WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbohydrates food science

  1. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  2. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  3. Metabolomics in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics, the newest member of the omics techniques, has become an important tool in agriculture, pharmacy, and environmental sciences. Advances in compound extraction, separation, detection, identification, and data analysis have allowed metabolomics applications in food sciences including food processing, quality, and safety. This chapter discusses recent advances and applications of metabolomics in food science.

  4. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  5. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  6. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.;

    2002-01-01

    participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined......OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  7. Food, publics, science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Gwendolyn

    2010-03-01

    This paper draws attention to food as a site around which a historically particular form of public engagement has emerged. In the past decade, some of the most lively debates and policy actions for science and publics have focused on food related issues: first with BSE and subsequently with genetically modified organisms. Even though much of the literature surrounding publics and science acknowledges that the very definition of "publics" is shifting, little attention has been paid to food as a significant arena in which publics are engaging in politically motivated challenges to techno-scientific practices, policies and institutions. Taking food seriously means contextualizing publics as well as extending discursive models of democratic engagement to embrace consumer practices.

  8. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  9. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  10. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, C. K.; Rosenbaum, D.; Han, H.; Geiselman, P.; Wyatt, H; Hill, J.; Brill, C; Bailer, B.; Miller, B. V.; R. Stein; Klein, S; Foster, Gard D.

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n=134) or a LFD (n=136) for two years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated d...

  11. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  12. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with added sugar provide calories, but they lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Because they lack nutrients, these foods ... foods. In addition to calories, whole foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. By making smart food choices, you ...

  13. Proteome research in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischetsrieder, Monika; Baeuerlein, Rainer

    2009-09-01

    The proteome is the totality of proteins present in a biological sample. In contrast to the static genome, the proteome is highly dynamic, influenced by the genome and many external factors, such as the state of development, tissue type, metabolic state, and various interactions. Thus, the proteome reflects very closely the biological (and chemical) processes occurring in a system. For proteome analysis, gel based and shotgun methods are most widely applied. Because of the potential to generate a systematic view of protein composition and biological as well as chemical interactions, the application of proteome analysis in food science is steadily growing. This tutorial review introduces several fields in food science, where proteomics has been successfully applied: analysis of food composition, safety assessment of genetically modified food, the search for marker proteins for food authentication, identification of food allergens, systematic analysis of the physiological activity of food, analysis of the effects of processing on food proteins and the improvement of food quality.

  14. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  15. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is fine because they contain important vitamins and minerals. But your body rapidly digests the starch in white potatoes. This can raise your blood glucose level. Healthy carbohydrates include: Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Dietary fiber Starches in whole- ...

  16. Animal science in the context of food consumer science:

    OpenAIRE

    Pohar, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    The food consumer science as the science with the ambition to overcome the difference between food science and consumer science is presented. The major stakeholders involved are listed and the role of animal science and animal scientists within the framework of food consumer science is discoursed. The importance of animal scientists to understand the complexity of food consumer science knowledge system and need for them to broaden the scope of interest beyond the traditional area of expertise...

  17. Animal science in the context of food consumer science

    OpenAIRE

    Pohar, Jurij

    2014-01-01

    The food consumer science as the science with the ambition to overcome the difference between food science and consumer science is presented. The major stakeholders involved are listed and the role of animal science and animal scientists within the framework of food consumer science is discoursed. The importance of animal scientists to understand the complexity of food consumer science knowledge system and need for them to broaden the scope of interest beyond the traditional area of expertise...

  18. Not just fibre--the nutritional consequences of refined carbohydrate foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, K W; Emmett, P M; Henry, C L; Thornton, J R; Manhire, A; Hartog, M

    1983-01-01

    The dietary intake of 28 volunteers was assessed over two 6-week periods while they ate, alternately, a diet containing refined carbohydrate foods in commonly consumed amounts and a diet virtually devoid of such foods. The following nutritional effects of refined foods were observed: increased energy intake (except in low consumers of sugar), decreased intake of dietary fibre, and decreased intake of nearly all the vitamins and minerals recorded in tables of food composition. These effects may have harmful consequences. PMID:6302034

  19. Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates, Prebiotic Content, and Prebiotic Activity of Selected Food Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moongngarm; Trachoo, N.; N. Sirigungwan

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrate (LMWC), prebiotic, and prebiotic activity of thirteen food plants commonly consumed in Thailand. The prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS)) and LMWC content (glucose, maltose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose) were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Prebiotic activity of plant extracts (including LMWC and prebiotics) obtained from potential food plants was...

  20. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  1. Hepatic Steatosis, Carbohydrate Intake, and Food Quotient in Patients with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is steatosis related to the spontaneous carbohydrate intake in patients with NAFLD? We performed dietary records for 24 patients with NAFLD, 3 months after their liver biopsy was performed and before the deliverance of a dietary advice. The food quotient, indicator of the proportion of calories from carbohydrates, was calculated as (1.00×%  calories from carbohydrates/100 + (0.70×%  calories from lipids/100 + (0.81×%  calories from proteins/100. The associations between diet variables and steatosis% on the hepatic biopsies were tested by regression analysis, and diet variables were compared according to the presence of fibrosis. The subjects displayed a large range of steatosis, 50.5% ± 25.5 [10–90], correlated with their energy intake (1993 ± 597 kcal/d, , and food quotient (0.85 ± 0.02, , , which remained significant with both variables by a multivariate regression analysis (, . For the 17/24 patients with a hepatic fibrosis, the energy intake was lower (fibrosis: 1863 ± 503 versus others: 2382 ± 733 kcal/d, , and their food quotients did not differ from patients without fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis was related to the energy and carbohydrate intakes in our patients; the role of dietary carbohydrates was detectable in the range of usual carbohydrate intake: 32% to 58% calories.

  2. Parameter estimation in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kirk D; Mishra, Dharmendra K

    2013-01-01

    Modeling includes two distinct parts, the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem-computing y(t) given known parameters-has received much attention, especially with the explosion of commercial simulation software. What is rarely made clear is that the forward results can be no better than the accuracy of the parameters. Therefore, the inverse problem-estimation of parameters given measured y(t)-is at least as important as the forward problem. However, in the food science literature there has been little attention paid to the accuracy of parameters. The purpose of this article is to summarize the state of the art of parameter estimation in food science, to review some of the common food science models used for parameter estimation (for microbial inactivation and growth, thermal properties, and kinetics), and to suggest a generic method to standardize parameter estimation, thereby making research results more useful. Scaled sensitivity coefficients are introduced and shown to be important in parameter identifiability. Sequential estimation and optimal experimental design are also reviewed as powerful parameter estimation methods that are beginning to be used in the food science literature.

  3. Functional Food Science in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contor, L

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims.

  4. Use of Smartphones to Estimate Carbohydrates in Foods for Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jurong; Ding, Hang; McBride, Simon; Ireland, David; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Over 380 million adults worldwide are currently living with diabetes and the number has been projected to reach 590 million by 2035. Uncontrolled diabetes often lead to complications, disability, and early death. In the management of diabetes, dietary intervention to control carbohydrate intake is essential to help manage daily blood glucose level within a recommended range. The intervention traditionally relies on a self-report to estimate carbohydrate intake through a paper based diary. The traditional approach is known to be inaccurate, inconvenient, and resource intensive. Additionally, patients often require a long term of learning or training to achieve a certain level of accuracy and reliability. To address these issues, we propose a design of a smartphone application that automatically estimates carbohydrate intake from food images. The application uses imaging processing techniques to classify food type, estimate food volume, and accordingly calculate the amount of carbohydrates. To examine the proof of concept, a small fruit database was created to train a classification algorithm implemented in the application. Consequently, a set of fruit photos (n=6) from a real smartphone were applied to evaluate the accuracy of the carbohydrate estimation. This study demonstrates the potential to use smartphones to improve dietary intervention, although further studies are needed to improve the accuracy, and extend the capability of the smartphone application to analyse broader food contents. PMID:26210428

  5. Food science in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    It is particularly important for us not to lose sight of the fact that people have been around for a long time and that they achieved remarkable technical skills long before Western science was developed. An anonymous writer from the Food and Agriculture Organization has observed: "It is a commonplace that the fundamental discoveries which made civilization possible-fire- making, tool-making, agriculture, building, calculating, writing, money-were all apparently made outside the area which has given us the marvels of modern science" (19). The writer might well have added that it is also commonly overlooked that food technology was not suddenly developed in the 20th century but has been very much a part of the lives of people everywhere ever since they began doing more to their food than gathering it and eating it raw. Lamb's "Essay on Roast Pig" may not be an accurate account of the first conjunction of fire and food, but cooking is a rather ancient practice. Fermentation is another complicated processing technology which is a traditional part of most cultures, particularly those in warm climates-beer, yogurt, cheese, the fish pastes and sauces of Asia, the palm wine of Africa, and soy sauce, are butsome examples. Native Americans, besides accomplishing marvels in plant genetics and crop development, also developed water extraction methods for treating acorns to render the flour palatable and edible, and the alkali method of processing maize. Furthermore, they developed a cure for scurvy-by making a water extraction of pine needles which are rich in ascorbic acid-long before it was first reported by Jacques Cartier in the 16th century. Similarly, calcium-deficient diets of pregnant and nursing women were traditionally successfully supplemented by calcium-rich powdered deer antlers in northern China. Among the Chinese and Greeks, goiter was cured by eating certain kinds of seaweed centuries before the disease was traced to a lack of iodine, and Kenyans learned to

  6. Food Safety. Commodity Science Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald I. Zalewski; Skawinska, Eulalia

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses "food safety" and 'food quality' from the position of commodity and food science rather than economy. The various descriptions of both terms in literature are reviewed in connection with customer/supplier ability to evaluate food safety and quality by examination of various characteristics. Food safety has been described as opposite to food risk. Differences in perception of food risk by customer, producer/supplier and official agencies are discussed in this paper. The obj...

  7. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Marie E; Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Berčík, Přemysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A; Sievenpiper, John L; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of 'carbohydrates' and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1-2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut-brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management. PMID:23399638

  8. Bayesian solutions for food science problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper starts with an overview of some typical food-science problems. In view of the development of safe and healthy food, the use of mathematical models in food science is much needed and the use of statistics is therefore indispensable. Because of the biological variability in the raw material

  9. Nutrition and Food Science. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teaching, guide for a high school nutrition and food science course, includes introductory information about the course, course design, facilities and equipment, Future Homemakers of America, and use of the guide. The course addresses nutrition and food science from the perspective of food habits and wellness; menu planning; special dietary…

  10. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    OpenAIRE

    Latulippe, Marie E.; Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Bercik, Premysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L.; Joel FAINTUCH; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (12 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and g...

  11. Nutrition and food science go genomic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Manuela J; Wenzel, Uwe; Daniel, Hannelore

    2006-04-01

    The wealth of genomic information and high-throughput profiling technologies are now being exploited by scientists in the disciplines of nutrition and food science. Diet and food components are prime environmental factors that affect the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and this life-long interaction defines the health or disease state of an individual. For the first time the interaction of foods, and individual food constituents, with the biological systems can be defined on a molecular basis. Profiling technologies are used in basic-science applications for identifying the mode of action of foods or particular ingredients, and are similarly taken into the science-driven development of foods with a defined biofunctionality. Biomarker profiles and patterns derived from genomics applications in humans should guide nutrition and food science in developing evidence-based dietary recommendations and health-promoting foods.

  12. Bayesian solutions for food science problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Boekel, van, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper starts with an overview of some typical food-science problems. In view of the development of safe and healthy food, the use of mathematical models in food science is much needed and the use of statistics is therefore indispensable. Because of the biological variability in the raw materials on the one hand and the complex nature of foods on the other hand food-science problems are characterized by a high degree of uncertainty as well as variability. Consequently, when dealing with t...

  13. A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, highfiber food for cats with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, C.; D. Fritsch; Sixby, K.; Allen, T; Paetau-Robinson, T.; Hahn, K.

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining blood glucose concentrations and managing glycemic response is pivotal in diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the safety of a Test Food (A) high in protein (52.6% protein, DMB), low in carbohydrate (14.2% NFE, DMB), and moderate in fiber (6.18% crude fiber, DMB)compared to a Control Food (B) with similar nutrient profile except a lower fiber level (1.08% crude fiber, DMB) in maintaining weight and glycemic control in cats with stable diabetes mellitus.

  14. OMICs Technologies Tools for Food Science

    CERN Document Server

    Benkeblia, Noureddine

    2012-01-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, food and nutrition sciences have undergone a fundamental molecular transformation. New discoveries in molecular biology, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry have led to the development of new tools that are likely to revolutionize the study of food. OMICS Technologies: Tools for Food Science explores how these tools reveal the fundamental pathways and biochemical processes that drive food and nutrition sciences. In this volume, an international panel of researchers examines the rise of these new technologies--including metabolomics, metageno

  15. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives: To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation regarding their 1 carbohydrate composition, 2 viscosity and water solubility index (WSI, and 3 sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods: The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results: The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion: The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low

  16. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Latulippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011 in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1 there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2 low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3 carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4 validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5 negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6 new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7 there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load, satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management.

  17. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  18. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods.

  19. Food science instruction in undergraduate dietetic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deskins, B B; Spicher, C B

    1989-09-01

    To assess the current status of food science instruction in undergraduate dietetic education, a survey was conducted of those persons responsible for teaching this subject in 267 Plan IV and 65 Coordinated Undergraduate Programs. Responses were received from 155 institutions offering a total of 177 programs. Factors examined included the number and academic background of faculty members teaching food science, the structure of the first course in food science, the structure of advanced food science courses required or offered to undergraduate dietetic students, and perceived adequacy of course content. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents had or were candidates for doctoral degrees, and 37% had master's degrees. The results indicated that although all programs offered a beginning course in food science, the required prerequisites and level of difficulty of subject matter varied. Fifty-three percent of the programs required at least one advanced food science course. More than 95% of both beginning and advanced courses are structured to include both lecture and laboratory. Although a majority of respondents indicated satisfaction with the adequacy of course content currently being offered, many made recommendations for improvements. Other concerns included difficulty in locating textbooks and other suitable instructional materials, isolation from others teaching food science, and a lack of standards for content to be included in basic and advanced courses.

  20. Differing effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals on food hedonics in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-05-28

    Although the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on satiety are well documented, little is known about the impact of these macronutrients on food hedonics. We examined the effects of ad libitum and isoenergetic meals varying in fat and carbohydrate on satiety, energy intake and food hedonics. In all, sixty-five overweight and obese individuals (BMI=30·9 (sd 3·8) kg/m2) completed two separate test meal days in a randomised order in which they consumed high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC) foods. Satiety was measured using subjective appetite ratings to calculate the satiety quotient. Satiation was assessed by intake at ad libitum meals. Hedonic measures of explicit liking (subjective ratings) and implicit wanting (speed of forced choice) for an array of HFLC and LFHC foods were also tested before and after isoenergetic HFLC and LFHC meals. The satiety quotient was greater after ad libitum and isoenergetic meals during the LFHC condition compared with the HFLC condition (P=0·006 and P=0·001, respectively), whereas ad libitum energy intake was lower in the LFHC condition (Pfoods compared with the isoenergetic HFLC meal, which failed to suppress the hedonic appeal of subsequent HFLC foods. Therefore, when coupled with increased satiety and lower energy intake, the greater suppression of hedonic appeal for high-fat food seen with LFHC foods provides a further mechanism for why these foods promote better short-term appetite control than HFLC foods.

