WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbohydrates pharmacology

  1. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  3. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is fine because they contain important vitamins and minerals. But your body rapidly digests the starch in white potatoes. This can raise your blood glucose level. Healthy carbohydrates include: Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Dietary fiber Starches in whole- ...

  4. Carbohydrate-mediated polyethylene glycol conjugation of TSH improves its pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Honey, Denise M; Hou, Lihui; Bird, Julie J; Zarazinski, Christine; Searles, Michelle; Braithwaite, Christian; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Kyazike, Josephine; Culm-Merdek, Kerry; Greene, Ben; Stefano, James E; Qiu, Huawei; McPherson, John M; Pan, Clark Q

    2013-03-01

    Thyrogen (thyrotropin alfa for injection), recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), has been successfully used to enhance diagnostic radioiodine scanning and thyroglobulin testing in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer and as an adjunctive treatment for radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation. However, the short half-life of rhTSH in the circulation requires a multidose regimen. We developed novel sialic acid-mediated and galactose-mediated conjugation chemistries for targeting polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the three N-linked glycosylation sites on the protein, to prolong plasma half-life by eliminating kidney filtration and potential carbohydrate-mediated clearance. Conjugates of different PEG sizes and copy numbers were screened for reaction yield, TSH receptor binding, and murine phamacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies. The best performing of these products, a 40-kDa mono-PEGylated sialic acid-mediated conjugate, exhibited a 3.5-fold longer duration of action than rhTSH in rats, as a 5-fold lower affinity was more than compensated by a 23-fold extension of circulation half-life. Biochemical characterization confirmed conjugation through the sialic acids. Correlation of PEG distribution on the three N-linked glycosylation sites and the PEG effect on receptor binding supported the previously reported structure-function relationship of rhTSH glycosylation. This long-acting rhTSH has the potential to significantly improve patient convenience and provider flexibility while reducing potential side effects associated with a sudden elevation of serum TSH. PMID:23389953

  5. Human Acid β-Glucosidase Inhibition by Carbohydrate Derived Iminosugars: Towards New Pharmacological Chaperones for Gaucher Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Camilla; Catarzi, Serena; Matassini, Camilla; D'Adamio, Giampiero; Morrone, Amelia; Goti, Andrea; Paoli, Paolo; Cardona, Francesca

    2015-09-21

    A collection of carbohydrate-derived iminosugars belonging to three structurally diversified sub-classes (polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines, piperidines, and pyrrolizidines) was evaluated for inhibition of human acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase), the deficient enzyme in Gaucher disease. The synthesis of several new pyrrolidine analogues substituted at the nitrogen or α-carbon atom with alkyl chains of different lengths suggested an interpretation of the inhibition data and led to the discovery of two new GCase inhibitors at sub-micromolar concentration. In the piperidine iminosugar series, two N-alkylated derivatives were found to rescue the residual GCase activity in N370S/RecNcil mutated human fibroblasts (among which one up to 1.5-fold). This study provides the starting point for the identification of new compounds in the treatment of Gaucher disease. PMID:26376302

  6. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  7. The role of FOXO and PPAR transcription factors in diet-mediated inhibition of PDC activation and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise in humans and the role of pharmacological activation of PDC in overriding these changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Constantin, Despina; Stephens, Francis; Laithwaite, David; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2012-05-01

    High-fat feeding inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)-controlled carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, which contributes to muscle insulin resistance. We aimed to reveal molecular changes underpinning this process in resting and exercising humans. We also tested whether pharmacological activation of PDC overrides these diet-induced changes. Healthy males consumed a control diet (CD) and on two further occasions an isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD). After each diet, subjects cycled for 60 min after intravenous infusion with saline (CD and HFD) or dichloroacetate (HFD+DCA). Quadriceps muscle biopsies obtained before and after 10 and 60 min of exercise were used to estimate CHO use, PDC activation, and mRNAs associated with insulin, fat, and CHO signaling. Compared with CD, HFD increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2), PDK4, forkhead box class O transcription factor 1 (FOXO1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor transcription factor α (PPARα) mRNA and reduced PDC activation. Exercise increased PDC activation and whole-body CHO use in HFD, but to a lower extent than in CD. Meanwhile PDK4 and FOXO1, but not PPARα or PDK2, mRNA remained elevated. HFD+DCA activated PDC throughout and restored whole-body CHO use during exercise. FOXO1 appears to play a role in HFD-mediated muscle PDK4 upregulation and inhibition of PDC and CHO oxidation in humans. Also, pharmacological activation of PDC restores HFD-mediated inhibition of CHO oxidation during exercise. PMID:22315317

  8. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  11. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes or non-nutritive sweeteners. They can be used to sweeten food and drinks for less calories and carbohydrate when they replace sugar. Sugar and Desserts With diabetes, it's important to ...

  12. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  13. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  14. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  15. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  16. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  17. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  18. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Karl S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any ...

  20. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  1. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Pugsley, M. K.; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. Thi...

  2. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  3. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  4. Studies in neuroendocrine pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.

  5. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  6. Pharmacology Information System Ready

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and future of Prophet,'' a specialized information handling system for pharmacology research. It is designed to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge about mechanisms of drug action, and it is hoped that it will aid in converting pharmacology research from an empirical to a predictive science. (JR)

  7. Curriculum Guidelines for Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacology embraces the physical and chemical properties of drugs; the preparation of pharmaceutical agents; the absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs; and the effects of drugs on living systems. These guidelines represent a consensus on what would constitute a minimally acceptable pharmacology course for predoctoral dental students. (MLW)

  8. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of diet foods. These foods may contain extra sugar as a substitute for fat calories. Try to include your child or teen as you evaluate and select healthy carbohydrate-containing foods. With ... blood sugar. By taking a smart approach to balancing carbohydrates, ...

  9. Oral carbohydrate loading with 18% carbohydrate beverage alleviates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative 12.6% oral carbohydrate loading is an element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol aimed at alleviating postoperative insulin resistance; however, in Japan, beverages with 18% carbohydrate content are generally used for preoperative carbohydrate loading. We investigated the effect of 18% carbohydrate loading on alleviating insulin resistance. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover-randomized study and were segregated into 2 groups: volunteers in the carbohydrate-loading group (group A) who fasted from after 9 pm and ingested 375 mL of a beverage containing 18% carbohydrate (ArginaidWaterTM; Nestle, Tokyo, Japan) between 9 pm and 12 pm, and 250 mL of the same liquid at 6:30 am. Volunteers in control group (group B) drank only water. At 8:30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) and levels of ketone bodies and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) before clamping were evaluated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Levels of blood glucose, insulin, and cytokines at the start of the clamp were similar in both the groups. The GIR in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (11.5±2.4 vs 6.2±2.2 mg/kg/min, p=0.005), while blood ketone body levels were significantly lower in group A (22±4 vs 124±119 μmol/L, p=0.04). Preoperative 18% carbohydrate loading could prevent the decrease in insulin sensitivity and suppress catabolism in healthy volunteers. Thus, carbohydrate loading with a beverage with 18% carbohydrate content might contribute to improvements in perioperative management. PMID:23353610

  10. Who needs pharmacologic therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Porterfield; Rohit Malhotra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of atrial fibrillation has evolved significantly in the last ten years, with ablation becoming a far more common form of treatment for this most common of arrhythmias. However, while ablation has become more common, certain populations derive continued benefit from the use of pharmacologic therapy for treatment. We review the use of pharmacologic therapy and novel considerations for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

  11. Pharmacological Effects of Mangiferin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhi-quan; DENG Jia-gang; YAN Li

    2011-01-01

    Mango leaves have been widely used in the clinical practice for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.Mangiferin,an effective constituent in the mango leaves,has multiple pharmacological actions involved in some basic pathological processes,such as inflammation,oxidative injury,tumor growth,micro-organism infections,metabolic regulations,and immunological regulations.The pharmacological effects of mangiferin from some published data are reviewed in this article.

  12. The pharmacology of psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Seifert, Juergen; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2002-10-01

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.

  13. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  14. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  15. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  16. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  17. Pharmacologic Therapies in Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana Lima; Wipf, Joyce E

    2016-07-01

    Anticoagulants are beneficial for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The development of target-specific oral anticoagulants is changing the landscape of anticoagulation therapy and created growing interest on this subject. Understanding the pharmacology of different anticoagulants is the first step to adequately treat patients with best available therapy while avoiding serious bleeding complications. This article reviews the pharmacology of the main anticoagulant classes (vitamin K antagonists, direct oral anticoagulants, and heparins) and their clinical indications based on evidence-based data currently available in the literature. PMID:27235611

  18. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  19. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  20. Pharmacological management of sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Systemic sepsis continues to be the most-difficult management problem in caring for the combat casualty. The complications of sepsis pervade all areas of injury to soldiers in the field, whether it is mechanical (missiles), thermal (burns), chemical, biological, or radiation injury. With the advent of tactical nuclear weapons, the problem of sepsis will be much higher in future wars than has previously been experienced through the world. The purpose of this chapter is a) to review the data suggesting pharmacological agents that may benefit the septic patient, and b) to emphasize the adjunctive therapies that should be explored in clinical trials. The pharmacological management of sepsis remains controversial. Most of the drugs utilized clinically treat the symptoms of the disease and are not necessarily directed at fundamental mechanisms that are known to be present in sepsis. A broad data base is emerging, indicating that NSAID should be used in human clinical trials. Prostaglandins are sensitive indicators of cellular injury and may be mediators for a number of vasoactive chemicals. Opiate antagonists and calcium channel blockers require more in-depth data; however, recent studies generate excitement for their potential use in the critically ill patient. Pharmacological effects of antibiotics, in concert with other drugs, suggest an entirely new approach to pharmacological treatment in sepsis. There is no doubt that new treatment modalities or adjunctive therapies must be utilized to alter the poor prognosis of severe sepsis that we have observed in the past 4 decades.

  1. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  2. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  3. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  4. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  5. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation. PMID:24510755

  6. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  7. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  8. Fluorous-based carbohydrate quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Guosong

    2015-03-20

    Fluorous chemistry has brought many applications from catalysis to separation science, from supramolecular materials to analytical chemistry. However, fluorous-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has not been reported so far. In the current paper, fluorous interaction has been firstly utilized in QCM, and carbohydrate-protein interaction and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction have been detected afterward. PMID:25541017

  9. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  10. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core struc...

  11. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  12. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, S; Heres, S; Kissling, W; Davis, J M

    2013-05-01

    We present the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia based on a simple algorithm that starts with the most important decisions starting from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and ends with maintenance treatment. It represents experts opinions, a formal guideline development process was not followed. Concerning acute treatment we present recommendations for the choice of drug in acutely patients, the treatment of agitated patients, persistent depression, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. Concerning maintenance treatment with antipsychotics we discuss indication, choice of drug, continuous versus intermittent treatment, duration of relapse prevention and dose.

  13. Carum copticum L.: A Herbal Medicine with Various Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carum copticum L. commonly known as “Ajwain” is cultivated in many regions of the world including Iran and India, states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Traditionally, C. copticum has been used in the past for various therapeutic effects including bloating, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and loss of appetite. It has other health benefits such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and hypolipidemic effects. This plant contains different important components such as carbohydrates, glucosides, saponins and phenolic compounds (carvacrol, volatile oils (thymol, terpiene, paracymene and beta-pinene, protein, fat, fiber, and minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and nicotinic acid (niacin. In the previous studies, several pharmacological effects were shown for C. copticum. Therefore, in this paper, the pharmacological effects of the plant were reviewed.

  14. Phytochemical, Ethnobotanical and Pharmacological Profile of Lagenaria siceraria: - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant of lagenaria siceraria (known as lauki in Hindi, has been used in the ointment for ailment of various diseases throughout India. The fruit of cultivated lagenaria siceraria is the good source of different nutrients components like protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium. The plant has also been suggested to possess antioxidant activity, laxative, cardioprotective, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, central nervous system stimulant, anthelmentic, antihypertensive, immunosuppressive analgesic, adaptogenic and free radical scavenging activity. This work reviews the pharmacological evidence of extracts of plants from the lagenaria siceraria, giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochemical composition. Although more studies are necessary, lagenaria siceraria exhibits proven potential to become of important pharmacological interest.

  15. [Pharmacological treatment of hyperinflation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, P; Roche, N

    2009-06-01

    Introduction Lung hyperinflation leads to breathlessness, limitation in exercise capacity and tolerance, and impaired quality of life. Thus, it is important to target this key and characteristic feature of COPD. Current knowledge Available pharmacological approaches rely mainly on bronchodilators, in particular beta2 agonists and anticholinergic agents. These treatments act through the reduction of expiratory airflow limitation. However, changes in classical indices of airflow obstruction do not accurately predict effects on hyperinflation and symptoms. The decrease in operating lung volumes (as reflected by inspiratory capacity or functional residual capacity) at rest and during exercise is one of the mechanisms by which these treatments improve quality of life and maybe also decrease the impact of exacerbations. The effect of beta2 agonists on hyperinflation might be amplified by concurrent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Perspectives The effect of new treatments targeting airways inflammation on hyperinflation remains to be explored. Conclusions Measuring the reduction in the degree of lung hyperinflation allows a better understanding of the symptomatic effect of COPD pharmacological treatments.

  16. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-01

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  17. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with added sugar provide calories, but they lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Because they lack nutrients, these foods ... foods. In addition to calories, whole foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. By making smart food choices, you ...

  18. Pharmacological properties of Datura stramonium L. as a potential medicinal tree: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Soni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have great potential pharmacological activities. Datura stramonium (D. stramonium is one of the widely well known folklore medicinal herbs. The troublesome weed, D. stramonium is a plant with both poisonous and medicinal properties and has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage in folklore medicine. D. stromonium has been scientifically proven to contain alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. This plant has contributed various pharmacological actions in the scientific field of Indian systems of medicines like analgesic and antiasthmatic activities. The present paper presents an exclusive review work on the ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological activities of this plant.

  19. Pharmacological properties of Datura stramonium L. as a potential medicinal tree:An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priyanka Soni; Anees Ahmad Siddiqui; Jaya Dwivedi; Vishal Soni

    2012-01-01

    India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have great potential pharmacological activities. Datura stramonium (D. stramonium) is one of the widely well known folklore medicinal herbs. The troublesome weed, D. stramonium is a plant with both poisonous and medicinal properties and has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage in folklore medicine. D. stromonium has been scientifically proven to contain alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. This plant has contributed various pharmacological actions in the scientific field of Indian systems of medicines like analgesic and antiasthmatic activities. The present paper presents an exclusive review work on the ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological activities of this plant.

  20. [Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Decades of practice in psychiatriy and hundreds of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antipsychotics on symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, the knowledge acquired from non-interventional studies have supplemented the information needed in daily practice by raising the issue of efficiency by incorporating not only the effectiveness and safety of treatment but also its acceptability by the patient. Adherence to antipsychotic treatment has become the key issue of the prognosis. The pharmacological management of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia requires rapid therapeutic decisions to treat a patient who is likely to be sometimes unhelpful and agitated. The choice of treatment will have a significant impact on the prevention of psychotic relapses, on the overall prognosis and on the quality of life of the patient. In many countries of the recommendations and treatment algorithms for the management of acute psychosis were distributed, considering factors specific to the patient and his environment, his mental characteristics and local care setting.

  1. Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M S; Ikram, M; Fakouhi, T

    1976-12-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), a commonly available plant in Iran, were studied pharmacologically. Two fractions were employed, a dried acetone-treated methanol extract dissolved in water (Fraction A) and a subfraction prepared by chloroform-methanol extraction (Fraction B). Fraction A was active as an analgesic in rats and significantly reduced blood sugar levels in rabbits. Fraction B had CNS depressant activity. Data obtained with a treadmill indicated a decreased activity ratio by Fraction B, suggesting a possible interference in motor coordination. It potentiated the barbiturate sleeping time significantly without changing the onset time or the loss of the righting reflex. In addition, Fraction B exhibited a moderate antitremorine activity by causing a delay in the onset and a decrease in the severity of tremorine-induced tremors. The local anesthetic action of Fraction B was evident due to the complete blockade of the isolated frog sciatic nerve conduction. PMID:1032663

  2. Pharmacology of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, G A

    1999-01-01

    The wide variety of first-line agents available for managing high blood pressure include diuretics, beta adrenergic receptor blockers, alpha adrenergic receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. Supplemental agents used for second-line therapy and special indications, such as pregnancy and hypertensive emergencies, include angiotensin receptor blockers, central-acting agents, direct vasodilators, and adrenergic neuron inhibitors. Selection of agents for particular patients requires consideration of research-based evidence for positive long-term outcomes and of the unique patient profile of age, race, co-morbidities, and lifestyle. A thorough understanding of the pharmacology (mechanism, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and drug interactions, clinical use) of antihypertensive agents is an essential foundation for nursing practice in women's health. PMID:10584919

  3. Conus venom peptide pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Dutertre, Sébastien; Vetter, Irina; Christie, MacDonald J

    2012-04-01

    Conopeptides are a diverse group of recently evolved venom peptides used for prey capture and/or defense. Each species of cone snails produces in excess of 1000 conopeptides, with those pharmacologically characterized (≈ 0.1%) targeting a diverse range of membrane proteins typically with high potency and specificity. The majority of conopeptides inhibit voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels, providing valuable research tools for the dissection of the role played by specific ion channels in excitable cells. It is noteworthy that many of these targets are found to be expressed in pain pathways, with several conopeptides having entered the clinic as potential treatments for pain [e.g., pyroglutamate1-MrIA (Xen2174)] and one now marketed for intrathecal treatment of severe pain [ziconotide (Prialt)]. This review discusses the diversity, pharmacology, structure-activity relationships, and therapeutic potential of cone snail venom peptide families acting at voltage-gated ion channels (ω-, μ-, μO-, δ-, ι-, and κ-conotoxins), ligand-gated ion channels (α-conotoxins, σ-conotoxin, ikot-ikot, and conantokins), G-protein-coupled receptors (ρ-conopeptides, conopressins, and contulakins), and neurotransmitter transporters (χ-conopeptides), with expanded discussion on the clinical potential of sodium and calcium channel inhibitors and α-conotoxins. Expanding the discovery of new bioactives using proteomic/transcriptomic approaches combined with high-throughput platforms and better defining conopeptide structure-activity relationships using relevant membrane protein crystal structures are expected to grow the already significant impact conopeptides have had as both research probes and leads to new therapies. PMID:22407615

  4. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  5. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  6. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Imran; Naresh Kumar; Ferozuddin Nohri; Dileep Kumar; Tayyuba Kousar; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Sajjad Ali Ilyas; Shabnam Shahida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn) (P. murex) and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Pharmacological activities of P. murex have proven its importance for medicinal uses. This review will be helpful to create interest to use P. murex for developing new formulation in therapeutic medicines.

  7. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn (P. murex and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Pharmacological activities of P. murex have proven its importance for medicinal uses. This review will be helpful to create interest to use P. murex for developing new formulation in therapeutic medicines.

  8. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  9. Pharmacology of cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2004-01-01

    Dronabinol (Delta 9-tetrahydocannabinol, THC), the main source of the pharmacological effects caused by the use of cannabis, is an agonist to both the CB1 and the CB2 subtype of cannabinoid receptors. It is available on prescription in several countries. The non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD), some analogues of natural cannabinoids and their metabolites, antagonists at the cannabinoid receptors and modulators of the endogenous cannabinoid system are also promising candidates for clinical research and therapeutic uses. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues including spleen, leukocytes; reproductive, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts; endocrine glands, arteries and heart. Five endogenous cannabinoids have been detected so far, of whom anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol are best characterized. There is evidence that besides the two cannabinoid receptor subtypes cloned so far additional cannabinoid receptor subtypes and vanilloid receptors are involved in the complex physiological functions of the cannabinoid system that include motor coordination, memory procession, control of appetite, pain modulation and neuroprotection. Strategies to modulate their activity include inhibition of re-uptake into cells and inhibition of their degradation to increase concentration and duration of action. Properties of cannabinoids that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, anti-allergic effects, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, anti-emesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects. PMID:15159677

  10. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran; Naresh Kumar; Ferozuddin Nohri; Dileep Kumar; Tayyuba Kousar; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Sajjad Ali Ilyas; Shabnam Shahida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn) (P. murex) and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Ph...

  12. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  13. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  14. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  15. Derivatization Reaction of Carbohydrates with Urea as the Reagent and Fluorimetric Determination of Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Jing-He(杨景和); CAO,Xi-Hui(曹西慧); WANG,Min(王敏); WU,Xia(吴霞); SUN,Chang-Xia(孙长侠)

    2002-01-01

    It is found that in the presence of sulfuric acid carbohydrates condense with urea to afford the condensation products, which emit fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensities of system are proportional to the concentrations of carbohydrates. Based on this linear relationship,quantitative determination of kinds of carbohydrates has been made. Among an the carbohydrates tested, the sensitivity of α-rhamnose is the highest and its limits of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-8 mol/L. So α-rhamnose can be selectively determed in the presence of other carbohydrates. A interaction mechanism is also discussed.

  16. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  17. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  18. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  19. [Pharmacology of bone resorption inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    Currently, bone resorption inhibitor is mainly used for osteoporosis. A number of these agents have been developed. These pharmacological action are various. Bisphosphonate inhibit functions of the osteoclasts by inducing apoptosis. On the one hand, RANK-ligand inhibitor and selective estrogen receptor modulator inhibit formation of osteoclasts. It is important to understand these pharmacological action for the selection of the appropriate medicine. PMID:26529923

  20. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were perform...

  1. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  2. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types of pharm......Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...... from GLP requirements. Secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies are expected to be conducted to GLP quality standards -- preferably to full, formal GLP compliance, when results are used for human safety assessment. At the present time, regulatory authorities will most likely...

  3. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  4. Molecular simulations of carbohydrate-protein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Sameh Mansour Abbas

    2013-01-01

    I. Generation and validation of a free-energy model for carbohydrate binding. Carbohy-drates play a key role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and, hence, represent a rich source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Being able to predict binding mode and binding affinity is an essential, yet lacking, aspect of the stru-cture-based design of carbohydrate-based ligands. To this end, we assembled a diverse data set of 316 carbohydrate–protein crystal structu...

  5. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  7. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  8. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  9. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  10. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  12. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  13. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  14. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  15. The pharmacological activities of (-)-anonaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsing-Tan; Wu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (-)-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (-)-anonaine. PMID:23857128

  16. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  17. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lindequist

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.

  18. Systems pharmacology of complex diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jens; Zhao, Shan; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Systems pharmacology approaches can be used to identify and predict drug-induced adverse events. Disease-centered networks within the human interactome allow us to predict which drugs may produce a similar pathophysiology. Such predictions can be tested in animal models.

  19. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan

    2002-01-01

    the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....

