding protein, Annexin V, and endocytosis inhibitors, and changed the pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Loading of PS-coated SWCNT with pro-apoptotic cargo (cytochrome c allowed for the targeted killing of RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo aspiration of PS-coated SWCNT stimulated their uptake by lung alveolar macrophages in mice. Thus, PS-coating can be utilized for targeted delivery of SWCNT with specified cargoes into professional phagocytes, hence for therapeutic regulation of specific populations of immune-competent cells.

  20. Stable isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Jiang, Wenjuan; Chen, Shanli; Sun, Deling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Rui, Maoling

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotopic compositions (δ13C) of elemental carbon (EC) in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing region were determined in order to quantitatively evaluate the carbon sources of atmospheric fine particles during different seasons. Besides, δ13C values from potential sources such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and dust were synchronously measured. The results showed that the average δ13C values of EC in PM1.1 in winter and summer were - 23.89 ± 1.6‰ and - 24.76 ± 0.9‰, respectively. Comparing with δ13C values from potential sources, we concluded that the main sources of EC in PM1.1 were from the emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust. The higher δ13C values in winter than those in summer were chiefly attributed to the more coal consumption. Combining with the concentrations of SO42 - and K+ in PM1.1, the high δ13C values of EC on 24 December and 27 December 2013 were ascribed to extra input of corn straw burning in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust.

  1. [Targeting of type IV carbonic anhydrases in Capan-1 human pancreatic duct cells is concomitant of the polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, A; Fanjul, M; Hollande, E

    1996-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases II and IV play an essential role in the synthesis and secretion of HCO3- ions in pancreatic duct cells. Secretion of these ions is regulated by the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) chloride channel. In the present study, the expression of carbonic anhydrases IV and their targeting to plasma membranes were examined during the growth of human pancreatic duct cells in vitro. Human cancerous pancreatic duct cells of Capan-1 cell line which polarize during their growth were used. We show that: a) these cells express carbonic anhydrases IV continuously during growth in culture, and the expression depends on the stage of growth and the conformation of the cells; b) carbonic anhydrases IV are seen in the cytoplasm in non-polarized cells, but become progressively anchored to plasma membranes as the cells polarize, being targeted to the apical membranes of polarized cells; c) the subcellular distribution of carbonic anhydrases IV indicates that these enzymes are synthetized in rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported towards the plasma membrane using the classical secretory pathway through the Golgi apparatus. The results indicated that targeting of carbonic anhydrases IV in Capan-1 cells is linked to cellular polarization. PMID:8881572

  2. Measurement of analyzing powers of π+ and π- produced on a hydrogen and a carbon target with a 22-GeV/c incident polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzing powers of π+ and π- were measured using an incident 22-GeV/c transversely polarized proton beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. A magnetic spectrometer measured π± inclusive asymmetries on a hydrogen and a carbon target. An elastic polarimeter with a CH2 target measured pp elastic-scattering asymmetries to determine the beam polarization using published data for the pp elastic analyzing power. Using the beam polarization determined from the elastic polarimeter and asymmetries from the inclusive spectrometer, analyzing powers AN for π± were determined in the xF and pT ranges (0.45-0.8) and (0.3-1.2 GeV/c), respectively. The analyzing power results are similar in both sign and character to other measurements at 200 and 11.7 GeV/c, confirming the expectation that high-energy pion inclusive analyzing powers remain large and relatively energy independent. This suggests that pion inclusive polarimetry may be a suitable method for measuring future beam polarizations at BNL RHIC or DESY HERA. Analyzing powers of π+ and π- produced on hydrogen and carbon targets are the same. Various models to explain inclusive analyzing powers are also discussed

  3. Synthesis and in vivo brain distribution of carbon-11-labeled {delta}-opioid receptor agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama, E-mail: rpichika@ucsd.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jewett, Douglas M.; Sherman, Philip S. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Traynor, John R. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Husbands, Stephen M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Woods, James H. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Three new radiolabeled compounds, [{sup 11}C]SNC80 ((+)-4-[({alpha}R)-{alpha}-{l_brace}(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl{r_brace}-3-[{sup 11}C] methoxybenzyl-N,N-diethylbenzamide), N,N-diethyl-4-[3-methoxyphenyl-1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl) benzamide and N,N-diethyl-4-[(1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamide, were prepared as potential in vivo radiotracers for the {delta}-opioid receptor. Each compound was synthesized by alkylation of the appropriate desmethyl compounds using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. In vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed very low initial brain uptake of all three compounds and no regional specific binding for [{sup 11}C]SNC80. A monkey positron emission tomography study of [{sup 11}C]SNC80 confirmed low brain permeability and uniform regional distribution of this class of opioid agonists in a higher species. Opioid receptor ligands of this structural class are thus unlikely to succeed as in vivo radiotracers, likely due to efficient exclusion from the brain by the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter.

  4. Carbon-11-labeled amino acids for the rectilinear and positron tomographic imaging of the human pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K.F.; Andrews, G.A.; Buonocore, E.; Hayes, R.L.; Washburn, L.C.; Collmann, I.R.; Gibbs, W.D.

    1979-06-01

    Modification of the Buecherer-Strecker amino acid synthesis facilitated the production of DL-(/sup 11/C)tryptophan and DL-(/sup 11/C)valine for clinical trials in patients with proven or suspected pancreatic disease. Examples of rectilinear scans and tomographic images of the pancreas are presented in this initial paper. Positron computed tomography was done with the ORTEC ECAT system. Rapid localization of these C-11-labeled amino acids and fast clearance from the plasma permit almost immediate examination following i.v. injection. Illustrative images include the normal pancreas, pancreatitis, and pancreatic carcinoma. The use of positron tomography with C-11-labeled DL-tryptophan and DL-valine appears to offer a new and promising diagnostic modality for the detection and study of pancreatic diseases.

  5. Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal and speckle-targeting sequence of tuftelin-interacting protein 11, a splicing factor involved in spliceosome disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannukit, Sissada [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Crabb, Tara L.; Hertel, Klemens J. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4025 (United States); Wen, Xin [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Jans, David A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Paine, Michael L., E-mail: paine@usc.edu [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11) is a protein component of the spliceosome complex that promotes the release of the lariat-intron during late-stage splicing through a direct recruitment and interaction with DHX15/PRP43. Expression of TFIP11 is essential for cell and organismal survival. TFIP11 contains a G-patch domain, a signature motif of RNA-processing proteins that is responsible for TFIP11-DHX15 interactions. No other functional domains within TFIP11 have been described. TFIP11 is localized to distinct speckled regions within the cell nucleus, although excluded from the nucleolus. In this study sequential C-terminal deletions and mutational analyses have identified two novel protein elements in mouse TFIP11. The first domain covers amino acids 701-706 (VKDKFN) and is an atypical nuclear localization signal (NLS). The second domain is contained within amino acids 711-735 and defines TFIP11's distinct speckled nuclear localization. The identification of a novel TFIP11 nuclear speckle-targeting sequence (TFIP11-STS) suggests that this domain directly interacts with additional spliceosomal components. These data help define the mechanism of nuclear/nuclear speckle localization of the splicing factor TFIP11, with implications for it's function.

  6. Targeted delivery of docetaxel to the metastatic lymph nodes: A comparison study between nanoliposomes and activated carbon nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Ye

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the targeting ability of activated carbon nanoparticles and nanoliposomes, which are used as carriers for delivering docetaxel (DTX to the metastatic lymph nodes. In this study, we first prepared the DTX-loaded activated carbon nanoparticles (DTX-AC-NPs by modifying the activated carbon with nitric acid oxidation and absorbing DTX in the concentrated nitro-oxide nanocarbon. We then prepared DTX-loaded nanoliposomes (DTX-LPs by the proliposome method. The physiochemical properties of DTX-AC-NPs and DTX-LPs were carefully evaluated in vitro. The metastatic lymph node uptake and the injection site retention were investigated by analyzing the DTX concentration in metastatic lymph nodes and injection sites. The result showed that DTX-AC-NPs and DTX-LPs with suitable and stable physicochemical properties could be used for in vivo lymph node targeting studies. DTX-AC-NPs significantly increased DTX-AUC(0–24 and prolonged DTX-retention in metastatic lymph nodes compared to DTX-LPs and non-modified activate carbon in vivo. This study demonstrated activated carbon nanoparticles may be potential intralymphatic drug delivery system to preferentially target regional metastatic lymph nodes.

  7. Construction of magnetic-carbon-quantum-dots-probe-labeled apoferritin nanocages for bioimaging and targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao HC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanchun Yao,1,2 Li Su,1 Man Zeng,1 Li Cao,1 Weiwei Zhao,1 Chengqun Chen,3 Bin Du,1,2 Jie Zhou1,2 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center of Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, Henan Province, 3Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Carbon dots (CDs are one of the most highlighted carbon-based materials for biological applications, such as optical imaging nanoprobes, which are used for labeling cells in cancer treatment mainly due to their biocompatibility and unique optical properties. In this study, gadolinium (Gd-complex-containing CDs were obtained through a one-step microwave method to develop multimodal nanoprobes integrating the advantages of optical and magnetic imaging. The obtained Gd-CDs exhibited highly fluorescent properties with excellent water solubility and biological compatibility. Natural apoferritin (AFn nanocages, an excellent drug delivery carrier, are hollow in structure, with their pH-dependent, unfolding–refolding process at pH 2.0 and 7.4. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX can be highly effective and encapsulated into AFn cavity. A widely used tumor-targeting molecule, folic acid (FA, functionalized the surface of AFn to obtain an active tumor targeting effect on MCF-7 cells and malignant tumors in mice models. In this study, an AFn nanocarrier encapsulating high concentration of DOX labeled with magnetic and fluorescent Gd-CDs probe was developed. Gd-CDs exhibited a unique green photoluminescence and almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Furthermore, Gd-doped CDs significantly increased the circulation time and decreased the toxicity of Gd3+ in in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated that the AFn nanocages labeled with Gd-CD compounds could serve as an excellent T1 contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The self

  8. Dynamics of carbon dioxide transport in a multiple sink network (GHGT-11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    As Carbon Capture and Storage slowly gets accepted and integrated as a mean for cleaner utilization of fossil fuels, the integration of capture, transport and storage becomes a key component to properly design a CO2 network. While the boundary conditions set by the capture and storage units have bee

  9. First direct measurement of the 11C (α ,p )14N stellar reaction by an extended thick-target method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, S.; Kubono, S.; Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; He, J. J.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Teranishi, T.

    2016-06-01

    The 11C(α,p ) 14N reaction is an important α -induced reaction competing with β -limited hydrogen-burning processes in high-temperature explosive stars. We directly measured its reaction cross sections both for the ground-state transition (α ,p0) and the excited-state transitions (α ,p1) and (α ,p2) at relevant stellar energies 1.3-4.5 MeV by an extended thick-target method featuring time of flight for the first time. We revised the reaction rate by numerical integration including the (α ,p1) and (α ,p2) contributions and also low-lying resonances of (α ,p0) using both the present and the previous experimental data which were totally neglected in the previous compilation works. The present total reaction rate lies between the previous (α ,p0) rate and the total rate of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculation, which is consistent with the relevant explosive hydrogen-burning scenarios such as the ν p process.

  10. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, O; Halldin, C; Dollé, F; Swahn, C G; Olsson, H; Karlsson, P; Hall, H; Sandell, J; Lundkvist, C; Vaufrey, F; Loc'h, C; Crouzel, C; Mazière, B; Farde, L

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride [(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenza mide] binds with a picomolar affinity (Ki = 24 pM) to the dopamine D2 receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/micromol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [11C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [11C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [11C]epidepride. The availability of [11C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with SPECT. PMID:10473189

  11. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidepride {(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide} binds with a picomolar affinity (Ki=24 pM) to the dopamine D2 receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/μmol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [11C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [11C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [11C]epidepride. The availability of [11C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with SPECT.

  12. Gemcitabine-loaded smart carbon nanotubes for effective targeting to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Vikas; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the three-dimensional sp(2) hybridized nano-containers that have attracted considerable interest in drug delivery by offering potential advantages such as biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high loading efficiency, intrinsic stability and low toxicities. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the potential of gemcitabine-loaded folic acid (FA) conjugated multi-walled CNTs (GEM/FA-NT) for targeting to breast cancer cells. Pristine MWCNTs was functionalized by FA followed by carboxylation, acylation and amidation and characterized by electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, entrapment efficiency, cytotoxicity and in vivo studies. FDA-approved GEM was loaded to the purified (GEM-NT) and GEM/FA-NT, and % entrapment efficiency was found to be approximately 71.60 ± 0.25 and 79.60 ± 0.45, respectively. The developed formulation GEM/FA-NT was found to have significantly less hemolytic toxicity (8.23 ± 0.65) as compared to free GEM (17.34 ± 0.56). The in vitro release was found to be in sustained pattern at the lysosomal pH, which depicts more cytotoxic response on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). It may be interpreted that the GEM/FA-NT formulation is capable to carry drug and deliver it selectively at the tumor site while minimizing side effects and thus holds promise in chemotherapy.

  13. Indazole, Pyrazole, and Oxazole Derivatives Targeting Nitric Oxide Synthases and Carbonic Anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Vullo, Daniela; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Carradori, Simone; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Pandolfi, Assunta; Supuran, Claudiu T; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-08-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential endogenous mediator with a physiological role in the central nervous system as neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that abnormal nitrergic signaling is a crucial event in the development of neurodegeneration. In particular, the uncontrolled production of NO by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is well recognized that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) physiologically modulate crucial pathways of signal processing and that low expression of CA affects cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive impairments. In light of this, dual agents that are able to target both NOS (inhibition) and CA (activation) could be useful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, aging, and other neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we show the design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of new nitrogen-based heterocyclic compounds. Among the tested molecules, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1H-indazol-5-yl)propanamide hydrochloride (10 b) was revealed to be a potent dual agent, able to act as a selective nNOS inhibitor and activator of the hCA I isoform. PMID:27377568

  14. Measurement of carbon deposit at to irradiate a target; Medicion del deposito de carbon al irradiar un blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales M, P.; Aguilera R, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Backscattering data obtained when bombarding a thin target of {sup 12} C deposited on a thick substrate of Ta are analyzed, with a ion beam of {sup 12} C for high fluences and different energy between 9.85 and 13 MeV. A variation in the thickness of the target is observed and is found its correlation with the fluence in the target. (Author)

  15. PET Imaging of CRF1 with [{sup 11}C]R121920 and [{sup 11}C]DMP696: is the target of sufficient density?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory M. [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)]. E-mail: gms11@columbia.edu; Parsey, Ramin V. [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Kumar, J.S. Dileep [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Arango, Victoria [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Kassir, Suham A. [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Huang, Yung-yu [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Simpson, Norman R. [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Van Heertum, Ronald L. [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Mann, J. John [Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Aim: Overstimulation of the CRF type 1 receptor (CRF1) is implicated in anxiety and depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo binding characteristics of [{sup 11}C]R121920 and [{sup 11}C]DMP696 in the nonhuman primate for application in positron emission tomography (PET) studies of CRF1. Methods: PET imaging with the two novel CRF1 radioligands was performed in baboon. In vitro binding studies for CRF1 were performed in postmortem brain tissue of baboon and human to assess sufficiency of receptor density for PET. Results: Both [{sup 11}C]R121920 and [{sup 11}C]DMP696 distributed rapidly and uniformly throughout the brain. Washout was comparable across brain regions, without differences in volume of distribution between regions reported to have high and low in vitro CRF1 binding. Membrane-enriched tissue homogenate assay using [{sup 125}I]Tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine and specific CRF1 antagonists CP154,526 and SN003 in human occipital cortex yielded maximal binding (B {sub max}) of 63.3 and 147.3 fmol/mg protein, respectively, and in human cerebellar cortex yielded B {sub max} of 103.6 and 64.6 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Dissociation constants (K {sub D}) were subnanomolar. In baboon, specific binding was not detectable in the same regions; therefore, B {sub max} and K {sub D} were not measurable. Autoradiographic results were consistent except there was also detectable CRF1-specific binding in baboon cerebellum. Conclusion: Neither [{sup 11}C]R121920 nor [{sup 11}C]DMP696 demonstrated quantifiable regional binding in vivo in baboon. In vitro results suggest CRF1 density in baboon may be insufficient for PET. Studies in man may generate more promising results due to the higher CRF1 density compared with baboon in cerebral cortex and cerebellum.

  16. Targeting carbonic anhydrase IX by nitroimidazole based sulfamides enhances the therapeutic effect of tumor irradiation: A new concept of dual targeting drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) plays an important role in pH regulation processes critical for tumor cell growth and metastasis. We hypothesize that a dual targeting bioreductive nitroimidazole based anti-CAIX sulfamide drug (DH348) will reduce tumor growth and sensitize tumors to irradiation in a CAIX dependent manner. Material and methods: The effect of the dual targeting anti-CAIX (DH348) and its single targeting control drugs on extracellular acidification and radiosensitivity was examined in HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells. Tumor growth and time to reach 4× start volume (T4×SV) was monitored for animals receiving DH348 (10 mg/kg) combined with tumor single dose irradiation (10 Gy). Results: In vitro, DH348 reduced hypoxia-induced extracellular acidosis, but did not change hypoxic radiosensitivity. In vivo, DH348 monotherapy decreased tumor growth rate and sensitized tumors to radiation (enhancement ratio 1.50) without systemic toxicity only for CAIX expressing tumors. Conclusions: A newly designed nitroimidazole and sulfamide dual targeting drug reduces hypoxic extracellular acidification, slows down tumor growth at nontoxic doses and sensitizes tumors to irradiation all in a CAIX dependent manner, suggesting no “off-target” effects. Our data therefore indicate the potential utility of a dual drug approach as a new strategy for tumor-specific targeting

  17. Non-Detection of HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1: Constraining the Chemistry of Large Carbon-Chain Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Ryan A; Langston, Glen; McGuire, Brett A; Dollhopf, Niklaus M; Burkhardt, Andrew M; Corby, Joanna; Booth, Shawn T; Carroll, P Brandon; Turner, Barry; Remijan, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Bell et al. (1997) reported the first detection of the cyanopolyyne HC$_{11}$N toward the cold dark cloud TMC-1; no subsequent detections have been reported toward any source. Additional observations of cyanopolyynes and other carbon-chain molecules toward TMC-1 have shown a log-linear trend between molecule size and column density, and in an effort to further explore the underlying chemical processes driving this trend, we have analyzed GBT observations of HC$_9$N and HC$_{11}$N toward TMC-1. Although we find an HC$_9$N column density consistent with previous values, HC$_{11}$N is not detected and we derive an upper limit column density significantly below that reported in Bell et al. Using a state-of-the-art chemical model, we have investigated possible explanations of non-linearity in the column density trend. Despite updating the chemical model to better account for ion-dipole interactions, we are not able to explain the non-detection of HC$_{11}$N, and we interpret this as evidence of previously unknown ...

  18. Reacting to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Carbon Tax to Meet Emission Targets.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Metcalf

    2009-01-01

    In previous papers I have described a revenue and distributionally neutral approach to reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions that uses a carbon tax. The revenue from the carbon tax is used to finance an environmental earned income tax credit designed to be distributionally neutral. The carbon tax reform proposal is also revenue neutral and avoids conflating carbon policy with debates over the appropriate size of the federal budget. This paper describes a variant to address concerns of enviro...

  19. Carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry devoted to molecular probes for imaging the brain with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration of the living human brain in real-time and in a noninvasive way was for centuries only a dream, made, however, possible today with the remarkable development during the four last decades of powerful molecular imaging techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET). Molecular PET imaging relies, from a chemical point of view, on the use and preparation of a positron-emitting radiolabelled probe or radiotracer, notably compounds incorporating one of two short-lived radionuclides fluorine-18 (T1/2: 109.8 min) and carbon-11 (T1/2: 20.38 min). The growing availability and interest for the radio-halogen fluorine-18 in radiopharmaceutical chemistry undoubtedly results from its convenient half-life and the successful use in clinical oncology of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). The special interest of carbon-11 is not only that carbon is present in virtually all biomolecules and drugs allowing therefore for isotopic labelling of their chemical structures but also that a given molecule could be radiolabelled at different functions or sites, permitting to explore (or to take advantage of) in vivo metabolic pathways. PET chemistry includes production of these short-lived radioactive isotopes via nuclear transmutation reactions using a cyclotron, and is directed towards the development of rapid synthetic methods, at the trace level, for the introduction of these nuclides into a molecule, as well as the use of fast purification, analysis and formulation techniques. PET chemistry is the driving force in molecular PET imaging, and this special issue of the Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, which is strongly chemistry and radiochemistry-oriented, aims at illustrating, be it in part only, the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions currently available and its potential for the research and development of specific molecular probes labelled with the positron emitters carbon-11 and fluorine-18,with optimal imaging properties for

  20. Determination of biological transport of oxygen-15 and carbon-11 generated in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of induced 15O and 11C activity in live and dead rats was determined following local irradiation with a 32 MeV proton beam. Results indicate that rapid biological redistribution of some of the induced activity occurs within a minute following irradiation. Sufficient activity remains, bound in the intracellular water, to define the proton beam in tissue. Thus, mapping of the induced 15O activity proves to be a valid means of beam localization

  1. Carbon-11 labelled ketamine-synthesis, distribution in mice and PET studies in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, C.-Y.; Vallabhahosula, Shankar; Wolf, Alfred P.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Schlyer, David J.; Arnett, Carroll D.; Zhou Yiguo

    1997-02-01

    No-carrier-added (NCA)[{sup 11}C]({+-})-ketamine (2a) and its enantiomers (+)-2b and (-)-2c were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding norketamine (1a-c) with [{sup 11}C]H{sub 3}I in an overall radiochemical yield of 20% (EOB) with specific activities of 0.35-0.45 Ci/{mu}mole at EOB in a synthesis time of 40 min from EOB. Compound 2a was metabolized rapidly in mouse brain and labeled metabolites appeared in baboon plasma. PET studies of compounds 2a-c in a baboon showed that influx of compounds 2a-c into the brain was high for the first few min but radioactivity then declined rapidly. Although the retention of radioactivity in the baboon striatum was not significantly different for 2a-c 20 min post-injection, graphical analysis of time-activity data for each enantiomer and for the racemate in baboon striatum suggested that (+)-ketamine may interact with receptors slightly more effectively than its (-)-enantiomer or racemate. However, due to its rapid metabolism in the brain and a similar uptake in the striatum and cerebellum, [{sup 11}C]ketamine may not be an ideal tracer for studying NMDA receptor with PET.

  2. Investigations of acetonitrile solvent cluster formation in supercritical carbon dioxide, and its impact on microscale syntheses of carbon-11-labeled radiotracers for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new strategy has been developed for synthesizing positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers using [11C]methyl iodide. This strategy relies on the ability of organic co-solvents to cluster within mixtures of supercritical fluids resulting in localized regions of high density which can serve as microscopic pockets for reaction. We've shown that acetonitrile will cluster about dilute solutes when mixtures of this co-solvent with carbon dioxide are forced to behave as a homogeneous fluid at the critical point. We applied this strategy in a systematic investigation of the conditions for optimized reaction between methyl iodide and L-α-methyl-N-2-propynyl phenethylamine (nordeprenyl) to yield L-deprenyl. Variables such as temperature, ultraviolet light exposure, co-solvent concentration, system pressure, and methyl iodide concentration were explored. The synthesis of radioactive [11C]-L-deprenyl using no-carrier-added concentrations of [11C]methyl iodide was also tested. Results showed that greater than 90% radiochemical yield of the desired product could be attained using 40 times less labeling substrate than in conventional PET tracer syntheses

  3. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  4. Affinity Maturation of Monoclonal Antibody 1E11 by Targeted Randomization in CDR3 Regions Optimizes Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of HER2-Positive Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong-Kook; Choi, Soyoung; Cui, Lei Guang; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Shim, Hyunbo; Lee, Jong-Seo

    2015-01-01

    Anti-HER2 murine monoclonal antibody 1E11 has strong and synergistic anti-tumor activity in HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells when used in combination with trastuzumab. We presently optimized this antibody for human therapeutics. First, the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the murine antibody were grafted onto human germline immunoglobulin variable genes. No difference in affinity and biological activity was observed between chimeric 1E11 (ch1E11) and humanized 1E11 (hz1E11). Next, affinity maturation of hz1E11 was performed by the randomization of CDR-L3 and H3 residues followed by stringent biopanning selection. Milder selection pressure favored the selection of more diverse clones, whereas higher selection stringency resulted in the convergence of the panning output to a smaller number of clones with improved affinity. Clone 1A12 had four amino acid substitutions in CDR-L3, and showed a 10-fold increase in affinity compared to the parental clone and increased potency in an in vitro anti-proliferative activity assay with HER2-overepxressing gastric cancer cells. Clone 1A12 inhibited tumor growth of NCI-N87 xenograft model with similar efficacy to trastuzumab alone, and the combination treatment of 1A12 and trastuzumab completely removed the established tumors. These results suggest that humanized and affinity matured monoclonal antibody 1A12 is a highly optimized molecule for future therapeutic development against HER2-positive tumors.

  5. Facile Carbonization of Microporous Organic Polymers into Hierarchically Porous Carbons Targeted for Effective CO2 Uptake at Low Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; He, Jianqiao; Zhu, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Guipeng; Pan, Chunyue; Guan, Jianguo; Tao, Kai

    2016-07-20

    The advent of microporous organic polymers (MOPs) has delivered great potential in gas storage and separation (CCS). However, the presence of only micropores in these polymers often imposes diffusion limitations, which has resulted in the low utilization of MOPs in CCS. Herein, facile chemical activation of the single microporous organic polymers (MOPs) resulted in a series of hierarchically porous carbons with hierarchically meso-microporous structures and high CO2 uptake capacities at low pressures. The MOPs precursors (termed as MOP-7-10) with a simple narrow micropore structure obtained in this work possess moderate apparent BET surface areas ranging from 479 to 819 m(2) g(-1). By comparing different activating agents for the carbonization of these MOPs matrials, we found the optimized carbon matrials MOPs-C activated by KOH show unique hierarchically porous structures with a significant expansion of dominant pore size from micropores to mesopores, whereas their microporosity is also significantly improved, which was evidenced by a significant increase in the micropore volume (from 0.27 to 0.68 cm(3) g(-1)). This maybe related to the collapse and the structural rearrangement of the polymer farmeworks resulted from the activation of the activating agent KOH at high temperature. The as-made hierarchically porous carbons MOPs-C show an obvious increase in the BET surface area (from 819 to 1824 m(2) g(-1)). And the unique hierarchically porous structures of MOPs-C significantly contributed to the enhancement of the CO2 capture capacities, which are up to 214 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 1 bar) and 52 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 0.15 bar), superior to those of the most known MOPs and porous carbons. The high physicochemical stabilities and appropriate isosteric adsorption heats as well as high CO2/N2 ideal selectivities endow these hierarchically porous carbon materials great potential in gas sorption and separation. PMID:27332739

  6. Facile Carbonization of Microporous Organic Polymers into Hierarchically Porous Carbons Targeted for Effective CO2 Uptake at Low Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; He, Jianqiao; Zhu, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Guipeng; Pan, Chunyue; Guan, Jianguo; Tao, Kai

    2016-07-20

    The advent of microporous organic polymers (MOPs) has delivered great potential in gas storage and separation (CCS). However, the presence of only micropores in these polymers often imposes diffusion limitations, which has resulted in the low utilization of MOPs in CCS. Herein, facile chemical activation of the single microporous organic polymers (MOPs) resulted in a series of hierarchically porous carbons with hierarchically meso-microporous structures and high CO2 uptake capacities at low pressures. The MOPs precursors (termed as MOP-7-10) with a simple narrow micropore structure obtained in this work possess moderate apparent BET surface areas ranging from 479 to 819 m(2) g(-1). By comparing different activating agents for the carbonization of these MOPs matrials, we found the optimized carbon matrials MOPs-C activated by KOH show unique hierarchically porous structures with a significant expansion of dominant pore size from micropores to mesopores, whereas their microporosity is also significantly improved, which was evidenced by a significant increase in the micropore volume (from 0.27 to 0.68 cm(3) g(-1)). This maybe related to the collapse and the structural rearrangement of the polymer farmeworks resulted from the activation of the activating agent KOH at high temperature. The as-made hierarchically porous carbons MOPs-C show an obvious increase in the BET surface area (from 819 to 1824 m(2) g(-1)). And the unique hierarchically porous structures of MOPs-C significantly contributed to the enhancement of the CO2 capture capacities, which are up to 214 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 1 bar) and 52 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 0.15 bar), superior to those of the most known MOPs and porous carbons. The high physicochemical stabilities and appropriate isosteric adsorption heats as well as high CO2/N2 ideal selectivities endow these hierarchically porous carbon materials great potential in gas sorption and separation.

  7. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT. Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C−neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C. The 1−σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1 of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  8. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

    We study the $^{11}\\mathrm{Li}$ and $^{22}\\mathrm{C}$ nuclei at leading order (LO) in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT). Using the value of the $^{22}\\mathrm{C}$ rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrained the values of the two-neutron (2$n$) separation energy of $^{22}\\mathrm{C}$ and the virtual-state energy of the $^{20}\\mathrm{C}-$neutron system (hereafter denoted $^{21}$C). The 1$-\\sigma$ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gave an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2$n$ separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2$n$ halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the $^{11}\\mathrm{Li}$ data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtai...

  9. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bijaya; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO) in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT). Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n) separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C-neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C). The 1-σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1) of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  10. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer E-mail: christer.halldin@neuro.ks.se; Dolle, Frederic; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Olsson, Hans; Lundkvist, Per Karlsson; Hall, Haakan; Sandell, Johan; Vaufrey, Camilla; Loc' h, Christian; Franzoise; Crouzel, Christian; Maziere, Bernard; Farde, Lars

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride {l_brace}(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide= {r_brace} binds with a picomolar affinity (K{sub i}=24 pM) to the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/{mu}mol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [{sup 11}C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [{sup 11}C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]epidepride. The availability of [{sup 11}C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with

  11. Proton, Helium and Carbon Radiation Beam Targeting Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen and Halogenated Species in TRIM-SRIM Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays proton beam radiation therapy is considered in few centers for management of malignancies. This study is aimed to explore the effect of proton, helium or carbon irradiation on free radicals. This study was conducted in department of Physiology/Medical physics, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq during October 2009. TRIM-SRIM software version 1998 and2003 were used for computed Bragg peak and for calculated the effect of proton, helium and carbon ions against free radicals related to oxygen, nitrogen and halogen species. The lowest stopping power near Bragg's peak of proton targeting free radicals was against superoxide anion and its curve (the stopping power against energy) was shifted down while that of peroxynitrite(ONOO-) was shifted up. The stopping powers of helium targeting all studied free radicals were lower than corresponding proton irradiation but it required higher energy. Lower stopping power of carbon irradiation targeted hydroxyl(OH-) and halogenated radicals than the other reactive species were observed. It concludes that such from of external beam irradiation is associated with direct scavenging effect on free radicals of whatever sources.