  1. Food Science for the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  2. The science of food structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food structuring is discussed from the viewpoints of soft matter physics and molecular gastronomy. Food is one of the most complex types of soft matter, with multiple dispersed phases and even hierarchical structure. Food structuring seems to be a kind of art, comprising a careful balance between fo

  3. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  4. Magnetic resonance in food science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging protocols suitable for obtaining quantitative maps of NMR parameters in heterogenous food materials are first considered; it is followed by a discussion of the interpretation of the NMR parameter maps in terms of mass and heat transport and associated physico-chemical changes in the food material, leading to an analysis of the effect of food microstructure on water proton relaxation and diffusion and of the molecular mechanisms of water proton relaxation in biopolymer systems. Finally, high resolution NMR protocols suitable for following composition changes in food materials are discussed. 13 fig., 86 ref

  5. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well. PMID:25571074

  6. Actual problems of research in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandke, H

    1981-01-01

    Starting from the necessary trend towards development in the field of food production, the author outlines, on the basis of current knowledge, the problems to be solved in food science. A general research conception is deduced for the essential nutrient "protein" (as an example) which is illustrated by results from studies on protein fibre and protein gel formation.

  7. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  8. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  9. National Congress of Food Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATAM is the principal promoter of the diffusion of food science and technology in Mexico with the organization of the XXVI National Congress of Food Science and Technology. Pre-Congress activities were as follow: two first on 'Food legislation in the United States of America' and the second on 'Characterization of food quality', a magisterial desk on the theme 'The challenge of food industry in front of the present Mexico', two round tables: a) Quality assurance systems and risk analysis 'Iso 9000' and b) 'Biotechnological products' and c) 'H Program'. With the ambitious program, the Congress included 234 papers divided in oral presentations and posters on subjects as: nutrition, education, toxicology, additives, gums, fruits, cereals, new products, dairy products, rheology, oleaginous, risk analysis, critical points, statistics and analysis. The foreign participant countries were Venezuela, Spain, Cuba and United States of America. Short communication. (Author)

  10. Absorption of omega-3 fats from carbohydrate and proteinaceous food matrices before and after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Barrett, Ann; Anderson, Danielle; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-05-01

    Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food matrix throughout storage could conceivably impact digestibility of the protein-based encapsulant thereby compromising n-3 bioavailability. We assessed the effect of prolonged high-temperature storage and variations in food matrix (proteinaceous or carbohydrate) on the time course and magnitude of blood fatty acids changes associated with ingestion of n-3 fortified foods. Low-protein (i.e., cake) and high-protein (i.e., meat sticks) items were supplemented with 600 mg encapsulated DHA+EPA, and frozen either immediately after production (FRESH) or after 6 months storage at 100°F (STORED). Fourteen volunteers consumed one item per week (randomized) for 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 h post-consumption were analyzed for circulating long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LCn3). There was no difference in LCn3 area under the curve between items. LCn3 in response to cakes peaked at 2-h (FRESH: 54.0 ± 16.8 μg/mL, +18%; STORED: 53.0 ± 13.2 μg/mL, +20%), while meats peaked at 4-h (FRESH: 51.9 ± 12.5 μg/mL, +22%; STORED: 53.2 ± 16.9 μg/mL, +18%). There were no appreciable differences in time course or magnitude of n-3 appearance in response to storage conditions for either food types. Thus, bioavailability of encapsulated DHA/EPA, within low- and high-protein food items, was not affected by high-temperature shelf-storage. A shelf-stable, low- or high-protein food item with encapsulated DHA/EPA is suitable for use in shelf-stable foods. PMID:25987994

  11. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  12. [Food intolerances caused by enzyme defects and carbohydrate malassimiliations : Lactose intolerance and Co].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms. There are currently various options for both diagnosis and therapy that differ notably in terms of effort, costs, and efficiency. Nutritional change and patient education are the bases of therapy. Non-observance of the trigger will result in increasing complaints and possibly even more infections, e.g., diverticula, rectal disorders, bacterial miscolonization, bile acid malabsorption). For an optimal therapy, the following sugar metabolism disorders have to be differentiated: hypolactasia versus lactose maldigestion, fructose malabsorption versus fructose overload, combined lactose and fructose intolerance, and isolated adverse reactions against sorbitol.For the medical conditions listed above, a three- or four-stage treatment regimen is recommended. Extensive dietary restrictions with regard to the relevant sugar, except for lactose, should not be maintained over a longer period of time. PMID:27188621

  13. [Food intolerances caused by enzyme defects and carbohydrate malassimiliations : Lactose intolerance and Co].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms. There are currently various options for both diagnosis and therapy that differ notably in terms of effort, costs, and efficiency. Nutritional change and patient education are the bases of therapy. Non-observance of the trigger will result in increasing complaints and possibly even more infections, e.g., diverticula, rectal disorders, bacterial miscolonization, bile acid malabsorption). For an optimal therapy, the following sugar metabolism disorders have to be differentiated: hypolactasia versus lactose maldigestion, fructose malabsorption versus fructose overload, combined lactose and fructose intolerance, and isolated adverse reactions against sorbitol.For the medical conditions listed above, a three- or four-stage treatment regimen is recommended. Extensive dietary restrictions with regard to the relevant sugar, except for lactose, should not be maintained over a longer period of time.

  14. The Department of Food Science at Aarhus University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Dept. of Food Science at Aarhus University is all about food and food quality. Everyone has an expertise in food whether they are focused on taste, health-promoting qualities, sustainable food production or developing new food products. At Dept. of Food Science we carry out research on a high...... professional level in food quality and composition in the entire food chain from field to fork....

  15. [Determination of individual purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate-rich food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassek, E; Montag, A

    1987-05-01

    The following method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate rich food: The bases were liberated from nucleic acids, nucleotides or nucleosides by acid hydrolysis in a pressure digestion vessel. A complete liberation without losses of purine bases occurs upon hydrolysis for 15 min at 240 degrees C with trifluoroacetic and formic acids (1+1; V + V), pyrimidine bases need 45 min at 240 degrees C. The products arising from side reactions (such as hydroxymethylfurfural from hexoses and furfural from pentoses) could be removed from the hydrolysate by extraction with dichlormethane. The liberated bases could be separated upon stepwise elution by cation exchange chromatography. They were detected and determined by UV-measurements, continuously monitoring at lambda = 260 nm, and integrating electronically. The evaluation was carried out by a method with internal standard. PMID:3604458

  16. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  17. Food choices, perceptions of healthiness, and eating motives of self-identified followers of a low-carbohydrate diet

    OpenAIRE

    Jallinoja, Piia; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Kahma, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-carbohydrate (LC) diets have gained substantial media coverage in many Western countries. Little is, however, known about the characteristics of their followers.Objective: The article analyses how those who report following an LC diet differ from the rest of the population in their background, food choices, weight reduction status, as well as food-related perceptions and motives. The data are a part of the Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population survey c...

  18. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  19. Food Science & Technology. Instructor Guide. Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip

    This packet contains an instructor curriculum guide and a student reference book for a course in food science and technology. The 4-unit curriculum contains 23 lessons. The instructor's guide contains the following components of a unit of instruction: objectives, competencies, motivational techniques, teaching procedures, other activities,…

  20. Development of a Smartphone Application to Capture Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Contents of Daily Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouri, Omar; Place, Jerome; Traverso, Magali; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Renard, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meal lipids (LIP) and proteins (PRO) may influence the effect of insulin doses based on carbohydrate (CHO) counting in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We developed a smartphone application for CHO, LIP, and PRO counting in daily food and assessed its usability in real-life conditions and potential usefulness. Methods: Ten T1D patients used the android application for 1 week to collect their food intakes. Data included meal composition, premeal and 2-hour postmeal blood glucose, corrections for hypo- or hyperglycemia after meals, and time for entering meals in the application. Meal insulin doses were based on patients’ CHO counting (application in blinded mode). Linear mixed models were used to assess the statistical differences. Results: In all, 187 meals were analyzed. Average computed CHO amount was 74.37 ± 31.78 grams; LIP amount: 20.26 ± 14.28 grams and PRO amount: 25.68 ± 16.68 grams. Average CHO, LIP, and PRO contents were significantly different between breakfast and lunch/dinner. The average time for meal entry in the application moved from 3-4 minutes to 2.5 minutes during the week. No significant impact of LIP and PRO was found on available blood glucose values. Conclusion: Our study shows CHO, LIP, and PRO intakes can be easily captured by an application on smartphone for meal entry used by T1D patients. Although LIP and PRO meal contents did not influence glucose levels when insulin doses were based on CHO in this pilot study, this application could be used for further investigation of this topic, including in closed-loop conditions. PMID:26424241

  1. Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates, Prebiotic Content, and Prebiotic Activity of Selected Food Plants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moongngarm

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the content of Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrate (LMWC, prebiotic, and prebiotic activity of thirteen food plants commonly consumed in Thailand. The prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS and LMWC content (glucose, maltose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Prebiotic activity of plant extracts (including LMWC and prebiotics obtained from potential food plants was evaluated through cell density of Lactobacillus acidophilus grown on the extracts, commercial inulin, FOS, and glucose relative to that of Escherichia coli grown on similar media cultures. The results indicated that garlic contained significantly highest of inulin with the amount of 41.72% dry weight followed by shallot (33.22 %, and onion (27.17 % whereas only small amount of inulin was detected in sweet potato, white radish, cassava, and yam bean (0.42-2.14%. There were no inulin and FOS found in rice. In the study on LMWC content, shallot contained the highest concentration of sucrose (11.42% and glucose (2.91% followed by onion. There were no maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose found in the bulbs and root/tuber crops studied, whilst the significant concentrations were observed in the germinated rice. For the study on prebiotic activity, Lactobacillus acidophilus grown on the extracts from onion, shallot, and garlic indicated the highest prebiotic activity scores comparable to that of commercial inulin while the prebiotic activity score of germinated rice were lowest and close to zero (0.17 and 0.23 in germinated non waxy and waxy rice, respectively.

  2. Bio-Refining of Carbohydrate-Rich Food Waste for Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Tuong Nguyen Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global dependence on finite fossil fuel-derived energy is of serious concern given the predicted population increase. Over the past decades, bio-refining of woody biomass has received much attention, but data on food waste refining are sorely lacking, despite annual and global deposition of 1.3 billion tons in landfills. In addition to negative environmental impacts, this represents a squandering of valuable energy, water and nutrient resources. The potential of carbohydrate-rich food waste (CRFW for biofuel (by Rhodotorulla glutinis fermentation and biogas production (by calculating theoretical methane yield was therefore investigated using a novel integrated bio-refinery approach. In this approach, hydrolyzed CRFW from three different conditions was used for Rhodotorulla glutinis cultivation to produce biolipids, whilst residual solids after hydrolysis were characterized for methane recovery potential via anaerobic digestion. Initially, CRFW was hydrolysed using thermal- (Th, chemical- (Ch and Th-Ch combined hydrolysis (TCh, with the CRFW-leachate serving as a control (Pcon. Excessive foaming led to the loss of TCh cultures, while day-7 biomass yields were similar (3.4–3.6 g dry weight (DW L−1 for the remaining treatments. Total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content of R. glutinis cultivated on CRFW hydrolysates were relatively low (~6.5% but quality parameters (i.e., cetane number, density, viscosity and higher heating values of biomass extracted biodiesel complied with ASTM standards. Despite low theoretical RS-derived methane potential, further research under optimised and scaled conditions will reveal the potential of this approach for the bio-refining of CRFW for energy recovery and value-added co-product production.

  3. Virginia Tech recognized for world-class food science program

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) has reaccredited the undergraduate curriculum of Virginia Tech's Department of Food Science and Technology, reaffirming the department's place as a leader in contributing to food quality, safety, marketability, and availability.

  4. The carbohydrates of Phaeocystis and their degradation in the microbial food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Buma, Anita G. J.; van Rijssel, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquity and high productivity associated with blooms of colonial Phaeocystis makes it an important contributor to the global carbon cycle. During blooms organic matter that is rich in carbohydrates is produced. We distinguish five different pools of carbohydrates produced by Phaeocystis. Like a

  5. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of fo...

  6. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  7. Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is…

  8. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the Foo...

  9. Wholeness and primary and secondary food structure effects on in vitro digestion patterns determine nutritionally distinct carbohydrate fractions in cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Suman; Monro, John

    2012-12-01

    Starchy foods of differing structure, including bakery products, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pulses were digested in vitro. Bakery products and processed breakfast cereals with little resilient structure yielded large amounts of rapidly available carbohydrate (RAC), less slowly digested starch (SDS) and little inaccessible digestible starch (IDS) (70:22:8%). Partially processed grains, such as rolled oats contained an increased proportion of SDS (55:38:7%). Pastas, being dense starch structures digested more gradually to completion by superficial erosion, yielding approximately equal proportions of RAC and SDS but little IDS (43:52:4%). Pulses, which retained their cellular morphology, digested more linearly yielding a lower proportion of RAC, a larger proportion of SDS and more IDS (9:69:22%). Preservation of native "primary" structure, and use of processing to create "secondary" structure, are both means by which wholeness, in the sense of intactness, can be used to influence carbohydrate digestion to make foods of lower glycaemic impact.

  10. Food physics as an important part of food science and applied physics

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the following topics: main fields of food science and applied physics, food physics as a new interdisciplinary field of science, important parts of food physics,some special questions (e.g. nondestructive testing, radiation methods) of food physics.

  11. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes or non-nutritive sweeteners. They can be used to sweeten food and drinks for less calories and carbohydrate when they replace sugar. Sugar and Desserts With diabetes, it's important to ...

  12. Food science and nutrition: the gulf between rich and poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, J H

    1982-06-18

    The people of economically developed countries benefit greatly from modern food science. They are protected from food contamination, have access to a great variety of food, and need spend little time preparing it. The poor in developing countries enjoy few of the benefits of food science. Their diets are often nutritionally deficient and they spend many hours each day processing their food and searching for wood with which to cook it. In most tropical countries food losses between harvest of slaughter and eventual consumption are inestimable. Efforts to improve post-harvest food systems in developing countries require the attention and ingenuity of many scientific disciplines and the support of all development agencies.