  20. Clinical pharmacology and vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, G; Corea, F; Micheli, S; Lanari, A

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment and several drugs of abuse have been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is a paucity of data on the independent risk of vascular disease (VD) associated with pharmacological treatment and no controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in risk with abstinence. Information about IHD and CVD-related drug abuse is mainly limited to epidemiological studies focused on urban populations. The potential link between some pharmacological treatments (estrogen, some oncologic drugs and some atypical antipsychotics) and cerebrovascular adverse events was analyzed, but disagreement about an association persists. Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamines and heroin, have been associated with an increased vascular risk. These drugs can cause abrupt changes in blood pressure, vasculitic-type changes, lead to embolization caused by infective endocarditis, and hemostatic and hematologic abnormalities that can result in increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Long-term treatment strategies based on medication, psychological support, and outreach programs play an important role in treatment of drug dependency. In these last years public interest in risk factors for VD has been constantly increasing and the successful identification and management of pharmacological treatment and drug abuse can be challenging. One of the major public health issues for the future will be to focus more on new vascular risk factor recognition and management. The objective of this chapter is to review the relevance of IHD and CVD associated with various pharmacological treatments and drug abuse with focusing on ischemic disease. This chapter reports the clinical evidence of this association and analyzes the experimental role of new drugs as a growing risk factor of VD with the hypothetical new association. In conclusion, in this chapter great attention is paid to evaluating the scientific and real

  1. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  2. Pharmacology teaching and its reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong LI; Yuan ZHANG; Cai-li ZHANG; Xiu-mei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The general situation of pharmacology teaching in China was introduced and the educational reform in China in recent decade is summarized. The aim of the article is to provide those who are interested in teaching of pharmacology to be acquainted with the teaching of pharmacology, including the teaching of both principles and practice, in China.

  3. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacok

  4. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin R. Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  5. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi. PMID:22983291

  6. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Upadhyay

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.

  7. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  8. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  9. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi

    OpenAIRE

    Aparna Upadhyay; D K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal sap...

  10. [Pharmacologic treatment of Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    Asperger syndrome is associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of communication and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of Asperger syndrome. This article discusses the various medications for the behavioral symptoms of Asperger syndrome, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, self-injury, depression, obsession and so on. Methylphenidate, SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizer were introduced.

  11. Pharmacologic management of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W A

    1988-05-01

    Treatment of eating disorders is difficult regardless of the methods employed. Pharmacologic management in anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa is especially helpful when it is part of a multimodal treatment approach that includes individual, family and behavioral therapy. Care must be taken to guard against side effects, abuse and noncompliance in a group of patients that tends to be prone to all three. PMID:3284300

  12. The clinical pharmacology of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, C G

    2003-01-01

    The ageing of populations and individuals continues to be as vital, yet to some extent as neglected, a topic in pharmacology and therapeutics as was first realised about 30 years ago. In parallel with the realisation of the predicted demographic shifts in both the developed and developing world, there have since been major developments in the basic biological concepts of ageing, in the physiology of ageing, in the study of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a variety of age-associated disorde...

  13. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090

  14. The use of low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes – benefits and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Czyżewska-Majchrzak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes is increasingly being supported by the recommendation of an appropriate diet. The purpose of this study is to identify the potential benefits and risks arising from the use of one of the modern models of low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research shows that diet can favourably affect the health of diabetic patients. It has been shown that diet affects positively the concentration of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and also contributes to the reduction of insulin taken in the course of drug therapy. At the same time, short-term studies have demonstrated a positive relationship of nutrition with reduction in body weight, as well as favourable changes in lipid profile of HDL cholesterol and levels of triglyceride. Attention is also drawn to the negative health effects of a low-carbohydrate diet; these include an increased risk of mineral deficiency, hypovitaminosis and reduced intake of dietary fibres. This diet may be associated with very high levels of protein which, in turn, raises the risk of renal dysfunction and the appearance of irregularities in the water and electrolyte balance. The impact of changes in the skeletal system and the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis is also observed. Besides the positive impact of this model of diet on the lipid profile parameters, its use significantly increases the risk of adverse changes in other markers predisposing to atherosclerosis occurring in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In composing a nutrition model for diabetes patients, both the benefits and potential risks of a low-carbohydrate diet should therefore take into account. At the same time, it is important to individualize the diet used, based on the current state of health, used pharmacological treatments, as well as taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.

  15. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23177152

  16. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  17. The diagenesis of carbohydrates by hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Frank D.

    1983-08-01

    Carbohydrates react with hydrogen sulfide under low temperature (100° to 200°C) yielding a variety of organosulfur compounds including thiophenes, thiols, sulfides and sulfones. A polymer is also produced, whose elemental composition is within the range of natural coals. When reductive dehydration is carried out in the presence of hydrocarbon, organosulfur compounds are formed in the carbon number range of the hydrocarbon used. In these processes, an active hydrogen transfer catalyst is produced which facilitates the passage of hydrogen between normal paraffins and saccharide units, distributing sulfur between these two families primarily in the form of thiophene rings. The simplicity of these systems - H 2S, carbohydrates, H 2O, hydrocarbon - and the facility of the chemistry would suggest that the carbohydrates and hydrogen sulfide may be important agents in the diagenetic processes leading to petroleum and coal. Carbohydrate reduction by hydrogen sulfide may constitute an important route through which certain organosulfur compounds found in petroleum and coal entered these materials in early diagenesis.

  18. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in obs

  19. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  20. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon. T...

  1. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  2. Energy and carbohydrate for training and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Loucks, Anne B; Broad, Nick

    2006-07-01

    Soccer players should achieve an energy intake that provides sufficient carbohydrate to fuel the training and competition programme, supplies all nutrient requirements, and allows manipulation of energy or nutrient balance to achieve changes in lean body mass, body fat or growth. Although the traditional culture of soccer has focused on carbohydrate intake for immediate match preparation, top players should adapt their carbohydrate intake on a daily basis to ensure adequate fuel for training and recovery between matches. For players with a mobile playing style, there is sound evidence that dietary programmes that restore and even super-compensate muscle glycogen levels can enhance activity patterns during matches. This will presumably also benefit intensive training, such as twice daily practices. As well as achieving a total intake of carbohydrate commensurate with fuel needs, the everyday diet should promote strategic intake of carbohydrate and protein before and after key training sessions to optimize the adaptations and enhance recovery. The achievement of the ideal physique for soccer is a long-term goal that should be undertaken over successive years, and particularly during the off-season and pre-season. An increase in lean body mass or a decrease in body fat is the product of a targeted training and eating programme. Consultation with a sports nutrition expert can assist soccer players to manipulate energy and nutrient intake to meet such goals. Players should be warned against the accidental or deliberate mismatch of energy intake and energy expenditure, such that energy availability (intake minus the cost of exercise) falls below 125 kJ (30 kcal) per kilogram of fat-free mass per day. Such low energy availability causes disturbances to hormonal, metabolic, and immune function. PMID:16766497

  3. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    controls (n = 8), which indicates a slow turnover rate of carbohydrate deficient transferrin. Food ingestion did not affect the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, and the analysis of carbohydrate deficient transferrin was almost unaffected by the presence of ethanol in plasma within...... alcohol intake, but the overlap is substantial in patients with cirrhosis. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has a low turnover rate in both patients with cirrhosis and normals....

  4. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  5. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrich Christian Bang; Synne Semb; Camilla Nφjgaard; Flemming Bendtsen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP)based on experimental animal models and clinical trials.Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may be useful as prophylaxis against Post Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor Gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL) is a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, which relaxes the sphincter of Oddi.Studies show conflicting results when applied prior to ERCP and a large multicenter randomized study is warranted. Steroids administered as prophylaxis against PEP has been validated without effect in several randomized trials. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results.Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics betalactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted.

  6. A Pharmacological Primer of Biased Agonism

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen1, Bradley T.

    2011-01-01

    Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transductio...

  7. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  8. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. PMID:22480785

  9. Carbohydrate drugs%糖类药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓光; 耿美玉

    2011-01-01

    As an important biological information molecules and high-density information carriers, sugar chain involved in almost all life processes in living beings, especially in cell differentiation, development, immunity, aging, cancer, signal transduction and other basic life activities and diseases. For the bioactivities of carbohydrates, carbohydrate drugs had been widely used in anti-tumor, Alzheimer's disease, immune, anti-virus, and other diseases. And the use of carbohydrates is still expanding. Therefore, the various bioactivities and low toxicity endow carbohydrates broad prospects.%糖链作为重要的生物信息分了和高密度的信息载体,参与细胞生物几乎所有的生命过程,特别是在细胞分化、发育、免疫、老化、癌变、信息传递等生命基础活动和重大疾病过程中起着特异性的识别、介导与调控作用.由于糖类物质的多种多样的生物活性,糖类药物在抗肿瘤、老年痴呆、免疫、抗病毒等多个重大疾病领域广泛应用,而且其使用范围还在不断开拓中.因此,糖类药物生物活性多样,毒副作用低,具有广阔的发展前景.

  10. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  11. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  12. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  13. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran;

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...

  14. Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, R E

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect.

  15. Pharmacological activities of Curcuma caesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Singh Baghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a perennial, erect rhizomatous herb with large leaves. Fresh rhizomes are aromatic with intense camphoraceous odour, cultivated for its rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine. The plant is reported to contain camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z-ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1, 8-cineole, elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate and curcumene as the major constituents. The plant has been reported to have antifungal activity, anti-asthmatic, smooth muscle relaxant, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, anti-inflammatory properties. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases. This review gives a view mainly on the meditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of the plant.

  16. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  17. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond;

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...... for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of the complex pharmacology of these receptors will be critical to unlocking their ultimate therapeutic potential....

  18. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  19. Polysaccharides from the Marine Environment with Pharmacological, Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ruocco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates, also called saccharides, are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are the most abundant biomolecules and essential components of many natural products and have attracted the attention of researchers because of their numerous human health benefits. Among carbohydrates the polysaccharides represent some of the most abundant bioactive substances in marine organisms. In fact, many marine macro- and microorganisms are good resources of carbohydrates with diverse applications due to their biofunctional properties. By acting on cell proliferation and cycle, and by modulating different metabolic pathways, marine polysaccharides (including mainly chitin, chitosan, fucoidan, carrageenan and alginate also have numerous pharmaceutical activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiviral, immuno-stimulatory, anticoagulant and anticancer effects. Moreover, these polysaccharides have many general beneficial effects for human health, and have therefore been developed into potential cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. In this review we describe current advances in the development of marine polysaccharides for nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological applications. Research in this field is opening new doors for harnessing the potential of marine natural products.

  20. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  1. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  2. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  3. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (THUNB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. SINHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication deals with the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia(Thunb. stem, along with the phytochemical, pharmacological and nutritive properties. Methanolic extractshowed good antioxidant efficacy compare to the BHA standard. Reducing power of the extract showedconcentration dependence. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was not significant. Methanolic extract showed significantDPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.5 mg/mL, while the superoxide radical scavenging activity of themethanolic extract was mild and showed concentration dependence. The phytochemical analysis showed lowamount of total ash content, i.e. 11.3 ± 1.4 mg/g. Total phenol, tannin and flavonoids contents were 17.3 ± 0.4,13.8 ± 0.5 and 6.5 ± 0.2 mg/g respectively which fall under moderate range. Crude fiber and moisture contents(231 ± 3.2 and 214 ± 5.3 mg/g respectively as well as carbohydrate content (184.1 ± 5.2 mg/g and nutritivevalue (1.46 ± 0.3 cal/g were significantly high. T. cordifolia stem showed high swelling and foaming indices,400 ± 3.5% and 111.12 ± 2.1% respectively, which is an indication of good drug release characteristics.Present findings suggest Tinospora cordifolia as potential source of natural antioxidant, fiber and nutrient contentin food, fodder and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  6. Prostaglandins: pharmacology and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, S M; Hillier, K

    1974-01-01

    Prostaglandin research has been 1 of the most stimulating features of biomedical investigation in the past decade. Interest developed at a time of expanding knowledge of hormonal and neurohormonal behavior and research work received a tremendous impetus in the early 1960s with the elucidation in Sweden of the chemical structures of prostaglandins, followed by the discovery of their biosynthetic pathways. The original findings of large amounts of prostaglandin in the male accessory genital glands and their secretions, and subsequent discovery in the menstrual and amniotic fluids linked these substances with human production. As a result of further investigation, clinical applications of prostaglandins for the induction of labor and termination of early unwanted pregnancies have been developed. Apart from the functions of the prostaglandins in the reproductive area, they have been shown to have a widespread distribution in the body and produce many different pharmacological effects. Prostaglandins are thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure and through their vascular effects have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Through their bronchodilator effect, some prostaglandins may become useful in the treatment of asthma. PMID:4611742

  7. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  8. Safety Pharmacology Evaluation of Biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzadeh, Hamid R; Engwall, Michael J; Vargas, Hugo M

    2015-01-01

    Biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals (BPs) are molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, soluble/decoy receptors, hormones, enzymes, cytokines, and growth factors that are produced in various biological expression systems and are used to diagnose, treat, or prevent various diseases. Safety pharmacology (SP) assessment of BPs has evolved since the approval of the first BP (recombinant human insulin) in 1982. This evolution is ongoing and is informed by various international harmonization guidelines. Based on these guidelines, the potential undesirable effect of every drug candidate (small molecule or BP) on the cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems, referred to as the "core battery," should be assessed prior to first-in-human administration. However, SP assessment of BPs poses unique challenges such as choice of test species and integration of SP parameters into repeat-dose toxicity studies. This chapter reviews the evolution of SP assessment of BPs using the approval packages of marketed BPs and discusses the past, current, and new and upcoming approach and methods that can be used to generate high-quality data for the assessment of SP of BPs.

  9. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  10. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of novel carbocyclic carbohydrate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Christopher William

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate analogues play an indispensible role in the study of glycan processing enzymes. These compounds have attracted attention as probes of enzyme mechanisms, as chemical tools for the elucidation of enzyme function and as potential pharmaceuticals. The development of organocatalytic aldol chemistry has fundamentally altered the way chemists approach the synthesis of carbohydrate analogues. In this thesis I highlight a novel strategy toward the synthesis of carbocyclic carbohydrate ana...

  12. The least-cost low-carbohydrate diet is expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of operations research methods to study the minimum possible cost of a low-carbohydrate diet. The study compares this cost to the minimum cost of a diet with no limitation on carbohydrate. The rationale for this study is the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diets and their perceived high cost. The method used was an operations research approach to find a set of least cost diets, varying the required carbohydrate. This method was chosen to avoid potential concerns with real diets that may be nutritionally deficient or could be had for a lower cost. The major finding is that the cheapest possible low-carbohydrate diet costs about triple the cost of the cheapest diet with no constraint on carbohydrate. Furthermore, the minimum cost of a diet low in both carbohydrate and fat is 5 to 10 times the cost of the cheapest diet, depending on the relative amounts of these nutrients. As carbohydrate and fat are constrained, cost increases dramatically and nonlinearly. The study identifies which nutrients had the greatest effect on cost for a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

  13. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  14. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  15. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Törrönen, Riitta; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Pekkinen, Jenna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-03-31

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  16. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  17. Pharmacologic treatment of migraine. Comparison of guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, A.; Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare guidelines (not the primary studies) for pharmacologic treatment of migraine as to methods of guideline development; recommendations, particularly on triptans; and quality of supporting evidence (with emphasis on comparative studies of triptans versus ergot alkaloids and nonste

  18. Pharmacology profiling of chemicals and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    of pharmaceuticals, a process referred to as pharmacology profiling. Pharmacology profiling of chemical and protein based pharmaceuticals has been proven valuable in a number studies [2], however missing values in the drug-protein interaction matrix limits the profile for novel or less studied compounds....... This limitation complicates adverse effect assessment in the early drug-development phase, thus contributing to drugattrition. Prediction models offer the possibility to close these gaps and provide more complete pharmacology profiles, however improvements in performances are required for these tools to serve...... as an alternative to experimentally obtained measurements. Here I present several different tools that aid pharmacology profiling of the two main classes of pharmaceuticals; chemicals (small molecules) and proteins (biopharmaceuticals). Biopharmaceuticals have the inherent risks of eliciting an immune response due...

  19. Anti-aging pharmacology: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander M; Lushchak, Oleh V; Koliada, Alexander K

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways (i.e., calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics etc.) are now under investigation. This review summarizes the literature related to advances, perspectives and challenges in the field of anti-aging pharmacology.

  20. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  1. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    James Wilfred Navalta; Brian Keith McFarlin; Scott Lyons; Scott Wesley Arnett; Mark Anthony Schafer

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: E...

  2. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Das Chandan; Dash Sujit; Sahoo Durga Charan; Mohanty Arnabaditya; Rout Dolley

    2011-01-01

    Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint,...

  3. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pul...

  4. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return fo...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....

  5. Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

    2012-09-01

    Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. PMID:22617368

  6. Pharmacological and clinical properties of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher S Beevers¹, Shile Huang²¹Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; ²Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.Keywords: curcumin, pharmacological properties, signal transduction, cellular targets, cancer, inflammation

  7. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  8. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentration

  9. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  10. Structural and Functional Studies of Peptide-Carbohydrate Mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Pinto, B. Mario

    Certain peptides act as molecular mimics of carbohydrates in that they are specifically recognized by carbohydrate-binding proteins. Peptides that bind to anti-carbohydrate antibodies, carbohydrate-processing enzymes, and lectins have been identified. These peptides are potentially useful as vaccines and therapeutics; for example, immunologically functional peptide molecular mimics (mimotopes) can strengthen or modify immune responses induced by carbohydrate antigens. However, peptides that bind specifically to carbohydrate-binding proteins may not necessarily show the corresponding biological activity, and further selection based on biochemical studies is always required. The degree of structural mimicry required to generate the desired biological activity is therefore an interesting question. This review will discuss recent structural studies of peptide-carbohydrate mimicry employing NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, as well as relevant biochemical data. These studies provide insights into the basis of mimicry at the molecular level. Comparisons with other carbohydrate-mimetic compounds, namely proteins and glycopeptides, will be drawn. Finally, implications for the design of new therapeutic compounds will also be presented.

  11. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  12. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  13. Carbohydrate loading in the preoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L T; Miller, M G A

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition support is an evolving field, and modern clinical nutrition practice should actively incorporate strategies to enhance various clinical outcomes. In surgical patients, clinical benefits can be maximised by nutritional support protocols that minimise and manage the perioperative fasting period. This approach, which includes the perioperative provision of clear carbohydrate-containing fluids, has been shown to be safe, is evidence based, and is supported by many professional societies. Such a strategy has been shown to aid the anaesthetic process and maintain an optimal metabolic state, including improved insulin sensitivity and blunted muscle catabolic activity. Some important consequences of this improved metabolic control include shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. A proactive multidisciplinary team approach is essential to use this nutrition support strategy with success across a hospital's surgical service. PMID:26294840

  14. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  15. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol;

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...... for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon...... resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding...

  16. Sensitive LC MS quantitative analysis of carbohydrates by Cs+ attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatsky, Eduard; Jayatillake, Harsha; Goswami, Gayotri; Tomuta, Vlad; Stein, Daniel

    2005-11-01

    The development of a sensitive assay for the quantitative analysis of carbohydrates from human plasma using LC/MS/MS is described in this paper. After sample preparation, carbohydrates were cationized by Cs(+) after their separation by normal phase liquid chromatography on an amino based column. Cesium is capable of forming a quasi-molecular ion [M + Cs](+) with neutral carbohydrate molecules in the positive ion mode of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode, and transitions [M + 133] --> 133 were monitored (M, carbohydrate molecular weight). The new method is robust, highly sensitive, rapid, and does not require postcolumn addition or derivatization. It is useful in clinical research for measurement of carbohydrate molecules by isotope dilution assay. PMID:16182559

  17. Mining anaerobic digester consortia metagenomes for secreted carbohydrate active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo;

    . To gain insight into both the degradation of the carbohydrates and the various roles of the microbes in the ADs we have mined metagenomes from both types of ADs for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases, auxiliary activities, and carbohydrate binding modules. The mining...... thermophilic and mesophilic ADs a wide variety of carbohydrate active enzyme functions were discovered in the metagenomic sequencing of the microbial consortia. The most dominating type of glycoside hydrolases were β-glucosidases (up to 27%), α-amylases (up to 10%), α-glucosidases (up to 8%), α......-galactosidases (up to 9%) and β-galactosidases (up to 7%). For carbohydrate esterases the by far most dominating type was acetylxylan esterases (up to 59%) followed by feruloyl esterases (up to 16%). Less than 15 polysaccharide lyases were identified in the different metagenomes and not surprisingly...

  18. Relationship of carbohydrate molecular spectroscopic features in combined feeds to carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    To date, there is no study on the relationship between carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structures and nutrient availability of combined feeds in ruminants. The objective of this study was to use molecular spectroscopy to reveal the relationship between CHO molecular spectral profiles (in terms of functional groups (biomolecular, biopolymer) spectral peak area and height intensity) and CHO chemical profiles, CHO subfractions, energy values, and CHO rumen degradation kinetics of combined feeds of hulless barley with pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) at five different combination ratios (hulless barley to pure wheat DDGS: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100). The molecular spectroscopic parameters assessed included: lignin biopolymer molecular spectra profile (peak area and height, region and baseline: ca. 1539-1504 cm-1); structural carbohydrate (STCHO, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485-1186 cm-1) mainly associated with hemi- and cellulosic compounds; cellulosic materials peak area (centered at ca. 1240 cm-1 with region and baseline: ca. 1272-1186 cm-1); total carbohydrate (CHO, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1186-946 cm-1). The results showed that the functional groups (biomolecular, biopolymer) in the combined feeds are sensitive to the changes of carbohydrate chemical and nutrient profiles. The changes of the CHO molecular spectroscopic features in the combined feeds were highly correlated with CHO chemical profiles, CHO subfractions, in situ CHO rumen degradation kinetics and fermentable organic matter supply. Further study is needed to investigate possibility of using CHO molecular spectral features as a predictor to estimate nutrient availability in combined feeds for animals and quantify their relationship.

  19. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and ...

  20. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang; Mielenz, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology–cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and ...