  12. WST11, a novel water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative; cellular uptake, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and vascular-targeted photodynamic activity using melanoma tumors as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Ohad; Brandis, Alexander; Plaks, Vicki; Neumark, Eran; Rosenbach-Belkin, Varda; Salomon, Yoram; Scherz, Avigdor

    2005-01-01

    WST11 is a novel negatively charged water-soluble palladium-bacteriochlorophyll derivative that was developed for vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) in our laboratory. The in vitro results suggest that WST11 cellular uptake, clearance and phototoxicity are mediated by serum albumin trafficking. In vivo, WST11 was found to clear rapidly from the circulation (t1/2=1.65 min) after intravenous bolus injection in the mouse, whereas a longer clearance time (t1/2=7.5 min) was noted in rats after 20 min of infusion. The biodistribution of WST11 in mouse tissues indicates hepatic clearance (t1/2=20 min), with minor (kidney, lung and spleen) or no intermediary accumulation in other tissues. As soon as 1 h after injection, WST11 had nearly cleared from the body of the mouse, except for a temporal accumulation in the lungs from which it cleared within 40 min. On the basis of these results, we set the VTP protocol for a short illumination period (5 min), delivered immediately after WST11 injection. On subjecting M2R melanoma xenografts to WST11-VTP, we achieved 100% tumor flattening at all doses and a 70% cure with 9 mg/kg and a light exposure dose of 100 mW/cm2. These results provide direct evidence that WST11 is an effective agent for VTP and provide guidelines for further development of new candidates. PMID:15623318

  13. Novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc carbon catabolite control system revealed by transcript abundance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sonnleitner

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to utilize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen compounds, allowing it to grow in vastly different environments. The uptake and catabolism of growth substrates are organized hierarchically by a mechanism termed catabolite repression control (Crc whereby the Crc protein establishes translational repression of target mRNAs at CA (catabolite activity motifs present in target mRNAs near ribosome binding sites. Poor carbon sources lead to activation of the CbrAB two-component system, which induces transcription of the small RNA (sRNA CrcZ. This sRNA relieves Crc-mediated repression of target mRNAs. In this study, we have identified novel targets of the CbrAB/Crc system in P. aeruginosa using transcriptome analysis in combination with a search for CA motifs. We characterized four target genes involved in the uptake and utilization of less preferred carbon sources: estA (secreted esterase, acsA (acetyl-CoA synthetase, bkdR (regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism and aroP2 (aromatic amino acid uptake protein. Evidence for regulation by CbrAB, CrcZ and Crc was obtained in vivo using appropriate reporter fusions, in which mutation of the CA motif resulted in loss of catabolite repression. CbrB and CrcZ were important for growth of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF sputum medium, suggesting that the CbrAB/Crc system may act as an important regulator during chronic infection of the CF lung.

  14. [11C]Carbon Monoxide in Palladium- / Selenium-Promoted Carbonylation Reactions : Synthesis of 11C-Imides, Hydrazides, Amides, Carboxylic Acids, Carboxylic Esters, Carbothioates, Ketones and Carbamoyl Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Farhad

    2002-01-01

    [11C]Carbon monoxide in low concentrations has been used in palladium- or seleniummediated carbonylation reactions such as the synthesis of 11C-imides, hydrazides, amides, carboxylic acids, esters, carbothioates, ketones and carbamoyl compounds. In these reactions aryl iodides have been used in most cases. However, less reactive aryl triflate, chloride and bromides were activated using tetrabutylammonium iodide. The reactivities of nucleophiles may have influence on the radiochemical yield of...

  15. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40 gL(-1)). The 10 gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. PMID:26378961

  16. Effects of substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power on the structural and tribological properties of carbon nitride coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wangpf@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering, College of Mechatronics and Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takeno, Takanori [Laboratory of Nanointerface Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Fontaine, Julien [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, UMR 5513 – CNRS/Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Bâtiment H10, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Écully Cedex (France); Aono, Masami [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan); Adachi, Koshi [Laboratory of Nanointerface Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Miki, Hiroyuki [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Effects of substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power on the structural and tribological properties of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) coatings are investigated. CN{sub x} coatings are fabricated by a hybrid coating process with the combination of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) and DC magnetron sputtering at various substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power in the order of −400 V 200 W, −400 V 100 W, −800 V 200 W, and −800 V 100 W. The deposition rate, N/C atomic ratio, and hardness of CN{sub x} coatings as well as friction coefficient of CN{sub x} coating sliding against AISI 52100 pin in N{sub 2} gas stream decrease, while the residual stress of CN{sub x} coatings increases with the increase of substrate bias voltage and the decrease of target sputtering power. The highest hardness measured under single stiffness mode of 15.0 GPa and lowest residual stress of 3.7 GPa of CN{sub x} coatings are obtained at −400 V 200 W, whereas the lowest friction coefficient of 0.12 of CN{sub x} coatings is achieved at −800 V 100 W. Raman and XPS analysis suggest that sp{sup 3} carbon bonding decreases and sp{sup 2} carbon bonding increases with the variations in substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power. Optical images and Raman characterization of worn surfaces confirm that the friction behavior of CN{sub x} coatings is controlled by the directly sliding between CN{sub x} coating and steel pin. Therefore, the reduction of friction coefficient is attributed to the decrease of sp{sup 3} carbon bonding in the CN{sub x} coating. It is concluded that substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power are effective parameters for tailoring the structural and tribological properties of CN{sub x} coatings. - Highlights: • Various CN{sub x} coatings are produced using a unique hybrid coating process. • Structural and tribological properties of CN{sub x} coatings are investigated. • The lowest friction

  17. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Zarzycki, Jan; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon (Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2) concentrations. Several uptake systems facilitate inorganic carbon accumulation in the cell, which can in turn be fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine (alpha) cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters. These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels. In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.

  18. Tests of the cryogenic target for lithium and hydrogen isotopes extraction from the chamber of T-11M tokamak without its venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnov, Sergey V., E-mail: mirnov@triniti.ru [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow 142 190 (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Kashirskoye sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Djigailo, Nadejda T.; Dzhurik, Sergey P.; Kostina, Anastasiya N.; Kravchuk, Sergey I.; Lazarev, Vladimir B. [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow 142 190 (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, Igor E. [JSC “Red Star”, Elektrolitnyj pr. 1A, Moscow 113 230 (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Kashirskoye sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Nesterenko, Vladislav M.; Petrov, Yuri V. [SSC RF TRINITI Troitsk, Moscow 142 190 (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Aleksei V.; Zharkov, Mikhail Yu. [JSC “Red Star”, Elektrolitnyj pr. 1A, Moscow 113 230 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We tested the cryogenic target as pump of Li ions sputtered from tokamak chamber by glow discharge. • We found a positive effect on the Li collection an addition of the residual gases to glow discharge. • Cooled target can be used during plasma operation to collect and remove Li and H from tokamak chamber. - Abstract: T-11M lithium program is focused on a solution of technological issues of a steady-state tokamak with liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFC). Lithium, collected by the chamber wall of such tokamak is able to capture a considerable amount of tritium, which is unacceptable. In order to restrict the level of lithium deposited on the chamber wall and captured tritium it was suggested early to use a cryogenic target technique. Such target placed in the plasma of glow discharge (GDH, He or Ar) during the tokamak conditioning can play the role of collector of lithium and tritium atoms which were sputtered by GD bombardment of the wall. The collected lithium and tritium can be evacuated mechanically together with target from tokamak chamber through vacuum lock without venting. Cryogenic target, cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN), was installed in the T-11M and tested in different modes of wall conditioning and tokamak operations. The maximum speed of the lithium collection during GDH was 3.5 mg/h, that corresponds “to contamination” of wall by lithium during approximately 200 regular shots of T-11M which are equivalent to two-week regular operations. It was established that considerable part of lithium was collected in ionized state. On this basis it can be suggested the creation in tokamak chamber an equivalent ionic pump for extraction both lithium and tritium from chamber without venting during regular tokamak operation.

  19. Total and Partial Fragmentation Cross-Section of 500 MeV/nucleon Carbon Ions on Different Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, Behcet; Blasko, Sandor; Caraffini, Diego; Di Capua, Francesco; Postolache, Vasile; Saltanocchi, Giorgio; Menichelli, Mauro; Desorgher, Laurent; Durante, Marco; Pleskac, Radek; La Tessa, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    By using an experimental setup based on thin and thick double-sided microstrip silicon detectors, it has been possible to identify the fragmentation products due to the interaction of very high energy primary ions on different targets. Here we report total and partial cross-sections measured at GSI (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung), Darmstadt, for 500 MeV/n energy $^{12}C$ beam incident on water (in flasks), polyethylene, lucite, silicon carbide, graphite, aluminium, copper, iron, tin, tantalum and lead targets. The results are compared to the predictions of GEANT4 (v4.9.4) and FLUKA (v11.2) Monte Carlo simulation programs.

  20. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    To develop a therapeutic system with cancer cell selectivity, the present study evaluated a possible specific and localized tumor treatment. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the external face of the cell membrane is almost completely exclusive to cancer cells and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. The human protein annexin V is known to have strong calcium-dependent binding to anionic phospholipids such as PS. This protein was studied for targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to the vasculature of breast tumors. The synthesis of the protein annexin V, by a pET vector in Escherichia coli, constitutes the first phase of this study. Recombinant annexin V was purified from the cell lysate supernatant by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The overall production of purified annexin V protein was 50 mg/L. The binding ability of the protein annexin V was evaluated by determining the dissociation constant when incubated with proliferating human endothelial cells in vitro. The dissociation constant, Kd, was measured to be 0.8 nM, indicating relatively strong binding. This value of Kd is within the range reported in the literature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were functionalized with annexin V using two intermediate linkers (containing FMOC and DSPE) resulting in stable suspensions. The SWNT and protein concentrations were 202 mg/L and 515 mg/L, respectively, using the linker with DSPE (average of nine preparations). The conjugation method that used the DSPE-PEG-maleimide linker allowed to successfully conjugate the SWNTs with final concentrations approximately five times higher than the linker containing FMOC. The conjugation method used has a non-covalent nature, and therefore the optical properties of the nanotubes were preserved. The conjugate was also visually observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), allowing to verify the presence of the protein annexin V on the surface of the nanotubes, with an height ranging between 2

  1. The ''in vivo'' distribution of carbon 11 labeled-nicotine in animals. A method suitable for use in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to label nicotine with carbon 11. A hundred millicuries can be obtained, in 45 minutes, with a high specific activity. This labeling of nicotine has allowed an ''in vivo'' study of the distribution of this very toxic drug in animals. Five minutes after injection in rabbits or monkeys, it was shown with a gamma camera or with a positron camera that the radioactivity was very rapidly distributed throughout the tissues especially in brain, lungs and kidneys. 11C-nicotine readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and the brain radioactivity decreases very sharply with time. The eyes however retained activity, possibly in the retina. Unfortunately the monkey is not the ideal subject for 11C-nicotine brain study because: the brain is small, considering the resolution of the cameras and the cerebral lobes are also quite overlaped in this animal; Japanese authors have shown that compared with dogs the nicotine brain uptake is lower, due to the high affinity of nicotine for skeletal muscle which occupies approximately forty to fifty % of the body weight of the monkey. Also in monkeys, the nicotine destruction is faster than in dogs because there is a higher enzyme nicotine metabolizing activity in the liver of this animal. The differences observed between various animals studies using nicotine indicate that we should not draw any firm conclusions about the behaviour of this drug in humans. In order to do so, examinations must be conducted in man and the method described in spite of its limitations provides a means for such a study

  2. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiwei, Zhang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: taylorzww@gmail.com [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  3. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  4. Study of the break reaction of Be11 on Ti48 target; the towing mode: a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a towing mode reaction the projectile picks up a nucleon from the target and then breaks up by emitting one nucleon. The velocity of the emitted nucleon is boosted by the projectile velocity, leading to the emission of the nucleon in a narrow cone around the direction of the scattered projectile. This work is dedicated to the towing mode in halo nuclei such as Be11. The experiment was performed at Ganil facility by bombarding a Ti48 target with a 41 MeV per nucleon Be11 beam, the reaction studied is: Ti48(Be11, Be10 + n + γ). The first chapter reviews the various nuclear processes that take place when 2 nuclei collide with a particular attention for the towing mode. The second chapter is dedicated to solving the time dependant Schroedinger equation (TDSE) in order to assess the impact of various parameters such as incident energy, target charge or the linking energy of the nucleon, on the towing mode reaction. The third chapter deals with the experimental equipment and set-up including detectors and the data acquisition system. Computerized simulations have been performed in order to assess the efficiency of the detecting system, they are presented in the fourth chapter. A comparison between experimental data and the results from TDSE solving, concerning the energy spectra of the emitted particles, has enabled the author to deduce the spectroscopic factors for the different contributions of the fundamental state of Be11, they are presented in the last chapter. The cross-sections of the towing mode are of the magnitude of several tens of milli-barns in the case of weakly bound nuclei like Be11 which make it an efficient tool to study intern structure of nuclei. (A.C.)

  5. An analysis of national target groups for monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in 2009-10 and 2010-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Esther ST

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is generally considered to be the best primary prevention measure against influenza virus infection. Many countries encourage specific target groups of people to undertake vaccination, often with financial subsidies or a priority list. To understand differential patterns of national target groups for influenza vaccination before, during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, we reviewed and analyzed the country-specific policies in the corresponding time periods. Methods Information on prioritized groups targeted to receive seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines was derived from a multi-step internet search of official health department websites, press releases, media sources and academic journal articles. We assessed the frequency and consistency of targeting 20 different groups within populations which are associated with age, underlying medical conditions, role or occupations among different countries and vaccines. Information on subsidies provided to specific target groups was also extracted. Results We analyzed target groups for 33 (seasonal 2009 and 2009-10 vaccines, 72 (monovalent pandemic 2009-10 vaccine and 34 (seasonal 2010 and 2010-11 vaccines countries. In 2009-10, the elderly, those with chronic illness and health care workers were common targets for the seasonal vaccine. Comparatively, the elderly, care home residents and workers, animal contacts and close contacts were less frequently targeted to receive the pandemic vaccine. Pregnant women, obese persons, essential community workers and health care workers, however, were more commonly targeted. After the pandemic, pregnant women, obese persons, health care and care home workers, and close contacts were more commonly targeted to receive the seasonal vaccine compared to 2009-10, showing continued influence from the pandemic. Many of the countries provided free vaccines, partial subsidies, reimbursements or national health insurance coverage to

  6. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes target airway CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells to suppress allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, N J; Hyde, E; Ghosh, S; Seo, K; Price, K M; Hoshino, K; Kaisho, T; Okada, T; Ronchese, F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is driven by the recognition of inhaled allergen by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway and lung. Allergen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can strongly reduce airway inflammation, however, the mechanism of their inhibitory activity is not fully defined. We used mouse models to show that allergen-specific CTLs reduced early cytokine production by Th2 cells in lung, and their subsequent accumulation and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In addition, treatment with specific CTLs also increased the proportion of caspase(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in mediastinal lymph node (MLN), and decreased the numbers of CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs in the lung. This decrease required expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in CTLs and of the appropriate MHC-antigen ligand on DCs, suggesting that direct CTL-DC contact was necessary. Lastly, lung imaging experiments revealed that in airway-challenged mice XCR1-GFP(+) DCs, corresponding to the CD103(+) DC subset, and XCR1-GFP(-) CD11c(+) cells, which include CD11b(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages, both clustered in the areas surrounding the small airways and were closely associated with allergen-specific CTLs. Thus, allergen-specific CTLs reduce allergic airway inflammation by depleting CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DC populations in the lung, and may constitute a mechanism through which allergic immune responses are regulated.

  7. Microbial characterization of basalt formation waters targeted for geological carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalleur, Heather J; Colwell, Frederick S

    2013-07-01

    Geological carbon sequestration in basalts is a promising solution to mitigate carbon emissions into the Earth's atmosphere. The Wallula pilot well in Eastern Washington State, USA provides an opportunity to investigate how native microbial communities in basalts are affected by the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep, alkaline formation waters of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Our objective was to characterize the microbial communities at five depth intervals in the Wallula pilot well prior to CO2 injection to establish a baseline community for comparison after the CO2 is injected. Microbial communities were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to enumerate bacterial cells and 454 pyrosequencing to compare and contrast the diversity of the native microbial communities. The deepest depth sampled contained the greatest amount of bacterial biomass, as well as the highest bacterial diversity. The shallowest depth sampled harbored the greatest archaeal diversity. Pyrosequencing revealed the well to be dominated by the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, with microorganisms related to hydrogen oxidizers (Hydrogenophaga), methylotrophs (Methylotenera), methanotrophs (Methylomonas), iron reducers (Geoalkalibacter), sulfur oxidizers (Thiovirga), and methanogens (Methermicocccus). Thus, the Wallula pilot well is composed of a unique microbial community in which hydrogen and single-carbon compounds may play a significant role in sustaining the deep biosphere.

  8. Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro. Methods: The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (UV–Vis–NIR. Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29 and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7 lines were assessed in vitro. Results: TEM, FTIR, and UV–Vis–NIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTX–POSS–SWCNT, PTX–POSS–Ab–SWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT, POSS–SWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSS–SWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls. Conclusion: The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues.

  9. Targeted anti-cancer prodrug based on carbon nanotube with photodynamic therapeutic effect and pH-triggered drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jianquan; Zeng, Fang, E-mail: mcfzeng@scut.edu.cn; Xu, Jiangsheng; Wu, Shuizhu, E-mail: shzhwu@scut.edu.cn [South China University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (China)

    2013-09-15

    Herein, we describe a multifunctional anti-cancer prodrug system based on water-dispersible carbon nanotube (CNT); this prodrug system features active targeting, pH-triggered drug release, and photodynamic therapeutic properties. For this prodrug system (with the size of {approx}100-300 nm), an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was incorporated onto CNT via a cleavable hydrazone bond; and a targeting ligand (folic acid) was also coupled onto CNT. This prodrug can preferably enter folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells and undergo intracellular release of the drug triggered by the reduced pH. The targeted CNT-based prodrug system can cause lower cell viability toward FR-positive cells compared to the non-targeted ones. Moreover, the CNT carrier exhibits photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) action; and the cell viability of FR-positive cancer cells can be further reduced upon light irradiation. The dual effects of pH-triggered drug release and PDT increase the therapeutic efficacy of the DOX-CNT prodrug. This study may offer some useful insights on designing and improving the applicability of CNT for other drug delivery systems.

  10. Assembly and Electrochemical Study of Transition Metal Substituted Polyoxometalates SiW11NiO6-39 and SiW11MnO6-39 on 4-Aminothiophenol Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U¨) Gui-qin; DU Jin-yan; HU Chang-wen

    2005-01-01

    Via layer-by-layer assembly, the polyoxometalates of Keggin type, SiW11O39Ni(H2O)6-(SiNiW11) and SiW11O39Mn(H2O)6-(SiMnW11) were first immobilized on a 4-aminothiophenol(4-ATP) modified glassy carbon electrode surface. The electrochemical behavior of these polyoxometalates was investigated. They exhibited some special properties in the films, which are different from those in a homogeneous aqueous solution. Their reaction mechanism in a multilayer film is proposed. The electrocatalytic behavior of these multilayer film electrodes for the reduction of BrO-3 and NO-2 were comparatively studied.

  11. Mamizu climate policy: an evaluation of Japanese carbon emissions reduction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter evaluates Japan's so-called 'Mamizu' climate policies proposed in mid-2009 in terms of the implied rates of decarbonization of the Japanese economy for short-term and long-term targets. The letter uses the Kaya identity to structure the evaluation, employing both a bottom up approach (based on projections of future Japanese population, economic growth, and technology) and a top down approach (deriving implied rates of decarbonization consistent with the targets and various rates of economic growth). Both approaches indicate that the Japanese economy would have to achieve rates of decarbonization of 2.6% to meet a 2020 target of reducing emissions by 15% below 2005 levels, and 5.0% to meet a 2050 target of an 80% reduction below 2005 levels. A target of 25% below 1990 emissions proposed by the opposition party (which subsequently formed a government following elections in August 2009) implies a rate of decarbonization of 4.6% annually to 2020. The letter argues that international criticism of Japanese Mamizu climate policy proposals as being too weak was unfounded, and if anything, the proposals may have been too ambitious. In either case, climate policy would be strengthened through the support of a diversity of approaches to decarbonization.

  12. Chemical investigations of isotope separation on line target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are of significant interest in a number of applications. Isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to CO/sub x/ and NOmaterials are potential construction materials for the above-mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermochromatography setup with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the production of tracers for atmospheric chemistry (PROTRAC) facility at the Paul Schener Institute in Villigen...

  13. Measurements of the {sup 11}B(d,nγ{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C differential cross-section on thick and thin targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kevin W., E-mail: kc391106@ohio.edu; Massey, Thomas N.; Carter, D.E.; Ingram, David C.

    2013-06-15

    The differential cross-section for the 15.1 MeV gamma ray produced by the {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C reaction in a thick natural boron target has been measured for incident deuteron energies ranging from reaction threshold to 5 MeV. Measurements for a thin natural boron target have been carried out over a similar incident deuteron energy range. These results are compared to previous measurements made by Kavanagh (1958) and Kuan (1964). Measurements of the combined thick target yield for the 6.129, 6.917, and 7.116 MeV gamma rays from the {sup 19}F(p,αγ){sup 16}O reaction have been carried out on a stopping thickness sulfur hexafluoride gas cell for effective incident proton energies ranging from 1 to 4 MeV as a consistency check on the procedure used for normalization of the detector response function. The results for the {sup 11}B(d,nγ{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C yield a significantly lower cross-section than that previously reported, while the measurements of the {sup 19}F(p,αγ) reaction are consistent with previous measurements made by Fessler (2000) and Micklich (2003)

  14. Reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the conserved regions of HPV6/11 E7 genes inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in E7-transformed keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The persistence infection of low-risk type (type 6 or type 11 of human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of genital warts. Given the high rate of recurrence after treatment, the use of a new molecular agent is certain to be of value. The aim of this study was to achieve targeted inactivation of viral E 7 gene in keratinocytes using the reprogrammed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas 9 system. To accomplish this, a universal CRISPR-Cas9 system for targeting both HPV6/11 E 7 genes was constructed by using a dual guide RNA vector. After transfection of the vector into E 7-transfromed keratinocytes, the expression level of E 7 protein was measured using western-blot analysis and the sequence of the E 7 gene was determined using Sanger sequencing. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry analysis and ELISA assay. The results indicated that both HPV6/11 E 7 genes can be inactivated by the single CRISPR-Cas9 system. Furthermore, silencing of E 7 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in E 7-transfromed keratinocytes but not in normal keratinocytes. Our data suggested that the reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 system has the potential for the development of an adjuvant therapy for genital warts.

  15. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior. PMID:22709270

  16. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior.

  17. Assessing the environmental potential of carbon dioxide utilization: A graphical targeting approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) has the potential to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use. However, the conversion of CO2 is intrinsically difficult due to its low energetic state. Thus, a positive environmental effect of a CO2-consuming reaction cannot be taken for granted. In this work, we therefore present a graphical method to identify promising reaction schemes using CO2 as a feedstock. Reactant mixtures leading to minimal life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission...

  18. Targeting energy generation and carbon footprint for waste management and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kravanja, Zdravko; Klemeš, Jiri; Čuček, Lidija; Varbanov, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Waste to Energy (WTE) processing carries a trade-off between energy extractionfrom the waste and the energy for waste management - collection, transport and treatment. Major performance indicators are the Primary Energy Savings (PES), Carbon Footprint (CFP) and especially the cost. This presentation analyses the significance of the factors in this trade-off introducing a new indicator - the Waste Energy Potential Utilisation (WPU). The results indicate that the impact of the logistics and ene...

  19. Interaction of carbon monoxide with transition metals: evolutionary insights into drug target discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Roberta; Motterlini, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    The perception that carbon monoxide (CO) is poisonous and life-threatening for mammalian organisms stems from its intrinsic propensity to bind iron in hemoglobin, a reaction that ultimately leads to impaired oxygen delivery to tissues. From evolutionary and chemical perspectives, however, CO is one of the most essential molecules in the formation of biological components and its interaction with transition metals is at the origin of primordial cell signaling. Not surprisingly, mammals have gradually evolved systems to finely control the synthesis and the sensing of this gaseous molecule. Cells are indeed continuously exposed to small quantities of CO produced endogenously during the degradation of heme by constitutive and inducible heme oxygenase enzymes. We have gradually learnt that heme oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide (CO) serves as a ubiquitous signaling mediator which could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. The development of transition metal carbonyls as prototypic carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) represents a novel stratagem for a safer delivery of CO-based pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various pathological disorders. This review will look back at evolution to analyze and argue that a dynamic interaction of CO with specific intracellular metal centers is the common denominator for the diversified beneficial effects mediated by this gaseous molecule. PMID:20704543

  20. Reaction dynamics of {sup 34-38}Mg projectile with carbon target using Glauber model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, Mahesh K., E-mail: maheshphy82@gmail.com [School of Physics and Material Sciences, Thapar University Patiala-147004 (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran Mohali-140307 (India); Panda, R. N. [Department of Physics, ITER, Shiksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar-751030 (India); Sharma, Manoj K. [School of Physics and Material Sciences, Thapar University Patiala-147004 (India); Patra, S. K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya marg Bhubneswar-751005 (India)

    2015-08-28

    We have studied nuclear reaction cross-sections for {sup 34-38}Mg isotopes as projectile with {sup 12}C target at projectile energy 240AMeV using Glauber model with the conjunction of densities from relativistic mean filed formalism. We found good agreement with the available experimental data. The halo status of {sup 37}Mg is also investigated.

  1. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profiles. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11CO2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [11C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity were the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low ( VPA > PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [11C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [11C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [11C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2010-10-11 (NODC Accession 0084098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0084098 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2010-10-11. These data...

  3. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  4. Reversal of dendritic phenotypes in 16p11.2 microduplication mouse model neurons by pharmacological targeting of a network hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizinsky, Katherine D; Diaz-Castro, Blanca; Forrest, Marc P; Schürmann, Britta; Bach, Anthony P; Martin-de-Saavedra, Maria Dolores; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; Duan, Jubao; Penzes, Peter

    2016-07-26

    The architecture of dendritic arbors contributes to neuronal connectivity in the brain. Conversely, abnormalities in dendrites have been reported in multiple mental disorders and are thought to contribute to pathogenesis. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are genetic alterations that are associated with a wide range of mental disorders and are highly penetrant. The 16p11.2 microduplication is one of the CNVs most strongly associated with schizophrenia and autism, spanning multiple genes possibly involved in synaptic neurotransmission. However, disease-relevant cellular phenotypes of 16p11.2 microduplication and the driver gene(s) remain to be identified. We found increased dendritic arborization in isolated cortical pyramidal neurons from a mouse model of 16p11.2 duplication (dp/+). Network analysis identified MAPK3, which encodes ERK1 MAP kinase, as the most topologically important hub in protein-protein interaction networks within the 16p11.2 region and broader gene networks of schizophrenia-associated CNVs. Pharmacological targeting of ERK reversed dendritic alterations associated with dp/+ neurons, outlining a strategy for the analysis and reversal of cellular phenotypes in CNV-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27402753

  5. The importance of cellular internalization of antibody-targeted carbon nanotubes in the photothermal ablation of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marches, Radu; Vitetta, Ellen S [Cancer Immunobiology Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Mikoryak, Carole; Draper, Rockford K [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Wang, Ru-Hung; Pantano, Paul, E-mail: ellen.vitetta@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2011-03-04

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) convert absorbed near infrared (NIR) light into heat. The use of CNTs in the NIR-mediated photothermal ablation of tumor cells is attractive because the penetration of NIR light through normal tissues is optimal and the side effects are minimal. Targeted thermal ablation with minimal collateral damage can be achieved by using CNTs attached to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, the role that the cellular internalization of CNTs plays in the subsequent sensitivity of the target cells to NIR-mediated photothermal ablation remains undefined. To address this issue, we used CNTs covalently coupled to an anti-Her2 or a control MAb and tested their ability to bind, internalize, and photothermally ablate Her2{sup +} but not Her2{sup -} breast cancer cell lines. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and confocal Raman microscopy, we observed the gradual time-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis of anti-Her2-CNTs whereas a control MAb-CNT conjugate did not bind to the cells. Most importantly, the Her2{sup +} cells that internalized the MAb-CNTs were more sensitive to NIR-mediated photothermal damage than cells that could bind to, but not internalize the MAb-CNTs. These results suggest that both the targeting and internalization of MAb-CNTs might result in the most effective thermal ablation of tumor cells following their exposure to NIR light.

  6. Chemical Investigations of ISOL target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) are of significant interest in a number of applications. ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to COx and NOx on Al2O3 and SiO2. These materials are potential construction materials for the above mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermo-chromatography set-up with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the PROTRAC facility at Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland.

  7. Effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-liang; Meng, Hui-min; Liang, Li-kang; Li, Sen; Shi, Jin-hui

    2015-10-01

    LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were applied to carbon steels with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat by plasma spraying. The effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs were investigated in 3.5wt% NaCl solution using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that a large number of cracks are found in the LaMgAl11O19 TBCs after the samples are heat-treated, including some through-thickness cracks. The corrosion forms of the as-sprayed and heat-treated TBCs are uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion, respectively. The as-sprayed TBCs exhibit three EIS time constants after being immersed for less than 7 d, and then a new time constant appears because of steel substrate corrosion. When the immersion time is increased to 56 d, a Warburg impedance ( W) component appears in the EIS data. The EIS data for the heat-treated TBCs exhibit only two time constants after the samples are immersed for less than 14 d, and a new time constant appears when the immersion time is increased further. The heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs. The corrosion products are primarily γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4.

  8. Air-tolerant Fabrication and Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Encapsulating 1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iihara, Yu; Ohashi, Kenji; Murayama, Tomoko; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The thermally-triggered n-type doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated using 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, a novel n-type dopant. Through a simple thermal vacuum process, the phosphine compounds are moderately encapsulated inside single-walled carbon nanotubes. The encapsulation into SWNTs is carefully characterized using Raman/X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This easy-to-handle doping with air-stable precursors for n-type SWNTs enables the large-scale fabrication of thermoelectric materials showing an excellent power factor exceeding approximately 240 μW mK(-2) .