  13. Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Anna Szajkowska and Bernd van der Meulen analyse in their contribution, Science Based Governance? EU Food Regulation Submitted to Risk Analysis, the scope of application of risk analysis and the precautionary principle in EU food safety regulation. To what extent does this technocratic, science-base

  14. Food Science and Technology. Teacher's Instructional Guide [and] Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This reference book and teacher's instructional guide are intended for use in one- and two-year food science and technology programs for Texas high school students. The reference book provides information needed by employees in the food science and technology occupational area. Each chapter includes the following components: (1) a list of the…

  15. Training Teachers to Use Food to Teach Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich-Rogers, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In January 2006, every science department chair in U.S. public, private, and parochial high schools received information on food science, including a DVD, poster, and experiment guide developed by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), IFT Foundation, and Discovery Education. To promote the experiments and to encourage implementation of the…

  16. Implementation of Real-World Experiential Learning in a Food Science Course Using a Food Industry-Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Francine H.; Eren, Fulya

    2016-01-01

    Success skills have been ranked as the most important core competency for new food science professionals to have by food science graduates and their employers. It is imperative that food science instructors promote active learning in food science courses through experiential learning activities to enhance student success skills such as oral and…

  17. Functional food science in Japan: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S

    2000-01-01

    In 1984, a new science related to functional food was initiated by a National Project team under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education and Science. It was followed by a great many academic and industrial studies to occupy a central position in the field of food and nutritional sciences. In 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare established a policy of "Foods for Specified Health Uses" (FOSHU) by which health claims of some selected functional foods are legally permitted. Up to now (November 22. 1999), 167 FOSHU products have been born. Since the time (1984) when the concept of functional food" was proposed, it seems that the science in Japan has been progressing along, among others, a unique path of development. The uniqueness is seen in the development of functional foods by minimizing undesirable as well as maximizing desirable food factors. Hypoallergenic foods, developed from their materials by removing allergens, offer a good example. Another characteristic may be found in the field of sensory science which aims at elucidating a molecular logic of the senses of taste and smell in reference to their effects on physiological systems in the body. The paper discusses some characteristics of functional food science in Japan, with special emphasis on these topics.

  18. Science of Food and Cooking: A Non-Science Majors Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Bachman, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the science of food and cooking has been observed in our popular literature and media. As a result of this, a new non-science majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, is being taught at our institution. We cover basic scientific concepts, which would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the…

  19. The Art and Science of Food Garniture

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangi, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine whether food garnishing plays any role in the meal in order to justify garniture’s essence in a meal and its value in evaluating meal experience. Food garnishing art has been used for years in many food establishments. As a matter of fact it is a topic studied in culinary school. Food presentation is also a highlight of many Food TV shows, food magazines books and many culinary journals. However, the intrinsic value of garnishing and meal presentati...

  20. The Regulation of Food Science and Technology Professions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Costa; Sonja Smole Možina; Paola Pittia

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST) degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professi...

  1. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food.

  2. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

  3. Applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs hold a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in the field.

  4. Food science symposium: a national food irradiation forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national food irradiation forum was held to further promote the use of irradiation for food applications. This offered opportunity for the Department of National Health to announce new legislation for the labelling of irradiated foodstuffs. Subjects which dominated the proceedings included the implementation of labelling legislation and consumer education; cost implications and commercialisation of radurisation; the increasing trend towards the radurisation of processed foodstuffs as opposed to fresh and the future of food irradiation in South Africa. The safety of the irradiation process was stressed. The forum came to the conclusion that South Africa has this technology which has the government's stamp of approval and it is now up to the food industry, the Consumer Council, etc., to educate consumers into realising that they are buying quality products - and that the Radura symbol is a symbol of quality

  5. Careers that Combine Culinary and Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, Michelle

    Imagine yourself perusing the aisles of your local grocery store. You head down the frozen food section and, being a cost-conscious shopper with little to no time to cook, you choose a seemingly delectable heat-and-serve meal of grilled chicken medallions and sautéed spinach doused in a mushroom sauce. Taking a closer look at the bag, you ask yourself, is this a delicious food concoction of culinary art or of food technology?

  6. Liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T Matthew; Davidson, P Michael; Bruce, Barry D; Weiss, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Liposomes, spherical bilayer vesicles from dispersion of polar lipids in aqueous solvents, have been widely studied for their ability to act as drug delivery vehicles by shielding reactive or sensitive compounds prior to release. Liposome entrapment has been shown to stabilize encapsulated, bioactive materials against a range of environmental and chemical changes, including enzymatic and chemical modification, as well as buffering against extreme pH, temperature, and ionic strength changes. Liposomes have been especially useful to researchers in studies of various physiological processes as models of biological membranes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Industrial applications include encapsulation of pharmaceuticals and therapeutics, cosmetics, anti-cancer and gene therapy drugs. In the food industry, liposomes have been used to deliver food flavors and nutrients and more recently have been investigated for their ability to incorporate food antimicrobials that could aid in the protection of food products against growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review we briefly introduce key physicochemical properties of liposomes and review competing methods for liposome production. A survey of non-agricultural and food applications of liposomes are given. Finally, a detailed up-to-date summary of the emerging usage of liposomes in the food industry as delivery vehicles of nutrients, nutraceuticals, food additives, and food antimicrobials is provided.

  7. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  8. Learning Styles of Mexican Food Science and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    People have different learning styles that are reflected in different academic strengths, weaknesses, skills, and interests. Given the almost unlimited variety of job descriptions within food science and engineering, it is safe to say that students with every possible learning style have the potential to succeed as food scientists and engineers.…

  9. Nano-Science-Engineering-Technology Applications to Food and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Wang, Zheng; Chaudhry, Qasim; Park, Hyun Jin; Juneja, Lekh R

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology are applied to Food and Nutrition. Various delivery systems include nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes. The nanoscale systems have advantages, such as higher bioavailabitity, and other physicochemical properties. The symposium will provide an overview of the formulation, characterization, and utilization of nanotechnology-based food and nutrition.

  10. New analytical techniques in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, E; Cifuentes, A

    2001-09-01

    In this review, some of the latest analytical techniques that are being used for the study and characterization of food are examined. This work intends to provide an updated overview (including works published up to June 1999) on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in food analysis. Some future developments of these systems and their foreseeable application in food characterization are also discussed. The reviewed techniques are those based on spectroscopic, biological, separation, and electrochemical procedures. Moreover, some relevant facts on new systems for sample preparation and on-line couplings are also given.

  11. Toward practical definitions of quality for food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, H A

    2000-01-01

    A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that are common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology.

  12. Toward practical definitions of quality for food science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner, Allan

    2000-01-01

    A new practical approach to developing workable definitions of quality is presented to overcome the numerous semantic and conceptual difficulties that an common with the use of the word quality in food science. This approach links the concept of quality, through a general definition, by adding...... quality, and the concept quality, in food science and technology....... the missing link of specific definitions related to measurable attributes and properties determined by standard methods to provide values that can be used to evaluate foods or to set specifications. It is compatible with control, assurance, HACCP, regulatory, TQM, and other normal uses of the both the word...

  13. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S J; Sun, X; Litchfield, J B

    1996-04-01

    The physical and chemical changes that occur in foods during growth, harvest, processing, storage, preparation, and consumption are often very difficult to measure and quantify. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a pioneering technology, originally developed in the medical field, that is now being used in a large number of disciplines to study a wide variety of materials and processes. In food science, MRI techniques allow the interior of foods to be imaged noninvasively and nondestructively. These images can then be quantified to yield information about several processes and material properties, such as mass and heat transfer, fat and ice crystallization, gelation, water mobidity, composition and volume changes, food stability and maturation, flow behavior, and temperature. This article introduces the fundamental principles of MRI, presents some of the recent advances in MRI technology, and reviews some of the current applications of MRI in food science research.

  14. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  15. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of diet foods. These foods may contain extra sugar as a substitute for fat calories. Try to include your child or teen as you evaluate and select healthy carbohydrate-containing foods. With ... blood sugar. By taking a smart approach to balancing carbohydrates, ...

  16. Food science and technology students win second place in national food product competition

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's leading food ingredient producers has awarded students in Virginia Tech's Department of Food Science and Technology $5,000 for their creation of a low-calorie, gourmet dessert. The Sweetzza, a frozen white chocolate and raspberry dessert pizza, earned them a second-place Danisco Knowledge Award.

  17. A method for assessing real time rates of dissolution and absorption of carbohydrate and other food matrices in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, R G; Sequeira, I R; Hardacre, A K; Reynolds, G

    2016-06-15

    We prepared pasta of differing physical dimensions but identical chemical composition that contained two monosaccharide probes (lactulose and mannitol) that are absorbed passively and promptly excreted in urine. We showed that the rates of their liberation from the pasta under simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions largely depended upon the rate of digestion of the starchy matrix. We showed, in 20 female subjects, that excretion of mannitol was slower from the pasta with the larger particle size. Hence, after consumption of either the powdered pasta or the simple solution of probe sugars, the mass of mannitol excreted between 1 and 2½ hours was greater than that excreted between 2½ and 4 hours. However these masses did not differ significantly after consumption of the pasta pellets. These differences were not reflected in the concurrent patterns of variation in either serum glucose or insulin taken over 120 minutes, their levels being similar for pasta pellets and powder with their peak values occurring synchronously during the first hour. Hence feeding test foods impregnated with lactulose and mannitol probes provided a reproducible and practical means of assessing the timing of digestion of the carbohydrate matrix and showed that this was more protracted than suggested by post prandial glucose levels. Further, the transit times calculated on a basis of the ratios of the two marker sugars could identify that the prolongation of digestion of larger particles was not accompanied by retention of digesta in particular segments of the gut. PMID:27228950

  18. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakanikas

    Full Text Available Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  19. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  20. Microfluidics: an emerging technology for food and health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gisela; Lee, Abraham P

    2010-03-01

    Microfluidics is an emerging technology with the potential to streamline workflows and processes in the food and health sciences. Because of extreme miniaturization, less reagent consumption and more efficient sample-to-answer protocols are not only attainable but in many cases demonstrated. In this article, we present some key examples of relevant research at the Micro/Nano Fluidics Fundamentals Focus (MF3) Center that has direct applications in food, environmental, and physiological health monitoring.

  1. Food Science Education and the Cognitive Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that the traditional view of teaching, that the teacher's responsibility is to present information that students are solely responsible for learning, has been rendered untenable by cognitive science research in learning. The teacher can have a powerful effect on student learning by teaching not only content, but how to…

  2. Nutritional translation blended with food science: 21st century applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Peterson, Devin G; Singh, R Paul; Schwartz, Steven J; Freedman, Marjorie R

    2012-11-01

    This paper, based on the symposium "Real-World Nutritional Translation Blended With Food Science," describes how an integrated "farm-to-cell" approach would create the framework necessary to address pressing public health issues. The paper describes current research that examines chemical reactions that may influence food flavor (and ultimately food consumption) and posits how these reactions can be used in health promotion; it explains how mechanical engineering and computer modeling can study digestive processes and provide better understanding of how physical properties of food influence nutrient bioavailability and posits how this research can also be used in the fight against obesity and diabetes; and it illustrates how an interdisciplinary scientific collaboration led to the development of a novel functional food that may be used clinically in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  3. 78 FR 13348 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration Advisory... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Science Board to the Food and... that a meeting of the Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration would be held on February...

  4. Considerations for Nanosciences in Food Science and Nutrition: "Enhanced Food Properties".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Ismail H; Mutlu, Hayrettin; Algıngil, Selcuk; Dincerler, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The agro-food industries are one of the biggest manufacturing sectors worldwide with a turnover of US$4 trillion per year. Within the last decades, nanoscience has opened-up fantastic ways to challenge new sub-universes for exploring the interactions between physical, chemical and biological systems as well as agro-food and nutrition sectors. Among these potentials, there is the enhancement of food properties and constituents such as nanoparticulate delivery systems, food safety and food biosecurity. In the recent years, many patents were launched for edible coating agents, essential oils and emulsifiers, including agrochemical active ingredients, nanomaterials for agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, and smart packaging materials. The aim of this review was to search for the recent applications of nanoscience in the agro-food science and nutrition area, including the launched patents in this field. PMID:25981496

  5. Considerations for Nanosciences in Food Science and Nutrition: "Enhanced Food Properties".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Ismail H; Mutlu, Hayrettin; Algıngil, Selcuk; Dincerler, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The agro-food industries are one of the biggest manufacturing sectors worldwide with a turnover of US$4 trillion per year. Within the last decades, nanoscience has opened-up fantastic ways to challenge new sub-universes for exploring the interactions between physical, chemical and biological systems as well as agro-food and nutrition sectors. Among these potentials, there is the enhancement of food properties and constituents such as nanoparticulate delivery systems, food safety and food biosecurity. In the recent years, many patents were launched for edible coating agents, essential oils and emulsifiers, including agrochemical active ingredients, nanomaterials for agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, and smart packaging materials. The aim of this review was to search for the recent applications of nanoscience in the agro-food science and nutrition area, including the launched patents in this field.

  6. 77 FR 21784 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  7. 78 FR 6332 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  8. 75 FR 4407 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  9. 78 FR 30317 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  10. 77 FR 51031 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  11. 76 FR 72953 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration (Science Board). General Function of the Committee: The Science Board provides advice primarily to the Commissioner of...

  12. Food-Based Science Curriculum Yields Gains in Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraway-Stage, Virginia; Hovland, Jana; Showers, Carissa; Díaz, Sebastián; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students may be receiving less than an average of 4?hours of nutrition instruction per year. Integrating nutrition with other subject areas such as science may increase exposure to nutrition education, while supporting existing academics. Methods: During the 2009-2010 school year, researchers implemented the Food, Math, and Science…

  13. Research on Food Science and Technology Innovation Based on National Food Security: A Case Study of Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingfang; YANG; Junying; WEI

    2015-01-01

    Based on the background of national food security,this paper analyzes the current situation of food production in Hubei Province that except food yields,overall production situation is not good. Through the food production,storage and circulation,this paper describes the role of food science and technology innovation in food security,and further points out the problems of food science and technology innovation system in Hubei Province,such as disconnection between food science and technology innovation research and food production as well as economic development,backward management system failing to adapt to the needs of agricultural transformation,and low conversion rate of food scientific and technological innovation. Based on this,this paper sets forth the recommendations for food security in Hubei Province.

  14. Concepts and strategy of functional food science: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2000-06-01

    Recent knowledge supports the hypothesis that, beyond meeting nutrition needs, diet may modulate various functions in the body and play detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases. Concepts in nutrition are expanding from emphasis on survival, hunger satisfaction, and preventing adverse effects to emphasizing the use of foods to promote a state of well-being and better health and to help reduce the risk of disease. In many countries, especially Japan and the United States, research on functional foods is addressing the physiologic effects and health benefits of foods and food components, with the aim of authorizing specific health claims. The positive effects of a functional food can be either maintaining a state of well-being and health or reducing the risk of pathologic consequences. Among the most promising targets for functional food science are gastrointestinal functions, redox and antioxidant systems, and metabolism of macronutrients. Ongoing research into functional foods will allow the establishment of health claims that can be translated into messages for consumers that will refer to either enhanced function or reduction of disease risk. Only a rigorous scientific approach that produces highly significant results will guarantee the success of this new discipline of nutrition. This presents a challenge for the scientific community, health authorities, and the food industry.