  1. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  2. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  3. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  4. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  5. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  6. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  7. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  8. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  9. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied. PMID:26393186

  10. Discovery and basic pharmacology of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), including the hyperglycosylated ESA, darbepoetin alfa: an update of the rationale and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Zoltán; Elliott, Steven; Jedynasty, Kinga; Tesar, Vladimír; Szegedi, János

    2010-04-01

    Cloning of the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene and development of the first recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) drug were truly breakthroughs. This allowed a deeper understanding of the structure and pharmacology of rHuEpo, which in turn inspired the discovery and development of additional erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). In vivo specific activity and serum half-life of rHuEPO are influenced by the amount and structure of the attached carbohydrate. Increased numbers of sialic acids on carbohydrate attached to rHuEPO correlated with a relative increase in in-vivo-specific activity and increased serum half-life. The effect of increasing the number of sialic-acid-containing carbohydrates on in-vivo-specific activity was explored. Initial research focused on solving the problem of how the protein backbone could be engineered so a cell would add more carbohydrate to it. Additional work resulted in darbepoetin alfa, a longer-acting molecule with two additional carbohydrate chains. PMID:20127232

  11. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  12. Sugar for my honey: carbohydrate partitioning in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Grunze, Nina; Willmann, Martin; Reich, Marlis; Küster, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Simple, readily utilizable carbohydrates, necessary for growth and maintenance of large numbers of microbes are rare in forest soils. Among other types of mutualistic interactions, the formation of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between tree roots and certain soil fungi, is a way to overcome nutrient and carbohydrate limitations typical for many forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhiza formation is typical for trees in boreal and temperate forests of the northern hemisphere and alpine regions world-wide. The main function of this symbiosis is the exchange of fungus-derived nutrients for plant-derived carbohydrates, enabling the colonization of mineral nutrient-poor environments. In ectomycorrhizal symbiosis up to 1/3 of plant photoassimilates could be transferred toward the fungal partner. The creation of such a strong sink is directly related to the efficiency of fungal hexose uptake at the plant/fungus interface, a modulated fungal carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhiza, and the export of carbohydrates towards soil growing hyphae. However, not only the fungus but also the plant partner increase its expression of hexose importer genes at the plant/fungus interface. This increase in hexose uptake capacity of plant roots in combination with an increase in photosynthesis may explain how the plant deals with the growing fungal carbohydrate demand in symbiosis and how it can restrict this loss of carbohydrates under certain conditions to avoid fungal parasitism. PMID:17078984

  13. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K; Siezen, Roland J; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  14. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  15. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  16. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter.

  17. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues. PMID:26601961

  18. Towards a genealogy of pharmacological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Ricardo; Ried, Nicolás

    2016-03-01

    Following Foucault's work on disciplinary power and biopolitics, this article maps an initial cartography of the research areas to be traced by a genealogy of pharmacological practice. Pharmacology, as a practical activity, refers to the creation, production and sale of drugs/medication. This work identifies five lines of research that, although often disconnected from each other, may be observed in the specialized literature: (1) pharmaceuticalization; (2) regulation of the pharmaceutical industry; (3) the political-economic structure of the pharmaceutical industry; (4) consumption/consumerism of medications; (5) and bio-knowledge. The article suggests that a systematic analysis of these areas leads one to consider pharmacological practice a sui generis apparatus of power, which reaches beyond the purely disciplinary and biopolitical levels to encompass molecular configurations, thereby giving rise not only to new types of government over life, but also to new struggles for life, extending from molecular to population-wide levels. PMID:25956710

  19. Pharmacological action and mechanisms of ginkgolide B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shi-hai; FANG Dian-chun

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the recent research progress in pharmacological actions and mechanisms of ginkgolide B.Data sources Information included in this article was identified by searching of PUBMED (1987-2006) online resources using the key terms "ginkgolide B", "platelet activating factor", and "pharmacological".Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of the field were selected.Results The key issues related to the pharmacological actions and mechanisms of ginkgolide B were summarized. The ginkgolide B possesses a number of beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Meantime, their mechaniams were discussed.Conclusions The Ginkgolide B is the most potent antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF) and exhibits therapeutic action in a variety of diseases mainly by the PAF receptor.

  20. Molecular pharmacology of human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard;

    2012-01-01

    current knowledge of the relationship between NMDA receptor structure and function. We summarize studies on the biophysical properties of human NMDA receptors and compare these properties to those of rat orthologs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive pharmacological characterization that allows side......-by-side comparison of agonists, un-competitive antagonists, GluN2B-selective non-competitive antagonists, and GluN2C/D-selective modulators at recombinant human and rat NMDA receptors. The evaluation of biophysical properties and pharmacological probes acting at different sites on the receptor suggest...... that the binding sites and conformational changes leading to channel gating in response to agonist binding are highly conserved between human and rat NMDA receptors. In summary, the results of this study suggest that no major detectable differences exist in the pharmacological and functional properties of human...

  1. Carbohydrate – protein complex of the waste of climacoptera obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seitimova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from Climacoptera obtusifolia family Chenopodiaceae has antidiabetic activity. For the first time carbohydrate-protein complex of the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia was studied. It was found that the quantity of extractive substances with 80% ethanol in aerial part – 52;6% and in the waste – 12;35%. The technique of separation of the carbohydrate-protein complex from the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia is developed by means of classical and physical-chemical methods. The composition of carbohydrate-protein complex was identified: oligosaccharide; polysaccharide and two glycoproteins.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    OpenAIRE

    Camila G. Dantas; Tássia L.G.M. Nunes; Tâmara L.G.M. Nunes; Ailma O. da Paixão; Francisco P. Reis; Waldecy de L. Júnior; Juliana C. Cardoso; Kátia P. Gramacho; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereot...

  3. CASSIA TORA: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Chandan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint, dysentery and anthelmentic. Various other activities like antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antifungal & antimicrobial, hyperlipemia & hypotensive have also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits.

  4. PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are the significant and reliable sources for treating various diseases. Argyreia nervosa is traditionally used in wound healing, syphilius,diuretics,rheumatic affections, leucohorrhoea.,cerebral disorders, ulcers, as anti-tumour and to prevent contraception.Phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, steroids, ergoline alkaloids and triterpenoids were identified. Pharmacological studies proved its anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory, hypotensive, anti- inflammatory and nootropic effect.The present form of article highlights the phytochemical and pharmacological studies including traditional practice of Argyreia nervosa have been carried out so far.

  5. Quantum biology and quantum pharmacology: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewdin, P.O.; Oehrn, N.Y.; Sabin, J.R.; Zerner, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The 25th Sanibel Symposia, which included the 12th meeting of the Symposium on Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology, was held at the University of Florida Whitney Laboratory at Marineland on the Atlantic Coast of Florida, March 14-23, 1985. The three days (March 14-16) devoted to Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology saw the presentation of more than 50 papers by the 90 participants representing about 20 different nations. These ''Proceedings'' comprise the contributions in both the invited talks and the poster sessions.

  6. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  7. Porphyra Species: A Mini-Review of Its Pharmacological and Nutritional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Shicheng; Xu, Ximing

    2016-02-01

    Porphyra sensu lato belongs to Bangiales, the most genetically diverse order of red algae. Porphyra or Pyropia is widely cultivated in East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and Korea. Dried Porphyra contains numerous nutritional and biofunctional compounds, including proteins, minerals, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, saccharides, and mycosporine-like amino acids. In addition, the compound is most abundant in Porphyra, such as polysaccharides and phycobiliproteins, and demonstrates various immunomodulating, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative activities. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the pharmacologically active substances found in Porphyra species. The biological activities and potential applications of certain carbohydrates, proteins, peptides, and other small molecules purified from Porphyra are also described, and possible areas for future studies are discussed.

  8. Synthesis of Heterocylic Compounds of Biological Interest from Carbohydrate Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Martinez Esperón; Fascio, M. L.; N. B. D’Accorso

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of some isoxazolic compounds from carbohydrate derivatives is described. These products are obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction and their functionalization leads to derivatives with potential biological activities.

  9. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... that increasing the protein content of the diet from 15% up to 20–30%, at the expense of carbohydrate, increases the satiating effect of the diet, and induces a spontaneous weight loss, and this could turn out to be a preferred option for patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes....

  10. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... zucchini. Foods that do not contain carbohydrates include meat, fish, and poultry; most types of cheese; nuts; ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  11. Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID; Suazette

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types,disease states,protein functions,and developmental states.Carbohydrate"binders"that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents.In this review,we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.Examples are arranged based on disease categories including(1) infectious diseases,(2) cancer,(3) inflammation and immune responses,(4) signal transduction,(5) stem cell transformation,(6) embryo development,and(7) cardiovascular diseases,though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.

  12. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  13. The Pharmacological Activities of (−-Anonaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (−-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (−-anonaine.

  14. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  15. Pharmacological Interventions for Students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…

  16. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers – Current Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. ...

  17. Mitochondria: pharmacological manipulation of cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa; Lartigue, Lydia; Newmeyer, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    Cell death by apoptosis or necrosis is often important in the etiology and treatment of disease. Since mitochondria play important roles in cell death pathways, these organelles are potentially prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the mechanisms through which mitochondria participate in the cell death process and also survey some of the pharmacological approaches that target mitochondria in various ways.

  18. KALANCHOE PINNATA: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Seema V. Pattewar

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to provide advance information for the drug discovery research from the divine herb Kalanchoe pinnata, which contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on activities as immunomodulator, CNS depressant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antile...

  19. Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove

    OpenAIRE

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    Most of the cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. have not been fully evaluated for their pharmacological activity. A publication in this issue presents evidence that a plant cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a potent antagonist of anandamide, a major endogenous cannabinoid. It seems possible that many of the non-psychoactive constituents of this plant will be of biological interest.

  20. PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, A; T. Sant Rani

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines are the significant and reliable sources for treating various diseases. Argyreia nervosa is traditionally used in wound healing, syphilius,diuretics,rheumatic affections, leucohorrhoea.,cerebral disorders, ulcers, as anti-tumour and to prevent contraception.Phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, steroids, ergoline alkaloids and triterpenoids were identified. Pharmacological studies proved its anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory, hypotensive, anti- inflammatory and no...

  1. Myocardial ATP catabolism and its pharmacological prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Huizer (Tom)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with high-energy phosphate metabolism during myocardial ischemia. describes the effects of some pharmacological interventions on the energy metabolism of ischemic myocardium. The chapters of this thesis are based on 11 published papers, added as appendices.

  2. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The major

  3. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  4. Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun; LIAN Yan-hong; XIE Kang-jie; CAI Shu-nü

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982-2011),Pubmed (1982-2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982-2011).Study selection Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain,including anticonvulsants,antidepressants,local anaesthetics,N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,tramadol,opioids,calcitonin,capsaicin,beta-adrenergic blockers,clonidine,muscle relaxants,and emerging drugs,we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications,outlined the limitations and future directions.Conclusions Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain,we recommend tricyclic antidepressants,gabapentin,tramadol,opioids,local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.

  5. The role of pharmacology in pediatric oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplack, D.G.; Massimo, L.; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the Titles are: Genetic reasons for pharmacologic treatment failure: gene amplification; New approaches to overcome drug resistance; An overview of adverse late effects of cancer chemotherapy in children; the development of 9-substituted purines as immunomodulators; and High dose cisplatinum: a phase II study.

  6. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity), target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level. PMID:26901192

  7. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G. (U.E.R. de Medecine, Sante et Biologie Humaine, 93 - Bobigny (France)); Simon, P. (Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, ..beta..-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising.

  8. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  9. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens. PMID:25859152

  10. Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-06-16

    Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (≥0.8 OD600 nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

  11. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  12. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  13. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  14. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  15. Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-(125I)iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references.

  16. Assessing the Impacts of Low Carbohydrate Related Health Information on the Market Demand for US Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.

    2005-01-01

    An Almost Ideal Demand System was estimated to examine the impacts of low carbohydrate information on the market demand for US vegetables. Analysis was extended to examine the performance of alternative carbohydrate information indexes. Study shows significant robust impacts of low carbohydrate information across all included vegetables. Results favor the general and weighted carbohydrate information index.

  17. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  18. Non-pharmacological factors in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnoll, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of laboratory models of drug abuse to drug taking in human societies, and discusses their significance relative to other explanatory frameworks. It argues that self-administration models are poor predictors of the prevalence of drug taking, and offer an inadequate basis for both explanation and intervention. Non-pharmacological factors that may be of greater importance derive from social perspectives (notably economic and market factors, socio-economic conditions, and cultural and subcultural processes) and psychological approaches (individual, social learning, cognitive and developmental). It is concluded that drug abuse should be understood within the same framework of explanation as other human behaviour and sentiment, having major cultural, social and cognitive dimensions as well as the strictly behavioural and pharmacological.

  19. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  20. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  1. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  2. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  3. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no potential to tone-up adequate clinical skills in future study instead of wastage of time and money. Killing of innocent animals is crucial and should be socially discouraged. Thus Pharmacology practical are matter of debate in current scenario. Being attachment with past sentiment of traditional dispensing pharmacy and animal experimentations, they are difficult to delete completely. The present article highlights some of our efforts in undergraduate exercises. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 495-497

  4. Angioedema: Clinical Presentations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Yoder, Angela Smith

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema (AE) is a unique clinical presentation of an unchecked release of bradykinin. The origin of this clinical presentation can be either genetic or acquired. The outcome within the patient is subcutaneous swelling of the lower layers of the epidermis. Symptoms are most often localized to the upper airway or the gastrointestinal tract. A typical course resolves in 5 to 7 days, but in some patients, the clinical manifestations exist up to 6 weeks. Hereditary AE is rare and genetically linked, and typically, the patient has episodes for many years before diagnosis. Episodes of acquired AE may be drug induced, triggered by a specific allergen, or idiopathic. Angioedema can elicit the need for critical care interventions, for advanced airway management, or unnecessary abdominal surgery. The treatment for these patients is evolving as new pharmacological agents are developed. This article addresses subtypes of AE, triggers, pharmacology, and information for interdisciplinary team planning of individualized case management. PMID:27258954

  5. Clinical pharmacology considerations in biologics development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Tian-hua REN; Diane D WANG

    2012-01-01

    Biologics,including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones,have unique characteristics compared to small molecules.This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective,the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human(FIH) studies,and dosing regimen optimisation for phase Ⅱ/Ⅲ clinical trials.Subsequently,typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised,including drug-drug interactions,QTc prolongation,immunogenicity,and studies in specific populations.The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics,their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics,and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram.

  6. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  7. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement.

    OpenAIRE

    Caviola, L.; Faber, NS

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...

  8. Pills or Push-Ups? Effectiveness and Public Perception of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Caviola, Lucius; Nadira S. Faber

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...

  9. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Lucius eCaviola; Nadira S. Faber

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...

  10. Chemical and Pharmacological Researches on Hyoscyamus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; SHI Ji; YU Xin-wen; SUN Jing-kuan; MEN Qi-ming; KANG Ting-guo

    2011-01-01

    The reports on chemical constituents of Hyoscyamus niger were summarized. The compounds include alkaloids, saponins, lignans, coumarinolignans, flavonoids, and some other nonalkaloidal compounds. TLC, HPLC, and GC were used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of some chemical constituents in H. niger. Modern pharmacological experiments showed that H. niger had the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, spasmolytic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, bronchodilatory, urinary bladder relaxant, hypotensive, cardiosuppressant, vasodilator, antitumor, and feeding deterrent properties. In addition, the toxicities of this medicinal plant were also described.

  11. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  12. Natural Products and Ion Channel Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    An accelerated rate of natural-product discovery is critical for the future of ion channel pharmacology. For the full potential of natural products to be realized, an interdisciplinary initiative is required that combines chemical ecology and ion channel physiology. A prime source of future drug leads targeted to ion channels is the vast assortment of compounds that mediate biotic interactions in the marine environment. Many animals have evolved a chemical strategy to change the behavior of t...

  13. Cocaine and "pharmacological kindling" in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, J S

    1983-11-01

    The concept of "pharmacological kindling" has been used to explain the behavioral sensitization to cocaine produced by repeated administration of subconvulsive doses. This idea was tested by the repeated administration of cocaine to rats followed by electrical kindling of the olfactory bulb (a site at which cocaine has prominent electrophysiologic effects). No significant effect of cocaine on kindling was found. The relationship of this finding to studies using other drugs is discussed.

  14. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and; Paraskev T Nedialkov; Stefan D. Nikolov

    2009-01-01

    The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed dis...

  15. An agenda for UK clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jamie J.; McDowell, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    The internet and the World Wide Web have changed the ways that we function. As technologies grow and adapt, there is a huge potential for the internet to affect drug research and development, as well as many other aspects of clinical pharmacology. We review some of the areas of interest to date and discuss some of the potential areas in which internet-based technology can be exploited.

  16. The GPCR Heterotetramer: Challenging Classical Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Ferré, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Two concepts are gaining increasing acceptance in GPCR pharmacology: (1) pre-coupling of GPCRs with their preferred signaling molecules, and (2) GPCR oligomerization. This is begging the introduction of new models, such as GPCR oligomer-containing signaling complexes with GPCR homodimers as functional building blocks. The model favors the formation of GPCR heterotetramers, heteromers of homodimers coupled to their cognate G-protein. The GPCR heterotetramer offers the optimal frame for a canon...

  17. Pharmacology of benzodiazepine receptors: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieghart, W.

    1994-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on GABAA receptors. GABAA receptors are probably composed of five protein subunits, at least some of which belong to different subunit classes. So far six alpha-, four beta-, three gamma-, and delta- and two rho = p subunits of GABAA receptors have been identified. A large number of different subunit combinations, each of which will result in a GABAA receptor with distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties, are therefo...

  18. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no pot...

  19. Pharmacological enhancement of fear reduction: preclinical models

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Bronwyn M.; Langton, Julia M; Richardson, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have a high prevalence, and despite the substantial advances in the psychological treatment of anxiety, relapse is still a common problem. One approach to improving existing psychological treatments for anxiety has been to develop pharmacological agents that can be used to enhance the processes underlying exposure therapy, which is the most commonly used and empirically validated psychological treatment for anxiety during which individuals are taught to appropriately inhibit...

  20. Pharmacological activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity of methanol extract ofEtlingera elatior (torch ginger) flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanion Jo Thy Lachumy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Vello Sumathy; Zakaria Zuraini

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate its pharmacological activities and medicinal potential of extract of Etlingera elatior (E. elatior).Methods: Phytochemical screening of the flower extract was done to determine the phytochemical in the extract. The pharmacological study included the determination of antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of metabolic flower extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against medically important bacterial, yeast and fungal strains. Apart from that, the methanolic extract ofE. elatior flower was further testedin vivo toxicity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Moreover, the flower extract was qualitatively screened for their free radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay.Results:The extract was effective on tested microorganisms andMIC values were in the range of1.563-50.000 mg/mL. The brine shrimp lethality test exhibited no significant toxicity (LC50 = 2.52 mg/mL) againstArtemia salina. TheE. elatior flower extract with highLC50 value signified that this plant is not toxic to humans. While the phytochemical screening of the flower extract revealed the presence of the following compounds: flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin, tannins and carbohydrates whereas, alkaloids, anthraquinone and reducing sugars were absent. The concentration of the flower extract required for50% inhibition ofDPPH radical scavenging effect (IC50) were9.14 mg/mL and8.08 mg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene8.08 mg/mL.Conclusions:These findings indicate that the extract ofE. elatior flower possesses pharmacological properties and potential to develop natural products based pharmaceuticals products.

  1. Ethics of pharmacological research involving adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welisch, Eva; Altamirano-Diaz, Luis A

    2015-02-01

    Pharmacological research in the adolescent population is not meeting adolescents' needs. Medication is still frequently prescribed off label, and studies especially in sensitive areas of adolescent health care are underrepresented. Adolescents did not benefit from the new knowledge gained in cancer research, and their outcome has essentially not improved during the last two decades in comparison to younger children and adults. There are many obstacles that make it challenging to enroll adolescents in pharmacological research. Access can be difficult. Confidentiality plays an essential role for minors and may be a hindrance, notably to studying sexual and mental health matters. Pharmaceutical companies may exclude the adolescent patient because of a lack of profit and in fear of a complex study design. Research concepts should be explained to the adolescent in a comprehensive manner, and assent and consent forms should be clear and understandable. New laws and incentives have been developed to encourage pharmaceutical companies to engage adolescents in their research projects. Centralization and collaboration of all parties involved may make the whole approach to adolescent research more efficient and uniform. The mature minor doctrine has facilitated the enrollment process. Parental consent may be waived for low-risk medical trials to promote recruitment. Ethics committees therefore play a major role in protecting the adolescent from harm from participating in research. In conclusion, pharmacological research in adolescents has to be encouraged. This will increase the safety of current medical treatment regimens and will allow this population to benefit from therapeutic advancements. PMID:25523399

  2. Inflammation and Pharmacological Treatment in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR, the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, is estimated to be the leading cause of new blindness in the working population of developed countries. Primary interventions such as intensive glycemic control, strict blood pressure regulation, and lipid-modifying therapy as well as local ocular treatment (laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy can significantly reduce the risk of retinopathy occurrence and progression. Considering the limitations of current DR treatments development of new therapeutic strategies, it becomes necessary to focus on pharmacological treatment. Currently, there is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes have a considerable role in the pathogenesis of DR with multiple studies showing an association of various systemic as well as local (vitreous and aqueous fluid inflammatory factors and the progression of DR. Since inflammation is identified as a relevant mechanism, significant effort has been directed to the development of new concepts for the prevention and treatment of DR acting on the inflammatory processes and the use of pharmacological agents with anti-inflammatory effect. Inhibiting the inflammatory pathway could be an appealing treatment option for DR in future practices, and as further prospective randomized clinical trials accumulate data, the role and guidelines of anti-inflammatory pharmacologic treatments will become clearer.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SELECTED PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria cookii, Bauhinia blakeana and Brassaia actinophylla are ornamental plants. The presence of various phytochemicals and pharmacologically important compounds in these plants can be exploited for their medicinal use. But there are no reports on the phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of these plants and this study aims at investigating these. The plant extracts were prepared in different solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hexane, water and chloroform. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals were assessed. The anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity was determined for all three plant extracts. Anti-bacterial activity against three gram negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella was done and Araucaria cooki showed highest antibacterial activity among the three plants. Maximum antioxidant activity was seen in methanol extract of Brassaia actinophyla with 81% inhibition. The order of the antioxidant activity of the three plants are in the order B.actinophylla>A cookie>B.blakeana. The results of phytochemical analysis suggest that phytosteroids are present in all the three plants. Maximum inhibition against the tested enzymes was exhibited by hexane and chloroform extracts of A.cookii. Hemolytic activity was done and the hexane extract showed maximum haemolysis where as aqueous extracts showed minimum activity. From the results it is clear that the three plant extracts has pharmacological applications. This is the first report of antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of these three plant extracts. Further studies are needed to exploit the actual mechanism and active compounds of these plants.

  4. Promiscuity of the Euonymus Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els J.M. Van Damme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize small amounts of carbohydrate-binding proteins on exposure to stress. For example, on exposure to drought, high salt, wounding and by treatment with some plant hormones or by pathogen attack. In contrast to the ‘classical’ plant lectins that are mostly located in the vacuolar compartment, this new class of inducible lectins is present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Taking into account that any physiological role of plant lectins most likely relies on their specific carbohydrate-binding activity and specificity, the discovery of these stress-related lectins provides strong evidence for the importance of protein-carbohydrate-interactions in plant cells. Hitherto, six families of such nucleocytoplasmic lectins have been identified in plants. This review will focus on the nucleocytoplasmic lectins with one or more Euonymus lectin (EUL domain(s. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of EUL proteins from a monocot, a dicot and a lower plant has been compared. Furthermore, modeling of the different EUL domains revealed a similar ß-trefoil fold consisting of three bundles of ß-sheet organized around a pseudo three-fold symmetry axis. Despite the sequence similarity and the conserved amino acids in the binding site, glycan array analyses showed that the EUL domain has a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site capable of accommodating high mannose N-glycans, blood group B related structures and galactosylated epitopes.