  9. Negative ion productions in high velocity collision between small carbon clusters and Helium atom target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured absolute double capture cross section of Cn+ ions (n=1,5) colliding, at 2.3 and 2.6 a.u velocities, with an Helium target atom and the branching ratios of fragmentation of the so formed electronically excited anions Cn−*. We also measured absolute cross section for the electronic attachment on neutral Cn clusters colliding at same velocities with He atom. This is to our knowledge the first measurement of neutral-neutral charge exchange in high velocity collision.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for experimental trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Abeer E; Ashour, Dalia S; Abou Rayia, Dina M; Bedeer, Asmaa E

    2016-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a globally distributed helminthic infection. There is a considerable interest in developing new anti-helminthic drugs affecting all the developmental stages of Trichinella. Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor) involves a novel mechanism of action by inhibiting such an essential enzyme for parasite metabolism. This work aimed to study the effect of acetazolamide against different stages of T. spiralis in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups: group I: infected and treated with acetazolamide on day 2 post infection (P.I.), group II: infected and treated with acetazolamide on day 12 P.I., and group III: infected non-treated. From each group, small intestine and muscles were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Also, total adult and muscle larval count were estimated. We found that acetazolamide was effective in reduction of both adult and muscle larval counts. When given early, the effect was more pronounced on the adults (62.7 %). However, the efficacy of the drug against muscle larvae was increased when given late (63 %). Improvement of the intestinal histopathological changes was observed in all the treated groups. Degeneration of encysted larvae with minimal pathologic changes of infected skeletal muscle was observed in the treated groups. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 showed a statistically significant decrease in the intestinal and muscle tissues in all treated groups as compared to the control group. In conclusion, the present study revealed that acetazolamide, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, could be a promising drug against both adults and larvae of T. spiralis. PMID:26979731

  11. A graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere as a novel photochemical internalization agent for targeted and stimuli-responsive cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhaowei; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Wei; Ju, Enguo; Yan, Zhengqing; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    As a novel technique, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been employed as a new approach to overcome endo/lysosomal restriction, which is one of the main difficulties in both drug and gene delivery. However, the complicated synthesis procedure (usually requiring the self-assembly of polymers, photosensitizers and cargos) and payload specificity greatly limit its further application. In this paper, we employ a highly fluorescent graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (GHCNS) to simultaneously serve as a PCI photosensitizer, an imaging agent and a drug carrier. The surface modification of GHCNS with multifunctional polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) endows the system with colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cancer cell targeting ability. After CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis, the nanosystem is embedded in endo/lysosomal vesicles and HA could be specially degraded by hyaluronidase (Hyal), inducing open pores. In the following, with visible light illumination, GHCNS could produce ROS that effectively induced lipid peroxidation and caused endo/lysosomal membrane break, accelerating the cytoplasmic release of the drug in the targeted and irradiated cells. As a result, significantly increased therapeutic potency and specificity against cancer cells could be achieved.As a novel technique, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been employed as a new approach to overcome endo/lysosomal restriction, which is one of the main difficulties in both drug and gene delivery. However, the complicated synthesis procedure (usually requiring the self-assembly of polymers, photosensitizers and cargos) and payload specificity greatly limit its further application. In this paper, we employ a highly fluorescent graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (GHCNS) to simultaneously serve as a PCI photosensitizer, an imaging agent and a drug carrier. The surface modification of GHCNS with multifunctional polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) endows the system with colloidal

  12. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ram M., E-mail: ram.m.shrestha@gmail.co [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Rajbhandari, Salony [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO{sub 2} and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO{sub 2} emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  13. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets. Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO{sub 2} and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO{sub 2} emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case. (author)

  14. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  15. Multi-functionalized hyaluronic acid nanogels crosslinked with carbon dots as dual receptor-mediated targeting tumor theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xu; Han, Yu; Pei, Mingliang; Zhao, Xubo; Tian, Kun; Zhou, Tingting; Liu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based theranostic nanogels were designed for the tumor diagnosis and chemotherapy, by crosslinking the folate-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) modified hyaluronic acid (FA-PEG-HA) with carbon dots (CDs) for the first time. Due to the extraordinary fluorescence property of the integrated CDs, the theranostic nanogels could be used for the real-time and noninvasive location tracking to cancer cells. HA could load Doxorubicin (DOX) via electrostatic interaction with a drug-loading capacity (DLC) of 32.5%. The nanogels possessed an ideal release of DOX in the weak acid environment, while it was restrained in the neutral media, demonstrating the pH-responsive controlled release behavior. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake results clearly illustrated that most DOX was released and accumulated in the cell nuclei and killed the cancer cells efficaciously, due to their dual receptor-mediated targeting characteristics. PMID:27516286

  16. Invariant mass spectrum and α-n correlation function studied in the fragmentation of 6He on a carbon target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum distributions and invariant mass spectra from the breakup of 6He ions with an energy of 240 MeV/u interacting with a carbon target have been studied. The data were used to extract information about the reaction mechanism which is influenced by the structure of 6He. It is found that the dominant reaction mechanism is a two-step process: knock out of one neutron followed by the decay of the 5He resonance. The shape of the (α+n) two-body invariant mass spectrum is interpreted as mainly reflecting the 5He ground state which is a Jπ=3/2- resonance. However, no evidence for correlations between α particles and neutrons is observed in the momentum widths of the distributions. It is demonstrated that a combined analysis of the two-body invariant mass spectrum and an appropriate correlation function may be used to determine the properties of the intermediate resonance. (orig.)

  17. Doxorubicin conjugated functionalizable carbon dots for nucleus targeted delivery and enhanced therapeutic efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Zheran; Wang, Ju; Jiang, Weihua; Jiang, Xuewei; Bai, Zhaoshi; He, Yunpeng; Jiang, Jianqi; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared with free DOX. Thus, the DOX-CD conjugates may be exploited as promising drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared

  18. USGS Arctic Ocean carbon cruise 2011: field activity H-01-11-AR to collect carbon data in the Arctic Ocean, August - September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Wynn, Jonathan; Lisle, John; Buczkowski, Brian J.; Moore, Barbara; Mayer, Larry; Armstrong, Andrew; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the surface of the ocean by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (Sabine and others, 2004). Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Orr and others, 2005; Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats (Raven and others, 2005; Ruttiman, 2006). The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  19. Targeting Antibodies to Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors by Pyrene Hydrazide Modification of Heavy Chain Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET studies have used immobilized antibodies as the ligand binding moiety. However, antibodies are not optimal for CNT-FET detection due to their large size and charge. Their size can prevent ligands from reaching within the Debye length of the CNTs and a layer of charged antibodies on the circuits can drown out any ligand signal. In an attempt to minimize the antibody footprint on CNT-FETs, we examined whether pyrene hydrazide modification of antibody carbohydrates could reduce the concentration required to functionalize CNT circuits. The carbohydrates are almost exclusively on the antibody Fc region and this site-specific modification could mediate uniform antibody orientation on the CNTs. We compared the hydrazide modification of anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibodies to pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester-coated CNTs and carbodiimide-mediated antibody CNT attachment. Our results show that the pyrene hydrazide modification was superior to those methods with respect to bacteria detection and less than 1 nM labeled antibody was required to functionalize the circuits.

  20. Targeted delivery and controlled release of Paclitaxel for the treatment of lung cancer using single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baodan; Tan, Li; Zheng, Runhui; Tan, Huo; Zheng, Lixia

    2016-11-01

    A new type of drug delivery system (DDS) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for controlled-release of the anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel (PTX) was constructed in this study. Chitosan (CHI) was non-covalently attached to the SWNTs to improve biocompatibility. Biocompatible hyaluronan was also combined to the outer CHI layer to realise the specific targeting property. The results showed that the release of PTX was pH-triggered and was better at lower pH (pH5.5). The modified SWNTs showed a significant improvement in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may have enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and further promoted cell apoptosis. The results of western blotting indicated that the apoptosis-related proteins were abundantly expressed in A549 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and cell viability assay demonstrated that PTX-loaded SWNTs could destroy cell membrane integrity, thus inducing lower cell viability of the A549 cells. Thus, this targeting DDS could effectively inhibit cell proliferation and kill A549 cells, is a promising system for cancer therapy. PMID:27524057

  1. Evaluation of a Carbonic Anhydrase IX-Targeted Near-Infrared Dye for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Hypoxic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng-Cheng; Roy, Jyoti; Putt, Karson S; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-01

    Proof-of-principle studies in ovarian, lung, and brain cancer patients have shown that fluorescence-guided surgery can enable removal of otherwise undetectable malignant lesions, decrease the number of cancer-positive margins, and permit identification of disease-containing lymph nodes that would have normally evaded resection. Unfortunately, the current arsenal of tumor-targeted fluorescent dyes does not permit identification of all cancers, raising the need to design new tumor-specific fluorescent dyes to illuminate the currently undetectable cancers. In an effort to design a more universal fluorescent cancer imaging agent, we have undertaken to synthesize a fluorophore that could label all hypoxic regions of tumors. We report here the synthesis, in vitro binding, and in vivo imaging of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye that is targeted to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), i.e., a widely accepted marker of hypoxic tissues. The low molecular weight NIR probe, named Hypoxyfluor, is shown to bind CA IX with high affinity and accumulate rapidly and selectively in CA IX positive tumors. Because nearly all human cancers contain hypoxic regions that express CA IX abundantly, this NIR probe should facilitate surgical resection of a wide variety of solid tumors. PMID:27043317

  2. Crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in controlling the translocation and toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Li, Yiping; Zhao, Yunli; Ge, Ling; Wang, Haifang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression of their translocation into secondary targeted organs through the primary targeted organs. A biological barrier at the primary targeted organs contributed greatly to the control of MWCNTs translocation into secondary targeted organs, as indicated by functions of Mn-SODs required for prevention of oxidative stress in the primary targeted organs. Over-expression of Mn-SODs in primary targeted organs effectively suppressed the translocation and toxicity of MWCNTs. Our work highlights the crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. Our data also shed light on the future development of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with improved biocompatibility and design of prevention strategies against ENMs toxicity.Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression

  3. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H2+, H3+) and composite (H-, H0) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author)

  4. Osilodrostat (LCI699), a potent 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, administered in combination with the multireceptor-targeted somatostatin analog pasireotide: A 13-week study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li, E-mail: li1.li@novartis.com [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Vashisht, Kapil; Boisclair, Julie [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Li, Wenkui; Lin, Tsu-han [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Schmid, Herbert A. [Novartis Oncology Development, Basel (Switzerland); Kluwe, William; Schoenfeld, Heidi; Hoffmann, Peter [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The somatostatin analog pasireotide and the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) reduce cortisol levels by distinct mechanisms of action. There exists a scientific rationale to investigate the clinical efficacy of these two agents in combination. This manuscript reports the results of a toxicology study in rats, evaluating different doses of osilodrostat and pasireotide alone and in combination. Sixty male and 60 female rats were randomized into single-sex groups to receive daily doses of pasireotide (0.3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), osilodrostat (20 mg/kg/day, orally), osilodrostat/pasireotide in combination (low dose, 1.5/0.03 mg/kg/day; mid-dose, 5/0.1 mg/kg/day; or high dose, 20/0.3 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 13 weeks. Mean body-weight gains from baseline to Week 13 were significantly lower in the pasireotide-alone and combined-treatment groups compared to controls, and were significantly higher in female rats receiving osilodrostat monotherapy. Osilodrostat and pasireotide monotherapies were associated with significant changes in the histology and mean weights of the pituitary and adrenal glands, liver, and ovary/oviduct. Osilodrostat alone was associated with adrenocortical hypertrophy and hepatocellular hypertrophy. In combination, osilodrostat/pasireotide did not exacerbate any target organ changes and ameliorated the liver and adrenal gland changes observed with monotherapy. C{sub max} and AUC{sub 0–24h} of osilodrostat and pasireotide increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. In conclusion, the pasireotide and osilodrostat combination did not exacerbate changes in target organ weight or toxicity compared with either monotherapy, and had an acceptable safety profile; addition of pasireotide to the osilodrostat regimen may attenuate potential adrenal gland hyperactivation and hepatocellular hypertrophy, which are potential side effects of osilodrostat monotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the target organ toxicity of SOM230

  5. Effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang Huang; Hui-min Meng; Li-kang Liang; Sen Li; Jin-hui Shi

    2015-01-01

    LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were applied to carbon steels with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat by plasma spraying. The effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs were investigated in 3.5wt% NaCl solution using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The results show that a large number of cracks are found in the LaMgAl11O19 TBCs after the samples are heat-treated, including some through-thickness cracks. The corrosion forms of the as-sprayed and heat-treated TBCs are uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion, respectively. The as-sprayed TBCs exhibit three EIS time constants after being immersed for less than 7 d, and then a new time constant ap-pears because of steel substrate corrosion. When the immersion time is increased to 56 d, a Warburg impedance (W) component appears in the EIS data. The EIS data for the heat-treated TBCs exhibit only two time constants after the samples are immersed for less than 14 d, and a new time constant appears when the immersion time is increased further. The heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs. The corrosion products are primarilyγ-FeOOH and Fe3O4.

  6. Target particle and heat loads in low-triangularity L-mode plasmas in JET with carbon and beryllium/tungsten walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Belo, P.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Wiesen, S.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Brix, M.; Clever, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Eich, T.; Flanagan, J.; Giroud, C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C. F.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Sergienko, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Stamp, M. F.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Divertor radiation profiles, and power and particle fluxes to the target have been measured in attached \\{JET\\} L-mode plasmas with carbon and beryllium/tungsten wall materials. In the beryllium/tungsten configuration, factors of 2–3 higher power loads and peak temperatures at the low field side tar

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of single-wall carbon nanotube-paclitaxel-folic acid conjugate as an anti-cancer targeting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolifard, Sara; Biazar, Esmaeil; Pourshamsian, Khalil; Moslemin, Mohammad H

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) represent a novel nanomaterial applied in various nanotechnology fields because of their surface chemistry properties and high drug cargo capacity. In this study, SWCNT are pre-functionalized covalently with paclitaxel (PTX) - an anticancer drug, and folic acid (FA), as a targeting agent for many tumors. The samples are investigated and evaluated by different analyses such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), absorption spectroscopic measurements (UV-Visible), elemental analysis, and cell analyses with cancer cell line cultures. The results show good conjugation of the targeting molecule and the anticancer drug on the surface of the carbon nanotubes (CNT). This work demonstrates that the SWCNT-PTX-FA system is a potentially useful system for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. PMID:25783856

  8. Carbon-11 labeled stilbene derivatives from natural products for the imaging of Aβ plaques in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four stilbene derivatives from natural products were screened as novel β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging ligands. In vitro binding assay showed that the methylated ligand, (E)-1-methoxy-4-styrylbenzene (8) displayed high binding affinity to Aβ1-42 aggregates (Ki = 19.5 nM). Moreover, the 11C-labeled ligand, [11C]8 was prepared through an O-methylation reaction using [11C]CH3OTf. In vitro autoradiography with sections of transgenic mouse brain also confirmed the high and specific binding of [11C]8 to Aβ plaques. In vivo biodistribution experiments in normal mice indicated that [11C]8 displayed high initial uptake (9.41 ± 0.51% ID/g at 5 min post-injection) into and rapid washout from the brain, with a brain5min/brain30min ratio of 6.63. These preliminary results suggest that [11C]8 may be served as a novel Aβ imaging probe for PET. (orig.)

  9. Report on compounds labelled with nitrogen-13 or carbon-11 used in cancer metabolic studies with quantitative two-dimensional scanning and pet tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of compounds labelled with radionuclides of the elements commonly involved in metabolic processes (oxygen, carbon, nitrogen) is becoming important in the non-invasive study of organ and tumour function. The application of compounds labelled with 13N and 11C to the study of amino-acid metabolism and changes in vasculature following chemotherapy and radiation therapy is described. In particular, 13N-labelled L-glutamate has been found to be useful in visualizing a number of human tumours including osteogenic sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, pineal gland tumours, primitive neuroectodermal tumours, medulloblastoma and several other solid tumours. In patients with bone tumours, changes in 13N-L-glutamate scans during chemotherapy were found to correlate with changes in other clinical parameters, such as serum alkaline phosphatase, histology and 99Tcsup(m)-bone scans, thus indicating that labelled L-glutamate is potentially useful in evaluating the response of solid tumours to chemotherapy. Scans of patients and volunteers using 13N-L-glutamate and 13N-L-valine indicate that the L-amino acids may be useful in studies of metabolic processes in the liver, myocardium and pancreas. Red blood cells, labelled with 11C-carbon monoxide via inhalation of the radioactive gas, have been used to assess changes in tumour vascularity following radiation therapy. Alpha-aminoisobutyric acid labelled with 11C has been synthesized and its distribution in normal and tumour-bearing dogs has been studied. (author)

  10. The impact of subcellular location on the near infrared-mediated thermal ablation of cells by targeted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Vasanth S.; Wang, Ruhung; Mikoryak, Carole A.; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are used in the near infrared (NIR)-mediated thermal ablation of tumor cells because they efficiently convert absorbed NIR light into heat. Despite the therapeutic potential of SWNTs, there have been no published studies that directly quantify how many SWNTs need be associated with a cell to achieve a desired efficiency of killing, or what is the most efficient subcellular location of SWNTs for killing cells. Herein we measured dose response curves for the efficiency of killing correlated to the measured amounts of folate-targeted SWNTs that were either on the surface or within the vacuolar compartment of normal rat kidney cells. Folate-targeted SWNTs on the cell surface were measured after different concentrations of SWNTs in medium were incubated with cells for 30 min at 4 °C. Folate-targeted SWNTs within the vacuolar compartments were measured after cells were incubated with different concentrations of SWNTs in medium for 6 h at 37 °C. It was observed that a SWNT load of ∼13 pg/cell when internalized was sufficient to kill 90% of the cells under standardized conditions of NIR light irradiation. When ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, ∼50% of the cells were killed, but when ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were confined to the cell surface only ∼5% of the cells were killed under the same NIR irradiation conditions. The SWNT subcellular locations were verified using Raman imaging of SWNTs merged with fluorescence images of known subcellular markers. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SWNT amounts at known subcellular locations have been correlated with a dose-normalized efficacy of thermal ablation and the results support the idea that SWNTs confined to the plasma membrane are not as effective in NIR-mediated cell killing as an equivalent amount of SWNTs when internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal vesicles.

  11. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-23

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

  12. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare 1H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications

  13. Assessment of the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism in normal human subjects using nitrogen-13 ammonia and carbon-11 acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokapich, J; Huang, S C; Schelbert, H R

    1993-06-01

    The dual purposes of this study with positron emission tomography were to measure the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism, and to compare carbon-11 (C-11) acetate versus nitrogen-13 (N-13) ammonia in quantitating flow in normal subjects. Flow was quantitated with N-13 ammonia at rest and at peak dobutamine infusion (40 micrograms/kg/min) in 21 subjects. In 11 subjects, oxidative metabolism was also estimated at rest and peak dobutamine infusion using the clearance rate of C-11 acetate, k mono (min-1). A 2-compartment kinetic model was applied to the early phase of the C-11 acetate data to estimate flow. The rest and peak dobutamine rate-pressure products were 7,318 +/- 1,102 and 19,937 +/- 3,964 beats/min/mm Hg, respectively, and correlated well (r = 0.77) with rest and peak dobutamine flows of 0.77 +/- 0.14 and 2.25 ml/min/g determined using N-13 ammonia as a flow tracer. Rest and dobutamine flows estimated with C-11 acetate were highly correlated with those determined with N-13 ammonia (r = 0.92). k mono increased from 0.05 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.02 min-1, and correlated highly with the increase in flows (r = 0.91) and rate-pressure products (r = 0.94). Thus, the increase in cardiac demand associated with dobutamine is highly correlated with an increase in supply and oxidative metabolism. C-11 acetate is a unique tracer that can be used to image both flow and metabolism simultaneously. PMID:8498380

  14. 进氧化氢在微过氧化物酶-11(MP-11)修饰玻碳电极上的电催化还原%Electrocatalytic Reduction of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Microperoxidase-11 Modified Glass Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction MP-11 is obtained from pepsin digestion of cytochrome c.It retains amino acid residues 11-21 of cytochrome c.It is considered a good model of c-type heme enzymes and peroxidases.So far,some methods have been used to immobilize MP-11 on electrodes,such as mixing up with graphite paste[1],covalently combining to the thiol or cystamine monolayer self-assembled at the gold electrode[2,3].This paper reports that MP-11 convalently bound on a glass carbon electrode through glutaraldehyde coupling of the peptide to a hydrazino-alkoxysilane exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2.

  15. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included. (WHK)

  16. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included

  17. Specific activity of [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I synthesized by the 'wet' method: Main sources of non-radioactive carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vallejo, Vanessa [Institut Alta Tecnologia PRBB-Fundacio Privada, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C/Dr. Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Llop, Jordi [Institut Alta Tecnologia PRBB-Fundacio Privada, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C/Dr. Aiguader, 88 08003 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: jllop@cicbiomagune.es

    2009-01-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful molecular imaging technique based on the administration and detection of radioactive (positron emitting) species. In some applications, the concept of specific activity becomes especially important in order to prevent undesired pharmacological and/or toxic effects after injection of the radiotracer. Problems to obtain high specific activities are found when {sup 11}C-labeled compounds are prepared by methylation following the so called 'wet' method, which consists of a simple route but usually yields radiotracers highly diluted with the stable specie. In the present work, the main sources of contamination by stable carbon in the [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I synthesis following the 'wet' method have been analyzed and their individual contribution has been quantified. The results show that the most relevant contamination of CO{sub 2} is generated during the bombardment process.

  18. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled SCH 39166, a new selective dopamine D-1 receptor ligand, and preliminary PET investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Sedvall, Goeran (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychology); Barnett, Allen (Schering-Plough Corp., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    SCH 39166 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo(d)naphtho-(2,1-b)azepine ) is a new more selective dopamine D-1 receptor antagonist than the widely used SCH 23390. ({sup 11}C)SCH 39166 was prepared by N-methylation of the desmethyl compound SCH 40853 ((-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9,13b-hexahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-5H-benzo(d)naphtho -(2,1-b)azepine) with ({sup 11}C)methyl iodide. Reaction in acetone with subsequent straight-phase semi-preparative HPLC resulted in 20-30% radiochemical yield (from EOB and decay-corrected) with a total synthesis time of 35-40 min and a radiochemical purity >99%. The specific activity obtained at EOS was about 1500 Ci/mmol (55 GBq/{mu}mol). ({sup 11}C)SCH 39166 was injected into a Cynomolgus monkey. PET-analysis demonstrated accumulation in the striatum, a region known to have a high density of dopamine D-1 receptors. In a displacement experiment, radioactivity in the striatum was markedly reduced after injection of 6 mg unlabelled SCH 23390, thus demonstrating the specificity and reversibility of ({sup 11}C)SCH 39166 binding to dopamine D-1 receptors. (author).

  19. First direct measurement of the $^{11}$C($\\alpha$, p)$^{14}$N stellar reaction by an extended thick-target method

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, S; Kahl, D; Yamaguchi, H; Binh, D N; Hashimoto, T; Wakabayashi, Y; He, J J; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, T; Kwon, Y K; Teranishi, T

    2016-01-01

    The $^{11}$C($\\alpha$, p) reaction is an important $\\alpha$-induced reaction competing with $\\beta$-limited hydrogen-burning processes in high-temperature explosive stars. We directly measured its reaction cross sections both for the ground-state transition ($\\alpha$, $p_{0}$) and the excited-state transitions ($\\alpha$, $p_{1}$) and ($\\alpha$, $p_{2}$) at relevant stellar energies 1.3 - 4.5 MeV by an extended thick-target method featuring time of flight for the first time. We revised the reaction rate by numerical integration including the ($\\alpha$, $p_{1}$) and ($\\alpha$, $p_{2}$) contributions and also low-lying resonances of ($\\alpha$, $p_{0}$) using both the present and the previous experimental data which were totally neglected in the previous compilation works. The present total reaction rate lies between the previous ($\\alpha$, $p_{0}$) rate and the total rate of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculation, which is consistent with the relevant explosive hydrogen-burning scenarios such as the $...

  20. Probing the direct step of relativistic heavy ion fragmentation: (12C, 11B+p) at 2.1 GeV/nucleon with C and CH2 targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic heavy ion collisions may be classified as central (and near central), peripheral, and grazing with each collision type producing different proton and other charged projectile fragment scattering mechanisms and characteristics. This report focuses on peripheral and grazing collisions in the fragmentation of Carbon-12 into Boron-11 and a proton, testing models of the kinetics involved in this reaction. The data were measured at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and include excitation energy for the p/Boron-11 pair, and rapidity versus transverse momentum for protons and Boron-11. 58 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Study of Target Fragmentation in the Interaction of 86 MeV/A $^{12}$Carbon with Tantalum, Bismuth and Uranium

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Using radiochemical techniques we will ; a)~~measure the target fragment mass and charge distributions from the interaction of 86~MeV/A |1|2C with Ta, Bi and U; ; b)~~measure the target fragment forward momentum and average kinetic energy using the thick target-thick catcher technique for the above reactions; and ; c)~~measure the target fragment angular and differential energy distributions using thin target-thin catcher techniques for the reactions with Ta and U. \\\\ \\\\ These measurements should allow us to better characterize the transition between low energy and realistic heavy ion reaction mechanisms.

  2. Dosimetric characterization and application of an imaging beam line with a carbon electron target for megavoltage cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Ryan T; Hartmann, Julia; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Nixon, Earl; Alfredo, R; Siochi, C; Pennington, Edward C; Bayouth, John E

    2009-06-01

    Imaging dose from megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) can be significantly reduced without loss of image quality by using an imaging beam line (IBL), with no flattening filter and a carbon, rather than tungsten, electron target. The IBL produces a greater keV-range x-ray fluence than the treatment beam line (TBL), which results in a more optimal detector response. The IBL imaging dose is not necessarily negligible, however. In this work an IBL was dosimetrically modeled with the Philips Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS), verified experimentally, and applied to clinical cases. The IBL acquisition dose for a 200 degrees gantry rotation was verified in a customized acrylic cylindrical phantom at multiple imaging field sizes with 196 ion chamber measurements. Agreement between the measured and calculated IBL dose was quantified with the 3D gamma index. Representative IBL and TBL imaging dose distributions were calculated for head and neck and prostate patients and included in treatment plans using the imaging dose incorporation (IDI) method. Surface dose was measured for the TBL and IBL for four head and neck cancer patients with MOSFETs. The IBL model, when compared to the percentage depth dose and profile measurements, had 97% passing gamma indices for dosimetric and distance acceptance criteria of 3%, 3 mm, and 100% passed for 5.2%, 5.2 mm. For the ion chamber measurements of phantom image acquisition dose, the IBL model had 93% passing gamma indices for acceptance criteria of 3%, 3 mm, and 100% passed for 4%, 4 mm. Differences between the IBL- and TBL-based IMRT treatment plans created with the IDI method were dosimetrically insignificant for both the prostate and head and neck cases. For IBL and TBL beams with monitor unit values that would result in the delivery of the same dose to the depth of maximum dose under standard calibration conditions, the IBL imaging surface dose was higher than the TBL imaging surface dose by an average of 18

  3. Charge state and incident energy dependence of K X-ray emission as a function of target thickness for 50-165 MeV Cu ions incident on 11-250 μg/cm 2 Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoi, T.; Shima, K.; Umetani, K.; Moriyama, M.; Ishihara, T.; Mikumo, T.

    1986-05-01

    Thin self-supporting Cu targets in 11-250 μg/cm 2 thickness were bombarded with 50-165 MeV Cu qi+ ions (7 ⩽ qi⩽ 24) to investigate the target thickness dependence of inner shell vacancy production processes in the symmetric collision of Cu + Cu. Doppler-shifted projectile K X-rays were discriminated from the target K X-rays, and the projectile and target K X-ray yields were separately measured as a function of target thickness. The K X-ray yields emitted from the projectile and the target Cu atoms are strongly dependent on the projectile initial charge state and target thickness for all the investigated collision systems of Cu qi+ + Cu. From the observed K X-ray yields, K-shell vacancy production cross sections averaged over the target thickness t of projectile overlineσ KV and target overlineσ ∗KV were separately derived taking into account the fluorescence yield that can be estimated from the Kα X-ray energy shift. When the values of overlineσ KV and overlineσ ∗KV are extrapolated to zero foil thickness, the K shell vacancy formed in the collision has been found to be equally shared between projectile and target in a single collision. With the increase of penetration depth, however, the values of overlineσ ∗KV are greater than those of overlineσ KV presumably due to electron transfer of a target K electron to the projectile K vacancy. the evolution process of projectile excited states as a function of target thickness and the resulting variation of projectile and target K X-ray emissions are discussed.

  4. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA.

  5. Lack of renal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 at birth, a targeted temporal window for neonatal glucocorticoid action in human and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Martinerie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid hormones play a major role in fetal organ maturation. Yet, excessive glucocorticoid exposure in utero can result in a variety of detrimental effects, such as growth retardation and increased susceptibility to the development of hypertension. To protect the fetus, maternal glucocorticoids are metabolized into inactive compounds by placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type2 (11βHSD2. This enzyme is also expressed in the kidney, where it prevents illicit occupation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by glucocorticoids. We investigated the role of renal 11βHSD2 in the control of neonatal glucocorticoid metabolism in the human and mouse. METHODS: Cortisol (F and cortisone (E concentrations were measured in maternal plasma, umbilical cord blood and human newborn urine using HPLC. 11βHSD2 activity was indirectly assessed by comparing the F/E ratio between maternal and neonatal plasma (placental activity and between plasma and urine in newborns (renal activity. Direct measurement of renal 11βHSD2 activity was subsequently evaluated in mice at various developmental stages. Renal 11βHSD2 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry during the perinatal period in both species. RESULTS: We demonstrate that, at variance with placental 11βHSD2 activity, renal 11βHSD2 activity is weak in newborn human and mouse and correlates with low renal mRNA levels and absence of detectable 11βHSD2 protein. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a weak or absent expression of neonatal renal 11βHSD2 that is conserved among species. This temporal and tissue-specific 11βHSD2 expression could represent a physiological window for glucocorticoid action yet may constitute an important predictive factor for adverse outcomes of glucocorticoid excess through fetal programming.

  6. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  7. Reinvestigation of the synthesis and evaluation of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, a radiotracer targeting cytochrome P450 aromatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: swkim@bnl.gov; Biegon, Anat; Katsamanis, Zachary E. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ehrlich, Carolin W. [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Duesbergweg 10-14, Mainz (Germany); Hooker, Jacob M.; Shea, Colleen [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Muench, Lisa [National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Bethesda, MD (United States); Xu Youwen; King, Payton; Carter, Pauline; Alexoff, David L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: We reinvestigated the synthesis of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, a radiotracer for aromatase, and discovered the presence of an N-methyl isomer which was not removed in the original purification method. Herein we report the preparation and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole. Methods: Norvorozole was alkylated with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide as previously described and also with unlabeled methyl iodide. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate the regioisomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ({sup 13}C and 2D-nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR) was used to identify and assign structures to the N-methylated products. Pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole and the contaminating isomer were compared by PET imaging in the baboon. Results: Methylation of norvorozole resulted in a mixture of isomers (1:1:1 ratio) based on new HPLC analysis using a pentafluorophenylpropyl bonded silica column, in which vorozole coeluted one of its isomers under the original HPLC conditions. Baseline separation of the three labeled isomers was achieved. The N-3 isomer was the contaminant of vorozole, thus correcting the original assignment of isomers. PET studies of pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole with and without the contaminating N-3 isomer revealed that only [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole binds to aromatase. [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]Vorozole accumulated in all brain regions with highest accumulation in the aromatase-rich amygdala and preoptic area. Accumulation was blocked with vorozole and letrozole consistent with reports of some level of aromatase in many brain regions. Conclusions: The discovery of a contaminating labeled isomer and the development of a method for isolating pure [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole combine to provide a new scientific tool for PET studies of the biology of aromatase and for drug research and development.