  15. Science, safety, and trust: the case of transgenic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Lucia; Karbarz, Małgorzata; Siipi, Helena

    2013-02-01

    Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a few exceptions, like the most renowned "Pusztai affair" and the recent "Seralini case." These latter studies have been disregarded by the scientific community, based on incorrect experimental designs and statistic analysis. Such contradictory results show the complexity of risk evaluation, and raise concerns in the citizen-consumers against the GM food. A thoughtful consideration by scientific community and decision makers of the moral values that are present in risk evaluation and risk management should be the most trustable answer to citizen-consumers to their claim for clear and definitive answers concerning safety/un-safety of GM food.

  16. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat.

  17. Antioxidants in foods: state of the science important to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Kong, Ah-Ng; Hintze, Korry J; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Ji, Li Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-07-13

    Antioxidant foods and ingredients are an important component of the food industry. In the past, antioxidants were used primarily to control oxidation and retard spoilage, but today many are used because of putative health benefits. However, the traditional message that oxidative stress, which involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is the basis for chronic diseases and aging is being reexamined. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS exert essential metabolic functions and that removal of too many ROS can upset cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic disease. It is imperative that the food industry be aware of progress in this field to present the science relative to foods in a forthright and clear manner. This may mean reexamining the health implications of adding large amounts of antioxidants to foods.

  18. The Regulation of Food Science and Technology Professions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professions requiring higher education qualifications in the European countries. The research was carried out by collecting specific information on regulated professions by contacting unions, professional associations, public servant categories/professions, and by visiting national and EU websites.  The data collected for each regulated profession were: country, training/education required, date of implementation of regulation, professional training (if required, capability test (if required and acts required by law to be signed by a regulated professional. Only professions that required a higher education diploma were included in this search. Few countries were found to have a regulated profession in FST, in particular: Food Engineering (Turkey, Food Technologist (Greece, Iceland, Italy and Slovenia, and Oenologist (Italy, Portugal and Spain. FST regulated professions in Europe are thus scarce and have a rather limited history. The Food Technologist in Italy and the Food Engineer in Turkey were found to be the only completely regulated professions found in Europe. Food and professional regulation have been evolved over the years and raised the debate on the regulation of FST professions. Academia as well as other policymakers has to further contribute to this discussion to keep high the standards for quality of education and training of the qualified workforce and professionals in the food sector.

  19. The social construction of competence: Conceptions of science and expertise among proponents of the low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauho, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The article looks at conceptions of science and expertise among lay proponents of the low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in Finland. The research data consist of comments on a webpage related to a debate on the health dangers of animal fats screened in Finnish national television in autumn 2010. The article shows that contrary to the prevailing image advocated by the national nutritional establishment, which is based on the deficit model of public understanding of science, the low-carbohydrate high-fat proponents are neither ignorant about scientific facts nor anti-science. Rather, they express nuanced viewpoints about the nature of science, the place of individual experience in nutritional recommendations and the reliability of experts. Inspired by discussions on the social construction of ignorance, the article argues that the low-carbohydrate high-fat proponents are engaged in what it callsthe social construction of competencewhen they present their position as grounded in science and stylize themselves as lay experts.

  20. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25326609

  1. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate.

  2. Historical perspective of the Maillard reaction in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finot, Paul-André

    2005-06-01

    Maillard's paper of 1912 describing the reaction between amino acids and sugars is both innovative and visionary. It provides original and still-valuable data on the chemistry of a new reaction and foresees its involvement in many scientific and biological domains, even in human pathology. This paper was ignored by the scientific community until 1941. In 1948 the Maillard reaction was definitely recognized as being responsible for the browning and loss of nutritive value of heated milk powders. There was then a continuous increase in papers on the chemistry of this complex reaction to identify its various pathways: in food science, to evaluate the influence of reaction parameters (pH, T degrees , time, sugar reactivity, concentration of the reagents, water activity, glass transition temperature) on the evolution of the reaction and on changes in food quality; in nutrition, to quantify the loss of bioavailability of essential amino acids; on the metabolism of the reaction products and on the physiological effects of the ingested Maillard reaction products. The significant scientific advances and the key persons and pioneers who contributed much to the understanding of the Maillard reaction are presented. The food industry is directly concerned with the occurrence of this reaction in processed foods and contributed significantly by its own research to understanding the phenomena and to optimizing the processes and conditions of food preparation in order to preserve the nutritional, safety, and organoleptic qualities of foods.

  3. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  4. Application of ESR spin label oximetry in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Ting; Yin, Jun-Jie; Lo, Y Martin

    2011-12-01

    Lipid oxidation attributed to the presence of oxygen has long been a focal area for food science research due in early years mainly to its broad impact on the quality and shelf stability. The need to effectively strategize interventions to detect and eventually eliminate lipid oxidation in food remains as evidence on nutritional and health implications continue to accumulate. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin label oximetry has been shown capable of detecting dissolved oxygen concentration in both liquid and gaseous phases based on the collision between oxygen and stable free radicals. This review aimed to summarize not just the principles and rationale of ESR spin label oximetry but also the wide spectrum of ESR spin label oximetry applications to date. The feasibility to identify in very early stage oxygen generation and consumption offers a promising tool for controlling lipid oxidation in food and biological systems.

  5. The association between carbohydrate-rich foods and risk of cardiovascular disease is not modified by genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia as determined by 80 validated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sonestedt

    Full Text Available It is still unclear whether carbohydrate consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Genetic susceptibility might modify the associations between dietary intakes and disease risk.The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, potatoes, whole grains, refined grains, cookies and cakes, sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of incident ischemic CVD (iCVD; coronary events and ischemic stroke, and whether these associations differ depending on genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia.Among 26,445 individuals (44-74 years; 62% females from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 2,921 experienced an iCVD event during a mean follow-up time of 14 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method, and clinical risk factors were measured in 4,535 subjects. We combined 80 validated genetic variants associated with triglycerides and HDL-C or LDL-C, into genetic risk scores and examined the interactions between dietary intakes and genetic risk scores on the incidence of iCVD.Subjects in the highest intake quintile for whole grains had a 13% (95% CI: 3-23%; p-trend: 0.002 lower risk for iCVD compared to the lowest quintile. A higher consumption of foods rich in added sugar (sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages had a significant cross-sectional association with higher triglyceride concentrations and lower HDL-C concentrations. A stronger positive association between a high consumption of sugar and sweets on iCVD risk was observed among those with low genetic risk score for triglycerides (p-interaction=0.05.In this prospective cohort study that examined food sources of carbohydrates, individuals with a high consumption of whole grains had a decreased risk of iCVD. No convincing evidence of an interaction between genetic susceptibility for dyslipidemia, measured as genetic risk scores of

  6. CRISPR-Based Technologies and the Future of Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    The on-going CRISPR craze is focused on the use of Cas9-based technologies for genome editing applications in eukaryotes, with high potential for translational medicine and next-generation gene therapy. Nevertheless, CRISPR-Cas systems actually provide adaptive immunity in bacteria, and have much promise for various applications in food bacteria that include high-resolution typing of pathogens, vaccination of starter cultures against phages, and the genesis of programmable and specific antibiotics that can selectively modulate bacterial population composition. Indeed, the molecular machinery from these DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated, DNA-targeting systems can be harnessed in native hosts, or repurposed in engineered systems for a plethora of applications that can be implemented in all organisms relevant to the food chain, including agricultural crops trait-enhancement, livestock breeding, and fermentation-based manufacturing, and for the genesis of next-generation food products with enhanced quality and health-promoting functionalities. CRISPR-based applications are now poised to revolutionize many fields within food science, from farm to fork. In this review, we describe CRISPR-Cas systems and highlight their potential for the development of enhanced foods.

  7. CRISPR-Based Technologies and the Future of Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-11-01

    The on-going CRISPR craze is focused on the use of Cas9-based technologies for genome editing applications in eukaryotes, with high potential for translational medicine and next-generation gene therapy. Nevertheless, CRISPR-Cas systems actually provide adaptive immunity in bacteria, and have much promise for various applications in food bacteria that include high-resolution typing of pathogens, vaccination of starter cultures against phages, and the genesis of programmable and specific antibiotics that can selectively modulate bacterial population composition. Indeed, the molecular machinery from these DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated, DNA-targeting systems can be harnessed in native hosts, or repurposed in engineered systems for a plethora of applications that can be implemented in all organisms relevant to the food chain, including agricultural crops trait-enhancement, livestock breeding, and fermentation-based manufacturing, and for the genesis of next-generation food products with enhanced quality and health-promoting functionalities. CRISPR-based applications are now poised to revolutionize many fields within food science, from farm to fork. In this review, we describe CRISPR-Cas systems and highlight their potential for the development of enhanced foods. PMID:26444151

  8. Plant science meets food science: genetic effects of glucosinolate degradation during food processing in Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Phytochemicals in plant-based foods have been linked to a reduced incidence and progression of diseases. Glucosinolates (GLs) are phytochemicals that are typical for Brassicaand other Cruciferousplants, such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabb

  9. 77 FR 55845 - Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration: Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Science Board to the Food and Drug Administration: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug.... Desired Expertise FDA is specifically considering persons knowledgeable in the fields of food...

  10. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system ...

  11. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    MonikaPischetsrieder; AndreasHess

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system o...

  12. Measuring the food environment: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A

    2009-04-01

    The past decades have seen an increased interest in understanding how the environment affects population health. In particular, public health practitioners and researchers alike are eager to know how the food environments of neighborhoods, schools, and worksites affect food choices and, ultimately, population risk for obesity and other diet-related chronic disease. However, the measurement tools for assessing the environment and the employed study designs have limited our ability to gain important ground. The field has not yet fully considered the psychometric properties of the environmental measurement tools, or how to deal with the copious amounts of data generated from many environmental measures. The field is dominated by research using unsophisticated study designs and has frequently failed to see the role of social and individual factors and how they interrelate with the physical environment. This paper examines some of the measurement issues to be considered as public health practitioners and researchers attempt to understand the impact of the food environment on the health of communities and takes a broad look at where the science currently is with regard to how the food environment is measured, thoughts on what issues may benefit from more deliberate inspection, and directions for future work.

  13. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: proteins and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food system

  14. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  15. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any ...

  16. Attitudes, Educational, and Career Choices of Food and Agricultural Sciences Institute Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Baggett, Connie D.; Bowen, Cathy F.; Bowen, Blannie E.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic minority students traditionally pursue degrees and careers in the food and agricultural sciences at rates lower than their non-minority counterparts. To help improve upon this situation, the Food and Agricultural Sciences Institute (FASI) was created to expose academically talented high school students to opportunities within the food and…

  17. Development and Evaluation of Food Safety Modules for K-12 Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Travis K.; Pfuntner, Rachel C.; Stasiewicz, Matthew J.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Career and educational opportunities in food science and food safety are underrecognized by K-12 students and educators. Additionally, misperceptions regarding nature of science understanding persist in K-12 students despite being emphasized as an important component of science education for over 100 y. In an effort to increase awareness…

  18. Science Meets Reality: Economic Efficiency, Markets, Institutions and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food still is, and will continue to be, a basic issue at every day decision process in human behaviour. Food consumption has been a problematic issue in human history and today is also recognized as a basic pillar for human health and welfare/quality of life. From a global problem up to the middle of the eighties, right now food security is mainly a local issue (however a macro-level approach continued to be necessary for long run perspective and food safety concerns in trade and commercialization. Food and nutritional concerns today still are unforgetable issues on a local base perspective in many regions: the most common problems are related to the access and consumption to achieve the minimum nutritional requirements, but also other dimensions such as production, transformation, distribution and logistical aspects of the “food equation”, mainly in less developed countries, are crucial aspects to be taken into consideration.Economic effciency from a production perspective in the food sector, measured in terms of output per unit of input (technical and technological innovation achieved one of the best performances in terms of development in the last 30 years globally and in most regions in the world (few exceptions, like Sub-Sahara countries and some others. The same can not be refered in regard to markets and institutional innovations. In fact, looking at institutions including markets and governments, it is necessary to explore and identify the several observed failures (institutional and governance failures: markets, governmental and others were science can make a contribution. This is the main purpose of the current research, which is starting based on observed problems and applied solutions with good results in many situations, but also pointing out many other situations were solutions are needed based on the old instruments, but also based on innovative procedures. The method followed explores the basic theoretical approach in

  19. Recent trends in functional food science and the industry in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Morotomi, Masami; Shimizu, Makoto; Kuwata, Tamotsu; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2002-10-01

    International recognition of functional foods has resulted in the recent global development of this field, which originated in Japan. The national policy on functional foods, in terms of "foods for specified health use", also has been developing and has motivated the food industry to produce a variety of new food items. In Japan as well as in many other countries, academic and industrial scientists have been working in collaboration for the analysis and practical applications of functional food science. Emphasis has been placed on the study of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic food factors as well as pre- and probiotics. This review pinpoints recent trends in the science and industry in this field.

  20. Dynamics of hydrated saccharides of interest in food science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Hydration processes play a relevant role in many fields of fundamental food science, and in industrial food processing. Water determines the presence of dynamic transitions similar to the ones observed in synthetic polymers. The glass transition temperature, TG, in particular, is an important parameter in determining the stability of food systems. A systematic study of the influence of hydration was made on the dynamics of starch and of its main saccharide constituents, amylose and amylopectine, by X-ray, neutron, and Moessbauer γ-ray scattering. Here we report the results of neutron elastic scattering measurements performed on amylose and amylopectine from 20 K to 320 K using the backscattering spectrometer IN13 at the ILL. In the dry samples the temperature dependence of the proton mean square displacement, (u2), shows a harmonic behaviour up to 320 K. For the hydrated samples we observe a low temperature regime (up to ∼230 K for amylose, and ∼250 K for amylopectine) where (u2) is harmonic and almost hydration independent. A 'glass-like' kinetic transition then shows up with a large increase in (u2). The anharmonic contribution to (u2) can be described in terms of conformational transitions in a double well potential. The observed transition temperatures markedly vary with hydration, and they are systematically higher than those observed in globular proteins. (author)

  1. Abstracts of the 15. Brazilian congress on food science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was about food science, technology and energy production. In this meeting were discussed subjects concerned food preservation and irradiation sources in economical, technological, social and research aspects

  2. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  3. Challenges and prospects of food science and technology education: Nepal's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartaula, Ghanendra; Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani

    2014-11-01

    Food science and technology education has been running since four decades in Nepal. There is a very slow improvement in the profession. The job opportunities have always been threatened by insiders and outsiders. Academic institutions, government agencies, and food industries themselves are responsible for the quality of food science professionals. Novel and practical methods of teaching should be followed. The government and private organizations should facilitate the recruitment of food technologists. Constant prodding needs to be done for the establishment of a Council with more authority that could monitor all bodies associated with food science professionals.

  4. A 10-Year Review of the Food Science Summer Scholars Program: A Model for Research Training and for Recruiting Undergraduate Students into Graduate Programs and Careers in Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angela J.; Robbins, Janette; McLandsborough, Lynne; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A pressing problem facing regulatory agencies, academia, and the food industry is a shortage of qualified food science graduates, particularly those with advanced degrees (that is, M.S. or Ph.D.). In 2000, the Cornell Institute of Food Science established the annual Food Science Summer Scholars Program as an experiential summer research program…

  5. Fluorous-based carbohydrate quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Guosong

    2015-03-20

    Fluorous chemistry has brought many applications from catalysis to separation science, from supramolecular materials to analytical chemistry. However, fluorous-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has not been reported so far. In the current paper, fluorous interaction has been firstly utilized in QCM, and carbohydrate-protein interaction and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction have been detected afterward. PMID:25541017

  6. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  7. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production.