  5. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  6. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well.

  7. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.;

    2002-01-01

    participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined......OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  8. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    ) and soluble NSP will influence the release of insulin, the hormone that facilitate nutrient uptake by tissues, organs and cells, and thus play a critical and essential role in protein synthesis and muscle growth as well as lipid synthesis and adipose tissue growth. In conclusion, polymeric carbohydrates......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and levels of polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms; first, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (digestible...

  9. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    , organs, and cells, and thus plays a critically essential role in protein synthesis and muscle growth, as well as lipid synthesis and adipose tissue growth. In conclusion, polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through events in the gut and direct and indirect effects of different...... carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms. First, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (i.e., DE, ME, and NE); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality. Second, the proportion...... of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (i.e., glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation. Third and finally, the type of starch (i.e., types A, B, and C) and soluble NSP will influence the release of insulin, the hormone that facilitates nutrient uptake by tissues...

  10. Carbohydrate mimetics and scaffolds: sweet spots in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; La Ferla, Barbara; Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Orsato, Alexandre; Shaikh, Nasrin; Russo, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Several glycoprocessing enzymes and glycoreceptors have been recognized as important targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept has inspired the development of important classes of therapeutics, such as anti-influenza drugs inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting lectin-sialyl-Lewis X interaction and glycosidase inhibitors against HIV, Gaucher's disease, hepatitis and cancer. These therapeutics are mainly carbohydrate mimics in which proper modifications permit stronger interactions with the target protein, higher stability, better pharmacokinetic properties and easier synthesis. Furthermore, the conformational rigidity and polyfunctionality of carbohydrates stimulate their use as scaffolds for the generation of libraries by combinatorial decoration with different pharmacophores. This mini-review will present examples of how to exploit carbohydrates mimics and scaffolds in drug research. PMID:21426009

  11. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide.

  12. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Vina-Carb: Improving Glycosidic Angles during Carbohydrate Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedha, Anita K; Thieker, David F; Makeneni, Spandana; Hu, Huimin; Woods, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Molecular docking programs are primarily designed to align rigid, drug-like fragments into the binding sites of macromolecules and frequently display poor performance when applied to flexible carbohydrate molecules. A critical source of flexibility within an oligosaccharide is the glycosidic linkages. Recently, Carbohydrate Intrinsic (CHI) energy functions were reported that attempt to quantify the glycosidic torsion angle preferences. In the present work, the CHI-energy functions have been incorporated into the AutoDock Vina (ADV) scoring function, subsequently termed Vina-Carb (VC). Two user-adjustable parameters have been introduced, namely, a CHI- energy weight term (chi_coeff) that affects the magnitude of the CHI-energy penalty and a CHI-cutoff term (chi_cutoff) that negates CHI-energy penalties below a specified value. A data set consisting of 101 protein-carbohydrate complexes and 29 apoprotein structures was used in the development and testing of VC, including antibodies, lectins, and carbohydrate binding modules. Accounting for the intramolecular energies of the glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharides during docking led VC to produce acceptable structures within the top five ranked poses in 74% of the systems tested, compared to a success rate of 55% for ADV. An enzyme system was employed in order to illustrate the potential application of VC to proteins that may distort glycosidic linkages of carbohydrate ligands upon binding. VC represents a significant step toward accurately predicting the structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the described approach is conceptually applicable to any class of ligands that populate well-defined conformational states. PMID:26744922

  14. Characterization of carbohydrate-protein matrices for nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2011-05-01

    Amorphous carbohydrates may show glass transition and crystallization as a result of thermal or water plasticization. Proteins often affect the state transitions of carbohydrates in carbohydrate-protein systems. Water sorption behavior and effects of water on glass transition and crystallization in freeze-dried lactose, trehalose, lactose-casein (3: 1), lactose-soy protein isolate (3:1), trehalose-casein (3:1), and trehalose-soy protein isolate (3:1) systems were studied. Water sorption was determined gravimetrically as a function of time, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) models were fitted to the experimental data. Glass transition temperature (T(g)) and instant crystallization temperature (T(ic)) in anhydrous and water plasticized systems were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to model water content dependence of the T(g) values. The critical water content and water activity (a(w)) at 24 °C were calculated and crystallization of lactose and trehalose in the systems was followed at and above 0.54 a(w). Carbohydrate-protein systems showed higher amounts of sorbed water and less rapid sugar crystallization than pure sugars. A greater sugar crystallization delay was found in carbohydrate-casein systems than in carbohydrate-soy protein isolate systems. The T(g) and T(ic) values decreased with increasing water content and a(w). However, higher T(ic) values for lactose-protein systems were found than for lactose at the same a(w). Trehalose showed lower T(ic) value than lactose at 0.44 a(w) but no instant crystallization was measured below 0.44 a(w). State diagrams for each system are useful in selecting processing parameters and storage conditions in nutrient delivery applications. PMID:22417357

  15. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    A novel functional-genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in "big data" providing comprehensive information about the drugs' targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In "process pharmacology", drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high-dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. PMID:27069773

  16. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  17. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  18. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment. PMID:26978392

  19. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  20. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming;

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  1. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  2. Investigations of Reactive Carbohydrates in Glycosidic Bond Formation and Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuckendorff, Mads

    was to develop new synthetic methods to evolve the field of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. In addition, easy methods for obtaining complex oligosaccharides are needed to accommodate biochemical research and drug development. Furthermore, the aim was to shed light on the complex mechanisms of glycosylation...... and hy rolysis of glycosides. This mechanistic insight can then be used to develop new synthetic methods and obtain a better understanding of already existing methods. In Chapter 1 general aspects of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry is described with an emphasis on elements that affects reactivity...

  3. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching is associated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent that the loss of the cellulose DP (degree ofpolymisation)is strongly affected by the extent of the delignification. A strong linear correlation can be established between the DP of cellulose chains and the residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growth concept and Percolation Theory for heterogenous system can be combined to formulate kinetic models for both the delignification and the degradation of carbohydrate. The models prediction is statistically robust and can be applied to different pulps at different bleaching conditions.

  4. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.: A Review on Nutritional and Pharmacological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla Adkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trapa bispinosa Roxb. which belongs to the family Trapaceae is a small herb well known for its medicinal properties and is widely used worldwide. Trapa bispinosa or Trapa natans is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney, and spleen. It is bitter, astringent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge, and antiseptic. The whole plant is used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, and other genital affections. It is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, ophthalmopathy, ulcers, and wounds. These are used in the validated conditions in pitta, burning sensation, dipsia, dyspepsia, hemorrhage, hemoptysis, diarrhea, dysentery, strangely, intermittent fever, leprosy, fatigue, inflammation, urethrorrhea, fractures, erysipelas, lumbago, pharyngitis, bronchitis and general debility, and suppressing stomach and heart burning. Maybe it is due to photochemical content of Trapa bispinosa having high quantity of minerals, ions, namely, Ca, K, Na, Zn, and vitamins; saponins, phenols, alkaloids, H-donation, flavonoids are reported in the plants. Nutritional and biochemical analyses of fruits of Trapa bispinosa in 100 g showed 22.30 and 71.55% carbohydrate, protein contents were 4.40% and 10.80%, a percentage of moisture, fiber, ash, and fat contents were 70.35 and 7.30, 2.05 and 6.35, 2.30 and 8.50, and 0.65 and 1.85, mineral contents of the seeds were 32 mg and 102.85 mg calcium, 1.4 and 3.8 mg Iron, and 121 and 325 mg phosphorus in 100 g, and seeds of Trapa bispinosa produced 115.52 and 354.85 Kcal of energy, in fresh and dry fruits, respectively. Chemical analysis of the fruit and fresh nuts having considerable water content citric acid and fresh fruit which substantiates its importance as dietary food also reported low crude lipid, and major mineral present with confirming good amount of minerals as an iron and manganese potassium were contained in the fruit. Crude fiber, total

  5. Pharmacological foundations of cardio-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minotti, Giorgio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio

    2010-07-01

    Anthracyclines and many other antitumor drugs induce cardiotoxicity that occurs "on treatment" or long after completing chemotherapy. Dose reductions limit the incidence of early cardiac events but not that of delayed sequelae, possibly indicating that any dose level of antitumor drugs would prime the heart to damage from sequential stressors. Drugs targeted at tumor-specific moieties raised hope for improving the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies; unfortunately, however, many such drugs proved unable to spare the heart, aggravated cardiotoxicity induced by anthracyclines, or were safe in selected patients of clinical trials but not in the general population. Cardio-oncology is the discipline aimed at monitoring the cardiovascular safety of antitumor therapies. Although popularly perceived as a clinical discipline that brings oncologists and cardiologists working together, cardio-oncology is in fact a pharmacology-oriented translational discipline. The cardiovascular performance of survivors of cancer will only improve if clinicians joined pharmacologists in the search for new predictive models of cardiotoxicity or mechanistic approaches to explain how a given drug might switch from causing systolic failure to inducing ischemia. The lifetime risk of cardiotoxicity from antitumor drugs needs to be reconciled with the identification of long-lasting pharmacological signatures that overlap with comorbidities. Research on targeted drugs should be reshaped to appreciate that the terminal ballistics of new "magic bullets" might involve cardiomyocytes as innocent bystanders. Finally, the concepts of prevention and treatment need to be tailored to the notion that late-onset cardiotoxicity builds on early asymptomatic cardiotoxicity. The heart of cardio-oncology rests with such pharmacological foundations. PMID:20335321

  6. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  7. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  8. Pharmacological studies of the lung with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET), known to be used for lung ventilation and perfusion studies, can also be used in pharmacology to obtain information that is otherwise not available. The lung takes up biologically active substances which can be inactivated or activated, and synthesises and releases others. Such information in man has been obtained from samples of human lungs, or from in vivo first-pass studies, invasive or not, as well as from in vivo kinetic studies using external detection methods with scintillation cameras. PET provides now quantitative regional data in the human lung

  9. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed distribution of these compounds among the different Chenopodium species with the related references is given in tables. In addition, this review discusses the traditional medicinal uses of different Chenopodium species as well as recent developments done in this aspect.

  10. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. PMID:22640851

  11. The factors affecting on estimation of carbohydrate content of meals in carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Takamura, Chihiro; Hirose, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Higashide, Takashi; Kashihara, Yoneo; Hashimura, Kayako; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors affecting on errors in carbohydrate (CHO) content estimation during CHO counting. Thirty-seven type 1 diabetes patients and 22 of their parents and 28 physicians/dieticians were enrolled in this study. CHO counting was counted in "Carb", with 1 Carb defined as 10 g of CHO. To evaluate the accuracy of CHO counting, 80 real-size photographs of cooked meals were presented to the subjects for Carb estimation. Carbs tended to be overestimated for foods containing relatively small amounts of Carbs. On the other hands, Carbs tended to be underestimated for foods with higher than 6 Carbs. Accurate estimation of the Carbs in food containing a large amount of rice was particularly difficult even in the subjects having the CHO counting experience. The Carb contents of high-calorie foods such as meats, fried foods, and desserts tended to be overestimated. This error was smaller in subjects having the CHO counting experience. In conclusion, misunderstanding of high-calorie dishes containing high amounts of CHO was observed in inexperienced subjects, indicating the efficacy of the current methodology of CHO counting. On the other hand it was difficult even for experienced subjects to assess the amount of seasoned rice, suggesting the need for a new methodology for accurate estimation. PMID:26568656

  12. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  13. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions

  14. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M;

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, includin...

  15. Sulfurised carbohydrates: An important sedimentary sink for organic carbon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kok, M.D.; Koster, J.; Schouten, S.

    1998-01-01

    In contrast to the general belief that carbohydrate carbon (CCHO) is preferentially degraded and is not extensively preserved in the sedimentary record, it is shown here that CCHO forms a large fraction of the organic matter (OM) of the total organic carbon (TOC)-rich upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay

  16. Martini Coarse-Grained Force Field : Extension to Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Cesar A.; Rzepiela, Andrzej J.; de Vries, Alex H.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Huenenberger, Philippe H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the Martini coarse-grained force field to carbohydrates. The parametrization follows the same philosophy as was used previously for lipids and proteins, focusing on the reproduction of partitioning free energies of small compounds between polar and nonpolar phases. The car

  17. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  18. Architectures of Multivalent Glycomimetics for Probing Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Martina

    Well-defined multivalent glycoconjugates are valued tools in glycoscience and they are particularly valuable for the investigation of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In addition to the relatively globularly shaped glycodendrimers many other designs have been realized. This chapter gives an overview on the common different architectures and their chemical synthesis by focussing on the achievements made since 2001.

  19. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using {sup 48}V and {sup 62}Zn. (author)

  20. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48V and 62Zn. (author)

  1. Advancing Analytical Methods for Characterization of Anionic Carbohydrate Biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslay, Derek Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on the development of improved analytical methods for the characterization of anionic carbohydrate biopolymers. Our goal is to extract important information from complex mixtures of heterogeneous polysaccharides by characterizing their substituent oligosaccharides in terms of monosaccharide composition and primary and secondary structure. This work focuses on the application of two major analytical platforms: spectroscopy and chromatography. The development ...

  2. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  3. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  4. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  5. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  6. Syntheses of Novel Highly Symmetric Carbohydrates Bearing Diacylhydrazine Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; ZHANG Shu-sheng; LI Hui-xiang; LI Ji-zhi; JIAO Kui

    2005-01-01

    Several novel highly symmetric carbohydrates bearing a diacylhydrazine framework have been synthesized via a five-step procedure by utilizing D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose as the starting materials, respectively. The target compounds have been characterized with IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis.

  7. Effects of specific carbohydrates on the intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lene; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.;

    The current screening study aimed at testing a set of well-characterized carbohydrates derived from pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from sugar beet for their specific effect on intestinal microbiotas derived from healthy people and from patients suffering from the inflammatory bowel disease...

  8. Differences in carbohydrate profiles in batch culture grown planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata Wm. Sm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    modes of growth, the concentration of total carbohydrates, carbohydrate fractions, neutral carbohydrates, uronic acids and amino sugars in planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata were measured. The results showed that the distribution...

  9. Pharmacology of Heparin and Related Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Barbara; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Lever, Rebecca; Page, Clive P

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been recognized as a valuable anticoagulant and antithrombotic for several decades and is still widely used in clinical practice for a variety of indications. The anticoagulant activity of heparin is mainly attributable to the action of a specific pentasaccharide sequence that acts in concert with antithrombin, a plasma coagulation factor inhibitor. This observation has led to the development of synthetic heparin mimetics for clinical use. However, it is increasingly recognized that heparin has many other pharmacological properties, including but not limited to antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastatic actions. Many of these activities are independent of its anticoagulant activity, although the mechanisms of these other activities are currently less well defined. Nonetheless, heparin is being exploited for clinical uses beyond anticoagulation and developed for a wide range of clinical disorders. This article provides a "state of the art" review of our current understanding of the pharmacology of heparin and related drugs and an overview of the status of development of such drugs.

  10. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated. PMID:21731373

  12. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh P Prajapati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (LS (Family: Cucurbitaceae is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  13. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab Singh; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2009-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus which has been used extensively as "the mushroom of immortality" in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2000 years. A great deal of work has been carried out on therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum. The basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins/peptides and trace elements which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological effects including immunomodulation, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemo-preventive, antitumor, chemo and radio protective, sleep promoting, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), hypolipidemic, anti-fibrotic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-herpetic, antioxidative and radical-scavenging, anti-aging, hypoglycemic, estrogenic activity and anti-ulcer properties. Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes. The macrofungus is very rare in nature rather not sufficient for commercial exploitation for vital therapeutic emergencies, therefore, the cultivation on solid substrates, stationary liquid medium or by submerged cultivation has become an essential aspect to meet the driving force towards the increasing demands in the international market. Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications. PMID:19939212

  14. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  15. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  16. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  17. Pharmacological Potential of Boerhaavia diffusa: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BM Goyal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the holistic view of healthy living. It covers various physiology and pathology of diseases and their therapies. From time immemorial mankind's efforts and ultimate aim have been to seek eternal happiness. And his endeavour has been to overcome and seek appropriate remedies for things that stand in his way. Physical and mental well being is of prime importance towards this end Medical Science while relieving his malady assures him of a healthy life man or living being for that matter is afflicted by grief or disease even since inception. Phytochemical, Pharmacological, experimental and Clinical investigations on various medicinal plants have been conducted by many scientist, researchers etc. It may be seen that the ancient Ayurvedic physicians clearly understood the process of digestion and metabolism. Boerhaavia diffusa (Punarnava is one of the most famous medicinal plants in the treatment of a large number of human ailments is mentioned in Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita, and Sushrita Samhita. This paper explains the evidence-based information regarding the pharmacological activity of this plant. It has many ethnobotanical uses (the leaves are used as vegetable; the root juice is used to cure asthma, urinary disorders, leukorrhea, rheumatism, and encephalitis, and is medicinally used in the traditional Ayurvedic system.

  18. Water and carbohydrate content at leafs of plants used in medicine during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of carbohydrate content with cryoprotective function to the end of vegetation period was shown. The accumulation of carbohydrates in plants on Lake Baikal shores region was greater than it in Irkutsk region.

  19. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  20. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roskjær, Ann B; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ronneby, Helle;

    2015-01-01

    of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic...... control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic...... pregnancy. In type 1 diabetes pregnancy, a moderately low carbohydrate diet with 40% carbohydrates has been suggested; however, a minimum intake of 175 g carbohydrate daily is recommended. Despite limited evidence the combination of a low-glycaemic index diet with a moderately low carbohydrate intake, using...

  1. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  2. A SURVEY ON METHODS OF UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACOLOGY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHANBABU AMBERKAR, LALIT MOHAN, MEENA KUMARI, BAIRY K.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of pharmacology to choose and prescribe drugs is a major challenge encountered by medical practitioners. A number of initiatives have been carried out to improve the teaching of pharmacology and applied therapeutics.Material & methods-A survey was conducted on medical students,pursuing pharmacology at Kasturba Medical College,Manipal,during the month of August 2010,to obtain information regarding students attitude towards Pharmacology. Result-Two hundred and fourteen students participated.The total median score was 56 (maximum score 80.Majority of them suggested to have more problem based learning than didactic lectures and to have integrated teaching with other clinical subjects. Suggestions to improve pharmacology teaching were noted.Conclusion-The findings of the study would be of interest to medical educators in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching programme

  3. Pharmacology in space. Part 2. Controlling motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    In this second article in the two-part series on pharmacology in space, Claire Lathers and colleagues discuss the pharmacology of drugs used to control motion sickness in space and note that the pharmacology of the 'ideal' agent has yet to be worked out. That motion sickness may impair the pharmacological action of a drug by interfering with its absorption and distribution because of alteration of physiology is a problem unique to pharmacology in space. The authors comment on the problem of designing suitable ground-based studies to evaluate the pharmacological effect of drugs to be used in space and discuss the use of salivary samples collected during space flight to allow pharmacokinetic evaluations necessary for non-invasive clinical drug monitoring.

  4. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  5. Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Womack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different carbohydrate-protein (CHO + Pro beverages were compared during recovery from cycling exercise. Twelve male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 7 mL/kg/min completed ~1 h of high-intensity intervals (EX1. Immediately and 120 min following EX1, subjects consumed one of three calorically-similar beverages (285–300 kcal in a cross-over design: carbohydrate-only (CHO; 75 g per beverage, high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HCLP; 45 g CHO, 25 g Pro, 0.5 g fat, or low-carbohydrate/high-protein (LCHP; 8 g CHO, 55 g Pro, 4 g fat. After 4 h of recovery, subjects performed subsequent exercise (EX2; 20 min at 70% VO2peak + 20 km time-trial. Beverages were also consumed following EX2. Blood glucose levels (30 min after beverage ingestion differed across all treatments (CHO > HCLP > LCHP; p < 0.05, and serum insulin was higher following CHO and HCLP ingestion versus LCHP. Peak quadriceps force, serum creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and fatigue/energy ratings measured pre- and post-exercise were not different between treatments. EX2 performance was not significantly different between CHO (48.5 ± 1.5 min, HCLP (48.8 ± 2.1 min and LCHP (50.3 ± 2.7 min. Beverages containing similar caloric content but different proportions of carbohydrate/protein provided similar effects on muscle recovery and subsequent exercise performance in well-trained cyclists.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  7. VNP: Interactive Visual Network Pharmacology of Diseases, Targets, and Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Q-N; Deng, Z.; Tu, W; X. Yang; Meng, Z-B; Deng, Z-X; Liu, J

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery, promiscuous targets, multifactorial diseases, and “dirty” drugs construct complex network relationships. Network pharmacology description and analysis not only give a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity but can also help to improve the efficiency of target selection and drug design. Visual network pharmacology (VNP) is developed to visualize network pharmacology of targets, diseases, and drugs with a graph network by using disease, target or dr...

  8. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    De Curtis, M; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  9. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  10. DMPD: Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet....csml) Show Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet p...references of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. Authors van Vliet SJ, S

  11. Sports Nutrition for the Primary Care Physician: The Importance of Carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Keith B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between nutrition and fatigue and how carbohydrates and timing of carbohydrate consumption can affect fatigued athletes. Nutrition plays a significant role in successful training and competition. Key concerns are the specific needs of athletes for carbohydrates before, during, and after exercise. (Author/SM)

  12. Structural analysis of the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the structural analysis by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrate chains obtained from glycoproteins. In the chapters 1 to 6 the structural analysis of N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains is described. The chapters 7 to 10 describe the structural analysis of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains. 381 refs.; 44 figs.; 24 tabs.; 7 schemes

  13. 21 CFR 172.866 - Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of carbohydrates. 172.866 Section 172.866 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates. Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates may be safely used in food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) It shall contain not...

  14. Novel anti-carbohydrate autoantibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: are they useful for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lukas, Milan; Donoval, Robert; Sandova, Petra; Janatkova, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of novel anti-carbohydrate assays in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, namely in Crohn's disease. These carbohydrate assays are based on oligosaccharide chitobioside carbohydrate - anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibodies (ACCA), laminaribioside carbohydrate anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and mannobioside carbohydrate - anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA). We compared these assays with the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) assay. The results of this study suggest that ASCA are still the best serological marker for Crohn's disease. Further studies are required to explore the clinical utility of ACCA, ALCA and AMCA.