  8. Reinvestigation of the synthesis and evaluation of [N-methyl-11C]vorozole, a radiotracer targeting cytochrome P450 aromatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We reinvestigated the synthesis of [N-methyl-11C]vorozole, a radiotracer for aromatase, and discovered the presence of an N-methyl isomer which was not removed in the original purification method. Herein we report the preparation and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of pure [N-methyl-11C]vorozole. Methods: Norvorozole was alkylated with [11C]methyl iodide as previously described and also with unlabeled methyl iodide. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate the regioisomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (13C and 2D-nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR) was used to identify and assign structures to the N-methylated products. Pure [N-methyl-11C]vorozole and the contaminating isomer were compared by PET imaging in the baboon. Results: Methylation of norvorozole resulted in a mixture of isomers (1:1:1 ratio) based on new HPLC analysis using a pentafluorophenylpropyl bonded silica column, in which vorozole coeluted one of its isomers under the original HPLC conditions. Baseline separation of the three labeled isomers was achieved. The N-3 isomer was the contaminant of vorozole, thus correcting the original assignment of isomers. PET studies of pure [N-methyl-11C]vorozole with and without the contaminating N-3 isomer revealed that only [N-methyl-11C]vorozole binds to aromatase. [N-methyl-11C]Vorozole accumulated in all brain regions with highest accumulation in the aromatase-rich amygdala and preoptic area. Accumulation was blocked with vorozole and letrozole consistent with reports of some level of aromatase in many brain regions. Conclusions: The discovery of a contaminating labeled isomer and the development of a method for isolating pure [N-methyl-11C]vorozole combine to provide a new scientific tool for PET studies of the biology of aromatase and for drug research and development.

  9. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P. [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Pragal, Almada (Portugal); Ribeiro, M.J. [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Servico de Biofisica, IBILI, Faculdade de Medicina de Coimbra (Portugal); Bottlaender, M.; Loc' h, C.; Langer, O.; Strul, D.; Maziere, B.; Bendriem, B. [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Hugonnard, P.; Grangeat, P. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Lab. d' Electronique de Technologie et d' Instrumentation

    1999-12-01

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using {sup 123}I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 ), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of {sup 123}I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to {sup 123}I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a {sup 123}I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC+AT) and (SC+CBC+AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of {sup 11}C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (%ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC+CBC+AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and {sup 11}C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo

  10. Non-invasive estimation of myocardial efficiency using positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate--comparison between the normal and failing human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengel, F M; Permanetter, B; Ungerer, M; Nekolla, S; Schwaiger, M

    2000-03-01

    The clearance kinetics of carbon-11 acetate, assessed by positron emission tomography (PET), can be combined with measurements of ventricular function for non-invasive estimation of myocardial oxygen consumption and efficiency. In the present study, this approach was applied to gain further insights into alterations in the failing heart by comparison with results obtained in normals. We studied ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 11 healthy normals by dynamic PET with 11C-acetate and either tomographic radionuclide ventriculography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. A "stroke work index" (SWI) was calculated by: SWI = systolic blood pressure x stroke volume/body surface area. To estimate myocardial efficiency, a "work-metabolic index" (WMI) was then obtained as follows: WMI = SWI x heart rate/k(mono), where k(mono) is the washout constant for 11C-acetate derived from monoexponential fitting. In DCM patients, left ventricular ejection fraction was 19%+/-10% and end-diastolic volume was 92+/-28 ml/m2 (vs 64%+/-7% and 55+/-8 ml/m2 in normals, PSWI (1674+/-761 vs 4736+/-895 mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) and the WMI as an estimate of efficiency (2.98+/-1.30 vs 6.20+/-2.25 x 10(6) mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) were lower in DCM patients, too. Overall, the WMI correlated positively with ejection parameters (r=0.73, P<0.001 for ejection fraction; r=0.93, P<0.001 for stroke volume), and inversely with systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.77; P<0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between WMI and end-diastolic volume in normals (r=0.45; P=0.17), while in DCM patients, a non-significant negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.21; P=0.57) was obtained. In conclusion non-invasive estimates of oxygen consumption and efficiency in the failing heart were reduced compared with those in normals. Estimates of efficiency increased with increasing contractile performance, and decreased with increasing ventricular afterload. In contrast to normals, the failing heart

  11. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P; Ribeiro, M J; Bottlaender, M; Loc'h, C; Langer, O; Strul, D; Hugonnard, P; Grangeat, P; Mazière, B; Bendriem, B

    1999-12-01

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 degrees), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC + AT) and (SC + CBC + AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (% ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC + CBC + AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo absolute quantitation of 123

  12. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 ), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC+AT) and (SC+CBC+AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (%ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC+CBC+AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo absolute quantitation of 123I

  13. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride (14CCl4) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14CCl4 in the breath and 14C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl4. Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14CCl4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14CO2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14C activity in the expired air was 14CCl4. The quantities of 14C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14CCl4 and 14CO2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14CCl4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14CO2 in the breath

  14. Carboxylic acid functionalization prevents the translocation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at predicted environmentally relevant concentrations into targeted organs of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouara, Abdelli; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Tang, Meng; Wang, Haifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-06-01

    Carboxyl (-COOH) surface modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) can be used for targeted delivery of drugs and imaging. However, whether MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations exert certain toxic effects on multicellular organisms and the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. In the present study, we applied the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate the properties of MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations by comparing the effects of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-COOH exposure on C. elegans from L1-larvae to adult at concentrations of 0.001-1000 μg L-1. Exposure to MWCNTs could potentially damage the intestine (primary targeted organ) at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg L-1 and functions of neurons and reproductive organ (secondary targeted organs) at concentrations greater than 0.001 μg L-1. Carboxyl modification prevented the toxicity of MWCNTs on the primary and the secondary targeted organs at concentrations less than 100 μg L-1, suggesting that carboxyl modification can effectively prevent the adverse effects of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. After exposure, MWCNTs-COOH (1 mg L-1) were translocated into the spermatheca and embryos in the body through the primary targeted organs. However, MWCNTs-COOH (10 μg L-1) were not observed in spermatheca and embryos in the body of nematodes. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH exposed nematodes might have a hyper-permeable intestinal barrier, whereas MWCNTs-COOH at environmentally relevant concentrations effectively sustained the normally permeable state for the intestinal barrier. Therefore, we elucidated the cellular basis of carboxyl modification to prevent toxicity of MWCNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations. Our data highlights the key role of biological barriers in the primary targeted organs to block toxicity formation from MWCNTs, which will be useful for the design of effective prevention strategies against

  15. Recent results at the SIRa test bench: diffusion properties of carbon graphite and B{sub 4}C targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landre-Pellemoine, F.; Barue, C.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Kandri-Rody, S.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Marry, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Stodel, C.; Rataud, J.P.; Villari, A.C.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France); Lichtenthaler, R. [IFUSP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Bajeat, O.; Clapier, F.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lau, C.; Obert, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire (IN2P3/CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Bennett, R. [CLRC, RAL, Chilton Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The diffusion properties of graphite targets with 1, 4 and 15 microns microstructure has been measured for He and Ar isotopes. An important enhancement of the diffusion efficiency for the smaller microstructure is observed. A releasing efficiency of the order of 100% was obtained for {sup 6}He (T{sub 1/2} = 806 ms) at a temperature of 1600 K. The diffusion and production properties of He isotopes in a target of B{sub 4}C (Boron Carbide) have also been studied. Yields of 1.5 10{sup 8} pps and 10{sup 6} pps for {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He has been obtained. (authors)

  16. Nanostructured diamond-like carbon on digital versatile disc as a matrix-free target for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Hausberger, Peter; Kraushaar, Harald; Bonn, Günther K

    2008-10-01

    A nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated digital versatile disk (DVD) target is presented as a matrix-free sample support for application in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). A large number of vacancies, defects, relative sp(2) carbon content, and nanogrooves of DLC films support the LDI phenomenon. The observed absorptivity of DLC is in the range of 305-330 nm (nitrogen laser, 337 nm). The universal applicability is demonstrated through different analytes like amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, peptides, and other metabolites. Carbohydrates and amino acids are analyzed as sodium and potassium adducts. Peptides are detectable in their protonated forms, which avoid the extra need of additives for ionization. A bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is analyzed to demonstrate the performance for peptide mixtures, coupled with the material-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (MELDI) approach. The detection limit of the described matrix-free target is investigated to be 10 fmol/microL for [Glu(1)]-fibrinopeptide B (m/z 1570.6) and 1 fmol/microL for L-sorbose (Na(+) adduct). The device does not require any chemical functionalization in contrast to other matrix-free systems. The inertness of DLC provides longer lifetimes without any deterioration in the detection sensitivity. Broad applicability allows high performance analysis in metabolomics and peptidomics. Furthermore the DLC coated DVD (1.4 GB) sample support is used as a storage device for measured and processed data together with sampling on a single device. PMID:18729472

  17. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  18. Reconstruction of the carbon isotopic composition of methane over the last 50 yr based on firn air measurements at 11 polar sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Sapart

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and large uncertainties exist concerning the future evolution of its atmospheric abundance. Analyzing methane atmospheric mixing and stable isotope ratios in air trapped in polar ice sheets helps reconstructing the evolution of its sources and sinks in the past. This is important to improve predictions of atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios in the future under the influence of a changing climate. We present an attempt to reconcile methane carbon isotope records from 11 firn sites from both Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct a consistent δ13C(CH4 history over the last 50 yr. In the firn, the atmospheric signal is altered mainly by diffusion and gravitation. These processes are taken into account by firn transport models. We show that isotope reconstructions from individual sites are not always mutually consistent among the different sites. Therefore we apply for the first time a multisite isotope inversion to reconstruct an atmospheric isotope history that is constrained by all individual sites, generating a multisite "best-estimate" scenario. This scenario is compared to ice core data, atmospheric air archive results and direct atmospheric monitoring data.

  19. Targeting of human GGT in a renal cell carcinoma mouse model with 99mTc-HYNIC-mAb 138H11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study shows that the specific tumor uptake of 99mTc-HYNIC-mAb 138H11 in GGT positive tumours was 2 to 5 times as high as in the controls. A high unspecific background activity was observed in the blood and in all organs well supplied with blood. (orig.)

  20. Determination of Each Province's Carbon Dioxide Reduction Target Based on Embodied Carbon Dioxide Emissions%基于隐含碳排放的碳减排目标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增凯; 郭菊娥; 安尼瓦尔·阿木提

    2011-01-01

    中国政府以2005年为基年提出了碳减排指标,确定各省碳减排基数对于明确各省碳减排责任具有重要意义.本文结合“十一五”期间节能指标分解过程中存在的问题,分析了省际贸易中隐含的碳排放对于确定各省碳减排基数的影响,并分别基于生产者负责原则和消费者负责原则计算了“十二五”期间各省碳减排基数.计算结果表明:①将工业部门拆分为23个部门能够更加充分反映省际贸易结构差异对于隐含碳排放计算的影响;②省际贸易中隐含碳排放不仅在各省间有较大差异而且呈现出从中西部地区调往东部地区的整体转移方向;③不同原则下各省碳减排基数计算结果存在较大差异,消费者负责原则更加真实地反映了各地区实际减排责任,避免了部分省份通过省际调进代替本省生产的方式实现碳减排目标.%Measuring each province's carbon dioxide emissions is of great significance for the carbon reduction target, announced by Chinese Central Government, with 2005 as the base year. This paper firstly analyzes the existing problems of the energy conservation during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period and then studies the influence of embodied carbon dioxide emissions on the calculation of each province' s carbon emissions basis. Finally, each province' s carbon dioxide emissions of the base year are calculated based on two principles: the producer responsibility principle and the consumer responsibility principle. Several crucial conclusions are drawn as follows. First, dividing the industrial sector into 23 sectors adequately reflects the influence of the structural difference in inter-provincial trade on the calculation of the embodied carbon dioxide emissions. Second, the provincial differences of embodied carbon dioxide emissions are obvious. The transfer direction of embodied carbon dioxide emissions is from the central and western regions to the eastern

  1. Recent results at the SIRa test bench Diffusion properties of carbon graphite and B sub 4 C targets

    CERN Document Server

    Landre-Pellemoine, F; Bajeat, O; Barue, C; Bennett, R; Clapier, F; Ducourtieux, M; Gaubert, G; Gibouin, S; Huguet, Y; Jardin, P; Kandri-Rody, S; Lau, C; Lecesne, N; Leroy, R; Lewitowicz, M; Lichtenthäler, R; Marry, C; Maunoury, L; Obert, J; Orr, N A; Pacquet, J Y; Saint-Laurent, M G; Stodel, C; Rataud, J P; Villari, A C C

    2002-01-01

    The diffusion properties of graphite targets with 1, 4 and 15 microns microstructure has been measured for He and Ar isotopes. An important enhancement of the diffusion efficiency for the smaller microstructure is observed. A releasing efficiency of the order of 100% was obtained for sup 6 He (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 =806 ms) at a temperature of 1600 K. The diffusion and production properties of He isotopes in a target of B sub 4 C (boron carbide) have also been studied. Yields of 1.4x10 sup 8 pps and 5.0x10 sup 5 pps for sup 6 He and sup 8 He has been obtained.

  2. A competitive strategy coupled with endonuclease-assisted target recycling for DNA detection using silver-nanoparticle-tagged carbon nanospheres as labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Gao, Fenglei; Lei, Jianping; Dong, Haifeng; Ju, Huangxian

    2012-10-22

    A simple competitive strategy was designed for the sensitive detection of sequence-specific DNA by combining endonuclease-assisted target recycling and electrochemical stripping analysis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNP-tagged carbon nanospheres were synthesized by means of in situ reduction of Ag(+) adsorbed onto a negatively charged polyelectrolyte layer and functionalized with streptavidin for binding biotin-labeled DNA strands. The labeled strand was captured on the DNA sensor surface by competitive hybridization of biotinated primer 1 and its cleaved product. The cleaved product could be amplified in homogeneous solution by endonuclease-assisted target recycling with a Y-shaped junction DNA structure, thus leading to the correlation of the stripping signal to the target concentration. The functionalized nanosphere was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The proposed method showed a linear range from 0.1 to 1000 fM with a limit of detection of 0.066 fM (3σ) and good selectivity for base discrimination. The designed strategy provided a sensitive tool for DNA analysis and could be widely applied in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

  3. Targeted alpha-radionuclide therapy of functionally critically located gliomas with 213Bi-DOTA-[Thi8,Met(O2)11]-substance P: a pilot trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functionally critically located gliomas represent a challenging subgroup of intrinsic brain neoplasms. Standard therapeutic recommendations often cannot be applied, because radical treatment and preservation of neurological function are contrary goals. The successful targeting of gliomas with locally injected beta radiation-emitting 90Y-DOTAGA-substance P has been shown previously. However, in critically located tumours, the mean tissue range of 5 mm of 90Y may seriously damage adjacent brain areas. In contrast, the alpha radiation-emitting radionuclide 213Bi with a mean tissue range of 81 μm may have a more favourable toxicity profile. Therefore, we evaluated locally injected 213Bi-DOTA-substance P in patients with critically located gliomas as the primary therapeutic modality. In a pilot study, we included five patients with critically located gliomas (WHO grades II-IV). After diagnosis by biopsy, 213Bi-DOTA-substance P was locally injected, followed by serial SPECT/CT and MR imaging and blood sampling. Besides feasibility and toxicity, the functional outcome was evaluated. Targeted radiopeptide therapy using 213Bi-DOTA-substance P was feasible and tolerated without additional neurological deficit. No local or systemic toxicity was observed. 213Bi-DOTA-substance P showed high retention at the target site. MR imaging was suggestive of radiation-induced necrosis and demarcation of the tumours, which was validated by subsequent resection. This study provides proof of concept that targeted local radiotherapy using 213Bi-DOTA-substance P is feasible and may represent an innovative and effective treatment for critically located gliomas. Primarily non-operable gliomas may become resectable with this treatment, thereby possibly improving the prognosis. (orig.)

  4. The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period-Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daisheng, E-mail: daisheng.zhang@kjemi.uio.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Aunan, Kristin [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, N-0318 Oslo (Norway); Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Martin Seip, Hans [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, N-0318 Oslo (Norway); Vennemo, Haakon [Oslo University College, P.O. Box 4, St. Olavs plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-07-15

    Facing the mounting pressure on energy security and increasing environmental concerns about air pollution and climate change, the Chinese government set a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity in its 11th Five-Year Plan period (FYP, 2006-2010). In this paper we use Shanxi province to illustrate how policies and measures are implemented in practice at a provincial level as a response to the National FYP issued by the central government. Local policies are described and their effects are analyzed. We compare reported energy saving achievements with our own estimates and conclude that the achievements in Shanxi probably have been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP period. The most important measures taken by provincial and local governments seem to be in the secondary sector, such as Top-200/Top-1000 program and phasing out outdated technologies. However, Shanxi has still a long way to go to achieve satisfactory energy use. Further improvement of energy intensity will require continuing efforts. Although many measures are necessary, improving the energy efficiency in heavy industries and reducing the dependence on these industries should be particularly effective. - Highlights: > We use Shanxi province to illustrate how local policies respond to the National FYP. > Energy saving in Shanxi has been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP. > Assumptions about baseline energy use strongly affects energy saving estimates. > The most important measures taken by local governments are in the secondary sector. > Further improvement of energy intensity will require efforts especially in heavy industries.

  5. Combined δ11B, δ13C, and δ18O analyses of coccolithophore calcite constrains the response of coccolith vesicle carbonate chemistry to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Tripati, Robert; Aciego, Sarah; Gilmore, Rosaleen; Ries, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophorid algae play a central role in the biological carbon pump, oceanic carbon sequestration, and in marine food webs. It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification on these organisms. Differences in the regulation of carbonate chemistry, pH, and carbon sources of the intracellular compartments where coccolith formation occurs may underlie the diverse calcification and growth responses to acidified seawater observed in prior experiments. Here we measured stable isotopes of boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) within coccolith calcite, and δ13C of algal tissue to constrain carbonate system parameters in two strains of Pleurochrysis carterae (P. carterae). The two strains were cultured under variable pCO2, with water temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity monitored. Notably, PIC, POC, and PIC/POC ratio did not vary across treatments, indicating that P. carterae is able to calcify and photosynthesize at relatively constant rates irrespective of pCO2 treatment. The δ11B data indicate that mean pH at the site of coccolith formation did not vary significantly in response to elevated CO2. These results suggest that P. carterae regulates calcifying vesicle pH, even amidst changes in external seawater pH. Furthermore, δ13C and δ18O data suggest that P. carterae may utilize carbon from a single internal DIC pool for both calcification and photosynthesis, and that a greater proportion of dissolved CO2 relative to HCO3- enters the internal DIC pool under acidified conditions. These results suggest that P. carterae is able to calcifyand photosynthesize at relatively constant rates across pCO2 treatments by maintaining pH homeostasis at their site of calcification and utilizing a greater proportion of aqueous CO2.

  6. Targeted Amplicon Sequencing for Single-Nucleotide-Polymorphism Genotyping of Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Cattle Strains via a High-Throughput Library Preparation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Sarah A; Delannoy, Sabine; Bugarel, Marie; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Renter, David G; den Bakker, Henk C; Nightingale, Kendra K; Fach, Patrick; Loneragan, Guy H

    2015-11-13

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26:H11, a serotype within Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that causes severe human disease, has been considered to have evolved from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) O26:H11 through the acquisition of a Shiga toxin-encoding gene. Targeted amplicon sequencing using next-generation sequencing technology of 48 phylogenetically informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three SNPs differentiating Shiga toxin-positive (stx-positive) strains from Shiga toxin-negative (stx-negative) strains were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of 178 E. coli O26:H11 strains (6 stx-positive strains and 172 stx-negative AEEC strains) from cattle feces to 7 publically available genomes of human clinical strains. The AEEC cattle strains displayed synonymous SNP genotypes with stx2-positive sequence type 29 (ST29) human O26:H11 strains, while stx1 ST21 human and cattle strains clustered separately, demonstrating the close phylogenetic relatedness of these Shiga toxin-negative AEEC cattle strains and human clinical strains. With the exception of seven stx-negative strains, five of which contained espK, three stx-related SNPs differentiated the STEC strains from non-STEC strains, supporting the hypothesis that these AEEC cattle strains could serve as a potential reservoir for new or existing pathogenic human strains. Our results support the idea that targeted amplicon sequencing for SNP genotyping expedites strain identification and genetic characterization of E. coli O26:H11, which is important for food safety and public health.

  7. Study of the break reaction of Be{sup 11} on Ti{sup 48} target; the towing mode: a spectroscopic tool for the study of nuclei; Etude de la reaction de cassure du {sup 11}Be sur cible de {sup 48}Ti; le towing mode, un outil spectroscopique pour l'etude des noyaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, V

    2004-10-01

    In a towing mode reaction the projectile picks up a nucleon from the target and then breaks up by emitting one nucleon. The velocity of the emitted nucleon is boosted by the projectile velocity, leading to the emission of the nucleon in a narrow cone around the direction of the scattered projectile. This work is dedicated to the towing mode in halo nuclei such as Be{sup 11}. The experiment was performed at Ganil facility by bombarding a Ti{sup 48} target with a 41 MeV per nucleon Be{sup 11} beam, the reaction studied is: Ti{sup 48}(Be{sup 11}, Be{sup 10} + n + {gamma}). The first chapter reviews the various nuclear processes that take place when 2 nuclei collide with a particular attention for the towing mode. The second chapter is dedicated to solving the time dependant Schroedinger equation (TDSE) in order to assess the impact of various parameters such as incident energy, target charge or the linking energy of the nucleon, on the towing mode reaction. The third chapter deals with the experimental equipment and set-up including detectors and the data acquisition system. Computerized simulations have been performed in order to assess the efficiency of the detecting system, they are presented in the fourth chapter. A comparison between experimental data and the results from TDSE solving, concerning the energy spectra of the emitted particles, has enabled the author to deduce the spectroscopic factors for the different contributions of the fundamental state of Be{sup 11}, they are presented in the last chapter. The cross-sections of the towing mode are of the magnitude of several tens of milli-barns in the case of weakly bound nuclei like Be{sup 11} which make it an efficient tool to study intern structure of nuclei. (A.C.)

  8. September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Christine K.

    2002-01-01

    The September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States had an impact on everyone across the nation, and certainly included college campuses. This article addresses campus responses targeted at students and identifies future implications. (Contains 20 references.) (Author)

  9. Platinum-coordinated graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet used for targeted inhibition of amyloid β-peptide aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Li; Yijia Guan; Zhaowei Chen; Nan Gao; Jinsong Ren; Kai Dong; Xiaogang Qu

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Inhibition of Aβ production,dissolution of existing aggregates and clearance of Aβ represent valid therapeutic strategies against AD.Herein,a novel platinum(Ⅱ)-coordinated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)nanosheet (g-C3N4@Pt) has been designed to covalently bind to Aβ and modulate the peptide's aggregation and toxicity.Furthermore,g-C3N4@Pt nanosheets possess high photocatalytic activity and can oxygenate Aβ upon visible light irradiation,remarkably attenuating both the aggregation potency and neurotoxidty of Aβ.Due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its good biocompatibility,g-C3N4@Pt nanosheet is a promising inhibitor of Aβ aggregation.This study may serve as a model for the engineering of novel multifunctional nanomaterials used for the treatment of AD.

  10. Diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility and preliminary tests on laser interaction with light-atom clusters and p+{sup 11}B targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.consoli@enea.it [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi; Cristofari, Giuseppe; Di Giorgio, Giorgio [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bonasera, Aldo [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Barbui, Marina [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Mazzocco, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Università degli Studi di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Barbarino, Matteo [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Kimura, Sachie [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    The diagnostics of particle flows in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments is a delicate issue, due to the fast timescales and to the strong radiative electromagnetic contributions. This makes the discrimination of the different particles produced by the laser–plasma interaction not trivial, and requires the use of several diagnostic techniques. We describe here the diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility. They will provide more detailed analysis of microwave fields and particles originating from the interaction of laser with targets foreseen for future experiments.

  11. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mc1-1 is a candidate target gene of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palladino Michael A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatic cord torsion can lead to testis ischemia (I and subsequent ischemia-reperfusion (I/R causing germ cell-specific apoptosis. Previously, we demonstrated that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 transcription factor, a key regulator of physiological responses to hypoxia, is abundant in Leydig cells in normoxic and ischemic testes. We hypothesize that testicular HIF-1 activates the expression of antiapoptotic target genes to protect Leydig cells from apoptosis. In silico analysis of testis genes containing a consensus hypoxia response element (HRE, 5’-RCGTG-3’ identified myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1 as a potential HIF-1 target gene. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HIF-1 shows DNA-binding activity in normoxic and ischemic testes and whether Mcl-1 is a target gene of testicular HIF-1. Methods The testicular HIF-1 DNA-binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. MCL-1 protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The binding of testicular HIF-1 to the Mcl-1 gene was examined via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis. Results The ELISA and EMSA assays demonstrated that testicular HIF-1 from normoxic and ischemic testes binds DNA equally strongly, suggesting physiological roles for HIF-1 in the normoxic testis, unlike most tissues in which HIF-1 is degraded under normoxic conditions and is only activated by hypoxia. MCL-1 protein was determined to be abundant in both normoxic and ischemic testes and expressed in Leydig cells. In a pattern identical to that of HIF-1 expression, the steady-state levels of MCL-1 were not significantly affected by I or I/R and MCL-1 co-localized with HIF-1α in Leydig cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis using a HIF-1 antibody revealed sequences enriched for the Mcl-1 promoter. Conclusions The results

  12. Direct Solvent-Derived Polymer-Coated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots with High Water Solubility for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Meng, Ying; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Chengyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-08-01

    Cancer imaging requires biocompatible and bright contrast-agents with selective and high accumulation in the tumor region but low uptake in normal tissues. Herein, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)-derived polymer-coated nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (pN-CNDs) with a particle size in the range of 5-15 nm are prepared by a facile direct solvothermal reaction. The as-prepared pN-CNDs exhibit stable and adjustable fluorescence and excellent water solubility. Results of a cell viability test (CCK-8) and histology analysis both demonstrate that the pN-CNDs have no obvious cytotoxicity. Most importantly, the pN-CNDs can expediently enter glioma cells in vitro and also mediate glioma fluorescence imaging in vivo with good contrast via elevated passive targeting. PMID:25808813

  13. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  14. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  15. Comparative phenomics and targeted use of genomics reveals variation in carbon and nitrogen assimilation among different Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, S; Van Assche, A; de Jonge, R; Borneman, A R; Verreth, C; Troels, P; De Samblanx, G; Marchal, K; Van de Peer, Y; Willems, K A; Verstrepen, K J; Curtin, C D; Lievens, B

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested a correlation between genotype groups of Brettanomyces bruxellensis and their source of isolation. To further explore this relationship, the objective of this study was to assess metabolic differences in carbon and nitrogen assimilation between different B. bruxellensis strains from three beverages, including beer, wine, and soft drink, using Biolog Phenotype Microarrays. While some similarities of physiology were noted, many traits were variable among strains. Interestingly, some phenotypes were found that could be linked to strain origin, especially for the assimilation of particular α- and β-glycosides as well as α- and β-substituted monosaccharides. Based upon gene presence or absence, an α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase were found explaining the observed phenotypes. Further, using a PCR screen on a large number of isolates, we have been able to specifically link a genomic deletion to the beer strains, suggesting that this region may have a fitness cost for B. bruxellensis in certain fermentation systems such as brewing. More specifically, none of the beer strains were found to contain a β-glucosidase, which may have direct impacts on the ability for these strains to compete with other microbes or on flavor production. PMID:26135985

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-halogenated-1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylenes as potential estrogen receptor-targeted radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert N; Tongcharoensirikul, Pakamas; Barnsley, Kelton; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2015-04-01

    A series of three 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylene derivatives was prepared and evaluated as potential estrogen receptor imaging agents. The compounds display high binding affinity compared to estradiol, with the 2-iodo and 2-bromo-derivatives expressing higher affinity than the parent 2-nonhalogenated derivative. Evaluation in immature female rats also indicate that the compounds were all full estrogenic agonists with potencies in the same order of activity (I∼Br>H). Computational analysis of the interactions between the ligands and ERα-LBD demonstrated positive contribution of halide to binding properties. In preparation for studies using the radiohalogenated analogs, the corresponding protected 2-(tributylstannyl) derivative was prepared and converted to the corresponding 2-iodo-product. PMID:25637676

  17. Constitutive Activation of the Fission Yeast Pheromone-Responsive Pathway Induces Ectopic Meiosis and Reveals Ste11 as a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Søren; Lautrup-Larsen, I.; Truelsen, S.;

    2005-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, meiosis normally takes place in diploid zygotes resulting from conjugation of haploid cells. In the present study, we report that the expression of a constitutively activated version of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase...... kinase (MAP3K) Byr2 can induce ectopic meiosis directly in haploid cells. We find that the Ste11 transcription factor becomes constitutively expressed in these cells and that the expression of pheromone-responsive genes no longer depends on nitrogen starvation. Epistasis analysis revealed...... that these conditions bypassed the requirement for the meiotic activator Mei3. Since Mei3 is normally needed for inactivation of the meiosis-repressing protein kinase Pat1, this finding suggests that the strong Byr2 signal causes inactivation of Pat1 by an alternative mechanism. Consistent with this possibility, we...

  18. Main targets and new concepts in China's 11th Five-Year Plan%中国"十一五"规划的主要指标和新提法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's newly released 11th Five-Year Plan delivered to the Fouth Session of the 10th National People's Congress for examination puts forward two important targets for national economic and social development in the 2006-2010period: an average annual GDP growth of 7.5% and a reduction of about 20% in energy consumption for unit GDP and a reduction of 10% in main pollutants discharge volume. These are put forward in response to growing resource and environmental pressures and are indicative policy guidance.

  19. Targeted Fe-filled carbon nanotube as a multifunctional contrast agent for thermoacoustic and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor in living mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenzheng; Lou, Cunguang; Qiu, Jieshan; Zhao, Zongbin; Zhou, Quan; Liang, Minjie; Ji, Zhong; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) can map the microwave absorption distribution of targets, which depends on the electrical and magnetic properties. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with good electrical properties have been used as TAI contrast agents, the negligible magnetic absorption hinders its application for sensitive detection. In order to exploit CNTs with electrical and magnetic absorption properties as agent of TAI, the ferromagnetic material-filled multi-walled CNTs (MMWCNTs) are investigated. In this study, the folic acid conjugated plain multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) and MMWCNTs were injected through the tail-vein of mice separately, and TAI and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The results show the MMWCNTs can clearly image the size and edge of the tumor with the TAI contrast enhancement of 67% and T2 signal intensity decrease of four fifths compared to MWCNTs. This study demonstrated the hybrid particles have the potential to be a high-sensitive contrast agent for accurate tumor detection. From the Clinical Editor: Novel imaging modalities are emerging. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) relies on the absorption distribution of microwave of targets. In this article the authors investigate the use of ferromagnetic material-filled multi-walled CNTs as contrast agents for both TAI and MRI in an in-vivo model for tumors. The positive findings would imply that the application of dual-modality probe could provide more accurate imaging for the clinical setting.