  8. Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Nimas M S; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on hydrogen and methane production in two-phase anaerobic digestion of aqueous carbohydrates was studied using bench-scale bioreactors. The cultures with biochar additions were placed in 100ml reactors and incubated at 35°C and pH 5 for hydrogen production. The residual cultures were then used for methane production, incubated at 35°C and pH 7. Daily yields of hydrogen and methane and weekly yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured. The hydrogen and methane production potentials, rate and lag phases of the two phases were analysed using the Gompertz model. The results showed that biochar addition increased the maximum production rates of hydrogen by 32.5% and methane 41.6%, improved hydrogen yield by 31.0% and methane 10.0%, and shortened the lag phases in the two phases by 36.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Biochar addition also enhanced VFA generation during hydrogen production and VFA degradation in methane production. PMID:27474855

  9. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  10. Academic Integration Supplement to the Food Science and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This supplement to a food science and nutrition curriculum guide was developed for use in integrating academic principles with vocational home economics education in Texas. It contains learning and evaluation experiences specifically designed to integrate mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies principles within the food science…

  11. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  12. A Two-Pronged Approach to Promote Food Science in U.S. High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Jennifer Cleveland; Rollins, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), the IFT Foundation, and Discovery Education partnered to create and distribute food science information to science department and school counselor chairs in all 18,000 U.S. high schools in January 2006. Two multimedia "kits" were generated for teachers and counselors, each consisting of DVDs with food…

  13. Career Preparedness Survey Outcomes of Food Science Graduates--A Follow-Up Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri; Clark, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-eight recent graduates (1998-2008) from the joint Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI) BiState School of Food Science program and 27 of their employers participated in a survey assessing learning outcomes based on the 2001 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) core competencies for undergraduate food science…

  14. Laboratory Development and Lecture Renovation for a Science of Food and Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Deon T.; Borchardt, Adrienne C.

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, a new nonscience majors course, The Science of Food and Cooking, was developed at our institution. The course covered basic scientific concepts that would normally be discussed in a typical introductory chemistry course, in the context of food and food preparation. Recently, the course has been revamped in three major ways: (1)…

  15. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  16. QR Codes: Outlook for Food Science and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, Javier; Álvarez Sabucedo, Luis M; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Santos Gago, Juan M

    2016-04-25

    QR codes opens up the possibility to develop simple-to-use, cost-effective-cost, and functional systems based on the optical recognition of inexpensive tags attached to physical objects. These systems, combined with Web platforms, can provide us with advanced services that are already currently broadly used on many contexts of the common life. Due to its philosophy, based on the automatic recognition of messages embedded on simple graphics by means of common devices such as mobile phones, QR codes are very convenient for the average user. Regretfully, its potential has not yet been fully exploited in the domains of food science and nutrition. This paper points out some applications to make the most of this technology for these domains in a straightforward manner. For its characteristics, we are addressing systems with low barriers to entry and high scalability for its deployment. Therefore, its launching among professional and final users is quite simple. The paper also provides high-level indications for the evaluation of the technological frame required to implement the identified possibilities of use. PMID:26047907

  17. QR Codes: Outlook for Food Science and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, Javier; Álvarez Sabucedo, Luis M; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Santos Gago, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    QR codes opens up the possibility to develop simple-to-use, cost-effective-cost, and functional systems based on the optical recognition of inexpensive tags attached to physical objects. These systems, combined with Web platforms, can provide us with advanced services that are already currently broadly used on many contexts of the common life. Due to its philosophy, based on the automatic recognition of messages embedded on simple graphics by means of common devices such as mobile phones, QR codes are very convenient for the average user. Regretfully, its potential has not yet been fully exploited in the domains of food science and nutrition. This paper points out some applications to make the most of this technology for these domains in a straightforward manner. For its characteristics, we are addressing systems with low barriers to entry and high scalability for its deployment. Therefore, its launching among professional and final users is quite simple. The paper also provides high-level indications for the evaluation of the technological frame required to implement the identified possibilities of use.

  18. Take Effective Measures to Promote the Development of Food Safety Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zongming Li; Xiufeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Food safety concerns people's health, life, even social harmony and stability. Also, it is an important scientific problem of the development of mankind. How could we strengthen our national food security? Firstly, a long-lasting scientific system of food safety should be formed. Only by enhancing the construction of this scientific system, building up the development platform of food safety, improving the science and technology level in this field, carrying out the rapid detection skills of ...

  19. Traditional Medicinal Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and Reduce Postprandial Blood Glucose Peaks In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that some medicinal herbs and food plants commonly used in the management of diabetes can reduce glucose peaks by inhibiting key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. To this effect, extracts of Antidesma madagascariense (AM, Erythroxylum macrocarpum (EM, Pittosporum senacia (PS, and Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF, Momordica charantia (MC, and Ocimum tenuiflorum (OT were evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects based on starch-iodine colour changes and PNP-G as substrate, respectively. Only FF and AM extracts/fractions were found to inhibit α-amylase activity significantly (P<0.05 and coparable to the drug acarbose. Amylase bioassay on isolated mouse plasma confirmed the inhibitory potential of AM and FF extracts with the ethyl acetate fraction of FF being more potent (P<0.05 than acarbose. Extracts/fractions of AM and MC were found to inhibit significantly (P<0.05 α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 comparable to the drug 1-deoxynojirimycin. In vivo studies on glycogen-loaded mice showed significant (P<0.05 depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose following ingestion of AM and MC extracts. Our findings tend to provide a possible explanation for the hypoglycemic action of MC fruits and AM leaf extracts as alternative nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes.

  20. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS.... Areas of the food and agricultural sciences, including multidisciplinary studies, appropriate...

  1. Master of Professional Studies in Agriculture and Life Sciences Offered through the Field of Food Science and Technology at Cornell University: A Model for the Development of a Course-Based Graduate Degree in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Robbins, Janette; Elmore, Andrea; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of highly qualified graduates with advanced training in food science is a pressing problem facing government agencies and the food industry. This has created a need to recruit and train food scientists at the graduate level. However, most graduate level programs are research-based and do not meet the needs of many students. The…

  2. Real-time PCR in Food Science: PCR Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Cook, Nigel; Hernandez, Marta

    2013-01-01

    A principal consumer demand is a guarantee of the safety and quality of food. The presence of foodborne pathogens and their potential hazard, the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and the correct labelling in foods suitable for vegetarians are among the subjects where society demands total transparency. The application of controls within the quality assessment programmes of the food industry is a way to satisfy these demands, and is necessary to ensure efficient analytical methodologies are possessed and correctly applied by the Food Sector. The use of real-time PCR has become a promising alternative approach in food diagnostics. It possesses a number of advantages over conventional culturing approaches, including rapidity, excellent analytical sensitivity and selectivity, and potential for quantification. However, the use of expensive equipment and reagents, the need for qualified personnel, and the lack of standardized protocols are impairing its practical implementation for food monitoring and control.

  3. A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T

    2001-01-01

    The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan.

  4. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon. T...

  5. Culture, food, and language: Perspectives from immigrant mothers in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Sumi; Calabrese Barton, Angela; Contento, Isobel

    2007-04-01

    The article explores the role of immigrant parents in middle school science as both teachers and learners as part of an urban middle school curriculum, the Linking in Food and the Environment (LiFE) program. The curriculum engaged parents as partners with science teachers to teach science through food. Over a 2-year period, parents attended a series of bilingual workshops, collaborated with classroom teachers, managed activities, guided student inquiry, and assisted in classroom management. The following study analyzes the role of culture, language, and identity as four mothers navigated their position as `insiders' in a science classroom.

  6. Real-time PCR in Food Science: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lazaro, David; Hernandez, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Food safety and quality control programmes are increasingly applied throughout the production food chain in order to guarantee added value products as well as to minimize the risk of infection for the consumer. The development of real-time PCR has represented one of the most significant advances in food diagnostics as it provides rapid, reliable and quantitative results. These aspects become increasingly important for the agricultural and food industry. Different strategies for real-time PCR diagnostics have been developed including unspecific detection independent of the target sequence using fluorescent dyes such as SYBR Green, or by sequence-specific fluorescent oligonucleotide probes such as TaqMan probes or molecular beacons.

  7. Applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, Fabio; Paci, Maurizio

    2008-10-22

    The principal applications of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy, in the field of food science, are reviewed, after a short general introduction, mainly focusing on the potential of these investigations, which are, today, routine tools for resolving technological problems. Selected examples of the applications in the field of food science of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy both in (13)C and in (1)H NMR particularly illustrative of the results obtainable are reported in some detail.

  8. FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACROSS EUROPE 15. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE BASE AND DIFFERENCES IN QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; Coronado, Daniel; FERRANDIZ, Esther; LEON, Dolores; Moreno, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes with some insights into scientific knowledge base in food industry at the regional level in Europe 15. We argue that science production by universities is not enough to create a scientific knowledge base. An additional requirement is counting on some standards of quality for being useful to firms. We explore this line of inquiry by first examining the regional distribution of food science across Europe and its relationship with the production of technology in the Europe...

  9. Constructing the Mode of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning in Food Science of Agriculture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-juan Chu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we makes an attempt to find out the effect of applying Computer Supported Collaborative Learning to food science of agriculture research based on the Collaborative Learning Theory and the support of computer network technology. The mode of computer supported collaborative Learning in food science of agriculture research takes on far more advantages than the Product writing Approach, being beneficial to the development of students’ writing competence.

  10. Omics and Integrated Omics for the Promotion of Food and Nutrition Science

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Hisanori; Takahashi, Shoko; Saito, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are three major platforms of comprehensive omics analysis in the science of food and complementary medicine. Other omics disciplines, including those of epigenetics and microRNA, are matters of increasing concern. The increased use of the omics approach in food science owes much to the recent advancement of technology and bioinformatic methodologies. Moreover, many researchers now put the combination of multiple omics analysis (integrated omics) i...

  11. Perceptions of Students of Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences on the Brand of Fazer Food Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kansanaho, Niina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to detect the perceptions of students of Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences on the brand of Fazer Food Services. The goal of the study was to present Fazer Food Services areas of development to better their brand image. The author used quantitative research method by familiarising herself with brand theory and conducting an online survey among four campuses of Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. The two campuses with the highest response rate were chos...

  12. Research status and prospects of the radiation food science and biotechnology in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Byum Suk; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Irradiation Food has been approved in 52 countries worldwide. In Korea, 26 food items have been approved since 1987. Recently, the irradiation technology with high dose was applied for the development of Korean space foods. Besides the sanitary purpose, the irradiation technology was used for elimination of undesired products such as food allergens, nitrite, biogenic amines, and so on. In this paper, the status of irradiation in the field of food and other biotechnology in Korea will be presented. Food irradiation is known to be the best method for controlling pathogenic microorganisms and one of the best alternatives to the chemical fumigants or preservatives usually used for a sanitation treatment for international trade. Also, there are larger industrial groups dedicated to radiation processing other than food irradiation industry. In this paper, the status of irradiation food science and biotechnology in Korea will be presented.

  13. Research status and prospects of the radiation food science and biotechnology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation Food has been approved in 52 countries worldwide. In Korea, 26 food items have been approved since 1987. Recently, the irradiation technology with high dose was applied for the development of Korean space foods. Besides the sanitary purpose, the irradiation technology was used for elimination of undesired products such as food allergens, nitrite, biogenic amines, and so on. In this paper, the status of irradiation in the field of food and other biotechnology in Korea will be presented. Food irradiation is known to be the best method for controlling pathogenic microorganisms and one of the best alternatives to the chemical fumigants or preservatives usually used for a sanitation treatment for international trade. Also, there are larger industrial groups dedicated to radiation processing other than food irradiation industry. In this paper, the status of irradiation food science and biotechnology in Korea will be presented

  14. Fermentation art and science at the Nordic Food Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reade, Benedict; de Valicourt, Justine; Evans, Joshua David

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Food Lab (NFL) is a self-governed foundation based in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of NFL is to investigate food diversity and deliciousness and to share the results in an open-source format. We combine scientific and cultural approaches with culinary techniques from around the world...

  15. Improving Oral Communication Skills of Students in Food Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmeier, C. A.; Svendsen, L. K.; Vrchota, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Communication activities about food evaluation were incorporated into food preparation courses. Oral reports replaced quizzes and an oral presentation replaced the final exam. A rubric was developed to help students evaluate ingredient functions, procedures, techniques, temperatures, and sensory evaluation. Oral report scores, self-evaluations,…

  16. Assessment of Female Student’s Satisfaction with the Quality of Food And Environmental Health at Food Services in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki; Sara Yavari; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani; Mohammad Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    ensure students are satisfied with the quantity and quality of food as well as hygienic condition in the university’s food services. For this reason, the present study was conducted to investigate female student’s satisfaction with the quality of food and environmental health at food services in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A number of one hundred of female students, studying at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were randomly selected. All the selected students were proved...

  17. Food Control and a Citizen Science Approach for Improving Teaching of Genetics in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y. J.; Muñoz-Colmenero, A. M.; Dopico, E.; Miralles, L.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home ("students as samplers") were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic…

  18. A View of Oral Communication Activities in Food Science from the Perspective of a Communication Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative…

  19. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  20. Network analysis and data mining in food science: the emergence of computational gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahnert Sebastian E

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The rapidly growing body of publicly available data on food chemistry and food usage can be analysed using data mining and network analysis methods. Here we discuss how these approaches can yield new insights both into the sensory perception of food and the anthropology of culinary practice. We also show that this development is part of a larger trend. Over the past two decades large-scale data analysis has revolutionized the biological sciences, which have experienced an explosion o...

  1. Foodomics: MS-based Strategies in Modern Food Science and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods...

  2. Academic Integration Supplement to the Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This supplement to an advanced food science and nutrition curriculum guide was developed for use in integrating academic principles with vocational home economics education in Texas. It contains learning and evaluation experiences specifically designed to integrate mathematics, science, language arts, and social studies principles within the…

  3. Writing across the Curriculum: A Hermeneutic Study of Students' Experiences in Writing in Food Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, David J.; Dzurec, Laura Cox

    2005-01-01

    Writing can enhance learning by helping students put words to their thinking about course material. The purposes of this study were to assess the influence of a structured academic journal writing exercise on student learning in a food science class and to examine student responses to the experience. Hermeneutics, a philosophy of science and…

  4. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  5. Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Blundell, J E; Dye, L; Fantino, M; Fern, E; Fletcher, R J; Lambert, J; Roberfroid, M; Specter, S; Westenhöfer, J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    1998-08-01

    The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high-intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research.

  6. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations. PMID:27407182

  7. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations.