  15. The C-terminal domain of the Arabinosyltransferase Mycobacterium tuberculosis EmbC is a lectin-like carbohydrate binding module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Alderwick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The D-arabinan-containing polymers arabinogalactan (AG and lipoarabinomannan (LAM are essential components of the unique cell envelope of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosynthesis of AG and LAM involves a series of membrane-embedded arabinofuranosyl (Araf transferases whose structures are largely uncharacterised, despite the fact that several of them are pharmacological targets of ethambutol, a frontline drug in tuberculosis therapy. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ethambutol-sensitive Araf transferase M. tuberculosis EmbC, which is essential for LAM synthesis. The structure of the C-terminal domain of EmbC (EmbC(CT encompasses two sub-domains of different folds, of which subdomain II shows distinct similarity to lectin-like carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM. Co-crystallisation with a cell wall-derived di-arabinoside acceptor analogue and structural comparison with ligand-bound CBMs suggest that EmbC(CT contains two separate carbohydrate binding sites, associated with subdomains I and II, respectively. Single-residue substitution of conserved tryptophan residues (Trp868, Trp985 at these respective sites inhibited EmbC-catalysed extension of LAM. The same substitutions differentially abrogated binding of di- and penta-arabinofuranoside acceptor analogues to EmbC(CT, linking the loss of activity to compromised acceptor substrate binding, indicating the presence of two separate carbohydrate binding sites, and demonstrating that subdomain II indeed functions as a carbohydrate-binding module. This work provides the first step towards unravelling the structure and function of a GT-C-type glycosyltransferase that is essential in M. tuberculosis.

  16. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  17. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: new pharmacological approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovighi, M-A; Palomba, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The management of negative symptoms appears to be a major challenge because of functional disability induced by these symptoms and their relative resistance to treatments currently on the market. The aim of this article is to review new approaches that may enable optimal management of these symptoms. First, we describe the methodological difficulties that hindered the development and evaluation of specific treatment, and objectives currently defined to enable the development of new pharmacological approaches. Then we present the monotherapy and adjuvant therapies that have been assessed, including first and second generation antipsychotics, psychostimulants, antidepressants, cholinergic and glutamatergic agents, the oxytocin, hormones and more invasive therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Other molecules are under development and evaluation such alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists.

  18. Natural products and ion channel pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2010-05-01

    An accelerated rate of natural-product discovery is critical for the future of ion channel pharmacology. For the full potential of natural products to be realized, an interdisciplinary initiative is required that combines chemical ecology and ion channel physiology. A prime source of future drug leads targeted to ion channels is the vast assortment of compounds that mediate biotic interactions in the marine environment. Many animals have evolved a chemical strategy to change the behavior of their prey, predators or competitors, which appears to require a large set of ion channel-targeted compounds acting in concert. Some of these compounds (e.g., ziconotide [Prialt(®)]) have already found important biomedical applications. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms mediating biotic interactions should yield a rich stream of potent and selective natural products for the drug pipeline. PMID:21426200

  19. VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (LINN. NASH: A PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vetiveria zizanioides is belonging to Poaceae family. It is well known plant from south India and widely distributed in India, Burma, Ceylon, and spread from Southwest Asia to tropical Africa. Vetiveria zizanioides is commonly known as khas - khas, khus, vetiver, Vala in different languages. Root of Vetiveria zizanioides have been suggested in the Indian system of medicine for a number of diseases. These includes as decoction in high fever, inflammation and sexual disorder, as paste in diarrhea, chronic dysentery and in Ayurvedic preparations and as juice in anthelmentic. This plant was screened pharmacologically for antibacterial, antifungal, anticataleptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, Rheumatism, anti oxidant and anti arthritic activity. This will be creating helpfulness towards this medicinal plant and for preparation of different Ayurvedic formulation with more therapeutic and economic consideration in treatment of various diseases.

  20. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanin Clark Wright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  1. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narendra Kumar Singh; V.P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Ichnocarpusfrutescens R.Br.(Apocynaceae),is a woody climbing shrub,found almost in all parts of India.In India,tribes used this plant as a substitute of Indian Sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) for the treatment of atrophy,convulsions,cough,delirium,dysentery,measles,splenomegaly,tuberculosis,tumor,diabetes as a lactogogue,antipyretic,demulcent,diaphoretic and in skin diseases.Phytochemical investigations indicate that 28 compounds reported from the plant belong to various chemical category viz.phytosterol,triterpenes,flavonoids and various other phenolic compounds.Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include antiurolithiatic,hepatoprotective,antioxidant,analgesic,antipyretic,anti-inflammatory,antidiabetic,antihyperlipidemic and antitumor activity.In the present review the literature data on the phytochemical and biological investigations on the I.frutescens are summarized up to March 2011.

  2. Vascular dementia: Pharmacological treatment approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Baskys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrius Baskys1,3, Anthony C Hou21Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 2Program in Geriatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; 3Memory Disorders Program, VA Health Care System Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USAAbstract: Vascular dementia is a common condition for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. Absence of effective treatments creates a difficult situation for those suffering from the disease, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. This review will address our current understanding of the mechanisms of nerve cell damage due to ischemia and summarize available clinical trial data on several commonly used compounds including memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDPcholine, folic acid, as well as such nonpharmacological approaches as validation therapy.Keywords: vascular dementia, excitotoxicity, treatment, NMDA, memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDP-choline, folic acid

  3. The pharmacology of novel oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWald, Tracy A; Becker, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Anticoagulation for the prevention of stroke is an important aspect of the management of atrial fibrillation. Novel anticoagulants including oral factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran have emerged as important therapeutic treatment options for prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. These agents offer practical advantages over traditional vitamin K antagonists, however an understanding of their individual pharmacokinetic and other agent-specific differences is essential for identifying appropriate candidates for therapy, and for selecting the appropriate agent that will be effective and safe. Here, we review the pharmacokinetic process of oral medication use, summarize the newer anticoagulants, their pharmacology, individual pharmacokinetic features, and explore possible explanations for the differences in bleeding outcomes observed in the clinical trials. PMID:23860880

  4. Formulary: Pharmacologic interventions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this formulary is to provide the practitioner with a readily available reference addressed specifically at the pharmacology (i.e., chemistry, mechanism(s) of action, cautions, dosage, and available preparation(s)) of interventional drugs commonly used in nuclear medicine practice. Although the majority of these agents are intended for alternate therapeutic indications, the formulary is directed at and limited to information pertinent to their interventional use. In this regard, the majority of the presented material has been extrapolated from standard drug formularies or product inserts. Specific material related to published interventional nuclear medicine studies is referenced in the bibliography and/or can be found in the associated chapters of this book. The reader is advised to note not only the information related to the interventional drug, but also the statements regarding appropriate treatment or avoidance of associated side effects. To facilitate utilization, the interventional drugs are listed in alphabetical order, rather than by therapeutic class

  5. Pharmacologic treatment of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankowitz, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    Pregnancy complicated by hypertension is a common problem faced by clinicians. It can lead to substantial maternal and/or fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. There are a variety of medications that can be used during pregnancy either for treatment of significant chronic hypertension or in cases of acute severe hypertension. Most antihypertensive drugs have been shown to be safe for use in pregnancy. A variety of medications are available to treat more severe hypertension, although the use of pharmacologic therapy to treat mild chronic hypertension during pregnancy has not been supported in the literature. The data are more limited concerning drugs that would be used in the event of hypertensive emergencies or in an intensive care setting; however, in such a situation, maternal health and life become paramount and, despite lack of good studies, appropriate treatment should be rendered. PMID:15478474

  6. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: new pharmacological approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovighi, M-A; Palomba, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The management of negative symptoms appears to be a major challenge because of functional disability induced by these symptoms and their relative resistance to treatments currently on the market. The aim of this article is to review new approaches that may enable optimal management of these symptoms. First, we describe the methodological difficulties that hindered the development and evaluation of specific treatment, and objectives currently defined to enable the development of new pharmacological approaches. Then we present the monotherapy and adjuvant therapies that have been assessed, including first and second generation antipsychotics, psychostimulants, antidepressants, cholinergic and glutamatergic agents, the oxytocin, hormones and more invasive therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Other molecules are under development and evaluation such alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists. PMID:26776392

  7. Glutamate in peripheral organs: Biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Li, Xiao-Hui; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2016-08-01

    Glutamate is a versatile molecule existing in both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Previous studies have mainly focussed on the biological effect of glutamate in the brain. Recently, abundant evidence has demonstrated that glutamate also participates in the regulation of physiopathological functions in peripheral tissues, including the lung, kidney, liver, heart, stomach and immune system, where the glutamate/glutamate receptor/glutamate transporter system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases, such as myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and acute gastric mucosa injury. All these findings provide new insight into the biology and pharmacology of glutamate and suggest a potential therapeutic role of glutamate in non-neurological diseases. PMID:27164423

  8. Ferrite Nanoparticles in Pharmacological Modulation of Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Aparna; Radha, S.; Khan, Y.; Tilak, Priya

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles are being explored in the targeted drug delivery of pharmacological agents : angiogenesis being one such novel application which involves formation of new blood vessels or branching of existing ones. The present study involves the use of ferrite nanoparticles for precise therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis. The ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric salts by a suitable base, were found to be 10-20 nm from X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. The magnetization measurements showed superparamagnetic behavior of the uncoated nanoparticles. These ferrite nanoparticles were found to be bio-compatible with lymphocytes and neural cell lines from the biochemical assays. The chick chorioallantoic membrane(CAM) from the shell of fertile white Leghorn eggs was chosen as a model to study angiogenic activity. An enhancement in the angiogenic activity in the CAM due to addition of uncoated ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

  9. Pharmacology and toxicology of sensitizers: mechanism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitroimidazoles are being studied extensively as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. Besides their ability to selectively sensitize hypoxic cells to radiation, which depends on the parent compound, nitroimidazoles have a variety of other effects in vitro, in vivo and clinically which appear to require reductive metabolism. As a first step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these other biological effects, a summary has been made of the known oxidative and reductive products of the two most widely studied radiosensitizers, metronidazole and misonidazole. As a second step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these biological effects, it is important to view the problem in terms of the in vivo situation where distribution and sites of metabolism of the drug and its reduction products will be important factors. Combining basic information about the reduction chemistry of nitroimidazoles with knowledge about the pharmacology of drugs and their reduced products should allow a better assessment of mechanism of action as well as a better implementation of these drugs clinically

  10. The GPCR heterotetramer: challenging classical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi

    2015-03-01

    Two concepts are gaining increasing acceptance in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pharmacology: (i) pre-coupling of GPCRs with their preferred signaling molecules, and (ii) GPCR oligomerization. This is begging for the introduction of new models such as GPCR oligomer-containing signaling complexes with GPCR homodimers as functional building blocks. This model favors the formation of GPCR heterotetramers - heteromers of homodimers coupled to their cognate G protein. The GPCR heterotetramer offers an optimal framework for a canonical antagonistic interaction between activated Gs and Gi proteins, which can simultaneously bind to their respective preferred receptors and to adenylyl cyclase (AC) catalytic units. This review addresses the current evidence for pre-coupling of the various specific components that provide the very elaborate signaling machinery exemplified by the Gs-Gi-AC-coupled GPCR heterotetramer. PMID:25704194

  11. Pharmacologic ascorbate treatment of influenza in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程璘令

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of pharmacologic ascorbate(vitamin C)against Influenza A/CA/7/09(H1N12009).Methods BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally with influenza virus were treated with ascorbate(3 mg/g)twice daily by intraperitoneal(i.p.)injection for up to 14 d.Control groups received an equivalent volume of normal saline.Body weight was measured daily.To quantify the level of viral replication in the respiratory tract,the mice were euthanized and lungs removed and prepared as whole lung homegenates.Viral titers were determined by TCID50assay in MDCK cells.Cytokine titers were determined by ELISA following the

  12. Pharmacology and toxicology of sensitizers: mechanism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauth, A.M.

    1984-08-01

    Nitroimidazoles are being studied extensively as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. Besides their ability to selectively sensitize hypoxic cells to radiation, which depends on the parent compound, nitroimidazoles have a variety of other effects in vitro, in vivo and clinically which appear to require reductive metabolism. As a first step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these other biological effects, a summary has been made of the known oxidative and reductive products of the two most widely studied radiosensitizers, metronidazole and misonidazole. As a second step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these biological effects, it is important to view the problem in terms of the in vivo situation where distribution and sites of metabolism of the drug and its reduction products will be important factors. Combining basic information about the reduction chemistry of nitroimidazoles with knowledge about the pharmacology of drugs and their reduced products should allow a better assessment of mechanism of action as well as a better implementation of these drugs clinically.

  13. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered.

  14. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A

    2008-07-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  15. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CAROTENOIDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita S. Kadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is an essential vitamin which is required in the vision process, epithelial maintenance, mucous secretion and reproduction obtained from carotenoids. Carotenoids have been considered to provide benefits in age-related diseases, against some forms of cancer (in especial lung cancer, strokes, macular degeneration, and cataracts. Till date, more than 600 carotenoids are known and 50 of them are consumed in meals to be transformed into the essential nutrient vitamin A. After their absorption, these carotenoids are metabolized by an oxidative rupture to retinal, retinoic acid and small quantities of breakdown products and are transported by plasma lipoproteins. Carotenes are mainly associated with low-density lipoproteins, while xanthophylls show a uniform distribution between the low- and high-density lipoproteins. The present review provides an insight into the recent status of pharmacological aspects of carotenoids.

  16. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα1-adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα1-adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  17. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  18. Pharmacological versus non-pharmacological approaches to managing challenging behaviours for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tony; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    When people with dementia demonstrate challenging behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, the levels of stress experienced by their carers increases. Furthermore, there is an increased likelihood that the person will be prematurely admitted to a residential care facility. The adverse side-effects that have been associated with the use of antipsychotic medications in older people with dementia have given rise to a renewed emphasis on the use of non-pharmacological approaches to manage challenging behaviours. This article describes the approaches taken by the multi-disciplinary team of a Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service in Australia to support people with dementia who have challenging behaviours by using non-pharmacological interventions.

  19. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  20. Pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of methylarginines used as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke

    2014-01-01

    The methylarginines asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and monomethylarginine (L-NMMA) are endogenously formed inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which have extensively been investigated as risk markers and used as pharmacological tools to study the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in vitro and in vivo. It is the aim of the present review to summarize the clinical and experimental data on the pharmacological properties that are of relevance when planning and conducting experiments and clinical studies involving methylarginines. Key pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data including IC50 values of ADMA and L-NMMA for NOS isoforms and transport proteins, as well as metabolism by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH1 and DDAH2) and alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) are discussed.

  1. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A novel functional‐genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in “big data” providing comprehensive information about the drugs’ targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In “process pharmacology”, drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high‐dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. PMID:27069773

  2. Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors: Pattern Recognition and Involvement of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Porgador

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, expressed by natural killer (NK cells, trigger NK lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells on interaction with cell-surface ligands of these target cells. We have determined that viral hemagglutinins expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells are involved in the recognition by the NCRs, NKp44 and NKp46. Recognition of tumor cells by the NCRs NKp30 and NKp46 involves heparan sulfate epitopes expressed on the tumor cell membrane. Our studies provide new evidence for the identity of the ligands for NCRs and indicate that a broader definition should be applied to pathological patterns recognized by innate immune receptors. Since nonmicrobial endogenous carbohydrate structures contribute significantly to this recognition, there is an imperative need to develop appropriate tools for the facile sequencing of carbohydrate moieties.

  3. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. PMID:24875870

  4. Template free synthesis of natural carbohydrates functionalised fluorescent silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Berenjian, Aydin; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Template-assisted synthesis is one of the most recognised techniques for fabrication of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). However, this process is time consuming, toxic and expensive. In this study, the authors report a completely novel approach for the green and facile synthesis of AgNCs using Matricaria chamomilla, without any additional template. Fluorescent and colloidally stable AgNCs with average particle size of 2.4 nm were successfully produced. They found that carbohydrates from Matricaria chamomilla act as an ideal template to generate fluorescent AgNCs. Moreover, oxygen-bearing functional groups were validated to be the active groups for anchoring and reducing of Ag(+) ions. The novel carbohydrate coating method makes the prepared nanoclusters completely hydrophilic and stable in aqueous matrices. PMID:27256890

  5. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-dilution methods have been developed to identify and estimate the small amount of products formed when carbohydrates are irradiated in aqueous solution with Co60 gamma-radiation. Conventional analytical methods proved inadequate. After irradiation of C14-sugar solutions, the autoradiographs prepared after paper chromatography indicated extensive degradation. Using a reverse isotope-dilution procedure involving the addition of known carriers, and conversion of the fragments into crystalline derivatives, various constituents were quantitatively determined. It is possible to distinguish between d- and Z-isomers, and estimate each isomer independently. The method is applicable to other analytical problems in carbohydrate chemistry. A new method for scanning and recording the radioactivity along paper-chromatogram strips, which involves an inexpensive modification to conventional counting equipment, is described. (author)

  6. Vaccines based on the cell surface carbohydrates of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycoconjugate vaccines, in which a cell surface carbohydrate from a micro-organism is covalently attached to an appropriate carrier protein are proving to be the most effective means to generate protective immune responses to prevent a wide range of diseases. The technology appears to be generic and applicable to a wide range of pathogens, as long as antibodies against surface carbohydrates help protect against infection. Three such vaccines, against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis Group C and seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, have already been licensed and many others are in development. This article discusses the rationale for the development and use of glycoconjugate vaccines, the mechanisms by which they elicit T cell-dependent immune responses and the implications of this for vaccine development, the role of physicochemical methods in the characterisation and quality control of these vaccines, and the novel products which are under development.

  7. Orchestration of carbohydrate processing for crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2016-06-01

    The production of phosphoenolpyruvate as a substrate for nocturnal CO2 uptake represents a significant sink for carbohydrate in CAM plants which has to be balanced with the provisioning of carbohydrate for growth and maintenance. In starch-storing CAM species, diversification in chloroplast metabolite transporters, and the deployment of both phosphorolytic and hydrolytic routes of starch degradation accommodate a division of labour in directing C-skeletons towards nocturnal carboxylation or production of sucrose for growth. In soluble-sugar storing CAM plants, the vacuole plays a central role in managing carbon homeostasis. The molecular identities of various types of vacuolar sugar transporters have only been identified for C3 species within the last 10 years. The recent availability of CAM genomes enables the identification of putative orthologues of vacuolar sugar transporters which represent strategic targets for orchestrating the diel provisioning of substrate for nocturnal carboxylation and growth. PMID:27101569

  8. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara;

    2009-01-01

    , and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty......Thymann T, Moller HK, Stoll B, Stoy AC, Buddington RK, Bering SB, Jensen BB, Olutoye OO, Siggers RH, Molbak L, Sangild PT, Burrin DG. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297: G1115-G1125, 2009. First published October...... 1, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00261.2009. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis...

  9. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H;

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...... maximally expressed at the early stages of development, but may later be modified either by sialylation or fucosylation into blood group H or Lex, or by Ley substances, respectively. The orderly and well-defined changes observed during skin differentiation are in agreement with other studies, which have...

  10. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A;

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P metabolic ratio decreased to an equally low level (3.2 +/- 0.3) and the surplus uptake of glucose equivalents was not significantly different (7 +/- 1 mmol; P = 0.08). A time-dependent cerebral surplus uptake of carbohydrate was not substantiated...... with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade by metoprolol. Exhaustive exercise (24.8 +/- 6.1 min; mean +/- SE) decreased the cerebral metabolic ratio from a resting value of 5.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.4 (P

  11. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  12. Carbohydrates in diversity-oriented synthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, E; Menchi, G; Trabocchi, A

    2016-01-21

    Over the last decade, Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) has become a new paradigm for developing large collections of structurally diverse small molecules as probes to investigate biological pathways, and to provide a larger array of the chemical space. Drug discovery and chemical biology are taking advantage of DOS approaches to exploit highly-diverse and complex molecular platforms, producing advances in both target and ligand discovery. In this view, carbohydrates are attractive building blocks for DOS libraries, due to their stereochemical diversity and high density of polar functional groups, thus offering many possibilities for chemical manipulation and scaffold decoration. This review will discuss research contributions and perspectives on the application of carbohydrate chemistry to explore the accessible chemical space through appendage, stereochemical and scaffold diversity.

  13. Template free synthesis of natural carbohydrates functionalised fluorescent silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Berenjian, Aydin; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Template-assisted synthesis is one of the most recognised techniques for fabrication of silver nanoclusters (AgNCs). However, this process is time consuming, toxic and expensive. In this study, the authors report a completely novel approach for the green and facile synthesis of AgNCs using Matricaria chamomilla, without any additional template. Fluorescent and colloidally stable AgNCs with average particle size of 2.4 nm were successfully produced. They found that carbohydrates from Matricaria chamomilla act as an ideal template to generate fluorescent AgNCs. Moreover, oxygen-bearing functional groups were validated to be the active groups for anchoring and reducing of Ag(+) ions. The novel carbohydrate coating method makes the prepared nanoclusters completely hydrophilic and stable in aqueous matrices.

  14. Human pharmacology of current and new treatments for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis together show different ways of studying human pharmacology, give an impression of the current drug development in schizophrenia, and provide examples how human pharmacology can be applied in an early stage of drug development in healthy volunteers. The investigated compou

  15. Is There an Identity Crisis in Medical School Pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)

  16. Chemistry and pharmacology of the prophylactic agents against radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ssuvorov, N.N.; Shashkov, V.S.

    The chemistry and pharmacology of radioprotectors are discussed. The first chapter is devoted to aminothiols and other sulfur containing compounds, covering the synthesis, physical-chemical and pharmacological properties, biosynthesis, metabolism and mechanism of action--a pattern repeated throughout the book. The later chapters are devoted to mediators of vegetative nervous system, indolalkylamines, histamine and acetylcholine respectively.

  17. Genomic architecture of pharmacological efficacy and adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Chhibber, Aparna; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; McGeachie, Michael; Cheng, Cheng; Plenge, Robert; Stahl, Eli; Sadee, Wolfgang; RITCHIE, MARYLYN D.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic disciplines address pharmacological traits, including efficacy and adverse events. Pharmacogenomics studies have identified pervasive genetic effects on treatment outcomes, resulting in the development of genetic biomarkers for optimization of drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics-based tests are already being applied in clinical decision making. However, despite substantial progress in identifying the genetic etiology of pharmacological response, current biom...

  18. Carbohydrate Provision in the Era of Tight Glucose Control

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Keith R.; Lawson, Christy M; Smith, Vance L.; HARBRECHT, BRIAN G

    2011-01-01

    Glycemic control in the critically ill patient has remained a controversial issue over the last decade. Several large trials, with widely varying results, have generated significant interest in defining the optimal target for blood-glucose control necessary for improving care while minimizing morbidity. Nutritional support has evolved into an additional area of critical care where appropriate practices have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Carbohydrate provision can impact bloo...

  19. Compositional Analysis of Carbohydrates of a Family of Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Raghothama, Arvind; Hamaker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Legumes, most commonly identified as beans or lentils, provide a good source of both protein and carbohydrates. Many legumes contain the polysaccharide arabinogalactans, classified as dietary fiber and have unique functional properties in foods. However, these, and other plant polysaccharides have not been well characterized. A preliminary collaborative study between Florida State University and the Whistler Center at Purdue indicated that isolated legume arabinogalactans appear to have high ...

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  1. Carbohydrate recognition by the antiviral lectin cyanovirin-N

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Yukiji K.; Green, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanovirin-N is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity, and has been the focus of extensive pre-clinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular-Mechanics/ Poisson–Boltzmann/Surface-Area (...