  20. 全球长期减排目标与碳排放权分配原则%Long-Term Climate Change Mitigation Target and Carbon Permit Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建坤; 陈文颖; 滕飞; 刘滨

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate change mitigation target would highly constrain global carbon emissions in future.Carbon permit allocation under the long-term mitigation target would impact development space for all countries,involving the fundamental interests.Some developed countries advocate the principle of per capita emission convergence while China and other developing countries propose the principle of convergence of accumulative emission per capita to consider historical responsibility.If the latter is used for carbon permit allocation,CO_2 emissions of developed countries since the industrial revolution have far exceeded their allocated permits.Developed countries'high per capita emissions at present and for quite a long period in future would continue to occupy emission spaces for developing countries.Therefore,developed countries must commit deeper emission reduction rate for the next commitment period at the Copenhagen conference in order to achieve the emission pathway under the long-term emission reduction target,and to save necessary development space for developing countries.At the same time,developed countries should provide adequate financial and technical suppoa as compensation for their overuse of the development space for developing countries,to improve developing countries'capacity to respond to climate change under the framework of sustainable development.On the one hand,we should insist on the principle of equity to obtain reasonable emission space for our country in the international climate change negotiation;while on the other hand,we should enhance development toward low-carbon economy to protect global environment and to achieve sustainable development.%全球长期减排目标将对世界未来的碳排放形成严重制约,减排义务的分担原则涉及各国的发展空间,事关根本利益.部分发达国家倡导人均排放趋同原则,回避发达国家的历史责任,中国等发展中国家提出人均累积排放趋同原则,强调公

  1. Targeting of Carbon Ion-Induced G2 Checkpoint Activation in Lung Cancer Cells Using Wee-1 Inhibitor MK-1775.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyu; Takahashi, Akihisa; Sejimo, Yukihiko; Adachi, Akiko; Kubo, Nobuteru; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The potent inhibitor of the cell cycle checkpoint regulatory factor Wee-1, MK-1775, has been reported to enhance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell sensitivity to photon radiation by abrogating radiation-induced G2 arrest. However, little is known about the effects of this sensitizer after exposure to carbon (C)-ion radiation. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of C ions in combination with MK-1775 on the killing of NSCLC cells. Human NSCLC H1299 cells were exposed to X rays or C ions (290 MeV/n, 50 keV/μm at the center of a 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) in the presence of MK-1775. The cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blotting. Radiosensitivity was determined using clonogenic survival assays. The mechanisms underlying MK-1775 radiosensitization were studied by observing H2AX phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe. G2 checkpoint arrest was enhanced 2.3-fold by C-ion exposure compared with X-ray exposure. Radiation-induced G2 checkpoint arrest was abrogated by MK-1775. Exposure to radiation resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic ratio and increased phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), the primary downstream mediator of Wee-1-induced G2 arrest. The Wee-1 inhibitor, MK-1775 restored the mitotic ratio and suppressed Cdk1 phosphorylation. In addition, MK-1775 increased H1299 cell sensitivity to C ions and X rays independent of TP53 status. MK-1775 also significantly increased H2AX phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe in irradiated cells. These results suggest that the G2 checkpoint inhibitor MK-1775 can enhance the sensitivity of human NSCLC cells to C ions as well as X rays. PMID:26645158

  2. Accelerated killing of cancer cells using a multifunctional single-walled carbon nanotube-based system for targeted drug delivery in combination with photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamohan P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prashanti Jeyamohan, Takashi Hasumura, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Japan Abstract: The photothermal effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in combination with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX for targeting and accelerated destruction of breast cancer cells is demonstrated in this paper. A targeted drug-delivery system was developed for selective killing of breast cancer cells with polyethylene glycol biofunctionalized and DOX-loaded SWCNTs conjugated with folic acid. In our work, in vitro drug-release studies showed that the drug (DOX binds at physiological pH (pH 7.4 and is released only at a lower pH, ie, lysosomal pH (pH 4.0, which is the characteristic pH of the tumor environment. A sustained release of DOX from the SWCNTs was observed for a period of 3 days. SWCNTs have strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR region. In this special spectral window, biological systems are highly transparent. Our study reports that under laser irradiation at 800 nm, SWCNTs exhibited strong light–heat transfer characteristics. These optical properties of SWCNTs open the way for selective photothermal ablation in cancer therapy. It was also observed that internalization and uptake of folate-conjugated NTs into cancer cells was achieved by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. Results of the in vitro experiments show that laser was effective in destroying the cancer cells, while sparing the normal cells. When the above laser effect was combined with DOX-conjugated SWCNTs, we found enhanced and accelerated killing of breast cancer cells. Thus, this nanodrug-delivery system, consisting of laser, drug, and SWCNTs, looks to be a promising selective modality with high treatment efficacy and low side effects for cancer therapy. Keywords: cancer, nanotherapy, SWCNTs, targeted drug delivery

  3. Expressional profiling of prostate cancer risk SNPs at 11q13.5 identifies DGAT2 as a new target gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Riikka; Rantapero, Tommi; Wong, Swee C; Fischer, Daniel; Lehtonen, Rainer; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    A total of nine non-coding variants on 11q13.5 predispose men to prostate cancer (PrCa). rs200331695 within the EMSY intron is associated with aggressive PrCa and two high linkage disequilibrium (LD) groups of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intergenic region are associated with PrCa death. Here, the cis-effect of the SNPs on gene expression using expression quantitative trait loci analysis was investigated. The regulatory potential was screened in prostate tumors (n = 41) and in whole blood (n = 99). The results were validated in a second tumor set (n = 41), in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) (n = 38), and using the GTEx Portal. The effects of haplotypes were analyzed in the whole blood. The high LD SNPs (rs143975731, rs12277366, rs2155225, and rs2155222) were associated with DGAT2 expression in both tumors sets (screening P = 0.035-0.043; validation P = 0.005-0.018). The PrCa death-associated alleles decreased the expression by two-fold. rs200331695 decreased DGAT2 expression in LCLs (P = 0.006). The findings of SNPs regulating CAPN5 (P = 0.026-0.046) and AP001189.4 (P = 0.03-0.039) in the whole blood were not observed in LCLs, but the association with AP001189.4 expression was validated via the GTEx Portal (P = 8.7 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4) ), which suggests that the high LD intergenic SNPs exert a tissue-dependent effect on the expression of two genes. No haplotypes including the risk SNPs at 11q13.5 were associated with gene expression and PrCa. The findings indicate the functionality of the PrCa death-predisposing SNPs rs143975731, rs12277366, rs2155225, and rs2155222 as DGAT2 regulators in prostate tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27113481

  4. The C1 domain-targeted isophthalate derivative HMI-1b11 promotes neurite outgrowth and GAP-43 expression through PKCα activation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Virpi; Amadio, Marialaura; Osera, Cecilia; Sorvari, Salla; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Rossi, Daniela; Govoni, Stefano; Collina, Simona; Ekokoski, Elina; Tuominen, Raimo K; Pascale, Alessia

    2013-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine phosphotransferases ubiquitously expressed and involved in multiple cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. The C1 domain of PKC represents an attractive drug target, especially for developing PKC activators. Dialkyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalates are a novel group of synthetic C1 domain ligands that exhibit antiproliferative effect in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Here we selected two isophthalates, HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11, and characterized their effects in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Both of the active isophthalates exhibited significant antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects. Since HMI-1b11 did not impair cell survival even at the highest concentration tested (20μM), and supported neurite growth and differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells, we focused on studying its downstream signaling cascades and effects on gene expression. Consistently, genome-wide gene expression microarray and gene set enrichment analysis indicated that HMI-1b11 (10μM) induced changes in genes mainly related to cell differentiation. In particular, further studies revealed that HMI-1b11 exposure induced up-regulation of GAP-43, a marker for neurite sprouting and neuronal differentiation. These effects were induced by a 7-min HMI-1b11 treatment and specifically depended on PKCα activation, since pretreatment with the selective inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the up-regulation of GAP-43 protein observed at 12h. In parallel, we found that a 7-min exposure to HMI-1b11 induced PKCα accumulation to the cytoskeleton, an effect that was again prevented by pretreatment with Gö6976. Despite similar binding affinities to PKC, the isophthalates had different effects on PKC-dependent ERK1/2 signaling: HMI-1a3-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was transient, while HMI-1b11 induced a rapid but prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Overall our data are in accordance with previous studies showing that

  5. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuschel Henrike

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro

  6. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-10-05

    thickest part of the mound facies of the upper Ismay zone, where microporosity is well developed. In Bug field, the most productive wells are located structurally downdip from the updip porosity pinch out in the dolomitized lower Desert Creek zone, where micro-box-work porosity is well developed. Microporosity and micro-box-work porosity have the greatest hydrocarbon storage and flow capacity, and potential horizontal drilling target in these fields. Diagenesis is the main control on the quality of Ismay and Desert Creek reservoirs. Most of the carbonates present within the lower Desert Creek and Ismay have retained a marine-influenced carbon isotope geochemistry throughout marine cementation as well as through post-burial recycling of marine carbonate components during dolomitization, stylolitization, dissolution, and late cementation. Meteoric waters do not appear to have had any effect on the composition of the dolomites in these zones. Light oxygen values obtained from reservoir samples for wells located along the margins or flanks of Bug field may be indicative of exposure to higher temperatures, to fluids depleted in {sup 18}O relative to sea water, or to hypersaline waters during burial diagenesis. The samples from Bug field with the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are from wells that have produced significantly greater amounts of hydrocarbons. There is no significant difference between the oxygen isotope compositions from lower Desert Creek dolomite samples in Bug field and the upper Ismay limestones and dolomites from Cherokee field. Carbon isotopic compositions for samples from Patterson Canyon field can be divided into two populations: isotopically heavier mound cement and isotopically lighter oolite and banded cement. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the annual national convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, a core workshop, and publications

  7. Integrated molecular targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors and destruction of breast cancer cells using single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Ning [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Lu Shaoxin [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Wickstrom, Eric [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Panchapakesan, Balaji [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-08-08

    Molecular targeting and photodynamic therapy have shown great potential for selective cancer therapy. We hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the IGF1 receptor and HER2 cell surface antigens could be bound to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in order to concentrate SWCNT on breast cancer cells for specific near-infrared phototherapy. SWCNT functionalized with HER2 and IGF1R specific antibodies showed selective attachment to breast cancer cells compared to SWCNT functionalized with non-specific antibodies. After the complexes were attached to specific cancer cells, SWCNT were excited by {approx}808 nm infrared photons at {approx}800 mW cm{sup -2} for 3 min. Viability after phototherapy was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells incubated with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids were still alive after photo-thermal treatment due to the lack of SWNT binding to the cell membrane. All cancerous cells treated with IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody/SWCNT hybrids and receiving infrared photons showed cell death after the laser excitation. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that all the cells treated with SWCNT/IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody complex were completely destroyed, while more than 80% of the cells with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids remained alive. Following multi-component targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors, integrated photo-thermal therapy in breast cancer cells led to the complete destruction of cancer cells. Functionalizing SWCNT with antibodies in combination with their intrinsic optical properties can therefore lead to a new class of molecular delivery and cancer therapeutic systems.

  8. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c - 12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Engel, R; Meurer, C; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Paganoni, M; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).

  9. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c-12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, M. G.; Radicioni, E.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Robbins, S.; Soler, F. J. P.; Gößling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Arce, P.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Morone, M. C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Engel, R.; Meurer, C.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G. B.; Graulich, J. S.; Grégoire, G.; Kirsanov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; de Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, S.; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential π± production cross-section in proton-carbon, proton-copper and proton-tin collisions in the range of pion momentum 100 MeV/ c≤p<800 MeV/ c and angle 0.35 rad≤θ<2.15 rad is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/ c to 12 GeV/ c hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections d2σ/dpdθ at four incident proton beam momenta (3 GeV/ c, 5 GeV/ c, 8 GeV/ c and 12 GeV/ c).

  10. 11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2基因表达作为葡萄籽提取物预防乳腺癌靶点的探讨%Expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 genes as a molecular target endpoint for the prevention of breast cell carcinogenesis with grape seed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋筱瑜; 王华骞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the change of 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression in carcinogenesis and cancer prevention and to study the possibility of using 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression as a molecular target endpoint in the progression of breast cell carcinogenesis suppressed by Grape Seed Extract (GSE). Methods Cell carcinogenesis model for human breast epithelial MCF10A cell was induced by treating the cell with carcinogens NNK and B[ a] P repeatedly, and the cell model system for the prevention of carcinogenesis was developed by combining GSE with NNK and B[ a] P. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene. The biological change of carcinogen treated cells was studied by transfecting small interference RNA ( siRNA ) to inhibit 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression of cells. Results The colony formation of carcinogen treated cells in low-mitogen medium was less after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited by specific siRNA, which was just like the colony formation of normal cells. The expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was high in carcinogen treated cells, and the gene expression was low or undetectable in normal breast epithelial cells and cells combined treated with GSE and carcinogen. Conclusion The biological display of carcinogen treated cells could be normalized after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited. The mechanism for GSE preventing carcinogenesis might be the result of GSE inhibiting the expression of 11β-HSD 2 gene. 11β-HSD 2 gene might be the molecular target endpoint for the suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis by GSE.%目的 研究11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2型基因(11β-HSD 2)表达在癌症发生及预防过程中的变化,探讨该基因作为葡萄籽提取物(GSE)抑制乳腺上皮细胞慢性癌变过程中靶点的可能性.方法 建立低浓度致癌物NNK和B[a]P刺激乳腺上皮细胞MCF 10A癌变及GSE抑制乳腺上皮细胞癌变过程的细胞模型,研究瞬时转染了靶向11β-HSD 2基因的

  11. 纯牛奶中18碳TFA及9c,11 t-CLA含量的测定研究%Study on 18-carbon trans fatty acid and 9c,11t-conjugated linoleic acid contents in milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章萍萍; 赵培城

    2010-01-01

    为了精确测量出纯牛奶中18碳TFA及9c,11t-CLA的含量,本实验通过毛细管气相色谱法,并采用内标法,对纯牛奶进行了检测,结果显示,纯牛奶中18碳脂肪酸的质量百分比约为35.43% ,18碳TFA的质量百分比约为2.27%,而其中C18:1-llt的质量百分比达到1.28%,占所有18碳TFA的一半以上,约为56.36%,同时,牛奶中C18:2 -9c,11t的质量百分比只为0.11%,其含量远少于TFA.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH and other variables measured from laboratory experiment studies from an experimental carbonate exposure system from 2012-02-29 to 2012-05-11 (NODC Accession 0123315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the carbon chemistry measurements of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effects of ocean acidification on winter...

  13. Baryon emission at target rapidities in Si+Al,Cu,Au collisions at 14.6AGeV/c and Au+Au collisions at 11.7AGeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of proton emission at target rapidities for minimum bias and central collisions of 14.6AGeV/c 28Si with Al, Cu, and Au nuclei as well as minimum bias and central collisions of 11.7AGeV/c 197Au with Au nuclei. Results for deuteron emission are also reported for the Si+Au reaction. The spectra span the laboratory angular range of 50 degree ≤θ≤130 degree and kinetic energy range of 40MeV≤Ekin≤225MeV. Inverse slopes of proton spectra and proton dN/dη values in the kinetic energy range 50MeV≤Ekin≤110MeV are reported. The inverse slopes are 40 - 80 MeV for the various systems, generally increasing with increasing pseudorapidity. The dN/dη values for A+A collisions within the restricted kinetic energy interval are compared to those for protons from p+Au in the literature. All pseudorapidity distributions have very similar shapes. The experimental results have been compared to the predictions of the nucleon-nucleon collision models ARC and RQMD. The predictions made by these two models for the distribution of protons at target rapidities are very similar to each other. However, there are significant differences between the model predictions and the experimental results in the details of the spectral slopes and the proton yields for different trigger conditions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Identification of a new epitope in uPAR as a target for the cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibody ATN-658, a structural homolog of the uPAR binding integrin CD11b (αM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. This antibody, ATN-658, does not inhibit ligand binding (i.e. uPA and vitronectin to uPAR and its mechanism of action remains unclear. As a first step in understanding the anti-tumor activity of ATN-658, we set out to identify the epitope on uPAR to which ATN-658 binds. Guided by comparisons between primate and human uPAR, epitope mapping studies were performed using several orthogonal techniques. Systematic site directed and alanine scanning mutagenesis identified the region of aa 268-275 of uPAR as the epitope for ATN-658. No known function has previously been attributed to this epitope Structural insights into epitope recognition were obtained from structural studies of the Fab fragment of ATN-658 bound to uPAR. The structure shows that the ATN-658 binds to the DIII domain of uPAR, close to the C-terminus of the receptor, corroborating the epitope mapping results. Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM, a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR.

  15. Carbon-11 labelling of eticlopride in two different positions - a selective high-affinity ligand for the study of dopamine D-2 receptors using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new highly selective high-affinity dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, eticlopride ((-)-(S)-5-chloro-3-ethyl-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-6-methoxysalicylamide), was labelled with 11C in two different positions ([N-ethyl-11C]eticlopride (I) and ([methyl-11C]eticlopride (II)). Product I was prepared by N-alkylation of the N-desethyl compound with [11C]ethyl iodide. II was prepared by O-alkylation of the diphenolic precursor with [11C]methyl iodide followed by separation of the two methylated products. The radiochemical yields were 15-20% (EOB) with an overall synthesis time of 45-60 min. Both compounds were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and the radiochemical purity was in both cases > 99%. I was injected i.v. in a Cynomolgus monkey and brain radioactivity was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). The specific activity was 70 Ci/mmol at time of injection. There was a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the basal ganglia, regions known to have a high density of dopamine D-2 receptors. (author)

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Nannan; Shu, Chang; Li, Ruixin; Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xuequan; Wang, Ran; Zhong, Wenying, E-mail: wyzhong@cpu.edu.cn [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2015-05-15

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π–π interaction. DSPE–PEG–COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (−24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC{sub 50}: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  19. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π–π interaction. DSPE–PEG–COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (−24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC50: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  20. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  1. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  2. At WA11

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Starting with february 1977 the WA5 spectrometer of the Indiana-Saclay Collaboration originally designed to study hadron backward scattering on protons, and later modified by the Indiana-Imperial College (London)-Saclay-Southampton Collaboration, was used (experiment WA11) to search for high mass states produced with the J/psi. On the left, Tom Marshall moves in a beam hodoscope. On the right, at the entrance of the Goliath magnet, one sees the 1 m long hydrogen target. (Later the set-up was reshuffled, and the hydrogen target was replaced by a set of Be targets located upstream of the magnet.)

  3. Laboratory measurement of the 2-centimeter, 2/11/-2/12/ transition of normal formaldehyde and its carbon-13 and oxygen-18 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K. D.; Tomasevich, G. R.; Thaddeus, P.

    1972-01-01

    Beam-maser spectrometric measurements to an accuracy of about 100 Hz have been conducted of the 2(11)-2(12) transition for the isotopic species of greatest astronomical interest - i.e., H2CO, H2(13)CO, and H2C(18)O. The samples used were not isotopically enriched, monomeric formaldehyde vapors. For these species, all the coupling constants required to calculate the hyperfine structure of any rotational transition have been determined.

  4. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) as an in vivo tracer of amino acid uptake in differing metabolic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIB has been used as a model amino acid for the evaluation of alanine-preferring amino acid transport. Hormonal factors and starvation alter the tissue distribution of amino acids, particularly in liver and muscle. With positron emission tomography and labeling of biochemical tracers with C-11, (t1/2=20.4 min), it is now possible to study amino acid kinetics in vivo using external imaging. In order to investigate the utility of C-11 AIB as an in vivo tracer of altered tissue metabolism, C-14 AIB was studied in groups of rats with either streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin-induced hypoglycemia or starvation. The data suggest an increased amino acid uptake in liver in starvation, an increased uptake in muscle in response to insulin and associated hypoglycemia and decreased transport in muscle in starvation, as seen by other investigators. These results suggest that C-11 AIB may be useful as an in vivo monitor of metabolic changes in body tissues

  5. Spectroelectrochemical Study of Carbon Monoxide and Ethanol Oxidation on Pt/C, PtSn(3:1)/C and PtSn(1:1)/C Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Rubén; Lázaro, María Jesús; Pastor, Elena; García, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    PtSn-based catalysts are one of the most active materials toward that contribute ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In order to gain a better understanding of the Sn influence on the carbon monoxide (principal catalyst poison) and ethanol oxidation reactions in acidic media, a systematic spectroelectrochemical study was carried out. With this end, carbon-supported PtSnx (x = 0, 1/3 and 1) materials were synthesized and employed as anodic catalysts for both reactions. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) indicate that Sn diminishes the amount of bridge bonded CO (COB) and greatly improves the CO tolerance of Pt-based catalysts. Regarding the effect of Sn loading on the EOR, it enhances the catalytic activity and decreases the onset potential. FTIRS and DEMS analysis indicate that the C-C bond scission occurs at low overpotentials and at the same potential values regardless of the Sn loading, although the amount of C-C bond breaking decreases with the rise of Sn in the catalytic material. Therefore, the elevated catalytic activity toward the EOR at PtSn-based electrodes is mainly associated with the improved CO tolerance and the incomplete oxidation of ethanol to form acetic acid and acetaldehyde species, causing the formation of a higher amount of both C2 products with the rise of Sn loading. PMID:27626404

  6. Inorganic and Organic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (4 June-11 August, 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2005-08-30

    This report presents methods and analytical and quality control procedures for nutrient, oxygen, and inorganic carbon system parameters performed during the A16N_2003a cruise, which took place from June 4 to August 11, 2003 aboard NOAA Ship R/V Ronald H. Brown under auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first hydrographic leg (June 19–July 10) was from Reykjavik, Iceland, to Funchal, Madeira, Portugal along the 20°W meridian, and the second leg (July 15–August 11) continued operations from Funchal, Portugal to Natal, Brazil, on a track southward and ending at 6°S, 25°W. The research was the first in a decadal series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from up to 34 depths at 150 stations. The data presented in this report includes the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), phosphate (PO4), silicate (SiO4), and dissolved oxygen (O2). The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16N_2003a data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  7. A refined method for quantification of myocardial oxygen consumption rate using mean transit time with carbon-11-acetate and dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y; Huang, S C; Hawkins, R A; Hoh, C K; Krivokapich, J; Buxton, D B; Armbrecht, J J; Sun, K T; Phelps, M E; Schelbert, H R

    1993-11-01

    The utility of the mean transit time equation was investigated for estimation of the myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate, which is proportional to myocardial oxygen consumption rates. The mean transit time approach was also employed to generate parametric images of the clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate with dynamic PET imaging in 20 normal human studies. Input function delays and cutoff errors due to the truncation of the myocardial tissue time-activity curve at a finite time were corrected. The clearance rate constants estimated by mean transit time correlated well with the estimates by conventional monoexponential fitting (15 min (truncation time): Y = 0.01 + 0.94X, correlated coefficient (r) = 0.99; 16 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.94X, r = 0.98; 20 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.84X, r = 0.99). The clearance rate constants estimated by the mean transit time approach also correlated well (r = 0.94) with the measured rate-pressure products. The quality and noise level of parametric images of the clearance rate constants generated by mean transit time are improved over those generated by monoexponential fitting. Additional advantages of the mean transit time approach compared to the standard monoexponential fitting method for estimating myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate include ease of input function delay correction, less sensitivity to the shape of the input function and elimination of subjective data selection of the linear portion of the clearance data on a semilog plot. Thus, this approach is expected to facilitate objective quantitative analysis of indices of myocardial oxygen consumption. PMID:8229256

  8. Non-invasive estimation of myocardial efficiency using positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate - comparison between the normal and failing human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 11 healthy normals by dynamic PET with 11C-acetate and either tomographic radionuclide ventriculography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. A ''stroke work index'' (SWI) was calculated by: SWI = systolic blood pressure x stroke volume/body surface area. To estimate myocardial efficiency, a ''work-metabolic index'' (WMI) was then obtained as follows: WMI = SWI x heart rate/k(mono), where k(mono) is the washout constant for 11C-acetate derived from mono-exponential fitting. In DCM patients, left ventricular ejection fraction was 19%±10% and end-diastolic volume was 92±28 ml/m2 (vs 64%±7% and 55±8 ml/m2 in normals, P2; P6 mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) were lower in DCM patients, too. Overall, the WMI correlated positively with ejection parameters (r=0.73, P<0.001 for ejection fraction; r=0.93, P<0.001 for stroke volume), and inversely with systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.77; P<0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between WMI and end-diastolic volume in normals (r=0.45; P=0.17), while in DCM patients, a non-significant negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.21; P=0.57) was obtained. In conclusion non-invasive estimates of oxygen consumption and efficiency in the failing heart were reduced compared with those in normals. Estimates of efficiency increased with increasing contractile performance, and decreased with increasing ventricular afterload. In contrast to normals, the failing heart was not able to respond with an increase in efficiency to increasing ventricular volume.(orig./MG) (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange

  10. Building resilience to overheating into UK 1960s hospital buildings within the constraint of the national carbon reduction target: adaptive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C. Alan; Lomas, Kevin; Giridharan, Renganathan; Fair, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Estate in England includes 18.83 Mm2 of acute hospital accommodation, distributed across 330 sites. Vulnerability to overheating is clear with 15,000 excess deaths occurring nationally during the July 2003 heatwave. The installation of mechanical cooling in existing hospitals appears to be the inevitable recommendation from NHS patient safety risk assessments but the carbon implications would undermine the NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy. NHS CO2 emissions cons...

  11. 一种企业集团内部碳排放权年度总量目标的确定方法%An Efficient Method for Determining the Total Annual Target of Enterprise Group's Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 曹明; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    碳排放权年度总量目标的确定是建立集团企业内部碳排放权交易制度首先应解决的问题.在分析排污权总量确定方法的基础上,提出了基于环境负荷控制方程的集团企业碳排放权确定方法.该方法将环境保护与企业绩效联系在一起,可以帮助企业确定最佳年度排放总量,在保证企业盈利能力的同时达到国家对企业的减排要求.%The determination of total annual targets of carbon emission is the most important task to establish enterprise group's internal carbon emissions trading system. Based on the determination method of analyzing total emissions, some reasonable suggestion have been proposed for the total annual target of enterprise group's internal carbon emissions determination methods. This method connects the environment protection with firm performance to find the best total annual emissions for the enterprise, meeting profit-making and the requirements of reduction.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to 1997-11-11 (NODC Accession 0115176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115176 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to...

  13. In vivo visualization of alpha-synuclein deposition by carbon-11-labelled 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl)ethenyl]-6-[2-(fluoro)ethoxy]benzoxazole positron emission tomography in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Akio; Takeda, Atsushi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Furumoto, Shozo; Kobayashi, Michiko; Sugeno, Naoto; Baba, Toru; Miki, Yasuo; Mori, Fumiaki; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Takahashi, Shoki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Itoyama, Yasuto

    2010-06-01

    The histopathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy is the appearance of intracellular inclusion bodies, named glial cytoplasmic inclusions, which are mainly composed of alpha-synuclein fibrils. In vivo visualization of alpha-synuclein deposition should be used for the diagnosis and assessment of therapy and severity of pathological progression in multiple system atrophy. Because 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl)ethenyl]-6-[2-(fluoro)ethoxy] benzoxazole could stain alpha-synuclein-containing glial cytoplasmic inclusions in post-mortem brains, we compared the carbon-11-labelled 2-[2-(2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl)ethenyl]-6-[2-(fluoro)ethoxy] benzoxazole positron emission tomography findings of eight multiple system atrophy cases to those of age-matched normal controls. The positron emission tomography data demonstrated high distribution volumes in the subcortical white matter (uncorrected P benzoxazole positron emission tomography is a promising surrogate marker for monitoring intracellular alpha-synuclein deposition in living brains.

  14. High pressure study of low compressibility tetracalcium aluminum carbonate hydrates 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·11H2O

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Juhyuk

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data was collected from a sample of monocarboaluminate 3CaO•Al2O3•CaCO 3•11H2O from ambient pressure to 4.3 GPa. The refined crystal structure at ambient pressure is triclinic with parameters a = 5.77(2) Å, b = 8.47(5) Å, c = 9.93(4) Å, α = 64.6(2)°, β = 82.8(3)°, γ = 81.4(4)°, and space group of P1 or P1̄. It showed some degree of perfectly reversible pressure-induced dehydration with a non-hygroscopic pressure-transmitting medium. However the dehydration effect does not critically affect a bulk modulus due to its strong framework. The isothermal bulk modulus of monocarboaluminate was found to be 53(5) GPa and 54(4) GPa with 3rd order and 2nd order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of state, respectively. That value is higher than for any other reported AFm or AFt phase. The pressure-volume behavior of the monocarboaluminate was compared with that of previous studied hemicarboaluminate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Gaslightwala, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and chemical data during R/V Meteor Expedition 11/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean, including the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; and the Eastern South Atlantic Ocean. This cruise was conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The cruise started from Ushuaia, Argentina, on January 23, 1990, and ended at Capetown, South Africa on March 8, 1990. Samples were collected at 78 stations that covered the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; a section along the 58 W parallel; and two segmented S-N sections between the Northern Weddell Sea and Capetown, South Africa. Measurements taken at WOCE sections A-12 and A-21 included pressure, temperature, salinity measured by the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth sensor (CTD); bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrate; silicate; total carbon concentration (TCO{sub 2}); and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured at 20 C. In addition, potential density at 0 decibar (dbar) and potential temperature were calculated from the measured variables. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometer with an estimated precision of approximately {+-} {mu}mol/kg.

  16. Properties of carbon-based structures synthesized in nuclear reactions induced by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with threshold energy of 10 MeV at helium pressure of 1.1 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    Helium gas with an initial pressure of about 1.1 kbar inside a high-pressure chamber (HeHPC) has been irradiated by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with a threshold energy of 10 MeV for 1.0 × 105 s produced by an electron-beam current of 22-24 μA. After opening the HeHPC, the residual pressure of helium is equal to 430 bar. Synthesized black foils with a variety of other objects are found inside the HeHPC. They are located on the inner surfaces of the reaction chamber made of high-purity copper (99.99%), the entrance the window of γ quanta made of beryllium bronze and a copper container of nuclear and chemical reaction products. Elemental analysis with the use of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis has revealed that the foils contain predominantly carbon and small quantities of other elements from carbon to iron. The results are in good agreement with the cycle of investigations of the authors devoted to the γ-quanta irradiation of dense hydrogen and helium gases in the presence (absence) of metals in a reaction chamber.