  8. Application of atomic force microscopy as a nanotechnology tool in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongshun; Wang, Yifen; Lai, Shaojuan; An, Hongjie; Li, Yunfei; Chen, Fusheng

    2007-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a method for detecting nanoscale structural information. First, this review explains the fundamentals of AFM, including principle, manipulation, and analysis. Applications of AFM are then reported in food science and technology research, including qualitative macromolecule and polymer imaging, complicated or quantitative structure analysis, molecular interaction, molecular manipulation, surface topography, and nanofood characterization. The results suggested that AFM could bring insightful knowledge on food properties, and the AFM analysis could be used to illustrate some mechanisms of property changes during processing and storage. However, the current difficulty in applying AFM to food research is lacking appropriate methodology for different food systems. Better understanding of AFM technology and developing corresponding methodology for complicated food systems would lead to a more in-depth understanding of food properties at macromolecular levels and enlarge their applications. The AFM results could greatly improve the food processing and storage technologies.

  9. The Food Safety Modernization Act: a barrier to trade? Only if the science says so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The Food Safety Modernization Act improves oversight of America's food safety system. Title III, which regulates imported food, may create extra burdens for importers and therefore act as a barrier to trade. What will be on trial before the World Trade Organization (WTO), however, is not the law's content, but the science supporting it. Under the WTO regime, food safety laws that could restrict the free movement of food commodities must be sufficiently justified by scientific evidence. Member states must engage in risk assessments and regulate food imports in a manner that is "no more restrictive than necessary" to protect against the health risks identified by scientific evidence. This article examines the requirements of the WTO to evaluate the FSMA's legality under WTO rules. It analyzes the case law of the WTO Panel and Appellate Body and compares the FMSA to the EU's General Food Law.

  10. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the potential of marine environment and produce value-added food for all.

  11. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

  12. Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise and high-protein/reduced-carbohydrate and -fat diets have each been shown separately, or in combination with an energy-restricted diet to improve body composition and health in sedentary, overweight (BMI > 25 adults. The current study, instead, examined the physiological response to 10 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (EX versus exercise + minimal nutrition intervention designed to alter the macronutrient profile, in the absence of energy restriction, using a commercially available high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement (EXFS; versus control (CON. Methods Thirty-eight previously sedentary, overweight subjects (female = 19; male = 19 were randomly assigned to either CON (n = 10, EX (n = 14 or EXFS (n = 14. EX and EXFS participated in supervised resistance and endurance training (2× and 3×/wk, respectively; EXFS consumed 1 shake/d (weeks 1 and 2 and 2 shakes/d (weeks 3–10. Results EXFS significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate and fat intake (-14.4%, -27.2% and -26.7%, respectively; p p p p p p 2max improved in both exercise groups (EX = +5.0% and EXFS = +7.9%; p 2max (+6.2%; p = 0.001. Time-to-exhaustion during treadmill testing increased in EX (+9.8% but was significantly less (p p p Conclusion Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, provision of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate and -fat, nutrient-dense food supplement significantly, 1 modified ad libitum macronutrient and energy intake (behavior effect, 2 improved physiological adaptations to exercise (metabolic advantage, and 3 reduced the variability of individual responses for fat mass, muscle mass and time-to-exhaustion – all three variables improving in 100% of EXFS subjects.

  13. Take Effective Measures to Promote the Development of Food Safety Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food safety concerns people's health, life, even social harmony and stability. Also, it is an important scientific problem of the development of mankind. How could we strengthen our national food security? Firstly, a long-lasting scientific system of food safety should be formed. Only by enhancing the construction of this scientific system, building up the development platform of food safety, improving the science and technology level in this field, carrying out the rapid detection skills of food safety, controlling technology research, forming a joint force of government regulation and public surveillance, we could ensure food security fundamentally. Secondly, we need form a management system with strict legal liability and clear public responsibility, and need establish a food safety warning system and risk assessment system, strengthen the food information construction, improve the international standards of food quality, and constantly increase the level of food safety, so as to control the food pollution, reduce the foodborne diseases, and ensure the consumer’s health.

  14. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-01-01

    Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the pote...

  15. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-01-01

    Marine environment affords a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, and others, while others exhibit beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the ...

  16. Isothermal Calorimetry for Biological Applications in Food Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsö, Lars; Gomez, Federico

    2009-01-01

    All physical, chemical and biological processes produce heat and isothermal calorimetry is a general measurement technique to study all kinds of processes by the heat they produce. This paper gives several examples of studies of biological processes in the food area using isothermal calorimetry. It is for example shown how different unit operations influence respiration of vegetable tissue, how the kinetics of a fermentation process can be studied, and how spoilage processes can be followed f...

  17. Applications of Novel X-Ray Imaging Modalities in Food Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou

    science for understanding and designing food products. In both of these aspects, X-ray imaging methods such as radiography and computed tomography provide a non-destructive solution. However, since the conventional attenuation-based modality suers from poor contrast in soft matter materials, modalities...... produces a contrast based on dierences in microstructure. In order to increase the use of X-ray imaging within food science, possible applications of X-ray phase-contrast and X-ray dark-eld imaging should be studied. To reach these applications, improvements are needed on several aspects of the imaging...... applications of novel X-ray imaging modalities within food science. The first two studies mainly concern the image acquisition process of taking the image. Using dark-eld radiography, raw, frozen and defrosted fruit were distinguished, and structural changes in barley seeds during germination were monitored...

  18. Analysis of Scientific Production in Food Science from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Bote, Vicente P; Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Food Science is an active discipline in scientific research. The improvements in Food Technology constitute a challenge for society to eradicate hunger, while achieving food safety. This work analyses the scientific production in Food Science of the 25 countries with the greatest output in this subject area in the period 2003 to 2013. The growth of China's production was striking, with the country becoming top-ranked by the end of the period. Some developing countries (such as Nigeria) achieved a major increase in production but reducing their proportion of scientific collaboration and their works' impact. There appear to be 2 international collaboration networks that get good results--one European and the other Pacific.

  19. 21 CFR 172.866 - Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of carbohydrates. 172.866 Section 172.866 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates. Synthetic glycerin produced by the hydrogenolysis of carbohydrates may be safely used in food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) It shall contain not...

  20. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    controls (n = 8), which indicates a slow turnover rate of carbohydrate deficient transferrin. Food ingestion did not affect the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin, and the analysis of carbohydrate deficient transferrin was almost unaffected by the presence of ethanol in plasma within...... alcohol intake, but the overlap is substantial in patients with cirrhosis. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has a low turnover rate in both patients with cirrhosis and normals....

  1. Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree in Food Science, Technology and Business

    OpenAIRE

    Polanska, Monika; Impe, Jan Van; Aerts, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This Joint Master Degree Project runs under the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Community (Key Action: Learning Mobility of Individual, Action: Student and staff mobility in Joint Master Degrees). The aim of this two-year European Master of Science programme in Food Science, Technology and Business (BiFTec) is to foster innovation and technology in order to cope with future needs and sustainability. The programme is organised in a modular format by three European partner institutions: KU ...

  2. Research activities on supercritical fluid science in food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2010-06-01

    This article serves as an overview, introducing the currently popular area of supercritical fluids and their uses in food biotechnology. Within each application, and wherever possible, the basic principles of the technique, as well as a description of the history, instrumentation, methodology, uses, problems encountered, and advantages over the traditional, non-supercritical methods are given. Most current commercial application of the supercritical extraction involve biologically-produced materials; the technique may be particularly relevant to the extraction of biological compounds in cases where there is a requirement for low-temperature processing, high mass-transfer rates, and negligible carrying over of the solvent into the final product. Special applications to food processing include the decaffeination of green coffee beans, the production of hops extracts, the recovery of aromas and flavors from herbs and spices, the extraction and fractionation of edible oils, and the removal of contaminants, among others. New advances, in which the extraction is combined with reaction or crystallization steps, may further increase the attractiveness of supercritical fluids in the bioprocess industries. To develop and establish a novel and effective alternative to heating treatment, the lethal action of high hydrostatic pressure CO(2) on microorganisms, with none or only a minimal heating process, has recently received a great deal of attention.

  3. Foodomics: MS-based strategies in modern food science and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods for compound profiling, authenticity, and/or biomarker-detection related to food quality or safety; the development of new transgenic foods, food contaminants, and whole toxicity studies; new investigations on food bioactivity, food effects on human health, etc. This review work does not intend to provide an exhaustive revision of the many works published so far on food analysis using MS techniques. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the different MS-based strategies that have been (or can be) applied in the new field of Foodomics, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Besides, some ideas about the foreseen development and applications of MS-techniques in this new discipline are also provided.

  4. An introduction of internationalisation in food science doctoral program: a case study of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaefi, D

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Food Science and Technology- Bogor Agricultural University (DFST-IPB), Indonesia is one of the oldest Departments of its kind in Indonesia. The Department has been founded since 1964 under the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. The Department has a core competence in the area of food science and technology, particularly in the development of food chemistry, food microbiology, food process engineering, food analysis, food quality and safety. The Department offers educational programs: Undergraduate Program in Food Technology and Master as well as Doctorate Program in Food Science. The Master and Doctorate Program are enrolled by 35 students annually. Globalisation as a global phenomenon has been influencing DFST doctoral program as internationalization in response to globalization is a common feature in majority universities. Facing this challenge, DFST Doctorate Program's has made some efforts to provide students with international atmosphere, including having international guest lecturers, inviting prospective international students, and initiating join program with international universities. In addition, research focusing in tropical food and collaboration with international universities may need to be improved to widen the network, increase publication and place DFST doctorate program visible in the international forum. This paper is intended to reveal the perceived challenges of globalization for food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB) and to what extent and in what form internationalization has been achieved. However, it should be noted that this article is selective rather than comprehensive in reflecting on the internationalization process of food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB).

  5. R&D Needs and Opportunities in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an analysis of the relevant trends, market economics, science and technology needs of the Agricultural Research Service National Program on Quality and Utilization of Agricultural Products (NP 306), specifically issues that impact on the foods aspects of the program. It provides information ...

  6. A Needs Assessment for the Introduction of a Food Science Program at the Univ. of Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This research describes the outcome of a needs assessment to determine whether the Univ. of Guyana should introduce a Food Science program. The research design utilized interviews and questionnaires to large manufacturing organizations and agroprocessors to determine if the required skills are available for the manufacturing process. Results…

  7. Science Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Food Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çinar, Derya

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to determine science student teachers' cognitive structure on the concept of food pyramid. Qualitative research method was applied in this study. Fallacies detected in the pre-service teachers' conceptual structures are believed to result in students' developing misconceptions in their future classes and will adversely…

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

  9. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  10. Paradoxes in the Diet of Modern Consumer at the Confluence between Food Science and Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea Lelia; Popescu Dorin; Negrea Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Food is a customary part of our daily lives, because living means feeding, but it shouldn’t be approached merely as a trivial factor for meeting physiological needs of macro and micro-nutrients, but from a holistic perspective in terms of the social and identity functions and the effects on individual health. In the last decades, through the application of industrial processes such as refining or hydrogenation and the widespread use of feed additives and genetically modified organisms, consid...

  11. Science implementation of Forecast Mekong for food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2012-01-01

    Forecast Mekong is a significant international thrust under the Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and was launched in 2009 by the U.S. Department of State and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under U.S. Department of State Secretary Hillary R. Clinton's Lower Mekong Initiative to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the Lower Mekong River Basin in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. Since 2009, the USGS has worked closely with the U.S. Department of State; personnel from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; nongovernmental organizations; and academia to collect and use research and data from the Lower Mekong River Basin to provide hands-on results that will help decisionmakers in future planning and design for restoration, conservation, and management efforts in the Lower Mekong River Basin. In 2012 Forecast Mekong is highlighting the increasing cooperation between the United States and Lower Mekong River Basin countries in the areas of food and environmental security. Under the DRAGON, Forecast Mekong continues work in interactive data integration, modeling, and visualization system by initiating three-dimensional bathymetry and river flow data along with a pilot study of fish distribution, population, and migratory patterns in the Lower Mekong River Basin. When fully developed by the USGS, in partnership with local governments and universities throughout the Mekong River region, Forecast Mekong will provide valuable planning tools to visualize the consequences of climate change and river management.

  12. Politics versus Science in the Making of a New Regulatory Regime for Food in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Buonanno

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union's new food regulatory regime can be understood as a political, rather than science-based solution to the problem of recurrent food crises that have threatened the foundations of the single market. The failure of first, mutual trust and subsequently, its remedy, comitology, led to calls for an agency solution. The question of whether to invest an agency with the three powers of risk assessment, communication, and management can be understood as a struggle to define the role of the scientist in the management of regulatory policy. Scientists base their recommendations on probabilities; politicians are accountable to a public that expects government to guarantee zero risk. The outcome, a European Food Authority (EFA, preserves the management function and the Rapid Alert System within the Commission. EFA's success will rest on the harmonization of food law in Member States and the creation of a network between the EFA and Member State food agencies. Satisfaction of these goals, in turn, depends upon transparency, open communication, and willingness to cooperate. An unintended consequence of the new regulatory regime for food may be to strengthen corporate food producers and accelerate food homogeneity within Europe. These processes carry their own set of problems regarding interest group behavior, unconventional political behavior, and voter mobilization. We close the paper with recommendations for future research.

  13. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  14. FACE-IT. A Science Gateway for Food Security Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montella, Raffaele [Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Kelly, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Xiong, Wei [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Brizius, Alison [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Elliott, Joshua [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Madduri, Ravi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Maheshwari, Ketan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Porter, Cheryl [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Vilter, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilde, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Meng [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Foster, Ian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-07-14

    Progress in sustainability science is hindered by challenges in creating and managing complex data acquisition, processing, simulation, post-processing, and intercomparison pipelines. To address these challenges, we developed the Framework to Advance Climate, Economic, and Impact Investigations with Information Technology (FACE-IT) for crop and climate impact assessments. This integrated data processing and simulation framework enables data ingest from geospatial archives; data regridding, aggregation, and other processing prior to simulation; large-scale climate impact simulations with agricultural and other models, leveraging high-performance and cloud computing; and post-processing to produce aggregated yields and ensemble variables needed for statistics, for model intercomparison, and to connect biophysical models to global and regional economic models. FACE-IT leverages the capabilities of the Globus Galaxies platform to enable the capture of workflows and outputs in well-defined, reusable, and comparable forms. We describe FACE-IT and applications within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project and the Center for Robust Decision-making on Climate and Energy Policy.

  15. Development of microbial biosensors for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasiak, Justyna

    , optimize and characterize various reporter strains utilizing different signal transducers and targeting carbohydrate constituents of pectin and arabinoxylan. Addit onally, the objective was to assess the potential suitability of microbial biosensors for food ingredients analysis. Pectin is a plant...... in order to fulfill the needs of different fields, from environmental sciences to food industry. Moreover, they can be an answer for the need of novel, less expensive and environmentally neutral methods of analysis particularly in food ingredients assessment. The aim of this PhD thesis was to develop...... heteropolysaccharide commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent and food stabilizer. The chemical analysis of the pectin carbohydrate composition is a significant issue during the study of its function and properties. Arabinoxylan is one of the main non-starch polysaccharide derived from the cell wall of cereal...