  2. A randomized trial of preoperative oral carbohydrates in abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sada, Fatos; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hamza, Astrit; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Bicaj, Besnik; Kavaja, Floren

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) have been recommended to attenuate insulin resistance by shortening the preoperative fasting interval. The aim of our study the effect of preoperative oral administration of CRLDs on the well-being and clinical status of patients. Methods A randomized, double blind, prospective study of patients undergoing open colorectal operations (CR) and open cholecyctectomy (CH) was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups: study, placebo, and ...

  3. GLYCAM06: A Generalizable Biomolecular Force Field. Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, Karl N.; Yongye, Austin B.; Tschampel, Sarah M.; GONZÁLEZ-OUTEIRIÑO, JORGE; DANIELS, CHARLISA R.; Foley, B. Lachele; Woods, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    A new derivation of the GLYCAM06 force field, which removes its previous specificity for carbohydrates, and its dependency on the AMBER force field and parameters, is presented. All pertinent force field terms have been explicitly specified and so no default or generic parameters are employed. The new GLYCAM is no longer limited to any particular class of biomolecules, but is extendible to all molecular classes in the spirit of a small-molecule force field. The torsion terms in the present wo...

  4. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions requires a careful protecting group strategy and typically involves multistep protocols.This thesis describes the prepartion, installation, their use in the synthesis of stereoselective glycosidic...

  5. Structural Characterization of Carbohydrates by Fourier Transform Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides high mass accuracy, high sensitivity, and analytical versatility and has therefore emerged as an indispensable tool for structural elucidation of biomolecules. Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications, occurring in ~50% of proteins. However, due to the structural diversity of carbohydrates, arising from non-template driven biosynthesis, achievement of detailed structural insight is highly challenging. T...

  6. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    OpenAIRE

    RM Hall; Parry Strong A; Krebs JD

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atheroscle...

  7. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ridwan; Y. Widyastuti; W.D. Astuti; E. Yetti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste) and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1) vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2) vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3) vegetable waste + onggo...

  8. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  9. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.LNguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching isassociated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent thatthe loss of the cellulose DPis strongly affected by(degree ofpolymisation) the extent of thedelignification. A strong linear correlation can beestablished between the DP of cellulose chains andthe residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growthconcept and Percolation Theory for heterogenoussystem can be combined to formulate kinetic modelsfor both the delignification and the degradation ofcarbohydrate. The models prediction is statisticallyrobust and can be applied to different pulps atdifferent bleachin~ conditions.

  10. Comparison of Carbohydrate Compositions of Total Apolipoproteins in Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Güldür, Tayfun; OZAN, Sema; İLERİ, Tülay

    1998-01-01

    Terminal carbohydrate moieties of apolipoproteins of lipoproteins in human and goat serum were ascertained and compared. Apolipoproteins of b+pre-b (apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins) and a lipoproteins separated by phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2 precipitation method were applied to SDS-PAGE and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane. Digoxigenin labelled lectins, each of which recognizes a specific sugar sequence, were incubated with apolipoproteins immobilized on a western blot membrane to...

  11. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high......-fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  12. Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

  13. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions. PMID:24097333

  14. Shape: automatic conformation prediction of carbohydrates using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Jimmy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed experimental three dimensional structures of carbohydrates are often difficult to acquire. Molecular modelling and computational conformation prediction are therefore commonly used tools for three dimensional structure studies. Modelling procedures generally require significant training and computing resources, which is often impractical for most experimental chemists and biologists. Shape has been developed to improve the availability of modelling in this field. Results The Shape software package has been developed for simplicity of use and conformation prediction performance. A trivial user interface coupled to an efficient genetic algorithm conformation search makes it a powerful tool for automated modelling. Carbohydrates up to a few hundred atoms in size can be investigated on common computer hardware. It has been shown to perform well for the prediction of over four hundred bioactive oligosaccharides, as well as compare favourably with previously published studies on carbohydrate conformation prediction. Conclusion The Shape fully automated conformation prediction can be used by scientists who lack significant modelling training, and performs well on computing hardware such as laptops and desktops. It can also be deployed on computer clusters for increased capacity. The prediction accuracy under the default settings is good, as it agrees well with experimental data and previously published conformation prediction studies. This software is available both as open source and under commercial licenses.

  15. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  16. Secretion of glucose in human parotid saliva after carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, A; Birkhed, D

    1988-12-01

    The aims of the present investigation were, first, to follow the secretion of free glucose in parotid saliva in various subjects after a single oral intake of different carbohydrates, and second, to compare the salivary glucose concentration with the concentration in blood. Twenty healthy subjects, three women and 17 men, 20-35 yr of age, participated. They were asked not to eat or drink anything from 10 p.m. the night before the examination. 75 g of carbohydrate (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) dissolved in 300 ml water was ingested the next morning at 8 a.m. One experimental series with glucose was performed in triplicate in 10 of the subjects. Approximately 1.5 ml of citric acid-stimulated parotid saliva was collected before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after the intake. Salivary concentration of glucose was analyzed enzymatically. Most of the 0-min samples showed a variation in glucose concentration from 5 to 25 mumol/l. After the glucose, fructose, and sucrose intakes, the salivary glucose level increased about 2-4 times, especially in the 30-min samples. A large inter- as well as intra-individual variation was found both in the 0-min samples and in the samples collected after the different intakes. The correlation between the glucose concentration in saliva and blood was higher after than before the carbohydrate intakes. PMID:3206201

  17. INFLUENCE OF CHITOSAN ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN EXERCISING MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 黄伟

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of chitosan on carbohydrate metabolism disorder in exercising mice. Methods The animal model of carbohydrate metabolism disorder was established through swimming trainings and the content of blood glucose, muscle glycogen and liver glycogen in mice were all surveyed. Results When quiet, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose of drug-taking group were much higher than those of control group(P<0.05). Compared with control group, the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of instant drug-taking group after exercises level to a higher degree (P<0.05). The renewing level of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose in drug-taking group after spending 24 hours on recovery was evidently higher than that of control-group (P<0.05). The exhaustive swimming time of drug-taking group was longer than that of exercise-control group by 33.99%. Conclusion Chitosan takes good effect on improving carbohydrate metabolism disorder resulting from exercises.

  18. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions.

  19. GABA uptake inhibitors. Design, molecular pharmacology and therapeutic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Frølund, B; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2000-01-01

    GABAA receptor agonists. The availability of these compounds made it possible to study the pharmacology of the GABA uptake systems and the GABAA receptors separately. Based on extensive cellular and molecular pharmacological studies using 23, 24, and a number of mono- and bicyclic analogues, it has been...... demonstrated that neuronal and glial GABA transport mechanisms have dissimilar substrate specificities. With GABA transport mechanisms as pharmacological targets, strategies for pharmacological interventions with the purpose of stimulating GABA neurotransmission seem to be (1) effective blockade of neuronal...... recently been reported as the most selective glial GABA uptake inhibitor so far known and may be a useful tool for further elucidation of the pharmacology of GABA transporters. In recent years, a variety of lipophilic analogues of the amino acids 23 and 24 have been developed, and one of these compounds...

  20. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  1. Problem-based learning and teaching of medical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2002-07-01

    In the Faculty of Health Sciences at McMaster University, the traditional discipline-based boundaries dividing the teaching and learning of basic medical sciences, such as physiology and pharmacology, do not exist. For more than 3 decades, student-centered, self-directed problem-based learning (PBL) has been the main form of instruction for students learning pharmacology within the medical curriculum and the pharmacological issues are always embedded within a health-care problem, with consideration of many other relevant non-pharmacological issues. In PBL, pedagogic emphasis is placed on the process of learning via constructive inquiry rather than cumulative acquisition of factual knowledge. For the science students, typically in the Biology/Pharmacology cooperative courses, both student-centered learning and teacher-centered teaching approaches are being used. In this case, the PBL approach is adopted to complement the conventional lectures at the course level. For medical students, PBL continues to be the major form of instruction in a small-group tutorial setting at the curricular level. The PBL curriculum is integrated across organ systems (cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neural, etc) and across the life cycle, spanning population- and behavior-related perspectives, rather than being recreated from discrete disciplinary areas (such as physiology, anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology, and community medicine). Those students who lack a pharmacology background or wish to enhance their pharmacological knowledge can take a block elective or horizontal elective in pharmacology. Unlike science students, medical students need to sort out pharmacological principles from the overload of information, to integrate them into the clinically relevant situations, and to ultimately apply them to the management of patients' illness. This is most effectively achieved in a student-centered environment conducive to life-long learning. PMID:12107627

  2. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in...... majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several...

  3. [Immunoglobulin genes encoding antibodies directed to oncodevelopmental carbohydrate antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenita, K; Yago, K; Fujimoto, E; Kannagi, R

    1990-07-01

    We investigated the immunoglobulin genes which encode the variable region of the monoclonal antibodies directed to the onco-developmental carbohydrate antigens such SSEA-1, fucosyl SSEA-1, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4. The VH region of these antibodies was preferentially encoded by the gene members of the X24, VH7183 and Q52 families, the families which are known to be located at the 3'-end region of the murine germ line VH gene. This result is interesting particularly when considering that the members of the 3'-end VH families are known to be preferentially expressed in embryonic B lymphocytes by an intrinsic genetic program. The comparative study of the nucleic acid sequences of mRNAs encoding these antibodies and the sequences of the corresponding germ line VH genes disclosed that the sequences encoding the antibodies contain no mutation from the germ line VH genes, or contain only a few somatic mutations, which are thought to be insignificant for the reactivity of the antibodies to the nominal antigens. These results imply that some of the embryonic B lymphocytes that express the unmutated germ line VH genes of the 3'-end families can be reactive with embryonic carbohydrate antigens, albeit rearranged with appropriate D-JH gene segments, and coupled with proper light chains. The VH region of the syngenic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies directed to these anti-carbohydrate antibodies were also encoded preferentially by the members of the 3'-end VH families. We propose here that a part of the virgin embryonic B lymphocytes, which express the antibody encoded by the gene members of the 3'-end VH families at the cell surface, will be stimulated by the embryonic carbohydrate antigens which are abundantly present in the internal milieu of the embryo. The clonally expanded B lymphocytes, in turn, will facilitate the proliferation of other populations of embryonic B lymphocytes expressing the corresponding anti-idiotypic antibodies, which are also encoded by the gene members

  4. Pharmacological management of acute radiation morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Kimmig, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Christian-Albrecht-Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: The acute radiation morbidity may be a serious problem for the patient and may be decreased by pharmacological approaches. Material and methods: A database research (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI, etc.) was performed in order to obtain pharmacological approaches to decrease the acute radiation morbidity. The evaluation was focused on therapeutic principles but not on special drugs. Results: Different approaches may be chosen to protect healthy tissues from the effects of ionizing radiation: 1. Administration of cyto- or radioprotective agents prior to irradiation, 2. administration of agents to avoid additional secondary toxicity by inflammation or superinfection during the treatment cycle (supportive care) and 3. administration of rescue agents, such as bone marrow CSFs or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), after therapy. For radioprotection, there are reports on cellular protection by vitamine E, vitamine C, beta carotene, ribose-cysteine, glutamine, Mgcl2/adenosine triphosphate and WR-2721 (amifostine). In general, preclinical studies show that the combination of pretreatment with amifostine, irradiation, and G-CSF after radiation enhances hematologic recovery. Assessment of these combined effects, including local supportive therapies, merits further clinical investigation. There are data from prospective studies as well as from empirical clinical experience, that radioprotection and clinical supportive care may reduce the treatment related morbidity by 10 to 30% either. Conclusions: A further improvement of the therapeutic ratio is to be expected by systemically combined application of radioprotectors, supportive care and rescue agents. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Die strahlentherapeutische Fruehmorbiditaet kann auf das Ergebnis einer Strahlenbehandlung Einfluss nehmen und kann durch medikamentoese Verfahren gelindert werden. Material und Methoden: Eine Datenbankrecherche (Medline, Cancerlit, DIMDI u.a.) wurde durchgefuehrt, um einen Ueberblick ueber

  5. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  6. Nutrigenomics of Neuradaptogen Amino-Acid-Therapy and Neurometabolic Optimizers: Overcoming carbohydrate bingeing and overeating through neurometabolic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of obesity, the epidemic continues to rise worldwide. While pharmacological treatment of obesity may be effective, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. This review will provide significant evidence to substantiate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome in Obesity and the role of catecholaminergic pathways in aberrant substance seeking behavior, in particular cravings for carbohydrates. The genetic basis for generalized craving behavior will be established. Evidence to support the augmentation of precursor amino acid therapy and enkephalinase, MOA and COMT inhibition leading to enhanced levels of neurotransmitters: serotonin, enkephalins, GABA and dopamine/norepinephrine as well increasing insulin sensitivity (affecting dopamineFunctional Foods in Health and Disease: 9:310-378neuronal synthesis regulation through the use of certain neurometabolic optimizers will also be provided. This review article cites many published studies to support a conceptual paradigm shift towards the use of this proposed nutrigenomic formula. The analysis and research preceding this formulation is outlined. This formulation has a generalized anti-craving effect and can inhibit carbohydrate bingeing, inducing significant healthy fat loss and prevention of relapse. This is the first time that components of this formula have been combined, at the dosage levels indicated with the goal of promoting successful and sustainable body recomposition. We are encouraging other laboratories to further evaluate Neuroadtagen Amino-Acid Therapy (NAAT/Nurometabolic optimizers as a putative anti-obesity complex in larger controlled blinded studies and await interpretation of must these needed studies.

  7. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology...

  8. 76 FR 3912 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... how to optimally utilize mechanistic biomarkers and apply clinical pharmacology tools, such...

  9. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb. Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abishek; Kauter, Kathleen; Alam, Md Ashraful; Hwang, Sung Hee; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver. The present study describes the pharmacological responses to this selective sEH inhibitor in rats with the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  11. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  12. [Opioid tolerance and dependence--pharmacological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaba, I M; Luncanu, I; Mungiu, O C

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged opioids administration leads inevitably to tolerance and dependence, a phenomenon we meet more often in healthy people than in ill patients. Tolerance means a hypersensibility of neuronal membranes as well as changes in the number and affinity of opioid receptors, which implies intake of larger doses to obtain the initial effect. Physical dependence, quite different of the psychological one, is the appearance of abstinence syndrome on sudden interruption of opioid administration or on administration of an antagonist. There is usually cross-tolerance in opioids, but it can also be incomplete, when the initial opioid can be replaced with another one that produces a milder abstinence syndrome. Classically, metadone is used in long time therapy, after detoxification with an antagonist is performed (naloxon, naltrexon). Modern pharmacological alternatives are levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol (LAAM) and agonists-antagonists (butorphanol, buprenorphine, pentazocine, nalbuphine). An antagonist can also be used if associated with an alpha--stimulant (clonidine), in order to remove noradrenergic manifestations of abstinence syndrome. Now other therapeutical principles are being studied: enkephalinaze inhibitors to reduce the abstinence syndrome, NMDA receptor antagonists, NO sintetasis inhibitors, that facilitates opioid analgesia and hinders tolerance development; colecystokinin-receptors agonists or antagonists to reduce tolerance on morphine. A recent study showed that the concomitant administration of an opioid agonist (sufentanil) and a calcium channels blocker (nimodipine) not only prevents from tolerance development but also triggers hypersensibility to analgesic effects of the opioid. PMID:12092171

  13. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Manayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists′ attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant′s mechanism of action using new, complementary methods.

  14. Non-pharmacological management of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Surya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a silent killer. Indians are racially predisposed to cardiovascular disease, and the increasing burden of hypertension has only added to the problem. Economic constraints and the allure of additional benefits without adverse effects have made lifestyle modifications an attractive proposition in developing and developed countries alike. Blood pressure is a continuum and any increase above optimal confers additional independent risk of vascular disease, even in ranges previously considered normal. While antihypertensive agents have been used for those patients with blood pressure above the traditional cutoff, there has been increasing emphasis on the prevention and treatment of hypertension by non-pharmacological means, termed ′lifestyle modifications.′ A MEDLINE search was done for relevant references with emphasis on original studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Lifestyle modifications that effectively lower blood pressure are increased physical activity, weight loss, limited alcohol consumption, reduced sodium intake and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Lifestyle modification is recommended as initial therapy in stage 1 hypertension before initiation of drug therapy and as an adjunct to medication in persons already on drug therapy. In pre-hypertensives, it can reduce the incidence of hypertension and lower end-organ damage. It is emphasized that simple advice from physicians can have a positive influence on patients′ motivation to make lifestyle changes.

  15. Pharmacological correctors of mutant CFTR mistrafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta ePedemonte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of phenylalanine 508 (∆F508 mutation in the CFTR Cl- channel represents the most frequent cause of cystic fibrosis (CF, a genetic disease affecting multiple organs such lung, pancreas, and liver. ∆F508 causes instability and misfolding of CFTR protein leading to early degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum and accelerated removal from the plasma membrane. Pharmacological correctors of mutant CFTR protein have been identified by high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries, by in silico docking of virtual compounds on CFTR structure models, or by using compounds that affect the whole proteome (e.g. histone deacetylase inhibitors or a single CFTR-interacting protein. The presence of multiple defects caused at the CFTR protein level by ∆F508 mutation and the redundancy of quality control mechanisms detecting ∆F508-CFTR as a defective protein impose a ceiling to the maximal effect that a single compound (corrector may obtain. Therefore, treatment of patients with the most frequent CF mutation may require the optimized combination of two drugs having additive or synergic effects.

  16. Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eCotelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological treatment of memory difficulties in healthy older adults, as well as those with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders, has gained much attention in recent years (Ball et al., 2002, Willis et al., 2006, Acevedo and Loewenstein, 2007. The two main reasons that explain this growing interest in memory rehabilitation are the limited efficacy of current drug therapies and the plasticity of the human central nervous system (Cotelli et al., 2011c and the discovery that during aging, the connections in the brain are not fixed but retain the capacity to change with learning.Moreover, several studies have reported enhanced cognitive performance in patients with neurological disease, following non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to specific cortical areas. The present review provides an overview of memory rehabilitation in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD with particular regard to cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory and non-invasive brain stimulation. Reviewed data suggest that in patients with memory deficits, memory intervention therapy could lead to performance improvements in memory, nevertheless further studies need to be conducted in order to establish the real value of this approach.

  17. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  18. Chemistry, Pharmacology and Health Benefits of Anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Barreca, Davide; Bellocco, Ersilia; Trombetta, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally occurring molecules belonging to the flavonoid class characterized by the presence of chromophores. Apart from their well-known antioxidant activity, they show a wide variety of health-promoting properties for human health, ranging from cytoprotective, antimicrobial and antitumour activities to neuroprotective, anti-obesity and lipidomic potential, properties for which anthocyanins have been prescribed as medicines in several countries for thousands of years. Despite this, these phytochemicals have received less attention than other flavonoids, and there is still a gap in the literature, particularly regarding pharmacological and toxicological aspects. Moreover, epidemiological evidence suggests a direct correlation between anthocyanin intake and a lower incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. In light of this, the aim of this review is to cover the current literature on anthocyanins, their biological in vitro and in vivo effects and their potential therapeutic applications, as well as their bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, all of which are essential to gain a better understanding of their biological effectiveness and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27221033

  19. [Pharmacologic therapy of depression during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, Cesario; Migliarese, Giovanni; Imperadore, Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    The pregnancy is considered to be relatively high risk period for depressive episodes in women, particularly for those with pre-existing affective disorders. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 10% to 16% of pregnant women fulfil the diagnostic criteria for major depression and on average 20% is affected by an anxiety disorder. Pharmacological treatment of depression during pregnancy, however, brings with it certainties and dilemmas. It has been reported that untreated depression is associated with impaired feto-placental function, premature delivery, miscarriage, low fetal growth and perinatal unwanted effects. On the other hand, the use of antidepressant drugs in pregnancy might be at risk of major malformations (teratogenesis), neonatal toxicity, especially withdrawal symptoms and neuropsychological-behavioural impairment. In addition, the abrupt discontinuation of antidepressants, because of fear for adverse fetal effects, exposes women to serious clinical problems, in particular the disease relapse. A number of reviews indicates that among antidepressant drugs, the older SSRIs (in particular fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram) seem to be avoided of teratogenic risks; for these reasons such drugs are nowadays considered of choice for the treatment of depression during pregnancy. Less information is available for other drugs, including triciclycs, venlafaxine, mirtazapine, bupropion, escitalopram and duloxetine. Withdrawal symptoms have been reported for all antidepressants; these symptoms, however, were self-limiting in majority of cases and had a favourable outcome. Inconclusive findings emerge, so far, from the few longitudinal studies focusing on the long-term neurodevelopment outcome in children.