  17. 促进区域产业有序转移与协调发展的碳减排目标设计%Target Design on Carbon Reduction of Promoting Regional Industrial Transfer Orderly and Coordinated Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成艾华; 魏后凯

    2013-01-01

    当前,在扩大内需、转变经济发展方式的大背景下,跨区域产业转移已成为中国区域政策中促进区域协调发展的重要手段.如何根据中国各区域碳排放的差异性,合理设计有差别的碳减排目标,促进区域产业有序转移与协调发展,是当前需要考虑的一个重要战略问题.本文首先采用工业部门市场份额指标来反映地区产业转移状况,并按产业转移情况和工业化水平把中国划分为净转入、净转出和其他中西部三类区域;然后运用改进的LMDI模型,从碳排放系数、碳排放强度、经济结构及经济规模四个方面对不同区域碳排放效应进行分解,明确了不同区域碳排放的差异特征.在此基础上,根据未来中国区域碳减排政策应坚持“共同而有区别的责任原则”,建立了新的区域碳减排指标分配框架,即对净转入、净转出和其他中西部三类区域分别实行以结构调整为主的强制减排、以降低能源强度为主的强制减排和发展减排的差异化目标,促进东部地区产业转型升级与中西部地区跨越式绿色发展.%In the background of expanding domestic demand and changing the mode of economic development, the regional industry transference has become one important method of Chinese regional policies which focused on regional coordinating development. How to design reasonable and considerable carbon emission reduction targets depending on the difference of regional carbon diversity has become a significant strategy of Chinese development, and the successful targets also can promote industry transference orderly and regional coordinating development fairly. In this paper, we used industry market share index to reflect the regional industry transference status, and divided Chinese regions into the area of transfer into, the area of transfer out, and the area of other middle and west places based on Chinese status of regional industry transference and

  18. Synthesis, isolation and purification of [(11)C]-choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydło, Marcin; Jadwiński, Michał; Chmura, Agnieszka; Gorczewski, Kamil; Sokół, Maria

    2016-01-01

    [(11)C]-choline is an effective PET tracer used for imaging of neoplastic lesions and metastases of the prostate cancer. However, its production can be a challenge for manufacturers, as it has not yet been described in Polish or European pharmacopoeia. In this study the technical aspects of [(11)C]-choline production are described and detailed process parameters are provided. The quality control procedures for releasing [(11)C]-choline as solutio iniectabilis are also presented. The purity and quality of the radiopharmaceutical obtained according to the proposed method were find to be high enough to safely administrate the radiopharmaceutical to patients. Application of an automated synthesizer makes it possible to carry out the entire process of [(11)C]-choline production, isolation and purification within 20 minutes. It is crucial to maintain all aspects of the process as short as possible, since the decay half-time of carbon-11 is 20.4 minutes. The resulting radiopharmaceutical is sterile and pyrogen-free and of a high chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclide purity proved by chromatographic techniques. The yield of the process is up to 20%. [(11)C]-choline PET scanning can be used as accurate and effective diagnostic tool in all centers equipped with [(11)C]-target containing cyclotron. PMID:27660552

  19. GF11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetem, J.; Denneau, M.; Weingarten, D.

    1986-06-01

    GF11 is a parallel processor currently under construction at the IBM Yorktown Research Center. The machine incorporates 576 floating-point boards. Each board has space for 2 × 106 bytes of memory and is capable of 2 × 107 floating point operations per second, given the total machine a peak of 1.15 × 109 bytes of memory and 1.15× 1010 floating point operations per second. The floating-point processors are interconnected by a dynamically reconfigurable switching network. At each machine cycle any of 1024 preselected permutations of data can be realized among the processors. The main intended application of GF11 is a class of calculations arising from quantum chormodynamics.

  20. Functional analysis of the RAD50/MRE11 protein complex through targeted disruption of the murine RAD50 genomic locus: implications for DNA double strand break repair. An astro research fellowship presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The products of the S. cerevisiae genes ScRAD50 and ScMRE11 act in a protein complex and are required for non-homologous end-joining, the predominant mechanism of DNA double strand break (dsb) repair in mammalian cells. Mutation of these genes results in sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR), a defect in initiation of meiosis, increased and error-prone recombination during mitosis, and overall genomic instability. This resultant phenotype is reminiscent of that seen in mammalian syndromes of genomic instability such as ataxia-telangiectasia and Bloom syndrome, hallmarks of which are radiation sensitivity and predisposition to malignancy. The murine homologues to ScRAD50 and ScMRE11 have recently been identified; both demonstrate impressive primary sequence conservation with their yeast counterparts, and are expected to mediate conserved functions. The roles of muRAD50 in genomic maintenance and in dsb repair will be examined in two parts. The first will include a determination of normal muRAD50 expression patterns. Second, the effects of disruption of the muRAD50 gene will be assessed. A specific targeting event has introduced a conditional murad50 null mutation into the genome of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. These mutant ES cells are being used to create mutant mice, thus allowing functional characterization of muRAD50 on both the cellular and organismic levels. Such analyses will contribute to the delineation of the mammalian dsb repair pathway and to the cellular response to IR, and will serve as a mammalian model system for genomic instability. Materials and Methods: Wild-type tissue expression patterns and protein-protein interactions were determined by standard biochemical techniques, including immunoprecipitation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western blotting. Molecular cloning techniques were used to create the gene targeting vectors, which were designed to result in either a deletion of exon 1 (equivalent to a null

  1. Chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticle targeting identifies AgCad1 cadherin in Anopheles gambiae larvae as an in vivo receptor of Cry11Ba toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Hua, Gang; Adang, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    The Cry11Ba protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan crystals has uniquely high toxicity against a spectrum of mosquito species. The high potency of Cry11Ba against Anopheles gambiae is caused by recognition of multiple midgut proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored alkaline phosphatase AgALP1, aminopeptidase AgAPN2, α-amylase AgAmy1 and α-glucosidase Agm3 that bind Cry11Ba with high affinity and function as putative receptors. The cadherin AgCad2 in An. gambiae larvae also binds Cry11Ba with high affinity (Kd = 12 nM) and is considered a putative receptor, while cadherin AgCad1 bound Cry11Ba with low affinity (Kd = 766 nM), a property not supportive for a Cry11Ba receptor role. Here, we show the in vivo involvement of AgCad1 in Cry11Ba toxicity in An. gambiae larvae using chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles to inhibit AgCad expression in larvae. Cry11Ba was significantly less toxic to AgCad1-silenced larvae than to control larvae. Because AgCad1 was co-suppressed by AgCad2 DsRNAi, the involvement of AgCad2 in Cry11Ba toxicity could not be ascertained. The ratio of AgCad1:AgCad2 transcript level is 36:1 for gut tissue in 4th instar larvae. Silencing AgCad expression had no effect on transcript levels of other binding receptors of Cry11Ba. We conclude that AgCad1 and possibly AgCad2 in An. gambiae larvae are functional receptors of Cry11Ba toxin in vivo. PMID:25758367

  2. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of methotrexate conjugated fluorescent carbon nanoparticles as drug delivery system for human lung cancer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Yunus, Uzma; Matin, Abdul; Haq, Noaman Ul

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology based cancer therapeutics have rapidly advanced towards the solution of many limitations associated with other drug delivery agents such as nonspecific distribution within the body, low water solubility and non-biocompatibility. Carbon nanoparticles have demonstrated unique properties that are useful to combat with these issues, including their properties dependent on size, high stability in different solvents, compatible size for drug delivery and ease of surface modifications. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with good water solubility were obtained from a carbohydrate source by acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35kHz for 4h. This simple and economical method can be used for large scale production. Electron microscopic, spectroscopic and thermo gravimetric analysis techniques were used to characterize these carbon nanoparticles. Functionalized CNPs were further conjugated with anticancer drug-methotrexate and used as fluorescent nano-carriers. In this research work, we determined the in vitro bioactivity of CNPs-methotrexate conjugates by lactate dehydrogenase assay, cell adhesion assay and sulforhodamine B assay in human lung carcinoma cell line (H157). The CNPs showed promising biocompatibility and CNPs-MTX conjugates demonstrated potent cytotoxic effects and high anticancer activities in human lung cancer cell line.

  3. A comparative study of carbon-11 methionine PET and Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET for the differentiation of benign lesion and low grade glioma%11碳-蛋氨酸与18氟-脱氧葡萄糖在脑良性病变及低级别胶质瘤诊断中的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣璐; 韩立新; 尹吉林; 王成; 姜丽莎; 谭思婷; 王伟民

    2015-01-01

    界的显示均明显优于18 F-FDG FDG,11 C-MET 还可检测和随访低级别胶质瘤(即惰性肿瘤)的生长情况,可为临床提供更多诊断、预后及治疗信息,因此,11 C-MET 可常规应用于脑内占位病变的显示,且其效果优于18 F-FDG.%Aim:As the study of Carbon-11 methionine (MET)and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)in differentiating brain benign and low grade glioma was seldom.The aim of this study was to de-termine the effect of these two tracers for distinguishing two groups of patients and evaluating the extent of lesions.Methods:Both carbon-11 MET and fluorine-18 FDG have been used to evaluate brain benign and low grade glioma (LGG).MET positron emission tomography (PET)and FDG PET were all per-formed in 22 patients (5 brain benign lesions,17 low grade glioma WHO grade I and II)within one week for a single patient,Both MET and FDG uptake of the lesions were evaluated by a semiquantitative analy-sis using the standardized uptake value.The Tumor/normal brain uptake ratio (T/N ratio)were calculat-ed in two groups of patients.Results:MET uptake was not significantly different among these two groups (benign:1.59 ±0.28 and LGG:1.52 ±0.48).Similarily,FDG uptake was not significantly different among the two groups (benign:0.91 ±0.48 and 0.77 ±0.65)also.No significantly correlation was ob-served between MET uptake and FDG uptake.19 /22 hypermetabolization of patients were found in MET PET and 17 /22 hypometabolization of patients were found in FDG PET.The extents of increased MET uptake in 17 cases were larger than that of the increased FDG uptake.Conclusion:It is found that both MET and FDG are not useful for distinguishing with benign and LGG.MET was found to be highly useful for detecting benign and LGG,and for evaluating the extent of these lesions which were blurred in FDG PET.MET was also useful for monitoring the growth of LGG.In a word,MET was considered as routine examination for brain lesions.

  4. E11 in 11D

    CERN Document Server

    Tumanov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We construct the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its vector representation in eleven dimensions and find the dynamical equations it predicts at low levels. These equations are completely determined by the non-linear realisation and when restricted to contain only the usual fields of supergravity and the usual space-time we find precisely the equations of motion of eleven dimensional supergravity. This paper extends the results announced in arXiv:1512.01644 and in particular it contains the contributions to the equations of motion that involve derivatives with respect to the level one generalised coordinates.

  5. E11 in 11D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2016-07-01

    We construct the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its vector representation in eleven dimensions and find the dynamical equations it predicts at low levels. These equations are completely determined by the non-linear realisation and when restricted to contain only the usual fields of supergravity and the usual spacetime we find precisely the equations of motion of eleven dimensional supergravity. This paper extends the results announced in arxiv:hep-th/1512.01644 and in particular it contains the contributions to the equations of motion that involve derivatives with respect to the level one generalised coordinates.

  6. Analysis list: Sox11 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sox11 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sox...11.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sox11.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Sox11.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Sox11.Pluripot

  7. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  8. Targeted management of organic resources for sustainably increasing soil organic carbon: Observations and perspectives for resource use and climate adaptations in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heve, William K; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe;

    2016-01-01

    Since soil organic matter (SOM) buffers against impacts of climatic variability, the objective of this study was to assess on-farm distribution of SOM and propose realistic options for increasing SOM and thus the adaptation of smallholder farmers to climate change and variability in the interior...... northern savannah of Ghana. Data and information on spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), current practices that could enhance climate adaptation including management of organic resources were collected through biophysical assessments and snap community surveys. Even though homestead fields...

  9. A folic acid labelled carbon quantum dot-protoporphryin IX conjugate for use in folate receptor targeted two-photon excited photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Dean; Fowley, Colin; McHale, Anthony P.; Kamila, Sukanta; Sheng, Jason; Atchison, Jordan; Callan, John F.

    2015-03-01

    Folic acid (FA) has been used as a molecular targeting strategy to improve the specificity of a CQD-protoporphyrin IX (CQD-PPIX) conjugate to folate receptor positive (FR+) HeLa cells for use in two-photon excited Photodynamic Therapy (TPE-PDT). FA was covalently attached to the CQD-PPIX conjugate to form a FA-CQD-PPIX conjugate. The uptake of the FA-CQD-PPIX conjugate in FR+ HeLa cells was shown to be 7 times greater than the CQD-PPIX conjugate, while both conjugates showed a similar uptake in FR negative (FR-) HT-47 cells. TPE-PDT experiments, using HeLa cells as a target, revealed a 30% improved cytotoxicity for cells treated with the FA-CQD-PPIX conjugate and TPE compared to controls treated with the CQD-PPIX conjugate and TPE. Collectively, these results suggest the presence of FA can facilitate targeting of CQD-sensitiser conjugates to FR+ cells resulting in an improved PDT effect.

  10. Enhanced radiosyntheses of [11C]raclopride and [11C]DASB using ethanolic loop chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: To improve the synthesis and quality control of carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals, we report the fully automated loop syntheses of [11C]raclopride and [11C]DASB using ethanol as the only organic solvent for synthesis module cleaning, carbon-11 methylation, HPLC purification, and reformulation. Methods: Ethanolic loop chemistry is fully automated using a GE TRACERLab FXC-Pro synthesis module, and is readily adaptable to any other carbon-11 synthesis apparatus. Precursors (1 mg) were dissolved in ethanol (100 μL) and loaded into the HPLC loop. [11C]MeOTf was passed through the HPLC loop and then the labeled products were purified by semi-preparative HPLC and reformulated into ethanolic saline. Results: Both [11C]raclopride (3.7% RCY; > 95% RCP; SA = 20831 Ci/mmol; n = 64) and [11C]DASB, both with (3.0% RCY; > 95% RCP; SA = 15152 Ci/mmol; n = 9) and without (3.0% RCY; > 95% RCP; SA = 10931 Ci/mmol; n = 3) sodium ascorbate, have been successfully prepared using the described methodology. Doses are suitable for human use and the described methods are now employed for routine clinical production of both radiopharmaceuticals at University of Michigan. Conclusions: Ethanolic loop chemistry is a powerful technique for preparing [11C]raclopride and [11C]DASB, and we are in the process of adapting it for other carbon-11 radiopharmaceuticals prepared in our laboratories ([11C]PMP, [11C]PBR28 etc.).

  11. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  12. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  13. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  14. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  15. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  16. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  17. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  18. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for

  19. Voltammetric determination of dopamine in the presence of uric acid using a 2-hydroxy-1-(1-hydroxynaphthyl-2-azo-naphthalin-4-sulfonic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI ASGHAR ENSAF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A polymerized film of 2-hydroxy-1-(1-hydroxynaphthyl-2-azo-naphthalin-4-sulfonic acid (HHNANSA was prepared at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization. The modified electrode was used for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA and uric acid (UA. The electrochemical behaviors of the compounds at the surface of the modified electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The experimental results indicated that the modified electrode exhibited an efficient electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and UA, with a peak separation of about 140 mV at pH 5.0. Using chronoamperometry, the catalytic reaction rate constant was measured and found to equal to 1.23×104 mol-1 L s-1. At pH 5.0, the catalytic peak currents linearly depended on the DA and/or UA concentrations in the range of 1.0–300 µmol L-1 DA (two linear segments with different slopes and 6.7–20 µmol L-1 UA, using SWV. The detection limits for DA and UA were 0.25 and 1.17 µmol L-1, respectively. The RSD % for 40.0 and 140.0 µmol L-1 DA were 1.9 and 2.2 %, respectively, whereas for 10.0 and 20.0 µmol L-1 UA, they were 1.8 and 1.2 %, respectively. The modified electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. It was successfully applied for the determination of DA and UA in real samples, such as drugs and urine.

  20. Analysis list: Thap11 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Thap11 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Thap1...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Thap11.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Thap11.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Thap11.Plu

  1. Targeted alpha-radionuclide therapy of functionally critically located gliomas with {sup 213}Bi-DOTA-[Thi{sup 8},Met(O{sub 2}){sup 11}]-substance P: a pilot trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, D.; Merlo, A. [University Hospitals, Division of Neurosurgery, Basel (Switzerland); Forrer, F.; Good, S.; Mueller-Brand, J. [University Hospitals, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Bruchertseifer, F.; Morgenstern, A.; Apostolidis, C. [Institute for Transuranium Elements, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maecke, H. [University Hospitals, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); University Hospital Basel, Nuclear Medicine and Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Reubi, J.C. [University of Berne, Institute of Pathology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    Functionally critically located gliomas represent a challenging subgroup of intrinsic brain neoplasms. Standard therapeutic recommendations often cannot be applied, because radical treatment and preservation of neurological function are contrary goals. The successful targeting of gliomas with locally injected beta radiation-emitting {sup 90}Y-DOTAGA-substance P has been shown previously. However, in critically located tumours, the mean tissue range of 5 mm of {sup 90}Y may seriously damage adjacent brain areas. In contrast, the alpha radiation-emitting radionuclide {sup 213}Bi with a mean tissue range of 81 {mu}m may have a more favourable toxicity profile. Therefore, we evaluated locally injected {sup 213}Bi-DOTA-substance P in patients with critically located gliomas as the primary therapeutic modality. In a pilot study, we included five patients with critically located gliomas (WHO grades II-IV). After diagnosis by biopsy, {sup 213}Bi-DOTA-substance P was locally injected, followed by serial SPECT/CT and MR imaging and blood sampling. Besides feasibility and toxicity, the functional outcome was evaluated. Targeted radiopeptide therapy using {sup 213}Bi-DOTA-substance P was feasible and tolerated without additional neurological deficit. No local or systemic toxicity was observed. {sup 213}Bi-DOTA-substance P showed high retention at the target site. MR imaging was suggestive of radiation-induced necrosis and demarcation of the tumours, which was validated by subsequent resection. This study provides proof of concept that targeted local radiotherapy using {sup 213}Bi-DOTA-substance P is feasible and may represent an innovative and effective treatment for critically located gliomas. Primarily non-operable gliomas may become resectable with this treatment, thereby possibly improving the prognosis. (orig.)

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2013-02-18 (NODC Accession 0117059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117059 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2013-02-18 and retrieved during cruise...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-11 (NCEI Accession 0144245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144245 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-11. These data include AIR-SEA...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0144246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144246 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05. These data include AIR...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 (NODC Accession 0117354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117354 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the Caribbean Sea from 2010-01-21 to 2012-11-26 and retrieved during cruise...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25 (NODC Accession 0100084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100084 includes chemical, physical, and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2010-08-25. These...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_SOFS_142W_46S in the Indian Ocean from 2011-11-24 to 2012-09-24 (NODC Accession 0118546)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0118546 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_SOFS_142W_46S in the Indian Ocean from 2011-11-24 to...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2010-11-06 (NODC Accession 0100076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100076 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2010-11-06. These data...

  9. TH-C-12A-11: Target Correlation of a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a new surrogate for respiratory motion gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique for left breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients with left-sided breast cancer after lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH CTs to determine whether DIBH was beneficial in reducing heart doses. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CTs were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results: Reduction in heart dose can be achieved for left-sided breast patients using DIBH. Results showed that RPM has poor correlation with target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. This indicates that RPM may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level when used alone. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a better correlation with the actual CW excursion during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommend threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: 3D optical surface imaging serves as a superior target surrogate for the left breast treatment when compared to RPM. Working together with the realtime MV Cine imaging, they ensure accurate patient setup and dose delivery, while minimizing the imaging dose to patients

  10. TH-C-12A-11: Target Correlation of a 3D Surface Surrogate for Left Breast Irradiation Using the Respiratory-Gated Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Y; Walston, S [A Quick, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of 3D optical surface imaging as a new surrogate for respiratory motion gated deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique for left breast cancer patients. Methods: Patients with left-sided breast cancer after lumpectomy or mastectomy were selected as candidates for DIBH technique for their external beam radiation therapy. Treatment plans were created on both free breathing (FB) and DIBH CTs to determine whether DIBH was beneficial in reducing heart doses. The Real-time Position Management (RPM) system was used to acquire patient's breathing trace during DIBH CT acquisition and treatment delivery. The reference 3D surface models from FB and DIBH CTs were generated and transferred to the “AlignRT” system for patient positioning and real-time treatment monitoring. MV Cine images were acquired for each beam as quality assurance for intra-fractional position verification. The chest wall excursions measured on these images were used to define the actual target position during treatment, and to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of RPM and AlignRT. Results: Reduction in heart dose can be achieved for left-sided breast patients using DIBH. Results showed that RPM has poor correlation with target position, as determined by the MV Cine imaging. This indicates that RPM may not be an adequate surrogate in defining the breath-hold level when used alone. Alternatively, the AlignRT surface imaging demonstrated a better correlation with the actual CW excursion during DIBH. Both the vertical and magnitude real-time deltas (RTDs) reported by AlignRT can be used as the gating parameter, with a recommend threshold of ±3 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: 3D optical surface imaging serves as a superior target surrogate for the left breast treatment when compared to RPM. Working together with the realtime MV Cine imaging, they ensure accurate patient setup and dose delivery, while minimizing the imaging dose to patients.

  11. Preparation of 11C labelled tamoxifen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses and HPLC analysis of N-desmethyltamoxifen and carbon-11labelled tamoxifen are described. In order to obtain the N-desmethyltamoxifen,tamoxifencitrate was first converted to tamoxifen free base.N-desmethyltamoxifen wasprepared by reacting tamoxifen free base with 1-chloroethyl-chloroformate(ACE.Cl).For 11C labeling, N-desmethyltamoxifen was heated with 11Cmethyl iodide for 10min at 130℃,and the 11Clabelled compound was purifiedby HPLC on a μBonapak TM C18 column.Injectable 11C-tamoxifen was obtained within 50~60min from EOB (end-of-bombardment) with a labeling yield of 60%~70%.

  12. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  13. Difference in brain distributions of carbon 11-labeled 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolones as PET radioligands for the glycine-binding site of the NMDA ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takeshi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Haradahira, Terushi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: terushi@niu.ac.jp; Fujimoto, Noriko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okauchi, Takashi; Maeda, Jun; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Sasaki, Shigeki; Mukai, Takahiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Maeda, Minoru [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    High-affinity iodine- and ethyl-C-5 substituted analogs of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)-2(1H)-quinolone ([{sup 11}C]4HQ) were synthesized as new positron emission tomography radioligands for the glycine-binding sites of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ion channel. Although both radioligands showed high in vitro specific binding to rat brain slices, their binding characteristics were quite different from each other. 5-Ethyl-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed higher in vitro binding in the forebrain regions than in the cerebellum, bindings that were strongly inhibited by both glycine-site agonists and antagonists. In contrast, 5-iodo-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ) showed a homogeneous in vitro binding throughout the brain, which was inhibited by antagonists but not by agonists. This difference in in vitro binding between 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ was quite similar to that previously observed between [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 and [{sup 11}C]4HQ, both glycine-site antagonists. In vivo brain uptakes of these {sup 11}C-labeled 4-hydroxyquinolones were examined in mice. Initial brain uptakes of 5Et- and 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ at 1 min after intravenous injections were comparable to that of [{sup 11}C]4HQ, but they were 1.3-2.1 times higher than that of [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The treatment with an anticoagulant, warfarin, only slightly increased the initial uptakes of [{sup 11}C]4HQ and 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ in contrast to [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. The in vivo regional brain distributions were slightly different between the two radioligands. Pretreatment with nonradioactive ligand (2 mg/kg) slightly inhibited the binding of 5Et-[{sup 11}C]4HQ (16-36% inhibition) but not that of 5I-[{sup 11}C]4HQ. In this study, it was found that a small structural change in [{sup 11}C]4HQ resulted in a major change in binding characteristics and distributions, suggesting the existence of two binding sites for [{sup 11}C]4-hydroxyquinolones on the NMDA ion channel

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-11 to 1997-12-04 (NODC Accession 0112250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112250 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-11 to 1997-12-04...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 (NODC Accession 0109920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109920 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 and...

  16. Metal incorporation into nanoporous carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, SJ; Woolger, NEP; Carey, JD; Silva, SRP; Fuge, GM; Ashfold, MNR

    2005-01-01

    Nanoporous carbon films were deposited by 248 nm pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different background pressures of argon (P). The morphology changed from smooth, high-density amorphous carbon films at P = 20 mTorr to ultra-low density nanoporous material at P = 380 mTorr. Subsequently, the nanostructural, chemical and electrical properties of metal containing nanoporous carbon samples were investigated by ablating graphite targets containing known contents of Ni and Co. We demon...

  17. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  18. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  19. Tendances Carbone n. 11 Feb. 2007; Tendances Carbone n. 11 Fevrier 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemaere, M

    2007-07-01

    This newsletter treats, first, of the introduction of aviation industry into the European emissions trading scheme. Then it makes a synthesis of the European CO{sub 2} market over the last 13 months: traded volumes, spot prices, climate indexes (temperature, precipitations), economic activity indicators (industrial production index, business leaders' confidence index, changes in energy prices, CO{sub 2} quotas allocated to European Union countries, and detailed indicators of CO{sub 2} market, climate, economic activity and energy prices. (J.S.)

  20. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  1. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  2. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic

  3. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  4. Analysis list: mre-11 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mre-11 Adult + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/mre-11.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/mre-11.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/mre-...11.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/mre-11.Adult.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Adult.gml ...

  5. Analysis list: lin-11 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin-11 Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-11....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-11.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin...-11.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-11.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  6. Analysis list: Bcl11a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Bcl11a Breast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bcl11a.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bcl11a.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bcl1...1a.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Bcl11a.Breast.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Breast.gml ...

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  8. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rohini Devi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several industrial and biomedical applications. The multidirectional carbon-carbon product technology is versatile and offers design flexibility. This paper describes the multidirectional preform and carbon-carbon process technology and research and development activities within the country. Carbon-carbon product experience at DRDL has also been discussed. Development of carbon-carbon brake discs process technology using the liquid impregnation process is described. Further the test results on material characterisation, thermal, mechanical and tribological properties are presented.

  9. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, May 23, 2005 - November 11, 2006 (NODC Accession 0038513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from May 23, 2005 to November 11, 2006....

  10. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  11. Ultra-rapid targeted analysis of 40 drugs of abuse in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS using carbon-13 isotopes of methamphetamine and MDMA to reduce detector saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rago, Matthew; Chu, Mark; Rodda, Luke N; Jenkins, Elizabeth; Kotsos, Alex; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    The number of oral fluid samples collected by the road policing authority in Victoria, Australia, requiring confirmatory laboratory analysis for drugs proscribed under Victorian legislation (methamphetamine, MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) has greatly increased in recent years, driving the need for improved analysis techniques to enable expedient results. The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS-based targeted oral fluid screening technique that covers a broad range of basic and neutral drugs of abuse that can satisfy increased caseload while monitoring other compounds of interest for epidemiological purposes. By combining small sample volume, simple extraction procedure, rapid LC-MS/MS analysis and automated data processing, 40 drugs of abuse including amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and major metabolites, opioids, cannabinoids and some designer stimulants were separated over 5 min (with an additional 0.5 min re-equilibration time). The analytes were detected using a Sciex® API 4500 Q-Trap LC-MS/MS system with positive ESI in MRM mode monitoring three transitions per analyte. The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines and also monitored carbon-13 isotopes of MDMA and MA to reduce detector saturation effects, allowing for confirmation of large concentrations of these compounds without the need for dilution or re-analysis. The described assay has been successfully used for analysis of oral fluid collected as part of law enforcement procedures at the roadside in Victoria, providing forensic results as well as epidemiological prevalence in the population tested. The fast and reliable detection of a broad range of drugs and subsequent automated data processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic toxicology.

  12. Ultra-rapid targeted analysis of 40 drugs of abuse in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS using carbon-13 isotopes of methamphetamine and MDMA to reduce detector saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rago, Matthew; Chu, Mark; Rodda, Luke N; Jenkins, Elizabeth; Kotsos, Alex; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    The number of oral fluid samples collected by the road policing authority in Victoria, Australia, requiring confirmatory laboratory analysis for drugs proscribed under Victorian legislation (methamphetamine, MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) has greatly increased in recent years, driving the need for improved analysis techniques to enable expedient results. The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS-based targeted oral fluid screening technique that covers a broad range of basic and neutral drugs of abuse that can satisfy increased caseload while monitoring other compounds of interest for epidemiological purposes. By combining small sample volume, simple extraction procedure, rapid LC-MS/MS analysis and automated data processing, 40 drugs of abuse including amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and major metabolites, opioids, cannabinoids and some designer stimulants were separated over 5 min (with an additional 0.5 min re-equilibration time). The analytes were detected using a Sciex® API 4500 Q-Trap LC-MS/MS system with positive ESI in MRM mode monitoring three transitions per analyte. The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines and also monitored carbon-13 isotopes of MDMA and MA to reduce detector saturation effects, allowing for confirmation of large concentrations of these compounds without the need for dilution or re-analysis. The described assay has been successfully used for analysis of oral fluid collected as part of law enforcement procedures at the roadside in Victoria, providing forensic results as well as epidemiological prevalence in the population tested. The fast and reliable detection of a broad range of drugs and subsequent automated data processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic toxicology. PMID:26993306

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to 2011-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0144622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144622 includes Surface underway data collected from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2008-08-11 to...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the WAKATAKA MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2002-11-07 to 2002-11-22 (NODC Accession 0112359)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112359 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from WAKATAKA MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2002-11-07 to...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-11 to 1997-08-11 (NODC Accession 0112236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112236 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-11 to...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2008-10-11 to 2008-11-07 (NODC Accession 0112271)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112271 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2008-10-11...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-11 to 2002-11-06 (NODC Accession 0112258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112258 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-11...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to 1996-11-30 (NODC Accession 0113544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113544 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKON MOSBY in the North Greenland Sea from 1996-11-21 to...

  19. The series of carbon-chain complexes {Ru(dppe)Cp*}₂{μ-(C≡C)x} (x = 4–8, 11): Synthesis, structures, properties and some reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Michael I. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Cole, Marcus L. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Ellis, Benjamin G. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Gaudio, Maryka [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Nicholson, Brian K. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Parker, Christian R. [Univ. of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Skelton, Brian W. [Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley (Western Australia); White, Allan H. [Univ. of Western Australia, Crawley (Western Australia)

    2015-01-28

    The construction of a series of compounds {Ru(dppe)Cp*}2(μ-C2x) (Ru*-C2x-Ru*, x = 4–8, 11)) is described. A direct reaction between RuCl(dppe)Cp* and Me3Si(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4SiMe3 afforded Ru*-C8-Ru* in 89% yield. The Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalysed coupling of Ru{Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCAu(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C4-Au (2 equiv.) with diiodoethyne gave Ru*-C10-Ru* (64%), or of 1 equiv. with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C14-Ru* (36%); similarly, Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4Au(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C8-Au and I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C22-Ru* (12%). Desilylation (TBAF) of Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)xSiMe3}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 3, 4) followed by oxidative coupling [Cu(OAc)2/py] gave Ru*-C12-Ru* (82%) and Ru*-C16-Ru* (58%), respectively. Similar oxidative coupling of Ru(Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCH)(dppe)Cp* was a second route to Ru*-C8-Ru* (82%). Appropriate precursors are already known, or obtained by coupling of Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 2, 4) with AuCl(PPh3)/NaOMe [Ru*-C4-Au, 95%; Ru*-C8-Au, 74%] or from Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysed coupling of Ru*-C2x-Au (x = 2, 3) with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2SiMe3 (Ru*-C8-Si, 64%; Ru*-C10-Si, 2%). Reactions between Ru*-C2x-Ru* (x = 3, 4) and Fe2(CO)9 gave {Fe3(CO)9}{μ3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}2Fe(C3-Ru*)2 and {Fe3(CO)9}{μ3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}{μ3-C(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2[Ru(dppe)Cp*]} Fe(C3-Ru*)(C5-Ru*), respectively. The redox properties of the series of complexes with 2x = 2–16 were measured and showed a diminution of the

  20. Radiosynthesis of [11C]SB-705498, a selective transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, previously known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is a non-selective cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptor is involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation and therefore represents a pharmacological target of choice for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain, migraine and gastrointestinal disorders. Among a novel series of pyrrolidinyl ureas recently discovered by GSK, SB-705498 (1, namely 1-(2-bromophenyl)-3-[(R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]urea) has been identified as a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist and considered for positron emission tomography studies. SB-705498 (1) has therefore been isotopically labelled with the short-lived positron-emitter carbon-11 (t1/2: 20.38 min) at its urea site using [11C]phosgene in a one-pot two-step process, via the intermediate preparation of 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate. Methods: Carbon-11-labeling of SB-705498 comprises: (A) Trapping of [11C]phosgene (radio-synthesized from cyclotron-produced [11C]methane via [11C]carbon tetrachloride using minor modifications of published processes) at room temperature for 1 to 2 minutes in 250 μL of acetonitrile containing 0.6 μmole of 2-bromoaniline (2) giving 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate ([11C]-3), followed by (B) addition of an excess of chiral (R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-ylamine (4, 40 μmoles in 500 μL of acetonitrile) as the second amine and reaction at room temperature for an additional one minute giving the desired urea derivative ([11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1)), (C) dilution of the crude reaction mixture with water (500 μL) containing 4% (v:v) of DEA, injection and purification on a semi-preparative Waters SymmetryR C18 HPLC column (eluent: H2O / CH

  1. Microcapsule carbon nanotube devices for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulamarva, Arun; Raja, Pavan M. V.; Bhathena, Jasmine; Chen, Hongmei; Talapatra, Saikat; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a new class of nanomaterials that have immense potential in the field of biomedicine. Their ability to carry large quantities of therapeutic molecules makes them prime candidates for providing targeted delivery of therapeutics for use in various diseases. However, their utility is limited due to the problems faced during their delivery to target sites. This article for the first time describes the design of a novel microcapsule carbon nanotube targeted delivery device. This device has potential in the targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes in suitable membranes along with their cargo, safely and effectively to the target loci.