  16. Network analysis and data mining in food science: the emergence of computational gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnert Sebastian E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapidly growing body of publicly available data on food chemistry and food usage can be analysed using data mining and network analysis methods. Here we discuss how these approaches can yield new insights both into the sensory perception of food and the anthropology of culinary practice. We also show that this development is part of a larger trend. Over the past two decades large-scale data analysis has revolutionized the biological sciences, which have experienced an explosion of experimental data as a result of the advent of high-throughput technology. Large datasets are also changing research methodologies in the social sciences due to the data generated by mobile communication technology and online social networks. Even the arts and humanities are seeing the establishment of ‘digital humanities’ research centres in order to cope with the increasing digitization of literary and historical sources. We argue that food science is likely to be one of the next beneficiaries of large-scale data analysis, perhaps resulting in fields such as ‘computational gastronomy’.

  17. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Supplemental Computer-Based Food Safety Tutorial to Traditional Education in an Introductory Food Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Lira, Claudia; Heiss, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether a Web-based computer tutorial for food safety is an effective tool in the education of food science and nutrition students. Students completing the Web-based tutorial had a greater improvement in pre-test scores compared with post-test scores and compared with students who attended lecture only.…

  18. Assessment of a food microbiology senior undergraduate course as a potential food safety distance education course for poultry science majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, C A; Dittmar, R S; Chalova, V I; Kundinger, M M; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2010-11-01

    Distance education courses have become popular due to the increased number of commuter students as well as people already in the workforce who need further education for advancement within their careers. A graduate-level Web-based course entitled Special Topics-Poultry Food Safety Microbiology was developed from an existing senior undergraduate advanced food microbiology course in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A&M University. Conversion of standard lecture material into a distance education course can provide unique challenges to maintain comparable course content in an asynchronous manner. The overall objective for this course was to examine bacterial activities including ecology in food, animals, raw and processed meat, eggs, and human pathogenesis. Students were surveyed at the end of the class and the majority agreed that they would be willing to take the course as an online course, although they were not willing to pay an extra fee for an online course. The majority of students used the online version of the course as a supplement to the classroom rather than as a substitute.

  19. [Contributions of the science and food technology to the improvement of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Jose Antonio Otero

    2007-01-01

    The relations between nutrition and health/disease in the population are historically revised, beginning with the sight of the hippocratic empiricism and ending with the right provided by the scientific studies of nutritional epidemiology. The fundaments in food science and the basis of human nutrition are described, identifying the health problems related with nutritional habits. The evolution of the industrial production of food is revised and they are also described the great advances that allow to the actual industry to design and to get a more healthful nutrition with the aim of reducing the pathologies in the population related with the diet.

  20. Food security as a social movement in neo-liberal times: Envisaging a role for social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2008-01-01

    Food is one of the vital elements of human existence and human health. The right to food is equivalent to the right to life. From production to consumption, food involves many important cultural, social, and economic activities of human societies. Yet, despite advances in science and technology t......’ movements and government responses, and recommend priorities for social science research, policy development and social action.......Food is one of the vital elements of human existence and human health. The right to food is equivalent to the right to life. From production to consumption, food involves many important cultural, social, and economic activities of human societies. Yet, despite advances in science and technology...

  1. Development of research paper writing skills of poultry science undergraduate students studying food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C

    2006-02-01

    Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.

  2. Barriers to using consumer science information in food technology innovations: An exploratory study using Delphi methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Raley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food technology innovation has the potential to deliver many benefits to society, although some technologies have been problematic in terms of public acceptance. In promoting the commercial success of innovative technological processes and resultant products it will be important to incorporate information relating to consumer preferences and concerns during their development. The barriers to the utilisation of consumer information during technological development was explored using a two round Delphi study involving 75 experts with an interest in new food technology (food technologists and consumer scientists. There was overall agreement that consumer information should be used in technology implementation and product design, and that good communication between key actors at pivotal stages during the development of new food technologies and products was important. However disciplinary differences were perceived to be a barrier to communication, as were difficulties associated with producing consumer information usable by food technologists. A strategy to improve inter-disciplinary communication is proposed, involving the creation of multi-disciplinary teams working together throughout the development project’s duration, including those with interdisciplinary experience. Deficiencies in the specification of the information required from consumer scientists need to be overcome. Consumer science results need to be concrete and presented as salient to and usable by food technologists.

  3. Just-in-Time Teaching for Food Science: Creating an Active Learner Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Kathleen A.; Chism, Grady W., III

    2005-01-01

    Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) combines the best features of traditional in-class instruction with the communication potential available via the Web. We describe here how JiTT has been used in Biology Education and how it can be used in Food Science Education. JiTT uses Web-based "Warm Up" assignments due before class to stimulate critical thinking…

  4. Target molecules of food phytochemicals: food science bound for the next dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira; Ohnishi, Kohta

    2012-05-01

    Phytochemicals are generally defined as secondary metabolites in plants that play crucial roles in their adaptation to a variety of environmental stressors. There is a great body of compelling evidence showing that these metabolites have pronounced potentials for regulating and modulating human health and disease onset, as shown by both experimental and epidemiological approaches. Concurrently, enormous efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanism of actions underlying their biological and physiological functions. For example, the pioneering work of Tachibana et al. uncovered the receptor for (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) as the 67 kDa laminin receptor, which was shown to partially mediate the functions of EGCg, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-proliferative activities. Thereafter, several protein kinases were identified as binding proteins of flavonoids, including myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Isothiocyanates, sulfur-containing phytochemicals present in cruciferous plants, are well known to target Keap1 for activating the transcription factor Nrf2 for inducing self-defensive and anti-oxidative gene expression. In addition, we recently identified CD36 as a cell surface receptor for ursolic acid, a triterpenoid ubiquitously occurring in plants. Importantly, the above mentioned target proteins are indispensable for phytochemicals to exhibit, at least in part, their bioactivities. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to assume that some of the activities and potential toxicities of metabolites are exerted via their interactions with unidentified, off-target proteins. This notion may be supported by the fact that even rationally designed drugs occasionally display off-target effects and induce unexpected outcomes, including toxicity. Here we update the current status and future directions of research related to target molecules of food phytochemicals.

  5. Linking adaptation science to action to build food secure Pacific Island communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cvitanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a major threat to food security in Pacific Island countries, with declines in food production and increasing variability in food supplies already evident across the region. Such impacts have already led to observed consequences for human health, safety and economic prosperity. Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island communities is one way to reduce vulnerability and is underpinned by the extent to which people can access, understand and use new knowledge to inform their decision-making processes. However, effective engagement of Pacific Island communities in climate adaption remains variable and is an ongoing and significant challenge. Here, we use a qualitative research approach to identify the impediments to engaging Pacific Island communities in the adaptations needed to safeguard food security. The main barriers include cultural differences between western science and cultural knowledge, a lack of trust among local communities and external scientists, inappropriate governance structures, and a lack of political and technical support. We identify the importance of adaptation science, local social networks, key actors (i.e., influential and trusted individuals, and relevant forms of knowledge exchange as being critical to overcoming these barriers. We also identify the importance of co-ordination with existing on-ground activities to effectively leverage, as opposed to duplicating, capacity.

  6. [Evolution of food science and technology in developing countries during the last 50 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R

    1993-01-01

    Malnutrition affects mostly the low-income groups, especially children and pregnant and nursing women despite the advances made in food processing techniques in the last 50 years. Malnutrition is more severe in rural areas of Latin America than big cities. The Institute of Food Science and Technology and the International League for Education and Nutrition of the US in 1976 initiated a study about identifying the actions that could be taken into account for developing countries and donating agencies. The problem of malnutrition in the developing has been evident in these 50 years in terms of deficiencies of protein, iodine, iron, vitamin A, and lack of information concerning proper nutrition during pregnancy and the lactation period. The problem of lack of food was supposed to be solved by the green revolution, which developed cereals with better quality protein using hybrids like triticale (rye and wheat). The population problem with the increase of younger people presents the issue of new jobs and vocations such as professions in nutrition and science. The economic problem is rooted in the dilemma of ¿selling at a low price and buying at a high price¿. The problem of human resources entails the involvement of people in all phases of food production in the developing world.

  7. Food control and a citizen science approach for improving teaching of Genetics in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y J; Muñoz-Colmenero, A M; Dopico, E; Miralles, L; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-10

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home (students as samplers) were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic year 2014-2015: Experimental Methods in Food Production (MBTA) (Master level), and Applied Molecular Biology (BMA) and Conservation Genetics and Breeding (COMGE) (Bachelor/Degree level). Molecular genetics based on PCR amplification of DNA markers was employed for species identification of 22 seafood products in COMGE and MBTA, and for detection of genetically modified (GM) maize from nine products in BMA. In total six seafood products incorrectly labeled (27%), and two undeclared GM maize (22%) were found. A post-Laboratory survey was applied for assessing the efficacy of the approach for improving motivation in the Laboratory Practices of Genetics. Results confirmed that students that worked on their own samples from local markets were significantly more motivated and better evaluated their Genetic laboratory practices than control students (χ(2)  = 12.11 p = 0.033). Our results suggest that citizen science approaches could not be only useful for improving teaching of Genetics in universities but also to incorporate students and citizens as active agents in food control. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):450-462, 2016. PMID:27277420

  8. Food control and a citizen science approach for improving teaching of Genetics in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y J; Muñoz-Colmenero, A M; Dopico, E; Miralles, L; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-10

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home (students as samplers) were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic year 2014-2015: Experimental Methods in Food Production (MBTA) (Master level), and Applied Molecular Biology (BMA) and Conservation Genetics and Breeding (COMGE) (Bachelor/Degree level). Molecular genetics based on PCR amplification of DNA markers was employed for species identification of 22 seafood products in COMGE and MBTA, and for detection of genetically modified (GM) maize from nine products in BMA. In total six seafood products incorrectly labeled (27%), and two undeclared GM maize (22%) were found. A post-Laboratory survey was applied for assessing the efficacy of the approach for improving motivation in the Laboratory Practices of Genetics. Results confirmed that students that worked on their own samples from local markets were significantly more motivated and better evaluated their Genetic laboratory practices than control students (χ(2)  = 12.11 p = 0.033). Our results suggest that citizen science approaches could not be only useful for improving teaching of Genetics in universities but also to incorporate students and citizens as active agents in food control. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):450-462, 2016.

  9. Special Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

  10. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ13C and δ15N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  11. Assessment of Female Student’s Satisfaction with the Quality of Food And Environmental Health at Food Services in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ensure students are satisfied with the quantity and quality of food as well as hygienic condition in the university’s food services. For this reason, the present study was conducted to investigate female student’s satisfaction with the quality of food and environmental health at food services in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A number of one hundred of female students, studying at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were randomly selected. All the selected students were proved to be customers of food services located in one the Medicine, Public Health, Pharmacy, paramedical Sciences, Dentistry, Rehabilitation and Nursing schools. A questioner was prepared as a tool for data collection and its validity and reliability was determined. Afterwards, data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 23. Results showed that 22% of female students expressed their satisfaction with the quantity of food as “excellent” and 47% as “moderate”. 28% of students rated the food diversity as “moderate” ok”. Seven percent of students reported at least on a case of food poisoning caused by the consumption of food at the university. On average, the overwhelming majority of students expressed their satisfaction as “good” or “medium” with environmental health in at food services in the university, respectively. All the students were aware of the importance of the presence of insects and animals outside the food services and 95%of students reported the presence of insects like beetle, housefly and mosquito and animals like cats, outside the food services. It was concluded that the majority of female students were satisfied with the quantity of food and ranked the quality of food as “medium”. However, they reported some problems regarding hygienic condition inside and outside the dining services and personal health of staff and stated that more attention should be paid by responsible authorities of the university. The

  12. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  13. EPA Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Food Allergy/Genetically Engineered Food Research: Progress, Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancements in food technology, pesticide development and genetic modification to food crops may provide benefits compared to more conventional approaches. However, the introduction of a novel protein into the food supply and the possibility of unintentional introduction of a ne...

  14. A Report from the Higher Education Review Board (HERB): Assessment of Undergraduate Student Learning Outcomes in Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, R. W.; Iwaoka, W. T.

    2016-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) has mandated assessment of undergraduate student learning outcomes as the basis for approving food science (FS) programs. No longer is a check-off course system sufficient to be an IFT-approved program. The 4 steps to gaining IFT approval include developing learning outcomes for all…

  15. Fluorescence from the maillard reaction and its potential applications in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiacevich, Silvia B; Santagapita, Patricio R; Buera, M Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The chemistry of the Maillard reaction involves a complex set of steps, and its interpretation represents a challenge in basic and applied aspects of Food Science. Fluorescent compounds have been recognized as important early markers of the reaction in food products since 1942. However, the recent advances in the characterization of fluorophores' development were observed in biological and biomedical areas. The in vivo non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins produces biological effects, promoting health deterioration. The characteristic fluorescence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) is similar to that of Maillard food products and represents an indicator of the level of AGE-modified proteins, but the structure of the fluorescent groups is, typically, unknown. Application of fluorescence measurement is considered a potential tool for addressing key problems of food deterioration as an early marker or index of the damage of biomolecules. Fluorophores may be precursors of the brown pigments and/or end products. A general scheme of the Maillard reaction is proposed in this article, incorporating the pool concept. A correct interpretation of the effect of environmental and compositional conditions and their influences on the reaction kinetics may help to define the meaning of fluorescence development for each particular system.

  16. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  17. Effect of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) food, ugali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, K E; Munck, L; Eggum, B O

    1988-01-01

    1. The present work was undertaken to study the effects of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Three different sorghum varieties; Dabar, Feterita and Argentine containing zero, intermediate to low and high levels of polyphenols respectively were used in the study. From these varieties uncooked, uncooked acidified, cooked, and cooked acidified diets were prepared. Diets were characterized with regard to resistant starch (RS), dietary fibre (DF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and amino acid content. Raw materials were further analysed for content and composition of non-starch polysaccharides and Klason lignin. The nutritional properties were studied in balance trials with rats. True protein digestibility (TD), biological value (BV), net protein utilization, digestible amino acids, digestible energy (DE) and digestible DF were used as criteria in the nutritional study. 2. Cooking at neutral and acid pH resulted in significantly higher assayed values for DF. Increase in DF could be accounted for by formation of RS. Approximately 50% of RS was recovered in the faeces. 3. In vitro values for protein associated with ADF and in vivo balance values using rats suggest that an endosperm protein fraction, kafirins, was made unavailable during cooking. This resulted in reduced TD and increased BV. It is assumed that unavailable kafirins serve as a nitrogen source for microflora in the hind-gut. 4. Dietary polyphenols changed the excretory route for N from urine to faeces. This resulted in lower TD and higher BV in Argentine (high in polyphenols) than in Dabar and Feterita (low in polyphenols), although dietary lysine (first limiting amino acid) was the same in the three varieties. 5. Variation in DE of the diets was attributed to DF, RS and the amount of faecal protein, which in turn were influenced by undigested kafirins and polyphenols.