  20. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  1. Pharmacology for sleep disturbance in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Gosia; Baldwin, David S; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2016-03-01

    Symptoms of sleep disturbance, particularly nightmares and insomnia, are a central feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emerging evidence suggests that specific treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbance improves other symptoms of the disorder, which in turn suggests that such disturbance may be fundamental to development and maintenance of the disorder. This mini-review focuses on pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbance in adult PTSD (specifically, studies testing the efficacy of antidepressants, adrenergic inhibiting agents, antipsychotics and benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics). We conclude that only prazosin, an adrenergic inhibiting agent, has had its efficacy established by multiple randomised controlled trials. There is also high-level evidence supporting use of eszopiclone, as well as risperidone and olanzapine as adjunct therapy. Antidepressants such as sertraline, venlafaxine and mirtazapine, benzodiazepines such as alprazolam and clonazepam and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics such as zolpidem appear ineffective in treating PTSD-related sleep disturbance. Most studies that report reduced frequency of nightmares and insomnia also report decreases in overall symptom severity. Such findings suggest that (i) sleep disruption is central to PTSD; (ii) treating sleep disruption may be an effective way to address other symptoms of the disorder and (iii) PTSD symptoms tend to cluster together in predictable ways. PMID:26856810

  2. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests

  3. Pharmacological approach to evaluate aerosol pulmonary deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Molimard, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    Drug delivery to the lung in vivo may be assessed using pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic techniques. The choice of method depends on drug class specificities. Pharmacokinetic determination of deposition to the lung for drugs without hepatic first-pass effect, such as short acting beta2-agonists, has to be done shortly after inhalation to minimize the effect of gastrointestinal absorption. For medication undergoing important hepatic first-pass metabolisation, such as inhaled corticosteroid, plasma concentration indirectly reflects bronchial deposition. The pharmacodynamic profile should be assessed through clinical effects and adverse events induced by inhaled drugs. Dose ranking of lung deposition for bronchodilators requires patient selection with sufficient bronchial obstruction to maintain room for improvement after the first dose. To assess dose effect relationship between inhaled corticosteroid, the Finney parallel line bioassay is the reference method with a study period of at least 6 weeks. Analysis of side effects with high doses of beta2-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids may also be used to compare lung deposition. Finally, pharmacological evaluation of lung deposition provides complementary information to scintigraphic studies, based on their clinical relevance. PMID:15966772

  4. A pharmacological study of chloramphenicol in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, C S; Kramer, L L; Gupta, V S; Lerner, D J; Taksas, L

    1975-04-01

    Pharmacological disposition of chloramphenicol was studied in horses. Minimum levels of the antibiotic (greater than or equal to 5 mu g/ml) in blood or plasma recommended to combat infections could not be achieved by 4.4 and 8.8 mg/kg I.V. or 30 and 50 mg/kg I.M. or 30 mg/kg oral (as palmitate salt) doses of chloramphenicol. Increasing the dose to 19.8 and 26.4 mg/kg I.V. provided such levels for about two and three hours respectively. A combination of 20 mg/kg I.V. and 30 mg/kg I.M. administered simultaneously did not provide more prolonged levels than 26.4 mg/kg I.V. alone. Chloramphenicol succinate produced higher but not more prolonged levels in blood and plasma than those produced by pure chloramphenicol. Succinate salt is very little, if at all, bound to red blood corpuscles. Plasma half life and the apparent volume of distribution of chloramphenicol in horses were determined as 0.98 hours and 0.92 L/kg, respectively. At 5-10 mu g/ml concentrations in equine plasma approximately 30 percent of the chloramphenicol is bound to plasma proteins. From these studies it is concluded that the biological half life of chloramphenicol may be too short for therapeutic application against systemic infections in horses. PMID:1125836

  5. A computational approach for exploring carbohydrate recognition by lectins in innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eAgostino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of pathogen-associated carbohydrates by a broad range of carbohydrate binding proteins is central to both adaptive and innate immunity. A large functionally diverse group of mammalian carbohydrate binding proteins are lectins, which often display calcium-dependent carbohydrate interactions mediated by one or more carbohydrate recognition domains. We report here the application of molecular docking and site mapping to study carbohydrate recognition by several lectins involved in innate immunity or in modulating adaptive immune responses. It was found that molecular docking programs can identify the correct carbohydrate binding mode, but often have difficulty in ranking it as the best pose. This is largely attributed to the broad and shallow nature of lectin binding sites, and the high flexibility of carbohydrates. Site mapping is very effective at identifying lectin residues involved in carbohydrate recognition, especially with cases that were found to be particularly difficult to characterize via molecular docking. This study highlights the need for alternative strategies to examine carbohydrate-lectin interactions, and specifically demonstrates the potential for mapping methods to extract additional and relevant information from the ensembles of binding poses generated by molecular docking.

  6. STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS DIFFERENT EVALUATION METHODS IN PHARMACOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majagi Suneel Ishwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature review suggests the importance and the need of students’ feedback which may be used to effectively reform evaluation methods in medical sciences. The present study has been conducted to obtain student’s attitude (perception of towards different evaluation methods of pharmacology. The sample consisted of second phase M.B.B.S (n=108 students. Students answered 115 items/questions designed according to Likert’s five point (in agreement with items scale. These items/questions assessed student’s attitude (perception of towards different constituents of evaluation methods of pharmacology like sessional exams, traditional practical exams, objective structured practical exam (OSPE, MCQs, long essays, viva voce, pharmacy practical exercise, experimental pharmacology exercise etc in relation with various aspects of pharmacology subject like understanding, retention, learning clinical applications, mechanism of action of drugs, pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses, prescribing drugs etc. Results of the present study indicated the degree to which each evaluation method like sessional/preliminary theory exams, traditional practical exams and OSPE helps to elicit different constituents of pharmacology subject (ex: mechanism of action of drugs, therapeutic uses etc and the reason for the same is discussed. Similarly usefulness of different constituents of theory exams (MCQs, long essay etc and practical exams (spotters, pharmacy exercises etc towards eliciting the understanding pharmacology is revealed. Present study indicated the merits and demerits of different evaluation methods used in pharmacology. If any reformations/changes have to be incorporated in the evaluation methods, outcomes of this study will definitely help towards improving/modifying the evaluation methods of teaching and learning of pharmacology subject.

  7. Trials of Pharmacological Interventions for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Waldon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is a childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorder defined by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic and often complicated by co-morbid behavioural problems. The pharmacological treatment of GTS focuses on the modulation of monoaminergic pathways within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of tics in patients with GTS, in order to provide clinicians with an evidence-based rationale for the pharmacological treatment in GTS.

  8. Eugenol: a natural compound with versatile pharmacological actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Kannissery; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2010-12-01

    Eugenol, the major constituent of clove oil, has been widely used for its anesthetic and analgesic action in dentistry. Eugenol exhibits pharmacological effects on almost all systems and our aim is to review the research work that has identified these pharmacological actions. Eugenol possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular properties, in addition to analgesic and local anesthetic activity. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the compound in humans have been studied. Eugenol has also been used as a penetration enhancer. The compound is a very promising candidate for versatile applications, and the design of new drugs based on the pharmacological effects of eugenol could be beneficial. PMID:21299140

  9. Molecular pharmacology of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2016-10-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the eighth in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G protein coupled receptors (MPGPCR) held as part of a joint meeting with the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists (ASCEPT) in Melbourne Australia from 7 to 11 December 2014. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.20/issuetoc.

  10. Pharmacology of anticoagulants used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutescu, Edith A; Burnett, Allison; Fanikos, John; Spinler, Sarah; Wittkowsky, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant drugs are the foundation of therapy for patients with VTE. While effective therapeutic agents, anticoagulants can also result in hemorrhage and other side effects. Thus, anticoagulant therapy selection should be guided by the risks, benefits and pharmacologic characteristics of each agent for each patient. Safe use of anticoagulants requires not only an in-depth knowledge of their pharmacologic properties but also a comprehensive approach to patient management and education. This paper will summarize the key pharmacologic properties of the anticoagulant agents used in the treatment of patients with VTE. PMID:26780737

  11. 77 FR 42746 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  12. 78 FR 58314 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  13. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  14. 77 FR 41790 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  15. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  16. 75 FR 10488 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  17. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  18. Complex carbohydrate utilization by the healthy human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi L Cantarel

    Full Text Available The various ecological habitats in the human body provide microbes a wide array of nutrient sources and survival challenges. Advances in technology such as DNA sequencing have allowed a deeper perspective into the molecular function of the human microbiota than has been achievable in the past. Here we aimed to examine the enzymes that cleave complex carbohydrates (CAZymes in the human microbiome in order to determine (i whether the CAZyme profiles of bacterial genomes are more similar within body sites or bacterial families and (ii the sugar degradation and utilization capabilities of microbial communities inhabiting various human habitats. Upon examination of 493 bacterial references genomes from 12 human habitats, we found that sugar degradation capabilities of taxa are more similar to others in the same bacterial family than to those inhabiting the same habitat. Yet, the analysis of 520 metagenomic samples from five major body sites show that even when the community composition varies the CAZyme profiles are very similar within a body site, suggesting that the observed functional profile and microbial habitation have adapted to the local carbohydrate composition. When broad sugar utilization was compared within the five major body sites, the gastrointestinal track contained the highest potential for total sugar degradation, while dextran and peptidoglycan degradation were highest in oral and vaginal sites respectively. Our analysis suggests that the carbohydrate composition of each body site has a profound influence and probably constitutes one of the major driving forces that shapes the community composition and therefore the CAZyme profile of the local microbial communities, which in turn reflects the microbiome fitness to a body site.

  19. Carbohydrate recognition by the antiviral lectin cyanovirin-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yukiji K; Green, David F

    2012-12-01

    Cyanovirin-N (CVN) is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity and has been the focus of extensive preclinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) energetic analysis. The simulation results strongly suggest that the observed tendency of wild-type CVN to form domain-swapped dimers is the result of a previously unidentified cis-peptide bond present in the monomeric state. The energetic analysis additionally indicates that the highest-affinity ligand for CVN characterized to date (α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man) is recognized asymmetrically by the two binding sites. Finally, we are able to provide a detailed map of the role of all binding site functional groups (both backbone and side chain) to various aspects of molecular recognition: general affinity for cognate ligands, specificity for distinct oligosaccharide targets, and the asymmetric recognition of α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man. Taken as a whole, these results complement past experimental characterization (both structural and thermodynamic) to provide the most complete understanding of carbohydrate recognition by CVN to date. The results also provide strong support for the application of similar approaches to the understanding of other protein-carbohydrate complexes. PMID:23057413

  20. GLYCAM06: a generalizable biomolecular force field. Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Karl N; Yongye, Austin B; Tschampel, Sarah M; González-Outeiriño, Jorge; Daniels, Charlisa R; Foley, B Lachele; Woods, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    A new derivation of the GLYCAM06 force field, which removes its previous specificity for carbohydrates, and its dependency on the AMBER force field and parameters, is presented. All pertinent force field terms have been explicitly specified and so no default or generic parameters are employed. The new GLYCAM is no longer limited to any particular class of biomolecules, but is extendible to all molecular classes in the spirit of a small-molecule force field. The torsion terms in the present work were all derived from quantum mechanical data from a collection of minimal molecular fragments and related small molecules. For carbohydrates, there is now a single parameter set applicable to both alpha- and beta-anomers and to all monosaccharide ring sizes and conformations. We demonstrate that deriving dihedral parameters by fitting to QM data for internal rotational energy curves for representative small molecules generally leads to correct rotamer populations in molecular dynamics simulations, and that this approach removes the need for phase corrections in the dihedral terms. However, we note that there are cases where this approach is inadequate. Reported here are the basic components of the new force field as well as an illustration of its extension to carbohydrates. In addition to reproducing the gas-phase properties of an array of small test molecules, condensed-phase simulations employing GLYCAM06 are shown to reproduce rotamer populations for key small molecules and representative biopolymer building blocks in explicit water, as well as crystalline lattice properties, such as unit cell dimensions, and vibrational frequencies. PMID:17849372

  1. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  2. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  3. Pharmacological treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Czobor, Pal

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment of negative symptoms is one of the most important unmet needs in schizophrenic disorders. Because the evidence on current psychopharmacological treatments is unclear, the authors reviewed the findings published to date by searching PubMed with the keywords negative symptoms, antipsychotics, antidepressants, glutamatergic compounds, monotherapy and add-on therapy and identifying additional articles in the reference lists of the resulting publications. The findings presented here predominantly focus on results of meta-analyses. Evidence for efficacy of current psychopharmacological medications is difficult to assess because of methodological problems and inconsistent results. In general, the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) do not appear to have good efficacy in negative symptoms, although some show better efficacy than first-generation antipsychotics, some of which also demonstrated efficacy in negative symptoms. Specific trials on predominant persistent negative symptoms are rare and have been performed with only a few SGAs. More often, trials on somewhat persistent negative symptoms evaluate add-on strategies to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Such trials, mostly on modern antidepressants, have demonstrated some efficacy. Several trials with small samples have evaluated add-on treatment with glutamatergic compounds, such as the naturally occurring amino acids glycine and D-serine and new pharmacological compounds. The results are highly inconsistent, although overall efficacy results appear to be positive. The unsatisfactory and inconsistent results can be partially explained by methodological problems. These problems need to be solved in the future, and the authors propose some possible solutions. Further research is required to identify effective treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  4. Characterization and pharmacology of the GHB receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticku, Maharaj K; Mehta, Ashok K

    2008-10-01

    Radioligand binding using [(3)H]NCS-382, an antagonist of the GHB receptor, revealed specific binding sites in the rat cerebrocortical and hippocampal membranes. Scatchard analysis of saturation isotherms revealed two different populations of binding sites. NCS-382 was about 10 times more potent than GHB in inhibiting [(3)H]NCS-382 binding. A variety of ligands for other receptors did not affect [(3)H]NCS-382 binding. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of [(3)H]NCS-382 binding revealed similar characteristics. Thus [(3)H]NCS-382, being more potent and selective, offers advantage over [(3)H]GHB as a radioligand. Unlike GHB, several analogues of GHB such as UMB68 (a tertiary alcohol analogue of GHB), UMB86 (4-hydroxy-4-napthylbutanoic acid, sodium salt), UMB72 [4-(3-phenylpropyloxy)butyric acid, sodium salt], UMB73 (4-benzyloxybutyric acid, sodium salt), UMB66 (3-chloropropanoic acid), gamma-hydroxyvaleric acid (that is, GHV, a 4-methyl-substituted analogue of GHB), 3-HPA (3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid), and ethers of 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (UMB108, UMB109, and UMB119) displaced [(3)H]NCS-382 without affecting [(3)H]GABA binding to GABA(B) receptor. Thus these compounds offer an advantage over GHB as an experimental tool. Our study, aimed at exploring the potential involvement of the GHB receptor in the pharmacology of ethanol, indicated that ethanol does not affect [(3)H]NCS-382 binding in the rat brain, thereby suggesting that ethanol does not interact directly with the GHB receptor. Our study, aimed at exploring the involvement of the GHB receptor in the pathology of succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, which is known to cause elevation of GHB levels, revealed no change in the affinity, receptor density or displacement potency as determined by using [(3)H]NCS-382 as a radioligand in Aldh5a1(-/-) vs. Aldh5a1(+/+) mouse brain.

  5. Pharmacological screening of Ageratum conyzoides L. (mentrasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia A. Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities of a water extract (WE of Ageratum conyzoides L, a plant populary known for its analgesic and anti-inflamatory properties, were studied in vivo and in vitro preparations. Oral administration (p.o. of the water extract (WE, 0.1 to 5 g/Kg to rats and mice induced quietness and reduced the spontaneous motility. the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. in mice was not altered by previous treatment with We (2 g/Kg, p.o.. The same treatment did not influence the paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran, nor did it reduce the chronic paw edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant or formaldehyde in rats. The tail flick response in immersion test and writhings induced by 0.8%acetic acid in mice were not altered by WE either. In isolated guinea-pig ilea WE (0.4 to 4 mg/ml did not alter the EC50 values of histamine or acetylcholine, but reduced the maximal response to the agonists by 20 to 50%. We (0.01 to 10 mg/ml produced tonic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle proportional to the doses, reaching a maximum of 75% relatively to the maximum obtained with histamine. Those contractions were blocked by diphenhydramine (10 nM and reduced by 32% in presence of atropine (10 nM. The results indicated that oral treatment of rodents with A. conyzoides L neither reduced the inflammatory edema nor did it decrease the reaction to pain stimuli. In vitro the extract presented an unexpected histamine-like activity characteristic of a partial agonist. The results did not confirm the popular medicinal indications of the plant.

  6. Pharmacological treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Czobor, Pal

    2015-10-01

    Effective treatment of negative symptoms is one of the most important unmet needs in schizophrenic disorders. Because the evidence on current psychopharmacological treatments is unclear, the authors reviewed the findings published to date by searching PubMed with the keywords negative symptoms, antipsychotics, antidepressants, glutamatergic compounds, monotherapy and add-on therapy and identifying additional articles in the reference lists of the resulting publications. The findings presented here predominantly focus on results of meta-analyses. Evidence for efficacy of current psychopharmacological medications is difficult to assess because of methodological problems and inconsistent results. In general, the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) do not appear to have good efficacy in negative symptoms, although some show better efficacy than first-generation antipsychotics, some of which also demonstrated efficacy in negative symptoms. Specific trials on predominant persistent negative symptoms are rare and have been performed with only a few SGAs. More often, trials on somewhat persistent negative symptoms evaluate add-on strategies to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Such trials, mostly on modern antidepressants, have demonstrated some efficacy. Several trials with small samples have evaluated add-on treatment with glutamatergic compounds, such as the naturally occurring amino acids glycine and D-serine and new pharmacological compounds. The results are highly inconsistent, although overall efficacy results appear to be positive. The unsatisfactory and inconsistent results can be partially explained by methodological problems. These problems need to be solved in the future, and the authors propose some possible solutions. Further research is required to identify effective treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:25895634

  7. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  8. Artemisinins: pharmacological actions beyond anti-malarial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wanxing Eugene; Peh, Hong Yong; Chan, Tze Khee; Wong, W S Fred

    2014-04-01

    Artemisinins are a family of sesquiterpene trioxane lactone anti-malarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. The anti-malarial action of artemisinins involves the formation of free radicals via cleavage of the endoperoxide bond in its structure, which mediate eradication of the Plasmodium species. With its established safety record in millions of malarial patients, artemisinins are also being investigated in diseases like infections, cancers and inflammation. Artemisinins have been reported to possess robust inhibitory effects against viruses (e.g. Human cytomegalovirus), protozoa (e.g. Toxoplasma gondii), helminths (e.g. Schistosoma species and Fasciola hepatica) and fungi (e.g. Cryptococcus neoformans). Artemisinins have demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest, promoting apoptosis, preventing angiogenesis, and abrogating cancer invasion and metastasis. Artemisinins have been evaluated in animal models of autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders and septic inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of artemisinins have been attributed to the inhibition of Toll-like receptors, Syk tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cγ, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, STAT-1/3/5, NF-κB, Sp1 and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. This review provides a comprehensive update on non-malarial use of artemisinins, modes of action of artemisinins in different disease conditions, and drug development of artemisinins beyond anti-malarial. With the concerted efforts in the novel synthesis of artemisinin analogs and clinical pharmacology of artemisinins, it is likely that artemisinin drugs will become a major armamentarium combating a variety of human diseases beyond malaria. PMID:24316259

  9. Pharmacological maintenance treatments of opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James

    2014-02-01

    For people seeking treatment, the course of heroin addiction tends to be chronic and relapsing, and longer duration of treatment is associated with better outcomes. Heroin addiction is strongly associated with deviant behaviour and crime, and the objectives in treating heroin addiction have been a blend of humane support, rehabilitation, public health intervention and crime control. Reduction in street heroin use is the foundation on which all these outcomes are based. The pharmacological basis of maintenance treatment of dependent individuals is to minimize withdrawal symptoms and attenuate the reinforcing effects of street heroin, leading to reduction or cessation of street heroin use. Opioid maintenance treatment can be moderately effective in suppressing heroin use, although deviations from evidence-based approaches, particularly the use of suboptimal doses, have meant that treatment as delivered in practice may have resulted in poorer outcomes than predicted by research. Methadone treatment has been 'programmatic', with a one-size-fits-all approach that in part reflects the perceived need to impose discipline on deviant individuals. However, differences in pharmacokinetics and in side-effects mean that many patients do not respond optimally to methadone. Injectable diamorphine (heroin) provides a more reinforcing medication for some 'nonresponders' and can be a valuable option in the rehabilitation of demoralized, socially excluded individuals. Buprenorphine, a partial agonist, is a less reinforcing medication with different side-effects and less risk of overdose. Not only is it a different medication, but also it can be used in a different paradigm of treatment, office-based opioid treatment, with less structure and offering greater patient autonomy.

  10. Safety Pharmacology Society: 9th Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio

    2010-03-01

    The keynote presentation of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society 9th Annual Meeting addressed the urgency, for pharmaceutical organizations, to implement strategies for effectively communicating drug risks to all concerned stakeholders and, in particular, the general public. The application of chronobiology to SP investigational protocols can improve the search of drug-induced adverse effects. The Distinguished Service Award Lecture reviewed a life-long journey through trials and tribulations in the quest of the ever-distant scientific truth. The revision process of Directive 86/609/EC for improving animal welfare should be conducted with the purpose of maintaining a fair balance among animal protection, human health and research imperatives in order to prevent the migration of pharmaceutical activities outside Europe. Additional topics of interest were the behavioral, metabolic and cardiovascular problems experienced by small animals housed at the standard laboratory temperature. A technology for the automated collection of blood and urine samples in rats implanted with telemetry sensors was presented. Non-clinical, clinical, regulatory and legal aspects of abuse liability were expertly reviewed. The 'degradability' of pharmaceuticals into environment-friendly chemicals should be an actively searched and optimized feature of future pharmaceuticals in order to prevent drug pollution of ecosystems. Transgenic and diseased animal models should be selected whenever they can facilitate the determination of drug-induced adverse effects. SP strategies to investigate the safety of drug combination products were exemplified and analyzed in depth. The future of SP was proposed to lie not in the performance of regulatory studies of pharmacodynamic nature but in developing and early applying an array of screening assays for clearing clinical candidates against known drug-induced organ function injuries. In conclusion, the 2009 SP Society annual meeting offered a wealth of

  11. Students’ perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Varsha J.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Rana, Devang A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students’ perceptions. Methodology: We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6–7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Results: Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students’ agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Students gave a favorable opinion for our feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests. PMID:27500170

  12. Clinical pharmacology of bruceantin by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, K.L.L.; Ho, D.H.W.; Benjamin, R.S.; Brown, N.S.; Bedikian, A.; Yap, B.S.; Wiseman, C.L.; Bodey, G.P.; Kramer W.

    1982-01-01

    During the phase Y clinical trial of a new antitumor agent, bruceantin, the pharmacology was studied in 18 cancer patients. The drug was infused i.v. for 3 h at doses ranging from 1 to 3.6 mg/m/sup 2/ per for 5. The plasma drug disappearance curves were biphasic, with a fast initial half-life of less than 15 min. The second half-life varied from 0.7 to 38 h among different patients and was not dose-related. The difference between the tsub(1/2..beta..) on day 1 and that on day 5 was not significant. In patients with normal liver function, the mean plasma concentration at the end of infusion was 22 ng/ml, and the value of the area under the concentration x time curve (AUC) was 111 (ng/ml)h. In contrast, in patients with abnormal liver function the corresponding values were 115 ng/ml and 830 (ng/ml)h, respectively. In addition, these patients had a slower elimination half-life of 10.9 h and a decreased total clearance of 157 ml/min/m/sup 2/, as compared with 2.6 h and 671 ml/min/m/sup 2/, respectively, for the normal group. All these differences were statistically significant. Patients with abnormal liver function developed more severe toxicity, including fever, severe nausea, vomiting, and hypotension. Two patients with severe hepatic dysfunction received a reduced dose and developed no toxicity. These results demonstrated the importance of the effects of liver dysfunction on drug disposition and showed that the dosage should be reduced in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

  13. Effect of Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate in Some Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available An acute dose of DFP equivalent to 50 per cent of the LD50 cause glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia in male albino rats. The hyperglycemic effect can atleast be partially suppressed by the administration of insulin. Under sub-acute dose equivalent to 5 per cent of the LD50, there is glycogenolysis but no change is blood glucose. The action of DFP on carbohydrate metabolism seems to be mediated through adrenal gland. DFP also increases the glycolytic rate, suppresses the LDH activity and is hepatotoxic.

  14. Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shereen N; Bowe, Whitney P

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of adult acne in the US appears to be increasing over the last few decades. But what's behind the rise: is it nature or nurture? We are well aware that genetics can strongly influence a patient's risk of developing acne. However, significant changes in germline genetic variants are unlikely to have occurred over the last 20 years. Consequently, we are forced to examine environmental variables, including diet. This review article presents the most updated evidence supporting a link between refined carbohydrates and acne. Based on the data summarized here, dermatologists should encourage their acne patients to minimize their intake of high glycemic index foods. PMID:24719062

  15. Modeling of Carbohydrate Binding Modules Complexed to Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Beckham, G. T.; Bu, L.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Bomble, Y. J.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling results are presented for the interaction of two carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) with cellulose. The family 1 CBM from Trichoderma reesei's Cel7A cellulase was modeled using molecular dynamics to confirm that this protein selectively binds to the hydrophobic (100) surface of cellulose fibrils and to determine the energetics and mechanisms for locating this surface. Modeling was also conducted of binding of the family 4 CBM from the CbhA complex from Clostridium thermocellum. There is a cleft in this protein, which may accommodate a cellulose chain that is detached from crystalline cellulose. This possibility is explored using molecular dynamics.