  2. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  3. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  4. Analysis list: THAP11 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available THAP11 Pluripotent stem cell,Uterus + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/THAP1...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/THAP11.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/THAP11.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/THAP1...1.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/THAP1

  5. Complexes with biologically active ligands. Part 11. Synthesis and carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity of metal complexes of 4,5-disubstituted-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, A; Cavazza, C; Supuran, C T; Saramet, I; Briganti, F; Banciu, M D

    1998-01-01

    Complexes containing five 4,5-disubstituted-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles and Zn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(I) were synthesized and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis; IR, electronic and NMR spectroscopy, conductimetry and TG analysis). Both the thione as well as the thiolate forms of the ligands were evidenced to interact with the metal ions in the prepared complexes. The original mercaptans and their metal complexes behave as inhibitors of three carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes, CA I, II and IV, but did not lower intraocular pressure in rabbits in animal models of glaucoma.

  6. Partial deletion 11q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Tommerup, N; Sørensen, F B;

    1995-01-01

    We describe the cytogenetic findings and the dysmorphic features in a stillborn girl with a large de novo terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(11)(q21qter). By reviewing previous reports of deletion 11q, we found that cleft lip and palate are most...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD, discrete bottles, and other instruments from October 7, 1977 to March 11, 2006, as synthesized in the CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) Database (NODC Accession 0113899)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using infrared dissolved inorganic carbon analyzer, alkalinity titrator and other instruments from the North Atlantic Ocean near Key West, Florida (Class III climate monitoring sites) from 2012-03-23 to 2014-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0132022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data collected to monitor changes to coral reef carbonate chemistry over time, at US affiliated coral reef sites, through quantifying...

  9. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  10. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  11. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 [National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 2006. Overview of the 11th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. NDRC, Beijing]. This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy-intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of the most significant carbon mitigation efforts in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  13. Carbon isotope anomalies in carbonates of the Karelian series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudovich, Ia. E.; Makarikhin, V. V.; Medvedev, P. V.; Sukhanov, N. V.

    1990-07-01

    Results are presented on carbon isotope distributions in carbonates of the Karelian complex. A highly anomalous isotopic composition was found in carbonate rocks aged from 2.6 to 1.9 b.y. In the stromatolitic carbonates of the Onega water table, delta-(C-13) reaches a value of +18 percent, while the shungite layer of the Zaonega horizon is characterized by a wide dispersion (from +7.9 to -11.8 percent). These data are in good agreement with the known geochemical boundary (about 2.2 b.y. ago) in the history of the earth.

  14. Studio 1:1

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Projekteerimis- ja disainistuudiost STUDIO 1:1 (Eindhoven), mis tegeleb avaliku ruumi loomise ja selle kasutamise kujundamisega. Projektidest "Linnulinn - linn lindude segakogukonna jaoks" ja ICT kogemuskeskus "De Verdieping"

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-03-29 to 1994-05-11 (NODC Accession 0115177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115177 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-03-29 to 1994-05-11...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-05-11 to 1989-06-07 (NODC Accession 0113530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113530 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-05-11 to...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and time series profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to 2015-07-29 (NODC Accession 0112926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112926 includes discrete sample, profile and time series profile data collected from HERMANO GINES in the Caribbean Sea from 1995-11-08 to...

  18. Analysis list: nhr-11 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nhr-11 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-11.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-11.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-11.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/nhr-11.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/nhr-11.Larvae.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  19. Synthesis of some /sup 11/C-labelled alkaloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Halldin, H.; Svaerd, H.; Bergson, G. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden) Inst. of Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    Using (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-morphine, N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-(/sup 11/C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. (/sup 11/C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from (/sup 11/C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the /sup 14/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reaction.

  20. WOOD 1:1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Report from 1:1 workshop at Virserum Konsthall in May 2013 with a team of Master's students from Royal Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Dpt. 3.......Report from 1:1 workshop at Virserum Konsthall in May 2013 with a team of Master's students from Royal Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Dpt. 3....

  1. Lift11 / Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruudi, Ingrid, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    23. augustist 11. oktoobrini 2010 toimuvast konkursist, mille eesmärk on leida kultuuripealinna üritusena toimuva linnainstallatsioonide festivali "Lift11" tarvis installatsioonide ideekavandeid. Festivali kuraatorid on kunstiteadlased Maarin Mürk ja Ingrid Ruudi ning arhitektid Margit Aule ja Margit Argus

  2. 22q11-deletionssyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Agergaard, Peter; Boers, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    22q11 deletion syndrome (formerly named CATCH22, DiGeorge, Velo-Cardio-Facial, Caylor, Kinouchi and Shprintzen syndrome) occurs in approximately 1/2000 to 4000 children. The genetic lesion is remarkably uniform, occurring mainly as 3 or 1.5 MB deletions in the 22q11.2 region. However, the clinical...

  3. The SPES direct UCx target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Antonucci, C.; Barbui, M.; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, M.; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; di Bernardo, P.; Gramegna, F.; Maggioni, G.; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tonezzer, M.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.

    2007-11-01

    A possible solution for a target system aimed at the production of exotic nuclei as a result of high energy fissions in 238U compounds has been analyzed. The proposed configuration is constituted by a primary proton beam (40 MeV, 0.2 mA) directly impinging on uranium carbide disks inserted within a cylindrical carbon box. This system has been conceived to obtain both a high number of neutron rich atoms (originated from about 1013 fissions/s) and a low power deposition in the target. In order to extract the fission fragments, the box has to be hold at 2000○C. The thermal analysis shows the capability of the thermal radiation to cool the disks with a reasonable margin below the material melting point. Moreover, the analyses of the thermo-mechanical behaviour and of the effusion times confirm the promising features of this target configuration.

  4. Final report : Phase III targeted investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated these facilities from the early 1950s until the early 1970s, at a time when commercial fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and private industry for the preservation of grain in storage. In 1997 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and non-drinking water wells in the Everest area as part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program. All of the sampled wells were outside the Everest city limits. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well, DW06; Figure 1.1) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Subsequent KDHE investigations suggested that the contamination in DW06 could be linked to the former use of grain fumigants at the CCC/USDA facility. For this reason, the CCC/USDA is conducting a phased environmental study to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at Everest and to identify potential remedial options. The studies are being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Two phases of investigation were completed previously; this report presents the findings of the targeted Phase III investigation at Everest.

  5. Impact of Different Carbon Policies on City Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A programming model for a four-layer urban logistics distribution network is constructed and revised based on three types of carbon emissions policies such as Carbon tax, carbon emissions Cap, Carbon Trade. Effects of different policies on logistics costs and carbon emissions are analyzed based on a spatial Logistics Infrastructure layout of Beijing. Research findings are as follows: First, based on low-carbon policies, the logistics costs and carbon emissions can be changed by different modes of transport in a certain extent; second, only when carbon taxes and carbon trading prices are higher, carbon taxes and carbon trading policies can reduce carbon emissions while not significantly increase logistics costs at the same time, and more effectively achieve carbon reduction targets than use carbon cap policy.

  6. The GF11 supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetem, J.; Denneau, M.; Weingarten, D.

    1987-01-01

    GF11 is a parallel computer currently under construction at the IBM Yorktown Research Center. The machine incorporates 576 floating-point processors arranged in a modified SIMD architecture. Each has space for 2 Mbytes of memory and is capable of 20 Mflops, giving the total machine a peak of 1.125 Gbytes of memory and 11.52 Gflops. The floating-point processors are interconnected by a dynamically reconfigurable non-blocking switching network. At each machine cycle any of 1024 pre-selected permutations of data can be realized among the processors. The main intended application of GF11 is a class of calculations arising from quantum chromodynamics.

  7. HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An internal cluster target was built and installed at HIRFL–CSR. • The target thickness for H2 amounts up to 6.6 × 1012 atoms/cm2. • The feasibility and stability of the internal cluster target were verified by on-line experiments. -- Abstract: Since HIRFL–CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL–CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10−11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [11C]AZ12504948; a novel tracer for imaging of glucokinase in pancreas and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Glucokinase (GK) is potentially a target for imaging of islets of Langerhans. Here we report the radiosynthesis and preclinical evaluation of the GK activator, [11C]AZ12504948, for in vivo imaging of GK. Methods: [11C]AZ12504948 was synthesized by O-methylation of the precursor, AZ125555620, using carbon-11 methyl iodide ([11C]CH3I). Preclinical evaluation was performed by autoradiography (ARG) of human tissues and PET/CT studies in pig and non-human primate. Result: [11C]AZ12504948 was produced in reproducible good radiochemical yield in 28–30 min. Radiochemical purity of the formulated product was > 98% for up to 2 h with specific radioactivities 855 ± 209 GBq/μmol (n = 8). The preclinical evaluation showed some specificity for GK in liver, but not in pancreas. Conclusion: [11C]AZ12504948 images GK in liver, but the low specificity impedes the visualization of GK in pancreas. Improved target specificity is required for further progress using PET probes based on this class of GK activators

  9. Main: SURECOREATSULTR11 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SURECOREATSULTR11 S000499 02-August-2006 (last modified) kehi Core of sulfur-respon...sive element (SURE) found in the promoter of SULTR1;1 high-affinity sulfate transporter gene in Arabidopsis; SURE co...ntains auxin response factor (ARF) binding sequence (GAGACA)(see S000270 ARF:TGTCTC; its complementa...ry seq is GAGACA), and this core sequence is a part of it; this core seq is invol

  10. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavoto, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Cirillo, E.N.M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento SBAI, Rome (Italy); Cocina, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Ferretti, J. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Polosa, A.D. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (∼ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency. (orig.)

  11. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E. N. M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (≈ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency.

  12. The impact of the permafrost carbon feedback on global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrading permafrost can alter ecosystems, damage infrastructure, and release enough carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to influence global climate. The permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) is the amplification of surface warming due to CO2 and CH4 emissions from thawing permafrost. An analysis of available estimates PCF strength and timing indicate 120 ± 85 Gt of carbon emissions from thawing permafrost by 2100. This is equivalent to 5.7 ± 4.0% of total anthropogenic emissions for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario and would increase global temperatures by 0.29 ± 0.21 °C or 7.8 ± 5.7%. For RCP4.5, the scenario closest to the 2 °C warming target for the climate change treaty, the range of cumulative emissions in 2100 from thawing permafrost decreases to between 27 and 100 Gt C with temperature increases between 0.05 and 0.15 °C, but the relative fraction of permafrost to total emissions increases to between 3% and 11%. Any substantial warming results in a committed, long-term carbon release from thawing permafrost with 60% of emissions occurring after 2100, indicating that not accounting for permafrost emissions risks overshooting the 2 °C warming target. Climate projections in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), and any emissions targets based on those projections, do not adequately account for emissions from thawing permafrost and the effects of the PCF on global climate. We recommend the IPCC commission a special assessment focusing on the PCF and its impact on global climate to supplement the AR5 in support of treaty negotiation. (paper)

  13. Sensitivity study in vitro in clinical isolated strains in the previous five years for erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate%环酯红霉素对近5年临床分离菌株的体外敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立涛; 孙韵; 卢涛; 谭显曙; 秦盼立; 周黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility to clinically isolated strains in the previous five years and the drug resistance to antimicrobial agents so as to realize the antibacterial activity to erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate in vitro. Methods Agar dilution method was used to detect the drug susceptibility to the 220 clinical isolates. Results Susceptibility test showed the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and H. Influenzae to erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate were 35.0%, 55.0%, 35.0%, 36.7% and 70.0%. The MIC50 of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and H. Influenzae were 1, 1, 32, 0.5 and 64ug/mL, and the MIC90 were 32, 8, 256, 32 and 128μg/mL. Conclusion The resistance of clinical isolates indicated that erythromycin cyclic 11,12-carbonate was comparative with azithromycin in the antibacterial activity, presenting no statistically significant between erythromycin cyclic 1 l,12-carbonate and azithromycin by SPSS17.0 (P>0.05).%目的 通过比较近五年临床分离菌株对多种抗菌药物的药物敏感性及耐药性研究,了解环酯红霉素的体外抗菌活性.方法 利用琼脂平板稀释法对临床分离220株细菌进行药敏性分析.结果 药物敏感性实验表明肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和流感嗜血菌对环酯红霉素的耐药率分别为35.0%、55.0%、35.0%、36.7 %和70.0 %.肺炎链球菌、化脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌和流感嗜血菌对环酯红霉素的MIC50和MIC90分别为1、1、32、0.5、64μg/mL和32、8、256、32、128μg/mL.结论 经SPSS17.0统计分析后,发现临床分离菌株对环酯红霉素和阿奇霉素的耐药率表明两者的抗菌活性相当,不存在统计学差异(P>0.05).

  14. Analysis list: Zc3h11a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Zc3h11a Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Zc3...h11a.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Zc3h11a.5.tsv http://dbarch...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Zc3h11a.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Zc3...h11a.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Zc3h11a.Plu

  15. Optimization of in-target yields for RIB production: Part 1: direct targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the EURISOL-DS project and within Task-11, we have performed in-target yield calculations for different configurations of thick direct targets. The target materials tested are Al2O3, SiC, Pb(molten), Ta and UC3. The target was irradiated with protons of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 GeV. The production rates have been computed using the MCNPX transport/generation code, coupled with the CINDER-90 evolution program. The yield distributions as a function of charge number Z and mass number A have been evaluated. Their production rates have been optimized for 11 selected elements (Li, Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ni, Ga, Kr, Hg, Sn and Fr) and 23 of their isotopes of interest. Finally, the isotopic distributions for each of these 11 elements have been optimized in terms of the target material, its geometry, and incident proton energy

  16. Radiosynthesis of [11C]SNAP-7941—the first PET-tracer for the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a new target to treat human disorders. Our aim was the preparation of the first PET-tracer for the MCHR1. [11C]SNAP-7941 is a carbon-11 labeled analog of the published MCHR1 antagonist SNAP-7941. The optimum reaction conditions were 2 min reaction time, ≤25 °C reaction temperature, and 2 mg/mL precursor (SNAP-acid) in acetonitrile, using [11C]CH3OTf as methylation agent. [11C]SNAP-7941 was prepared in a reliable and feasible manner with high radiochemical yields (2.9±1.6 GBq; 11.5±6.4% EOB, n=15). - Graphical Abstract: Radiosynthesis of [11C]SNAP-7941. Highlights: ► Synthesis of the first PET-tracer for the MCHR1 [11C]SNAP-7941. ► High radiochemical incorporation yields 2.9±1.6 GBq; 11.5±6.4% EOB. ► Preparation and characterization of a suitable labeling precursor; SNAP-acid.

  17. Contribution to the study of reactions induced by a low-energy He3 beam on a C12 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study concerning which reaction mode will better describe a nucleus in which the excitation energy is between two extremes. Due to experimental considerations and abilities, this study focuses on light target nuclei and carbon 12. The author describes experimental techniques used for angular distributions (targets, detection system), describes the experimental techniques for activation experiments (experimental set-up, targets, measurement of relative efficient cross section, result analysis, measurement of absolute efficient cross section). The author discusses the experimental results (excitation functions and angular distributions) and the interpretation of elastic scattering results (theoretical background, computation approach, analysis of elastic scattering) and the results of the C12(He3, α)C11 reaction

  18. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, R. S.; Mendonca, T. M.; Wenander, F.; Penescu, L.; Orecchia, R.; Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Stora, T.

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10-20 MeV protons via 14N(p,α)11C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions 19F(p,X)11C and 23Na(p,X)11C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on 11C+ production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure 10C3/6+ beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10711C6+ per spill. This intensity is appropriate using 11C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility studies of such approach, using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA [6,7] to simulate

  19. Multiplicity of secondary electrons emitted by carbon thin targets by impact of H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles at MeV energies; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} et H{sub 3}{sup +} d`energie de l`ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Zvonimir [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-06-24

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25 - 2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. Phenomenological and theoretical descriptions as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subjects of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of the thin carbon foils crossed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter there are also presented the method and the algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H{sup 0} atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of the ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ions fragments, upon the amplitude of these collected effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. The experiments allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion interactions with solid surfaces. (author) 136 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL ANALYSES FOR SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 AND MCU-11-319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A; . Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) periodically analyses solvent samples from Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) in support of continuing operations. A quarterly analysis of the solvent is required to maintain solvent composition within specifications. Analytical results of the analyses of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples MCU-11-314, MCU-11-315, MCU-11-316, MCU-11-317, MCU-11-318 and MCU-11-319 have been previously reported. MCU has experienced a modest decline in cesium removal efficiency while processing the current feed, 'Macrobatch 3'. While the target decontamination factor (DF) is 200, the fiscal year 2011 DF average is 161. The results of the prior solvent analysis report did not identify a specific factor that would correlate with the poor cesium decontamination beyond a low concentration of the suppressor, trioctylamine. New analyses of the quarterly sample are reported in this document, as well as a cross-check of {sup 137}Cs measurements for SRNL and F/H lab. Furthermore, in an attempt to discover the reason for the decline in DF at MCU, SRNL was tasked with analyzing numerous Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and chemical feed samples.

  1. Impacts of March 11

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Feng: The world-shocking September 11 terrorist attacks occurred in the United States in 2001, and two and a half years late the world saw panic-stricken terrorist attacks of the same kind in Spain. Ever since then March 11 has become another day that is engraved on the mind of the people all over the world. The terrorist event in Madrid has not only produced great impact on Spain and other European nations as well as on the common people, but also spurred the European nations to reflect on a series of important issues and to make some adjustments of their policies.

  2. Medical CT image reconstruction accuracy in the presence of metal objects using x-rays up to 1 MeV with x-ray targets of beryllium, carbon, aluminum, copper, and tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, James; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Virshup, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Flat panels imagers based on amorphous silicon technology (a-Si) for digital radiography have been accepted by the medical community as having several advantages over film-based systems. Radiotherapy treatment planning systems employ computed tomographic (CT) data sets and projection images to delineate tumor targets and normal structures that are to be spared from radiation treatment. The accuracy of CT numbers is crucial for radiotherapy dose calculations. Conventional CT scanners operating at kilovoltage X-ray energies typically exhibit significant image reconstruction artifacts in the presence of metal implants in human body. Megavoltage X-ray energies have problems maintaining contrast sensitivity for the same dose as kV X-ray systems. We intend to demonstrate significant improvement in metal artifact reductions and electron density measurements using an amorphous silicon a-Si imager obtained with an X-ray source that can operate at energies up to 1 MeV. We will investigate the ability to maintain contrast sensitivity at this higher X-ray energy by using targets with lower atomic numbers and appropriate amounts of Xray filtration than are typically used as X-ray production targets and filters.

  3. CETA's $11 Billion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersher, Judy

    1978-01-01

    The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) is now before Congress for review and reenactment. This article examines previous CETA program efforts and the new provisions intended to target jobs and training to the most disadvantaged in terms of income and length of unemployment. (Author/AM)

  4. Non-ETS emission targets for 2030. Indication of emission targets for the Netherlands and other EU Member States under the European Effort Sharing Decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Hof, A.

    2013-10-15

    As European Member States are making progress towards their 2020 targets in the Effort Sharing Decision, the attention of policymakers is shifting to a framework beyond 2020. The European Commission launched a discussion with its Green Paper on a possible policy framework for 2030. This PBL Note aims to contribute to that discussion by analysing the effects of various assumptions on Member States' non-ETS emission targets for 2030. The effort sharing of the current European target for 2020 has resulted in an emission target of +20% relative to 2005 levels for the least wealthy Member State and -20% for the three wealthiest Member States. The targets for all other Member States were determined based on per-capita income levels of 2005. For possible non-ETS targets for 2030, we assumed a Europe-wide emission reduction target of 40% for 2030, compared to 1990 levels. This target is considered by the European Commission as the most cost-efficient to achieve a low-carbon economy by 2050. The 2030 target was split into a target for emissions covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) and one for emissions that are not covered by the ETS (non-ETS). According to our estimations, European non-ETS emissions need to be reduced by around 30% by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. We distributed the non-ETS reduction target of 30% over the Member States by using similar effort sharing principles that are applied in the EU Effort Sharing Decision for 2020, but with different targets assumed for the least wealthy Member State. We also took recent per-capita income levels into account. However, we did not take into account the costs and effects of emission reductions on GDP. This PBL Note analyses two possible scenarios that differ in the target assumed for the least wealthy Member State, in order to assess the effects of differing assumptions on the 2030 non-ETS targets. These scenarios should be considered as 'what if' scenarios and not as political positions

  5. 11C-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Michael R; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Herth, Matthias Manfred;

    2007-01-01

    The long-distance transport and actions of the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were investigated by using the short-lived positron-emitting isotope 11C to label both MeJA and photoassimilate, and compare their transport properties in the same tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). There was ...

  6. Blitzerindringer om 11. september

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tia G. B.

    2011-01-01

    11. september 2001 skabte såkaldte ”blitzerindringer” i Danmark og mange andre lande. Det vil sige, at vores klare erindring ikke kun omfatter selve begivenheden, men også vores personlige oplevelse af at få kendskab til den, og at vi har en stor tiltro til denne erindring. Blitzerindringerne...

  7. Reference: SURECOREATSULTR11 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SURECOREATSULTR11 Maruyama-Nakashita A, Nakamura Y, Watanabe-Takahashi A, Inoue E, ...Yamaya T, Takahashi H. Identification of a novel cis-acting element conferring sulfur deficiency response in Arabidopsis roots. Plant J. 42: 305-314 (2005). PubMed: 15842617 ...

  8. LIFT11 linnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn 2011 programmi kuuluva installatsioonide festivali "Lift11" avalikule ideekonkursile esitati 129 tööd, välja valiti 17. Tutvustatakse Maarja Kase ja Ralf Lõokese tööd "L", Tomomi Hayashi tööd "Merele!", Toomas Paaveri, Teele Pehki ja Triin Talki tööd "Kalarand"

  9. Scenario analysis of energy-based low-carbon development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Hao, Fanghua; Meng, Wei; Fu, Jiafeng

    2014-08-01

    China's increasing energy consumption and coal-dominant energy structure have contributed not only to severe environmental pollution, but also to global climate change. This article begins with a brief review of China's primary energy use and associated environmental problems and health risks. To analyze the potential of China's transition to low-carbon development, three scenarios are constructed to simulate energy demand and CO₂ emission trends in China up to 2050 by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model. Simulation results show that with the assumption of an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 6.45%, total primary energy demand is expected to increase by 63.4%, 48.8% and 12.2% under the Business as Usual (BaU), Carbon Reduction (CR) and Integrated Low Carbon Economy (ILCE) scenarios in 2050 from the 2009 levels. Total energy-related CO₂ emissions will increase from 6.7 billiontons in 2009 to 9.5, 11, 11.6 and 11.2 billiontons; 8.2, 9.2, 9.6 and 9 billiontons; 7.1, 7.4, 7.2 and 6.4 billiontons in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 under the BaU, CR and ILCE scenarios, respectively. Total CO₂ emission will drop by 19.6% and 42.9% under the CR and ILCE scenarios in 2050, compared with the BaU scenario. To realize a substantial cut in energy consumption and carbon emissions, China needs to make a long-term low-carbon development strategy targeting further improvement of energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure, deployment of clean coal technology and use of market-based economic instruments like energy/carbon taxation. PMID:25108719

  10. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This

  11. Neuronal RING finger protein 11 (RNF11 regulates canonical NF-κB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranski Elaine L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RING domain-containing protein RING finger protein 11 (RNF11 is a member of the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex and modulates peripheral NF-κB signaling. RNF11 is robustly expressed in neurons and colocalizes with a population of α-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies and neurites in Parkinson disease patients. The NF-κB pathway has an important role in the vertebrate nervous system, where the absence of NF-κB activity during development can result in learning and memory deficits, whereas chronic NF-κB activation is associated with persistent neuroinflammation. We examined the functional role of RNF11 with respect to canonical NF-κB signaling in neurons to gain understanding of the tight association of inflammatory pathways, including NF-κB, with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Methods and results Luciferase assays were employed to assess NF-κB activity under targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA knockdown of RNF11 in human neuroblastoma cells and murine primary neurons, which suggested that RNF11 acts as a negative regulator of canonical neuronal NF-κB signaling. These results were further supported by analyses of p65 translocation to the nucleus following depletion of RNF11. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RNF11 associates with members of the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex in neurons. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myristoylation domain, which is necessary for endosomal targeting of RNF11, altered the impact of RNF11 on NF-κB signaling and abrogated RNF11’s association with the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex. A partial effect on canonical NF-κB signaling and an association with the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex was observed with mutagenesis of the PPxY motif, a proline-rich region involved in Nedd4-like protein interactions. Last, shRNA-mediated reduction of RNF11 in neurons and neuronal cell lines elevated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and

  12. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  13. The strategy of energy-related carbon emission reduction in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a system analysis approach on carbon emission reduction at urban level, taking Shanghai as a case. Shanghai's current carbon emission was analyzed based on survey. The prospective carbon emission of Shanghai in 2010 and 2020 were estimated based on scenarios analysis. The main results are: (1) the primary energy consumption of Shanghai shows a continuously increasing trend in recent decades; (2) the energy consumption for production is where the majority of Shanghai's energy consumption is being used; (3) among the total energy consumed, secondary industry energy consumption occupies the biggest share; (4) computations indicate that Shanghai's current carbon emission steadily increased from 1990 to 2005 and reached 58.05 Mt C-eq in 2005, a factor of two times its 1990 emission; (5) if Shanghai can realistically meet the target of the 11th Five-Year Plan, the carbon emission reduction will reach to 17.26 and 111.04 Mt C-eq in 2010 and 2020, respectively, which represents a reduction of nearly 46% below its current growth trajectory in 2020. Based on these results, three strategic suggestions for developing low-carbon economy in Shanghai have been proposed, which can also be applied to other similar cities in China.

  14. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  15. Variations in carbon emissions from vehicles at signalised intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Ing, Koh

    2011-01-01

    Carbon emissions from road transport make up 20% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Therefore, reducing carbon emissions from road transport is significant in reaching carbon reduction targets. In urban areas where signal controlled intersections are common, carbon emissions from vehicular traffic can be aggravated by aggressive driving and interruptions induced by traffic control. Considerable variations in speed and acceleration profiles could be observed between high carbon a...

  16. Absorption at 11 microns in the interstellar medium and embedded sources: evidence for crystalline silicates

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Christopher M; Lawson, Warrick

    2016-01-01

    An absorption feature is occasionally reported around 11 ?microns in astronomical spectra, including those of forming stars. Candidate carriers include water ice, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), silicon carbide, crystalline silicates or even carbonates. All are known constituents of cosmic dust in one or more types of environments, though not necessarily together. In this paper we present new ground-based 8-13 ?micron spectra of one evolved star, several embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and a background source lying behind a large column of the interstellar medium (ISM) toward the Galactic Centre. Our observations, obtained at a spectral resolution of ?approximately 100, are compared with previous lower resolution data, as well as data obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) on these and other targets. By presenting a subset of a larger sample our aim is to establish the reality of the feature and subsequently speculate on its carrier. All evidence points toward crystalline silicate. ...

  17. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  18. Final work plan for targeted investigation at Hilton, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-08-28

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of a targeted investigation to update the status of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater associated with grain storage operations at Hilton, Kansas. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility in Hilton during the 1950s and 1960s. At the time of the CCC/USDA operation in Hilton, grain storage facilities (CCC/USDA and private) were located along the both sides of the former Union Pacific railroad tracks (Figure 1.1). The main grain storage structures were on or near the railroad right-of-way. The proposed targeted investigation, to be conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on the behalf of CCC/USDA, will supplement Argonne's Phase I and Phase II investigations in 1996-1997. The earlier investigations erroneously focused on an area east of the railroad property where the CCC/USDA did not operate, specifically on a private grain storage facility. In addition, the investigation was limited in scope, because access to railroad property was denied (Argonne 1997a,b). The hydrogeologic system at Hilton is potentially complex.

  19. Nuclear break-up of 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, V; Lacroix, D; Blumenfeld, Y; Bourgeois, C; Chabot, M; Chomaz, Ph; Désesquelles, P; Duflot, V; Duprat, J; Fallot, M; Frascaria, N; Grévy, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O

    2007-01-01

    The break-up of 11Be was studied at 41AMeV using a secondary beam of 11Be from the GANIL facility on a 48Ti target by measuring correlations between the 10Be core, the emitted neutrons and gamma rays. The nuclear break-up leading to the emission of a neutron at large angle in the laboratory frame is identified with the towing mode through its characteristic n-fragment correlation. The experimental spectra are compared with a model where the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) is solved for the neutron initially in the 11 Be. A good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the shapes of neutron experimental energies and angular distributions. The spectroscopic factor of the 2s orbital is tentatively extracted to be 0.46+-0.15. The neutron emission from the 1p and 1d orbitals is also studied.

  20. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  1. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  2. Switching to carbon-free production processes: Implications for carbon leakage and border carbon adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate policy under partial global compliance raises concerns regarding carbon leakage. While border carbon adjustment (BCA) measures are a potential remedy, they have also been criticised on various grounds. This paper therefore investigates whether a policy fostering the switch to carbon-free technologies can substitute for BCAs. A reason for the effectiveness of a targeted technology policy is that major leakage prone sectors (such as iron and steel), have two main sources of carbon emissions, combustion of fossil fuels and industrial processes. While combustion emissions can be reduced relatively easy by increasing energy efficiency, reducing process emissions requires a switch to low-carbon production processes, e.g. in steel production by deploying electrolysis based on large-scale solar electricity. We show by means of a multi-regional computable general equilibrium analysis that such a switch in steel production technology can eliminate a significant fraction of carbon leakage and also increase sectoral output and welfare. Since the necessary technologies are not available at large scale yet (however, are likely to be by 2020), a transitional BCA scheme may be a crucial supportive instrument to foster such technology switches. Yet, in the long run BCA should be phased out to preserve the incentive for carbon-free innovation. - Highlights: • A carbon-free technology switch in iron production considerably reduces total leakage. • Border carbon adjustment (BCA) may impede domestic industrial decarbonisation. • A targeted technology policy is superior to BCA in fostering low-carbon investments. • But implemented as a transitory instrument, BCA reinforces technology policy

  3. Efficacy of coating activated carbon with milk proteins to prevent binding of bacterial cells from foods for PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opet, Nathan J; Levin, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Foods contaminated with pathogens are common sources of illness. Currently, the most common and sensitive rapid detection method involves the PCR. However, food matrices are complex and contain inhibitors that limit the sensitivity of the PCR. The use of coated activated carbon can effectively facilitate the removal of PCR inhibitors without binding targeted bacterial cells from food samples. With the use of activated carbon coated with milk proteins, a cell recovery at pH 7.0 of 95.7%±2.0% was obtained, compared to control uncoated activated carbon, which yielded a cell recovery of only 1.1%±0.8%. In addition, the milk protein coated activated carbon was able to absorb similar amounts of soluble compounds as uncoated activated carbon, with the exception of bovine hemoglobin. This suggests that the use of milk proteins to coat activated carbon may therefore serve as a suitable replacement for bentonite in the coating of activated carbon, which has previously been used for the removal of PCR inhibitors from food.

  4. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  5. Flexibility Required to Meet China's Mandatory Green Targets Set in the 12th Five-Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Pan

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionDuring the past five years known as the period of the 11th Five-Year (2006-2010) Plan,China made great efforts on energy saving and emission reduction,and obtained great achievements,including a 19.06%drop of per unit GDP energy consumption.One of the major targets of China's development during the period of the 12th Five-Year (2011-2015) Plan or the next five years,is to lead China's economy on to the path of sustainable development,with emphasis on clean energy construction,emission reduction promotion,and a drastic reduction of energy intensity as well as carbon intensity.Therefore,a target for carbon reduction (a reduction goal for per unit GDP CO2emissions) was added in the 12th Five-Year Plan in addition to the target for energy saving and conventional pollutants emission reduction.The target has been set,but opinions [Yang et aL.,2011;Wu,2011;Liu,2011] still vary on whether it is optimal as well as how it should be comprehended and implemented.

  6. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 11.11 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Definitions § 11.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part..., Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC. Appropriate...

  7. Counting the cost of carbon. Low carbon economy index 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Achieving the rates of decarbonisation needed to stay within the 2 degrees target agreed by governments in Cancun in 20101 requires a revolution in the way the world produces and uses energy. A transformation in financing will also be necessary to achieve the transition at the scale and speed needed. PwC published the first Low Carbon Economy Index ahead of the COP15 in Copenhagen, 2009. This looked at the progress of the G20 economies against a 2000-based carbon budget estimated by PwC. Carbon intensity is our preferred metric for analysing countries' movements towards a low carbon economy, as it accounts for expected economic growth, and can generate comparable targets. The carbon intensity of an economy is the emissions per unit of GDP and is affected by a country's fuel mix, energy efficiency and the proportion of industrial versus service sectors. Since COP 16 in Cancun, there has been an increasing focus on the cost of meeting the low carbon challenge and raising the capital required to finance it. This year's Low Carbon Economy Index focuses on this global financing gap and the reforms that might help to fill it. In section one we present our analysis of economic and emissions growth and ask whether we are decarbonising fast enough. The second section asks how much it will cost and can we afford it. We highlight the global financing gap, and focus on efforts to increase low carbon generation in the UK and South Africa. The report concludes by outlining some steps that could be taken to help meet the low carbon challenge.

  8. Cleaner fossil power generation in the 21st century: a technology strategy for carbon capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The document describes how the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) components of the United Kingdom Government's Carbon Abatement Technologies (CATs) Strategy should be developed and extended, with particular reference to a 2020 target for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) commercialisation and the 2050 UK Committee on Climate Change (CCC) dioxide target. It sets out a strategy for RD&D through the establishment of a collaborative programme linking industry, and academia, and involving different funding sources. The proposed RD& D programme has seven strategic themes: Power plant: focus on cost, increasing efficiency, biomass co-firing; Capture technologies: focus on cost, efficiency penalty, waste heat utilisation; storage: focus on security, monitoring and verification; transport: focus on logistics and transport network; whole system: focus on risks, transient capability, economics, environmental issues; advanced and novel capture technologies; and underpinning technology support. 11 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) Expression in the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Koike; Yasuko Tanaka; Toshiyuki Matsuzaki; Yoshiyuki Morishita; Kenichi Ishibashi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular aquaporin expressed in various tissues, including brain tissues in mammals. While AQP11-deficient mice have developed fatal polycystic kidneys at one month old, the role of AQP11 in the brain was not well appreciated. In this study, we examined the AQP11 expression in the mouse brain and the brain phenotype of AQP11-deficient mice. AQP11 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein were expressed in the brain, but much less than in the thymus and kidn...

  10. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation; Expression HIF-1-abhaengiger Gene in humanen Lungenadenokarzinom (A549)-Zellen und deren Regulation nach Photonen- und Schwerionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, Verena Maria

    2013-11-26

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  11. HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Caojie; Lu, Rongchun; Cai, Xiaohong; Yu, Deyang; Ruan, Fangfang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Jianming; Torpokov, D. K.; Nikolenko, D.

    2013-12-01

    Since HIRFL-CSR internal cluster target was built, it has played a key role in in-ring experiments at HIRFL-CSR. So far it have been operated with five gas species as targets for scattering experiments, i.e. hydrogen, nitrogen, argon, neon, and krypton. The obtained highest thickness for hydrogen target amounts up to 1012 atoms/cm2, and those of other targets are larger than 1013 atoms/cm2 with the background pressure of 10-11 mbar in CSR. The target thickness can be varied by regulating the nozzle temperature and pressure of the inlet gas. The first online internal target experiment dedicated to investigate radioactive electron capture (REC) process with Xe54+ ions colliding with the nitrogen target demonstrated the stability and reliability of the internal target system. In addition, hydrogen and krypton were also tested online in recent experiments, which indicate the target system can meet experimental requirements for the thickness of target, pressure in scattering chamber, and long-term stability.

  12. In vivo detection of cranial dopaminergic processes: studies with L-1-C-11-Dopa and C-11-labelled ADTN derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, probably the first in literature, some results are presented of in vivo studies of carbon-11-labelled dopamine agonists in cats and dogs with positron emission tomography. Recently a method for the separation of D- and L-dopa enantiomers from the DL-dopa mixture was developed. These three compounds were injected intravenously and with PET cold spots in the striatium of dog's brains could be obtained, independently of pretreatment with carbidopa. The synthesis of carbon-11-labelled ADTN derivatives and their uses is discussed. (Auth.)

  13. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, and other variables collected from surface discrete observations using spectrophotometer and other instruments from R/V Henry B. Bigelow off the northeastern coast of the United States from 2014-09-10 to 2014-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0138983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide from human industrial activities are causing changes in global ocean carbon chemistry resulting in a reduction in...

  15. Wendepunkt 11. September

    OpenAIRE

    Crome, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    "Hin und wieder ist es sinnvoll", betonte Bertrand Russell, "ein Fragezeichen hinter Dinge zu setzen, die wir schon lange für selbstverständlich nehmen". Der US-amerikanische 11. September ist zehn Jahre her. Die Neokonservativen in den USA hatten bereits in den 1990er Jahren verschiedene Netzwerke gegründet, darunter das Project for the New American Century (PNAC). Das agitierte für den Sturz Saddam Husseins und Krieg gegen den Irak. Davon wollte Präsident Clinton nichts wissen; George W. Bu...

  16. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by Managing Anthropogenic Carbon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-05-01

    carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of carbon affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, the economic model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower carbon pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade carbon pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift carbon consumption to jurisdictions with lower carbon tolls. Third, the economic model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a carbon pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of carbon consumers worldwide.

  17. Classifying transcription factor targets and discovering relevant biological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeLisi Charles

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal in post-genomic research is discovering the network of interactions between transcription factors (TFs and the genes they regulate. We have previously reported the development of a supervised-learning approach to TF target identification, and used it to predict targets of 104 transcription factors in yeast. We now include a new sequence conservation measure, expand our predictions to include 59 new TFs, introduce a web-server, and implement an improved ranking method to reveal the biological features contributing to regulation. The classifiers combine 8 genomic datasets covering a broad range of measurements including sequence conservation, sequence overrepresentation, gene expression, and DNA structural properties. Principal Findings (1 Application of the method yields an amplification of information about yeast regulators. The ratio of total targets to previously known targets is greater than 2 for 11 TFs, with several having larger gains: Ash1(4, Ino2(2.6, Yaf1(2.4, and Yap6(2.4. (2 Many predicted targets for TFs match well with the known biology of their regulators. As a case study we discuss the regulator Swi6, presenting evidence that it may be important in the DNA damage response, and that the previously uncharacterized gene YMR279C plays a role in DNA damage response and perhaps in cell-cycle progression. (3 A procedure based on recursive-feature-elimination is able to uncover from the large initial data sets those features that best distinguish targets for any TF, providing clues relevant to its biology. An analysis of Swi6 suggests a possible role in lipid metabolism, and more specifically in metabolism of ceramide, a bioactive lipid currently being investigated for anti-cancer properties. (4 An analysis of global network properties highlights the transcriptional network hubs; the factors which control the most genes and the genes which are bound by the largest set of regulators. Cell-cycle and

  18. Controls on carbon mineralization in ultramafic mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. L.; Power, I. M.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Wilson, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    mine site. Thus, the experimental data were used to calibrate MIN3P [4] to better account for the control of water content on mineral reactivity and allow more robust estimation of CO2 sequestration potential. The brucite grain size also influenced the rate and extent of carbon mineralization due to its effect on reactive surface area and the degree of surface passivation. An empirical function was derived and implemented in MIN3P to model the declining reactivity of brucite with reaction progress due to passivation of the mineral surface via carbonate precipitation. This experimentally calibrated reactive transport code, and the constraints provided by field observations, will enable better assessment of the CO2 sequestration capacity of mine sites and help guide implementation of acceleration strategies. For example, a target water content for a tailings storage facility to maximize carbon mineralization could be estimated. [1] Bea et al. (2012) Vadose Zone J 11. [2] Wilson et al. (2010) Environ Sci Technol 44, 9522-9529. [3] Harrison et al. (2013) Environ Sci Technol 47, 126-134. [4] Molins and Mayer (2007) Water Resour Res 43, W05435.

  19. 10/11 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Parayre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Amprimoz commence ses Changements de tons (1981 par une explication de la « parole » : celle-ci est prononcée « souvent au sein du cantique / le bourdonnement de la cascade / et l’ignorance du vent » (« Mots ». Au lieu d’exprimer ce qu’elle est, cette description situe la parole dans un espace à la fois intérieur et paysager. De fait, les images du dedans et des alentours abondent dans l’œuvre du poète et forment un trésor d’étonnantes évocations. Dans 10/11 (1979, les images du dedans sont enfouies dans des cendriers, des océans, des masques, des palais de marbre, entre autres exemples, alors que l’environnement convoque les plaines neigeuses, de belles terres, des iles, des jardins de fleurs, « des soleils en rayons » (11/p, une ville avec sa gare et son université, etc.

  20. {sup 11}C-methylations using {sup 11}C-methyl iodide and tetrabutylammonium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, M.J.; Jivan, S.; Huser, J.M.; Lu, J. [TRIUMF Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Carbon-11 methylation reactions on functional groups such as phenols and amides require a base when using {sup 11}C-methyl iodide. This study demonstrates that tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) can be used as a base to prepare {sup 11}C-radiopharmaceuticals efficiently and in high yield. We have applied this method to raclopride, methylphenidate, PK11195, dihydrotetrabenazine and MDL100907 and have compared the results with the Alumina/KF and hydroxide methods. Our results indicate that TBAF gives equivalent or higher radiochemical yields compared to the other bases even when using as little as 200 {mu}g of precursor. In the case of PK11195 the TBAF method was the only one that provided a reasonable yield of product. (orig.)

  1. 碳酚醛-铝板中二维X射线热击波数值模拟%2-D numerical simulation of thermal shock wave induced by X-ray irradiation in carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic aluminum target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄霞; 汤文辉; 蒋邦海

    2011-01-01

    Using the plane-strain anisotropic rate-related elasto-plastic constitutive model and the ideal isotropic elasto-plastic constitutive model, the thermal shock wave propagation induced by X-ray irradiation in carbon fiber-reinforced phenolic-aluminum plate is simulated by finite element method.The results show that under the irradiation of X-ray of 1 keV, the penetration depth is small, the material surface is gasified, and the peak stress values are high; but under the irradiation of X-ray of 3keV, the penetration depth is much increased, the thermal shock wave takes a double-wave shape, and the delamination phenomenon is more significant.%文章利用平面应变正交各向异性材料率相关性的弹塑性本构模型和各向同性材料理想弹塑性本构模型,采用有限元方法编写程序,对X射线辐照碳酚醛-铝板时诱导的热击波进行数值模拟,讨论了热击波的传播规律.结果表明,在1 kev的X射线辐照下,X射线穿透极浅,材料表面发生气化现象,应力峰值较大;在3keV的X射线辐照下,X射线穿透较深,热击波呈现双波结构,材料的层裂更明显.

  2. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  3. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  4. CARBON ABUNDANCE IN SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD PLANETARY NEBULAE THROUGH ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS PRISM SPECTROSCOPY: CONSTRAINING STELLAR EVOLUTION AT LOW METALLICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform near ultraviolet ACS prism spectroscopy of 11 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) planetary nebulae (PNe) with the main aim of deriving the abundance of carbon. The analysis of the ACS spectra provides reliable atomic carbon abundances for all but a couple of our targets; ionic C2+ abundances are calculated for all target PNe. With the present paper we more than double the number of SMC PNe with known carbon abundances, providing a good database to study the elemental evolution in low- and intermediate-mass stars at low metallicity. We study carbon abundances of Magellanic Cloud PNe in the framework of stellar evolution models and the elemental yields. Constraining SMC and LMC stellar evolutionary models is now possible with the present data, through the comparison of the final yields calculated and the CNO abundances observed. We found that SMC PNe are almost exclusively carbon rich, and that for the most part they have not undergone the hot bottom burning phase, contrary to about half of the studied LMC PNe. The yields from stellar evolutionary models with LMC and SMC metallicities broadly agree with the observations. In particular, evolutionary yields for M to sun well encompass the abundances of round and elliptical PNe in the SMC. We found that the carbon emission lines are major coolants for SMC PNe, more so than in their LMC counterparts, indicating that metallicity has an effect on the physics of PNe, as predicted by Stanghellini et al.

  5. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted {sup 11}C-phenethylamines as 5-HT{sub 2A} agonist PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettrup, Anders; Santini, Martin A.; Palner, Mikael; Knudsen, Gitte M. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi), Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, Martin; Paine, James; Kristensen, Jesper; Begtrup, Mikael [University of Copenhagen, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi), Copenhagen (Denmark); Gillings, Nic; Herth, Matthias M.; Madsen, Jacob [Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi), Copenhagen (Denmark); Lehel, Szabolcs [Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-04-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin 2A (5-HT{sub 2A}) receptors with agonist tracers holds promise for the selective labelling of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in their high-affinity state. We have previously validated [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-5 and found that it is a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor agonist PET tracer. In an attempt to further optimize the target-to-background binding ratio, we modified the chemical structure of the phenethylamine backbone and carbon-11 labelling site of [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-5 in different ways. Here, we present the in vivo validation of nine novel 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor agonist PET tracers in the pig brain. Each radiotracer was injected intravenously into anaesthetized Danish Landrace pigs, and the pigs were subsequently scanned for 90 min in a high-resolution research tomography scanner. To evaluate 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding, cortical nondisplaceable binding potentials (BP{sub ND}) were calculated using the simplified reference tissue model with the cerebellum as a reference region. After intravenous injection, all compounds entered the brain and distributed preferentially into the cortical areas, in accordance with the known 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor distribution. The largest target-to-background binding ratio was found for [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-36 which also had a high brain uptake compared to its analogues. The cortical binding of [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-36 was decreased by pretreatment with ketanserin, supporting 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor selectivity in vivo. [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-82 and [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-21 showed lower cortical BP{sub ND}, while [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-27, [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-29, [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-31 and [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-88 gave rise to cortical BP{sub ND} similar to that of [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-5. [{sup 11}C]Cimbi-36 is currently the most promising candidate for investigation of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor agonist binding in the living human brain with PET. (orig.)

  6. Folate Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres as Nanocarrier for Targetted Delivery and Controlled Release of Doxorubicin to HeLa Cells%叶酸功能化介孔碳纳米球负载阿霉素的细胞靶向传递及可控释放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰; 廖蕾; 朱丽娜; 孔继烈; 刘宝红

    2013-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon is a kind of novel carrier for intracellular drug release. There are few reports on the use of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs) as the transmembrane deliverer in human cancer cells; on the other hand, the particle size of MCNs synthesized by hard templates is usually larger than 100 nm. It is accepted that the optimal size of a transmembrane delivery vehicle should be less than 100 nm in diameter and the surface should be hydrophilic to circumvent clearance by macrophages, to maximize circulation times and targeting ability. In this work, MCNs with a diameter of ca. 90 nm have been developed as a targeted drug delivery system of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). The small MCNs were synthesized using triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as a template. The MCNs were first treated by acid to improve its dispersion property in an aqueous solution, and then modified by folic acid through EDC-NHS. The structure of the MCNs was well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and dynamic light scattering. pH-dependent drug release is successfully achieved due to the supramolecular π-π stacking between DOX and the carbonaceous structures. By effective passive and active targeting, MCNs can be readily internalized into HeLa cells, where the carried DOX can be efficiently released in the acidic microenvironment of the tumors for further therapy. The results from confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry demonstrated that the cellular uptake efficiency of MCNs toward HeLa cells was increased through the functionalization with folic acid, and the folate modified MCNs show much higher endocytosis properties toward HeLa cells (folate receptor positive) than toward MCF-7 cells (folate receptor negative). The cytotoxicities toward HeLa cells were studied by MTT method, which indicated that the cytotoxicities of DOX loaded mesoporous carbon nanoparticles was also

  7. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  8. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  9. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  10. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  11. The Biological carbon pump in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Richard; Henson, Stephanie A.; Koski, Marja;

    2014-01-01

    Mediated principally by the sinking of organic rich particles from the upper ocean, the Biological Carbon Pump (BCP) is a significant component of the global carbon cycle. It transfers roughly 11 Gt C yr−1 into the ocean’s interior and maintains atmospheric carbon dioxide at significantly lower l...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  13. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements

  14. Investigation on the role of integrated PET/MRI for target volume definition and radiotherapy planning in patients with high grade glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery MRI (FLAIR/MRI) and Carbon-11-labeled-methionine PET (11C-MET-PET) on high grade glioma (HGG) tumor volume delineation for radiotherapy planning. Material and methods: Sixty-nine patients with HGG were evaluated. The clinical target volumes (CTV1, generated by adding a 10 mm margin to FLAIRMRI area, CTV2 by adding a 20 mm margin to enhanced T1MRI) and biological target volume (BTV) were delineated on pre-operative MRI images and 11CMETPET respectively. Results: The overlap between CTV1 and CTV2 showed a low correlation between the two volumes with CTV1 not always fully included into the CTV2. In all cases the whole BTV was included into the CTV1, while in 35/69 patients (50%) part of BTV was outside the CTV2 despite larger margins were added. In all cases recurrences were within the CTV1 volume and in 19/38 (50%) partially outside the CTV2. In all patients relapse corresponded to the BTV area. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the target volume definition using FLAIR–MRI is more adequate compared to enhanced T1MRI. 11C-METPET uptake could help identify microscopic residual areas

  15. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  16. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  17. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  18. Neutron capture nuclei-containing carbon nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kuo Chu; Lai, Po Dong; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Wang, Pei-Jen; Yuan, Chiun-Jye

    2010-11-01

    HeLa cells were incubated with neutron capture nuclei (boron-10 and gadolinium)-containing carbon nanoparticles, followed by irradiation of slow thermal neutron beam. Under a neutron flux of 6 x 10(11) n/cm(2) (or 10 min irradiation at a neutron flux of 1 x 10(9) n/cm(2) s), the percentages of acute cell death at 8 h after irradiation are 52, 55, and 28% for HeLa cells fed with BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs, and Co@CNPs, respectively. The proliferation capability of the survived HeLa cells was also found to be significantly suppressed. At 48 h after neutron irradiation, the cell viability further decreases to 35 +/- 5% as compared to the control set receiving the same amount of neutron irradiation dose but in the absence of carbon nanoparticles. This work demonstrates "proof-of-concept" examples of neutron capture therapy using (10)B-, (157)Gd-, and (59)Co-containing carbon nanoparticles for effective destruction of cancer cells. It will also be reported the preparation and surface functionalization of boron or gadolinium doped core-shell cobalt/carbon nanoparticles (BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs and Co@CNPs) using a modified DC pulsed arc discharge method, and their characterization by various spectroscopic measurements, including TEM, XRD, SQUID, FT-IR, etc. Tumor cell targeting ability was introduced by surface modification of these carbon nanoparticles with folate moieties.

  19. The Rich Circumstellar Chemistry of SMP LMC 11

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, Sarah E; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-rich evolved stars from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase are characterized by a rich and complex carbon chemistry in their circumstellar envelopes. A peculiar object is the preplanetary nebula SMP LMC 11, whose Spitzer-IRS spectrum shows remarkable and diverse molecular absorption bands. To study how the molecular composition in this object compares to our current understanding of circumstellar carbon chemistry, we modeled this molecular absorption. We find high abundances for a number of molecules, perhaps most notably benzene. We also confirm the presence of propyne (CH3C2H) in this spectrum. Of all the cyanopolyynes, only HC3N is evident; we can detect at best a marginal presence of HCN. From comparisons to various chemical models, we can conclude that SMP LMC 11 must have an unusual circumstellar environment (a torus rather than an outflow).

  20. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  1. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  2. Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, E.A.G.; McGuire, Anthony; Schädel, C.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Hayes, D.J.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Kuhry, P.; Lawrence, D.M.; Natali, S.M.; Olefeldt, David; Romanovsky, V.E.; Schaefer, K.; Turetsky, M.R.; Treat, C.C.; Vonk, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.

  3. How costly are carbon offsets? A meta-analysis of carbon forest sinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Eagle, A.J.; Manley, J.; Smolak, T.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon terrestrial sinks are seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. As a result of agreements reached at Bonn and Marrakech, carbon offsets have taken on much greater importance in meeting Kyoto targets for the first commitment peri

  4. Lepidoptera. Chapter 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna, in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries, Madeira and Azores 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. The route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confined to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks and gardens. We highlight four species in particular, Diaphania perspectalis, Cacyreus marshalli, Cameraria ohridella and Paysandisia archon, as the most important current economic threats.

  5. Soil carbon sequestration in mixed farming landscapes: Insights from the Lachlan soil carbon project

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Leonie J.; Crean, Jason; Badgery, Warwick; Murphy, Brian; Rawson, Andrew; Capon, Timothy; Reeson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The potential for soil carbon sequestration to play a significant role in meeting Australia’s greenhouse reduction targets has attracted widespread interest. Despite this interest, the economic scope for soil carbon sequestration remains poorly understood and the practical approaches that could be used to capture any opportunities have not been explored. In this paper we present preliminary results on a pilot soil carbon sequestration variable price, reverse tender auction in the mixed (wheat...

  6. Double-Pulse Two-micron LPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2016-06-01

    An advanced double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-μm laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting function for adaptive targeting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  7. Simulations of Full Impact of the LHC Beam With a Solid Graphite Target

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Brugger, M; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will operate with 7~TeV/c protons with a luminosity of 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. This requires two beams, each with 2808 bunches. The nominal intensity per bunch is 1.15$\\;\\times\\;$10$^{11}$ protons and the total energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ. In previous papers, the mechanisms causing equipment damage in case of a failure of the machine protection system was discussed, assuming that the entire beam is deflected onto a copper target. Another failure scenario is the deflection of beam, or part of it, into carbon material. Carbon collimators and beam absorbers are installed in many locations around the LHC close to the beam, since carbon is the material that is most suitable to absorb the beam energy without being damaged. In case of a failure, it is very likely that such absorbers are hit first, for example, when the beam is accidentally deflected. Some type of failures need to be anticipated, such as accidental firing of injection and extraction kicker magnets leading...

  8. Interleukin-11 alters placentation and causes preeclampsia features in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy L; Koga, Kaori; Menkhorst, Ellen; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Rainczuk, Katarzyna; Nagai, Miwako; Cuman, Carly; Yap, Joanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Simmons, David; Young, Morag J; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-12-29

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk gestation. Abnormal extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of uterine spiral arterioles is thought to contribute to PE development. Interleukin-11 (IL11) impedes human EVT invasion in vitro and is elevated in PE decidua in women. We demonstrate that IL11 administered to mice causes development of PE features. Immunohistochemistry shows IL11 compromises trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling, and placentation, leading to increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction, although nonpregnant mice were unaffected. Real-time PCR array analysis identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPPA2), associated with PE in women, as an IL11 regulated target. IL11 increased PAPPA2 serum and placental tissue levels in mice. In vitro, IL11 compromised primary human EVT invasion, whereas siRNA knockdown of PAPPA2 alleviated the effect. Genes regulating uterine natural killer (uNK) recruitment and differentiation were down-regulated and uNK cells were reduced after IL11 treatment in mice. IL11 withdrawal in mice at onset of PE features reduced SBP and proteinuria to control levels and alleviated placental labyrinth defects. In women, placental IL11 immunostaining levels increased in PE pregnancies and in serum collected from women before development of early-onset PE, shown by ELISA. These results indicate that elevated IL11 levels result in physiological changes at the maternal-fetal interface, contribute to abnormal placentation, and lead to the development of PE. Targeting placental IL11 may provide a new treatment option for PE. PMID:26655736

  9. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  10. A Monte Carlo investigation of low-Z target image quality generated in a linear accelerator using Varian's VirtuaLinac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The focus of this work was the demonstration and validation of VirtuaLinac with clinical photon beams and to investigate the implementation of low-Z targets in a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Linac) using Monte Carlo modeling. Methods: VirtuaLinac, a cloud based web application utilizing Geant4 Monte Carlo code, was used to model the Linac treatment head components. Particles were propagated through the lower portion of the treatment head using BEAMnrc. Dose distributions and spectral distributions were calculated using DOSXYZnrc and BEAMdp, respectively. For validation, 6 MV flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams were generated and compared to measurement for square fields, 10 and 40 cm wide and at dmax for diagonal profiles. Two low-Z targets were investigated: a 2.35 MeV carbon target and the proposed 2.50 MeV commercial imaging target for the TrueBeam platform. A 2.35 MeV carbon target was also simulated in a 2100EX Clinac using BEAMnrc. Contrast simulations were made by scoring the dose in the phosphor layer of an IDU20 aSi detector after propagating through a 4 or 20 cm thick phantom composed of water and ICRP bone. Results: Measured and modeled depth dose curves for 6 MV flattened and FFF beams agree within 1% for 98.3% of points at depths greater than 0.85 cm. Ninety three percent or greater of points analyzed for the diagonal profiles had a gamma value less than one for the criteria of 1.5 mm and 1.5%. The two low-Z target photon spectra produced in TrueBeam are harder than that from the carbon target in the Clinac. Percent dose at depth 10 cm is greater by 3.6% and 8.9%; the fraction of photons in the diagnostic energy range (25–150 keV) is lower by 10% and 28%; and contrasts are lower by factors of 1.1 and 1.4 (4 cm thick phantom) and 1.03 and 1.4 (20 cm thick phantom), for the TrueBeam 2.35 MV/carbon and commercial imaging beams, respectively. Conclusions: VirtuaLinac is a promising new tool for Monte Carlo modeling of novel

  11. Irradiation-induced structure and property changes in tokamak plasma-facing, carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma-facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce large neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 degree C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included uni-directional, two-directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Dimensional changes are reported for the composite materials and are related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, the irradiation-induced dimensional changes are reported and discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. The effect of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of two three-directional, carbon-carbon composites is reported and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is discussed

  12. Dosimetric comparison of carbon ion and X-ray radiotherapy for Stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Nobuteru; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the dose–volume histograms of patients with Stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with carbon ion radiotherapy with those of patients treated with X-ray radiotherapy. Patients with Stage IIIA NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach) were enrolled. Both radiotherapy plans were calculated with the same targets and organs at risk on the same CT. The treatment plan for the prophylactic lymph node and primary tumor (PTV1) delivered 40 Gy for X-ray radiotherapy and 40 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; RBE) for carbon ion radiotherapy. The total doses for the primary tumor and clinically positive lymph nodes (PTV2) were 60 Gy for X-ray radiotherapy and 60 Gy (RBE) for carbon ion radiotherapy. The homogeneity indexes for PTV1 and PTV2 were superior for carbon ion radiotherapy in comparison with X-ray radiotherapy (PTV1, 0.57 vs 0.65, P = 0.009; PTV2, 0.07 vs 0.16, P = 0.005). The normal lung mean dose, V5, V10 and V20 for carbon ion radiotherapy were 7.7 Gy (RBE), 21.4%, 19.7% and 17.0%, respectively, whereas the corresponding doses for X-ray radiotherapy were 11.9 Gy, 34.9%, 26.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Maximum spinal cord dose, esophageal maximum dose and V50, and bone V10, V30 and V50 were lower with carbon ion radiotherapy than with X-ray radiotherapy. The present study indicates that carbon ion radiotherapy provides a more homogeneous target dose and a lower dose to organs at risk than X-ray radiotherapy for Stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer. PMID:27242341

  13. Computational design of high efficiency release targets for use at ISOL facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat-removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated-vitreous-carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies that simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived from diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected t...

  14. Clinical and radiographic study of activated carbon workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Uragoda, C. G.

    1989-01-01

    Activated carbon is made in Sri Lanka by passing steam through charcoal made from coconut shells. The carbon does not contain free silica. Sixty six men who had worked in a factory making activated carbon for an average of 7.2 years had no more respiratory symptoms than a control group, and none showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. There was no evidence that people exposed to charcoal and pure carbon for up to 11 years are at risk of developing pneumoconiosis.

  15. 42 CFR 433.11 - Enhanced FMAP rate for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enhanced FMAP rate for children. 433.11 Section 433... Administration Provisions § 433.11 Enhanced FMAP rate for children. (a) Subject to the conditions in paragraph (b... targeted low-income children described in § 435.4 or § 436.3 of this chapter; and (2) Services provided...

  16. Nuclear studies of different target systems for the European Spallation Source (ESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes nuclear simulation calculations to study various target concepts for the 'European Spallation Source (ESS)' concerning a proton beam power of 5 MW. For different target systems as rotating wheel target, stationary targets and liquid metal targets results of beam energy - and target material investigations, induced radioactivity and afterheat production as well as usable neutron fluxes are discussed. (author) 11 figs., 5 tabs., 5 refs

  17. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  18. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  19. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  20. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system