  16. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of isoniazid condensed with carbohydrate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia H. Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 13 compounds analogous of isoniazid condensed with carbohydrate was synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Alamar Blue susceptibility test and the activity expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90 in μg/mL. Several compounds exhibited antitubercular activity (0.31-3.12 μg/mL when compared with first line drugs such as isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIP and could be a good starting point to develop new compounds against tuberculosis.

  17. Clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnant women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. STUDY DESIGN: This was a historical cohort study of 2904 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk factors....... Information on oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcomes was collected from laboratory charts and medical records. RESULTS: The following outcomes increased significantly with increasing glucose values during the oral glucose tolerance test: shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, emergency cesarean...... diabetes, there was a graded increase in the frequency of shoulder dystocia and other maternal-fetal complications with increasing glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test....

  18. Carbohydrate counting for children with diabetes: why, what and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Gail

    2008-09-01

    Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthful diet. With type 1 or 2 diabetes, balancing insulin or medication with carbs and emphasizing carbs from fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat milk and yogurt is key. Families should learn how to follow a consistent carb meal plan or adjust insulin for carbs to help keep their child's blood glucose close to target levels. The family's RD or healthcare team can help them decide which meal planning method is best for their child. PMID:18853909

  19. Synthesis of γ-Valerolactone from Carbohydrates and its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehui

    2016-01-01

    γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is a valuable chemical intermediate that can be obtained by catalytic reduction of levulinic acid (LA) or alkyl levulinates (AL). There are many reports on the synthesis of GVL from LA or AL. However, the demand for the large-scale synthesis of GVL requires more environmentally friendly and cost-effective production processes. This article focuses on the recent advance in the synthesis of GVL from carbohydrates or lignocellulosic biomass. In addition, application of GVL as the reaction solvents, fuel additives, and as precursor for the synthesis of jet fuel and polymer monomers is also discussed. PMID:26733161

  20. Does carbohydrate supplementation enhance tennis match play performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Rodrigo Vitasovic; Capitani, Caroline Dario; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Zourdos, Michael Christopher; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion may be an interesting approach to avoid significant decrement to the tennis match performance. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effects of CHO supplementation on tennis match play performance. Methods Twelve young tennis players (18.0 ± 1.0 years; 176 ± 3.4 cm; 68.0 ± 2.3 kg; body fat: 13.7 ± 2.4%) with national rankings among the top 50 in Brazil agreed to participate in this study, which utilized a randomized, crossover, double b...

  1. A theoretical study of carbohydrates as corrosion inhibitors of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Salim M.; Ali, Nozha M. [Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Chemistry Dept.; Ali-Shattle, Elbashir E. [Tripoli Univ. (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Chemistry Dept.

    2013-08-15

    The inhibitive effect of fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose against the iron corrosion is investigated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31 G level (d) to search the relation between the molecular structure and corrosion inhibition. The electronic properties such as the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the energy of lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO), the energy gap (LUMO-HOMO), quantum chemical parameters such as hardness, softness, the fraction of the electron transferred, and the electrophilicity index are reported. The inhibition efficiency of the investigated carbohydrates follows the trend: maltose < sucrose < lactose < fructose < glucose. (orig.)

  2. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  3. Carbohydrate malabsorption in patients with non-specific abdominal complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Non-specific abdominal complaints are a considerable problem worldwide. Many patients are affected and many differential diagnoses have to be considered.Among these, carbohydrate malabsorption seems to play an important role. However, so far, only incomplete absorption of lactose is broadly accepted, while the malabsorption of fructose and sorbitol is still underestimated, although in many parts of the world it is much more frequent. Despite the success of dietary interventions in many patients, there are still a lot of unanswered questions that make further investigations necessary.

  4. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50(CA50)expression in colorectal carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa.Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa,cancer distant mucosa,cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa,and there were significant differences among them(P<0.05).The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the deg...

  5. The growth of juvenile jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense fed diets with different carbohydrate levels (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B Ulloa R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05 . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa values were found with the 18.8% carbohydrate diet. Growth performance, feed utilization parameters and the survival were the lowest with fish fed the highest carbohydrate level (35.6%. Fish body protein increased and body fat decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The body ash showed a trend similar to the body protein. It is concluded that juvenile C. managuense can grow well when fed 40% protein diets containing up to 26.5% carbohydrate.

  6. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been vastly popular for weight loss. The association between a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of 3 prepregnancy low-carbohydrate......, and it indicated closer adherence to a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern. RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using generalized estimating equations with log-binomial models. RESULTS: We documented 867 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 y follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons...... by age, parity, family history of diabetes, physical activity, or overweight status. CONCLUSIONS: A prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high protein and fat from animal-food sources is positively associated with GDM risk, whereas a prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high...

  7. Effects of non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Cesinaro, Stefano; Frazzini, Valerio; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia. PMID:25228860

  8. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature. PMID:26602678

  9. Adventures in the pharmacological analysis of P2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagura, M S; Jarvis, G E; Dougall, I G; Leff, P

    2000-07-01

    The pharmacological classification of P2 receptors owes its origin to the pioneering efforts of Geoff Burnstock and those who followed him, research that was conducted primarily in physiological experimental systems. Over recent years, the techniques of molecular biology have been increasingly applied in the study of P2 receptors while, at the same time, advances in their pharmacological analysis have been limited by a lack of potent and selective agonist or antagonist ligands. This has resulted in a classification scheme which is largely structural in nature, with relatively little contribution from pharmacology. Our endeavours in this area have been directed towards the discovery of ligands with which the pharmacological analysis and definition of P2 receptors could be advanced, the ultimate goal being the design of therapeutic agents. This article will describe some of our experiences in this challenging but rewarding area.

  10. Pharmacological treatment of depression in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    escitalopram and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, significantly improved depression and QOL compared with baseline values. In conclusion, depression is a clinical problem in patients with breast cancer. Pharmacological treatment with antidepressants may improve depression and QOL. However...

  11. Pharmacology of cell adhesion molecules of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiryushko, Darya; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    development. The majority of CAMs are signal transducing receptors. CAM-induced intracellular signalling is triggered via homophilic (CAM-CAM) and heterophilic (CAM - other counter-receptors) interactions, which both can be targeted pharmacologically. We here describe the progress in the CAM pharmacology...... focusing on cadherins and CAMs of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, such as NCAM and L1. Structural basis of CAM-mediated cell adhesion and CAM-induced signalling are outlined. Different pharmacological approaches to study functions of CAMs are presented including the use of specific antibodies......, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides. We also discuss how unravelling of the 3D structure of CAMs provides novel pharmacological tools for dissection of CAM-induced signalling pathways and offers therapeutic opportunities for a range of neurological disorders....

  12. Phyto - chemistry and pharmacology of shankapushpi - four varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, G S; Narayanan, S; Mahadevan, G

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology, Clinical studies and photochemistry of the four plants, viz., Convolvulus pluricaulis, Evolvulus alsinoides, Canscora decussate and Clitoria ternatea commonly used as the drug Shankapushphi have been reviewed here. PMID:22557606

  13. Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    OpenAIRE

    M.L.L. Ferrarese; C. R. S. Baleroni; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    1998-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos cap...

  14. Production of Single-Chain Variable-Fragments against Carbohydrate Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Fujita-Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    The production of human single-chain variable-fragments (scFvs) against carbohydrate antigens by phage display technology is seemingly a logical strategy towards the development of antibody therapeutics, since carbohydrates are self-antigens. Panning and screening of phages displaying human scFvs using a variety of neoglycolipids presenting structurally-defined carbohydrates resulted in a number of candidate phage clones as judged by cautious evaluation of DNA sequences and specific binding t...

  15. Carbohydrate dynamics in roots and rhizomes of Cirsium arvense and Tussilago farfara

    OpenAIRE

    Nkurunziza, Libère; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2010-01-01

    The information of the source-sink dynamics of carbohydrates during early growth can indicate when perennial weeds are most vulnerable to mechanical control. In this study, carbohydrate contents in the roots or rhizomes of two noxious perennial weeds, Cirsium arvense and Tussilago farfara, and basipetal translocation of photo-assimilates were measured. We used HPLC for carbohydrate measurements and 14C labelling to follow the translocation of photo-assimilates during the early growth. These m...

  16. Method Optimization for Rapid Measurement of Carbohydrates in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ductoan; Yu, Jondong; Mho, Sunil; Lee, Gwang [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Haelee; Paik, Manjeong [Sangdosijang Pharmacy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sungtae [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In conclusion, the developed HPLC coupled with ESI-MS was a powerful technique for the separation and characterization of carbohydrates by either SIM or MRM mode. The present method will be useful for the monitoring of carbohydrate profile in biological fluids from various diseases including diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia and hyperosmolar coma. Carbohydrates are one of the most abundant classes of organic compounds in nature, which not only constitute complex biomolecules in human and animals but are also distributed in plants and bacteria.

  17. Alteration of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a C-type lectin CEL-I mutant with an EPN carbohydrate-binding motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Ishimine, Tomohiro; Baba, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masanari; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro

    2013-07-01

    CEL-I is a Gal/GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. This lectin is composed of two carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) with the carbohydrate-recognition motif QPD (Gln-Pro- Asp), which is generally known to exist in galactose-specific C-type CRDs. In the present study, a mutant CEL-I with EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif, which is thought to be responsible for the carbohydrate-recognition of mannose-specific Ctype CRDs, was produced in Escherichia coli, and its effects on the carbohydrate-binding specificity were examined using polyamidoamine dendrimer (PD) conjugated with carbohydrates. Although wild-type CEL-I effectively formed complexes with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-PD but not with mannose-PD, the mutant CEL-I showed relatively weak but definite affinity for mannose-PD. These results indicated that the QPD and EPN motifs play a significant role in the carbohydrate-recognition mechanism of CEL-I, especially in the discrimination of galactose and mannose. Additional mutations in the recombinant CEL-I binding site may further increase its specificity for mannose, and should provide insights into designing novel carbohydrate-recognition proteins. PMID:23157284

  18. Flavonoid glycosides and pharmacological activity of Amphilophium paniculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Eskander, Dina M.; Grace, Mary H.; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Amany A Sleem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nothing is reported on Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth. This study aimed at investigation of chemical constituents of the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum, grown in Egypt, in addition to pharmacological evaluation. Materials and Methods: Isolation of a new compound, along with 5 known flavonoids. Pharmacological activities were carried out on different extracts of A. paniculatum leaves. Results: Identification of a new flavone glycoside, acacetin 8-C-β-D- glucopyranosy l-(1→...

  19. [Non-pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlak, Tonko; Aljinović, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Non-pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis is a mandatory part of all algorithms and recommendations for dealing with this disease. However, the belief that pharmacological therapy is much more superior to treating osteoporosis than non-pharmacological treatment is still common in the medical community. The probable reason is that pharmacological treatment can be measured and statistically analyzed, and that's why the abundance of data from controlled randomized trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews are available. Non-pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis is not so much represented in evidence based medicine (EBM) because there are a lot of different exercise protocols, different machines with different setups for applying the same models of physical therapy. So the main problem are inclusion criteria in meta-analyses or systematic reviews of patients whose data is collected using different protocols. Non-pharmacological treatment ofosteoporosis: myth or reality? Maybe we did not answer this question in fullness, but by analyzing data from the scientifically relevant data bases we can conclude that non-pharmacological treatment is an important factor in prevention of osteoporosis and part of all treatment protocols available today--almost as equally significant as pharmacological treatment. Cochrane library database and PEDro database provide EBM information that can help to identify the best types of ex- ercises and physical procedures for bone mineral density and prevention of falls. The best result in non-pharmaco- logical treatment of osteoporosis showed a combination of exercise programs that include muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic exercises, exercises with progressive resistance increase, and high-impact exercises. As for individual exercises, a non-weight-bearing high force exercise showed small but statistically significant increase in bone mineral density in femoral neck, in some scientific papers. Exercises for balance and

  20. Pharmacological characterization of social isolation-induced hyperactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia.......Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia....

  1. Pharmacological Potential of Matricaria recutita-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Matricaria recutita, once it has been called as Marticaria chamomilla, Chamomilla recutita, and Chamomilum nobile family Asteraceae. The main constituents of this plant include the terpenoids α-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Matricaria recutita shows different pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti- cancer, treatment of stress and depression, anti-allergic etc. This review focuses on the detailed chemical constituents, pharmacological activities of different parts of this plant.

  2. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  3. Pharmacological Potential of Matricaria recutita-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Gupta; Payal Mittal; Parveen Bansal; SUKHBIR L. KHOKRA; Dhirender Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Matricaria recutita, once it has been called as Marticaria chamomilla, Chamomilla recutita, and Chamomilum nobile family Asteraceae. The main constituents of this plant include the terpenoids α-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Matricaria recutita shows different pharmacological activities like anti-inflammatory, anti- cancer, treatment of stress and depression, anti-allergic etc. This review focuses on the detailed chemical constituents, pharmacological activities...

  4. Noninsulin pharmacological management of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvas Garg

    2011-01-01

    The injectable nature and other shortcomings of insulin have stimulated interest in studying the noninsulin pharmacological therapies to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review of noninsulin pharmacological therapies for the management of T1DM. For this, the following PubMed search was conducted: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy”[Mesh] Limits: Review Sort by: Publication Date. After applying various inclusion and exclusio...

  5. Citalopram--a review of pharmacological and clinical effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezchlibnyk-Butler, K; Aleksic, I; Kennedy, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide clinicians with a critical evaluation of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has been available in Canada since March 1999. DATA SOURCES: Commercial searches (MEDLINE and BiblioTech) and an "in-house" search (InfoDrug) were used to find published English-language references for clinical and preclinical publications. There was no restriction of publication dates. Primary index terms used were: pharmacological properties, receptors, pharmacolog...

  6. SACRED TULSI (OCIMUM SANCTUM L.) IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND PHARMACOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Khosla, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Scared Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) of family Lamiaceae is a wonder ayurvedic herb which is known for its tremendous medicinal properties both in traditional folklore as well as pharmacological system of medicines. Every part of the plant finds its use in one form or the other. Keeping in view the importance of the plant, an attempt has been made to review the various studies carried out in traditional system of medicine as well as modern pharmacological investigations.

  7. Stable isotopes in pharmacology studies: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, T.R.

    1986-07-01

    Stable-isotope techniques offer advantages over older methods in safety, sensitivity, specificity, and reduction in numbers of subjects required and analytic determinations for some types of pharmacology studies. In addition to their use as internal standards in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytic methods, stable isotopes have been successfully employed in studies of absorption, bioavailability, distribution, biotransformation, excretion, metabolite identification, time-dependent and dose-dependent pharmacokinetic changes, drug interactions, pharmacologic changes during pregnancy, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity. 32 references.

  8. Pharmacology of anticoagulants used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Nutescu, Edith A.; Burnett, Allison; Fanikos, John; Spinler, Sarah; Wittkowsky, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant drugs are the foundation of therapy for patients with VTE. While effective therapeutic agents, anticoagulants can also result in hemorrhage and other side effects. Thus, anticoagulant therapy selection should be guided by the risks, benefits and pharmacologic characteristics of each agent for each patient. Safe use of anticoagulants requires not only an in-depth knowledge of their pharmacologic properties but also a comprehensive approach to patient management and education. Thi...

  9. Selection of information resources for education in medical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-González, Maria Dolores; Sanchez-Vanderkast, Egbert

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacology is the foundation science of medical pharmacotherapy. Education in medical pharmacology (EP) requires the use of information resources (IR) to meet the challenge of the continuous introduction of new drugs and new educational, didactic and pedagogical theories to enhance knowledge. Hence criteria for selecting bibliographic material for EP should be clearly outlined and implemented. In this work we present a method to select IR for EP based on systems theory and focusing on the factors determining: (a) the integration of a list of recommended IR for EP; (b) the design of the acquisition list for faculty and students work; (c) the overall organization of the resources available for its optimal use and benefit in the educational process; and (d) a general strategy for assessing the impact of the bibliographic infrastructure. The proposal is based on information from: (i) lists of recommended readings in the academic program of the Pharmacology course given at the School of Medicine of UNAM in the last 30 years; (ii) the extent of discipline development measured by two indexes derived from the contents of Goodman and Gilman's "Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics" (G & G); (iii) the number of texts currently found in the collection of FM-UNAM which are classified in the section of Pharmacology using the Library of Congress Classification System (LCCS); and (iv) the comparison of academic versus standardized classification of pharmacology topics, such as Medical Subject Heading (MESH) and LCCS The importance of this proposal relates to its usefulness for EP and for other medical disciplines. PMID:16416687

  10. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishat, Sharmeen; Andreana, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs), isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses. PMID:27213458

  11. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  12. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission. PMID:18055431

  13. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen Nishat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs. Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs, isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses.

  14. The effects of marine carbohydrates and glycosylated compounds on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Recently, marine-derived carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and low molecular weight glycosylated oligosaccharides, have attracted much attention because of their numerous health benefits. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine carbohydrates exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-infection, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. The present review discusses the potential industrial applications of bioactive marine carbohydrates for health maintenance and disease prevention. Furthermore, the use of marine carbohydrates in food, cosmetics, agriculture, and environmental protection is discussed.

  15. Utilization of economical substrate-derived carbohydrates by solventogenic clostridia: pathway dissection, regulation and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2014-10-01

    Solventogenic clostridia can produce acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by using different carbohydrates. For economical reasons, the utilization of cheap and renewable biomass in clostridia-based ABE fermentation has recently attracted increasing interests. With the study of molecular microbiology and development of genetic tools, the understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in clostridia has increased in recent years. Here, we review the pioneering work in this field, with a focus on dissecting the pathways and describing the regulation of the metabolism of economical substrate-derived carbohydrates by clostridia. Recent progress in the metabolic engineering of carbohydrate utilization pathways is also described.

  16. Carbohydrates, uronic acids and alkali extractable carbohydrates in contrasting marine and estuarine sediments: Distribution, size fractionation and partial chemical characterization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.

    and Vogelsang, 2006). The dispersal of sediment in the deep sea, delivered by the rivers is due to slumping turbidity current transport along these channels and valleys. Such a river supply of carbohydrate rich terrigenous material at station BOB-3 deep... determined by HPLC- PAD. Marine Chemistry 57, 85-95. Chauhan, O.S., Vogelsang, E., 2006. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan.;#23#23#23Journal of Earth...

  17. The role of the glucose-sensing transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein pathway in termite queen fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Hanus, Robert; Poulsen, Michael; Roy, Virginie; Favier, Maryline; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille

    2016-05-01

    Termites are among the few animals that themselves can digest the most abundant organic polymer, cellulose, into glucose. In mice and Drosophila, glucose can activate genes via the transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) to induce glucose utilization and de novo lipogenesis. Here, we identify a termite orthologue of ChREBP and its downstream lipogenic targets, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. We show that all of these genes, including ChREBP, are upregulated in mature queens compared with kings, sterile workers and soldiers in eight different termite species. ChREBP is expressed in several tissues, including ovaries and fat bodies, and increases in expression in totipotent workers during their differentiation into neotenic mature queens. We further show that ChREBP is regulated by a carbohydrate diet in termite queens. Suppression of the lipogenic pathway by a pharmacological agent in queens elicits the same behavioural alterations in sterile workers as observed in queenless colonies, supporting that the ChREBP pathway partakes in the biosynthesis of semiochemicals that convey the signal of the presence of a fertile queen. Our results highlight ChREBP as a likely key factor for the regulation and signalling of queen fertility. PMID:27249798

  18. The role of the glucose-sensing transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein pathway in termite queen fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Hanus, Robert; Poulsen, Michael; Roy, Virginie; Favier, Maryline

    2016-01-01

    Termites are among the few animals that themselves can digest the most abundant organic polymer, cellulose, into glucose. In mice and Drosophila, glucose can activate genes via the transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) to induce glucose utilization and de novo lipogenesis. Here, we identify a termite orthologue of ChREBP and its downstream lipogenic targets, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. We show that all of these genes, including ChREBP, are upregulated in mature queens compared with kings, sterile workers and soldiers in eight different termite species. ChREBP is expressed in several tissues, including ovaries and fat bodies, and increases in expression in totipotent workers during their differentiation into neotenic mature queens. We further show that ChREBP is regulated by a carbohydrate diet in termite queens. Suppression of the lipogenic pathway by a pharmacological agent in queens elicits the same behavioural alterations in sterile workers as observed in queenless colonies, supporting that the ChREBP pathway partakes in the biosynthesis of semiochemicals that convey the signal of the presence of a fertile queen. Our results highlight ChREBP as a likely key factor for the regulation and signalling of queen fertility. PMID:27249798

  19. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakomori Senitiroh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kinases and proteolipids; "type 2" having O-linked mucin-type glycoprotein associated with Src family kinases; and "type 3" having N-linked integrin receptor complexed with tetraspanin and ganglioside. Different cell types are characterized by presence of specific types of glycosynapse or their combinations, whose adhesion induces signal transduction to either facilitate or inhibit signaling. E.g., signaling through type 3 glycosynapse inhibits cell motility and differentiation. Glycosynapses are distinct from classically-known microdomains termed "caveolae", "caveolar membrane", or more recently "lipid raft", which are not involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion. Type 1 and type 3 glycosynapses are resistant to cholesterol-binding reagents, whereas structure and function of "caveolar membrane" or "lipid raft" are disrupted by these reagents. Various data indicate a functional role of glycosynapses during differentiation, development, and oncogenic transformation.

  20. Synthesis of Bioinspired Carbohydrate Amphiphiles that Promote and Inhibit Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Eric L; Ballok, Alicia E; O'Toole, George A; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new class of bioinspired carbohydrate amphiphiles that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation are reported. The carbohydrate head is an enantiopure poly-amido-saccharide (PAS) prepared by a controlled anionic polymerization of β-lactam monomers derived from either glucose or galactose. The supramolecular assemblies formed by PAS amphiphiles are investigated in solution using fluorescence assays and dynamic light scattering. Dried samples are investigated using X-ray, infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, the amphiphiles are evaluated for their ability to modulate biofilm formation by the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Remarkably, from a library of eight amphiphiles, we identify a structure that promotes biofilm formation and two structures that inhibit biofilm formation. Using biological assays and electron microscopy, we relate the chemical structure of the amphiphiles to the observed activity. Materials that modulate the formation of biofilms by bacteria are important both as research tools for microbiologists to study the process of biofilm formation and for their potential to provide new drug candidates for treating biofilm-associated infections.