  18. The public understanding of nanotechnology in the food domain: the hidden role of views on science, technology, and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    In spite of great expectations about the potential of nanotechnology, this study shows that people are rather ambiguous and pessimistic about nanotechnology applications in the food domain. Our findings are drawn from a survey of public perceptions about nanotechnology food and nanotechnology food packaging (N = 752). Multinomial logistic regression analyses further reveal that knowledge about food risks and nanotechnology significantly influences people's views about nanotechnology food packaging. However, knowledge variables were unrelated to support for nanofood, suggesting that an increase in people's knowledge might not be sufficient to bridge the gap between the excitement some business leaders in the food sector have and the restraint of the public. Additionally, opposition to nanofood was not related to the use of heuristics but to trust in governmental agencies. Furthermore, the results indicate that public perceptions of nanoscience in the food domain significantly relate to views on science, technology, and nature.

  19. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  20. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  1. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  2. What I Need to Know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... zucchini. Foods that do not contain carbohydrates include meat, fish, and poultry; most types of cheese; nuts; ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  3. Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Food security as a social movement in neo-liberal times: Envisaging a role for social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2008-01-01

    that have modernized food production and distribution, hunger and malnutrition still threaten the health and well-being of millions of people around the world. Estimates suggest that 800 million people in ‘developing’ countries are undernourished; of these 207.6 million reside in India alone. Food security......Food is one of the vital elements of human existence and human health. The right to food is equivalent to the right to life. From production to consumption, food involves many important cultural, social, and economic activities of human societies. Yet, despite advances in science and technology...... is affected by food availability and affordability, which in turn, is largely influenced by the state of agriculture. The pivotal importance of agriculture in the fight against hunger and poverty lies in the fact that around 2.5 billion people in developing countries live in rural areas and are engaged...

  5. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent

  6. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  7. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  8. Pilot study of a budget-tailored culinary nutrition education program for undergraduate food science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Dorothy Adair

    The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition

  9. PTR-MS in Italy: A Multipurpose Sensor with Applications in Environmental, Agri-Food and Health Science

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Biasioli; Flavia Gasperi; José Sánchez del Pulgar; Andrea Romano; Eugenio Aprea; Francesco Loreto; Luca Cappellin

    2013-01-01

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological ...

  10. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K; Siezen, Roland J; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  11. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  12. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  13. Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The

  14. Alignment of Assessment Objectives with Instructional Objectives Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy--The Case for Food Science and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…

  15. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  16. Assessment of the Joint Food Science Curriculum of Washington State University and the University of Idaho by Graduates and Their Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephanie; McCurdy, Alan; Roy, Sharon; Smith, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two recent graduates from the joint food science program of Washington State Univ. (WSU) and The Univ. of Idaho (UI) and 12 of their employers participated in a survey study to assess food science program outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the joint curriculum in its ability to prepare undergraduate students for critical…

  17. PTR-MS in Italy: A Multipurpose Sensor with Applications in Environmental, Agri-Food and Health Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Biasioli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS has evolved in the last decade as a fast and high sensitivity sensor for the real-time monitoring of volatile compounds. Its applications range from environmental sciences to medical sciences, from food technology to bioprocess monitoring. Italian scientists and institutions participated from the very beginning in fundamental and applied research aiming at exploiting the potentialities of this technique and providing relevant methodological advances and new fundamental indications. In this review we describe this activity on the basis of the available literature. The Italian scientific community has been active mostly in food science and technology, plant physiology and environmental studies and also pioneered the applications of the recently released PTR-ToF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry in food science and in plant physiology. In the very last years new results related to bioprocess monitoring and health science have been published as well. PTR-MS data analysis, particularly in the case of the ToF based version, and the application of advanced chemometrics and data mining are also aspects characterising the activity of the Italian community.

  18. The online professional master of science in food safety degree program at Michigan State University: an innovative graduate education in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Edward C; McNiel, Pattie A

    2006-01-01

    A market-research study conducted in 2000 indicated a need for a degree program in food safety that would cover all aspects of the food system, from production to consumption. Despite this, such a program was not enthusiastically supported by employers, who feared losing their valued employees while they were enrolled in traditional on-campus graduate programs. A terminal professional degree was successfully created, offered, and modified over the succeeding five years. The innovative, non-traditional online program was developed to include a core curriculum and leadership training, with elective courses providing flexibility in specific areas of student interest or need. The resulting Professional Master of Science in Food Safety degree program provides a transdisciplinary approach for the protection of an increasingly complex food system and the improvement of public health. Enrollment in the program steadily increased in the first three years of delivery, with particular interest from industry and government employees. The curriculum provides a platform of subject material from which certificate programs, short-courses, seminars, workshops, and executive training programs may be delivered, not only to veterinarians but also to related food and health specialists. The program has fulfilled a need for adult learners to continue as working professionals in the workforce. The benefit to the employer and to society is an individual with enhanced knowledge and networking and leadership skills.

  19. Nutritional characterisation of foods: Science-based approach to nutrient profiling - Summary report of an ILSI Europe workshop held in April 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Oberdörfer, R.; Madsen, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The background of the workshop was the proposed EU legislation to regulate nutrition and health claims for foods in Europe. This regulation will require the development of a science-based nutrient profiling system in order to determine which foods or categories of foods will be permitted to make ...

  20. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  1. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  2. Boundary-Work in Science Education: A Case Study of GM Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The term "boundary-work" is used to refer to the constant effort to draw and re-draw the boundary of science; it has long been portrayed as constructed by the stakeholders of science to demarcate science from non-science to establish the authority of science. Twenty-nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with students from one…

  3. Space Food and Nutrition: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburri, Angelo A.; Gardner, Cathy A.

    From John Glenn's mission to orbit Earth to the International Space Station program, space food research has met the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. Early food dehydration was achieved by cutting meat, fish, and certain fruits into thin strips and drying them in sunlight. Rubbing food with salt or soaking it…

  4. Food consumption - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Open TG-GATEs Food consumption Data detail Data name Food consumption Description of data contents The list regarding results of food... consumption measurement acquired from rats used in the in vivo tests. Data file File name: open_tggates_foo...rchive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_food_consumption.zip File size: 108 KB Simple search URL http://togo...db.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/open_tggates_food_consumption#en Data acquisition method The amount of daily food... intake of the first day is calculated as the amount of food taken during on

  5. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial

  6. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus; Applebaum, Rhona; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard; Dwyer, Johanna; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne; Miller, Sanford; Tancredi, Doris; Weaver, Connie; Woteki, Catherine; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines, regarding industry funding, for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. The Guiding Principles are as follows. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall: 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively; according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) prior to the commencement of studies, ensure that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time-frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations

  7. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial

  8. The 9-point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in food science: some reappraisals and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2015-08-30

    The 9-point hedonic scale has been used routinely in food science, the same way for 60 years. Now, with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modeling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the 'words' on the 9-point hedonic scale are reassigned as 'numbers', while other '9-point hedonic scales' are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R-Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9-point hedonic scale. PMID:25378223

  9. A methodology to promote business development from research outcomes in food science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Valorization of knowledge produced in research units has been a major challenge for research universities in contemporary societies. The prevailing forces have led these institutions to develop a “third mission”, the facilitation of technology transfer and activity in an entrepreneurial paradigm. Effective management of challenges encountered in the development of academic entrepreneurship and the associated valorization of knowledge produced by universities are major factors to bridge the gap between research and innovation in Europe.The need to improve the existing institutional knowledge valorization processes, concerning entrepreneurship and business development and the processes required were discussed.A case study was designed to describe the institutional knowledge valorization process in a food science and technology research unit and a related incubator, during a five year evaluation period that ended in 2012.The knowledge valorization processes benefited from the adoption of a structured framework methodology that led to ideas and teams from a business model generation to client development, in parallel, when possible, with an agile product/service development.Although academic entrepreneurship engagement could be improved, this case study demonstrated that stronger skills development was needed to enable the researcher to be more aware of business development fundamentals and therefore contribute to research decisions and the valorisation of individual and institutional knowledge assets. It was noted that the timing for involvement of companies in the research projects or programs varied with the nature of the research.

  10. Science as the Basis for Public Health Decisions in Nutrition and Food Safety in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRAISIDTONTISIRIN; RENATACLARKE

    2001-01-01

    Worldwide,great advances have been made in public health protection over the last decades.Perhaps this is most cogently illustrated by the improvements in life experctancy that have been achieved in countries throughout the world.Globally,the average life expectancy at birth from 1950 to 1955 was 46.1 years.[1]Forty years later,this statistic increased to 64.3 years.Although this global average masks important differences between less and more developed countries,for all countries at all stages of development,substantial increases in life expectancy at birth have been realised.In Asia,the average life expectancy increased from 56.3 years to 64.5years in the two decades between 1975 and 1995,While there remains much to be done to further improve public health and well-being of the people,the achievements are undeniable.The increase in the duration and quality of life has been largely attributable to advances in science and the sensible application of these scientific and medical advances in public health services,Developments in a wide range of scientific domains continue to abound and policy makers realize that it is necessary to develop processes and procedures that reliably utilize available acientific achivements to arrive at appropriate polity decisions in nutrition and food safety.

  11. The 9-point hedonic scale and hedonic ranking in food science: some reappraisals and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichchukit, Sukanya; O'Mahony, Michael

    2015-08-30

    The 9-point hedonic scale has been used routinely in food science, the same way for 60 years. Now, with advances in technology, data from the scale are being used for more and more complex programs for statistical analysis and modeling. Accordingly, it is worth reconsidering the presentation protocols and the analyses associated with the scale, as well as some alternatives. How the brain generates numbers and the types of numbers it generates has relevance for the choice of measurement protocols. There are alternatives to the generally used serial monadic protocol, which can be more suitable. Traditionally, the 'words' on the 9-point hedonic scale are reassigned as 'numbers', while other '9-point hedonic scales' are purely numerical; the two are not interchangeable. Parametric statistical analysis of scaling data is examined critically and alternatives discussed. The potential of a promising alternative to scaling itself, simple ranking with a hedonic R-Index signal detection analysis, is explored in comparison with the 9-point hedonic scale.

  12. Efecto del tipo de carbohidrato en el concentrado sobre el consumo de alimento de vacas lecheras en pastoreo Effect of the type of carbohydrate on the concentrate of food intake of dairy cows on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R G Pulido

    2006-01-01

    21 days. In experiment 2, 27 Friesian cows yielding 29.3 kg/d were assigned to a completely randomized design for 45 days. For both experiments, the treatments included: grazing alone (SP, grazing plus 6 kg/d of sugar beet pulp-based concentrate (Coseta and grazing plus 6 kg/d of cereal-based concentrate (Cebada. The cows were supplemented twice a day and managed under a strip grazing system on pasture consisting mainly of perennial ryegrass. In Experiment 1 the concentrate diet contained 17.0% crude protein (CP in the dry matter (DM, with 11.9% CP in Experiment 2. In experiment 1 herbage dry matter intake (10.7 kg/day, total dry matter intake (16.0 kg/day and grazing behavior were similar for sugar beet pulp-based concentrate and cereal-based concentrate. In experiment 2 herbage dry matter intake (12.4 kg/d, total dry matter intake (17.4 kg/d and grazing behavior were similar for the supplemented treatments. Unsupplemented cows had a higher herbage dry matter intake in experiment 1 (15.4 kg/day and lower total dry matter intake (14.2 kg/day in experiment 2, than the supplemented cows (P<0.05. The results suggest that carbohydrate source in concentrate supplement, did not affect food intake and grazing behavior of dairy cows on these experiments.

  13. Using Food Science Demonstrations to Engage Students of All Ages in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Shelly J.; Bohn, Dawn M.; Rasmussen, Aaron J.; Sutherland, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching goal of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Initiative is to foster effective STEM teaching and learning throughout the educational system at the local, state, and national levels, thereby producing science literate citizens and a capable STEM workforce. To contribute to achieving this goal, we…

  14. A new derivatization method for δ18O analysis of individual carbohydrates with GC-Pyrolysis-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, M. M.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Saurer, M.; Blees, J.; Fischer, M.; Zech, M.

    2015-12-01

    Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) with gas chromatography coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-Pyr-IRMS) is nowadays a powerful tool that is widely used by a broad spectrum of research fields to investigate the isotopic signature of diverse metabolites. While many CSIA methods for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes are known, CSIA methods for the analysis of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) are still not widely established. Especially, reliable and precise methods for the δ18O analyses of individual carbohydrates are scarce, which is caused by the highly sensitive nature of the sugars. However, carbohydrates are important components of living organisms, source for many biochemical reactions, and can be found in all organisms, in soils, sediments, and in air. Thus, a method, allowing the investigation of the 18O/16O ratio in carbohydrates will enhance the scope of research using isotopes. We developed a new and easy to handle derivatization method to determine δ18O in carbohydrates with GC-Pyr-IRMS that consists of a catalyzed one-pot reaction in acetonitrile, resulting in complete methylation of all sugar hydroxyl groups within 24 hours, with silver oxide as the proton acceptor and methyl iodide as the methyl group carrier. Results derived from standard material show unrivalled δ18O precision ranging from about 0.2 to 1.1 ‰ for different individual carbohydrates of different classes and a generally very good accuracy, with a narrow range of 0.2 ‰ around the reference value, despite of high area variations. We applied this method on real samples, demonstrating that the method can commonly be used for analyzing honey samples, and for the analyses of more complex carbohydrate mixtures from plant leaves, including glucose, fructose, pinitol, and sucrose. Our new method may be used for food, beverage, and medical applications, as well as for biogeochemical and paleoclimatic sciences.

  15. Toward Determining Best Practices for Recruiting Future Leaders in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2016-01-01

    There is a shortage of qualified food scientists in the workforce that has adverse consequences for the quality and safety of our food supply. The Institute of Food Technologists and other institutions have initiated and continue to initiate outreach programs; however, an analysis of the effectiveness of these efforts has not yet come to fruition.…

  16. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. ... protein. This usually means protein from animal origin, lean meats, fish, eggs, and you want to include ...

  17. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decrease, but their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that ... calories. Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk ...

  18. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requirements decrease, but their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means ... foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. ...

  19. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that calorie for ... Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, ...

  20. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. ... about deep colors, the deep yellow and dark green leafy vegetables. The deep color advice also applies ...

  1. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  2. 76 FR 38666 - Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin Island Sea Lab (DISL). The goal... Marine Environmental Science Consortium-Dauphin Island Sea Lab (DISL) will greatly contribute to FDA's... Objectives FDA Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory (GCSL) and the Marine Environmental Science Consortium of...

  3. Linking adaptation science to action to build food secure Pacific Island communities

    OpenAIRE

    C. Cvitanovic; S. Crimp; Fleming, A; Bell, J.; Howden, M.; Hobday, A. J.; Taylor, M; R. Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to food security in Pacific Island countries, with declines in food production and increasing variability in food supplies already evident across the region. Such impacts have already led to observed consequences for human health, safety and economic prosperity. Enhancing the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island communities is one way to reduce vulnerability and is underpinned by the extent to which people can access, understand and use new knowledge to inform ...

  4. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  5. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... that increasing the protein content of the diet from 15% up to 20–30%, at the expense of carbohydrate, increases the satiating effect of the diet, and induces a spontaneous weight loss, and this could turn out to be a preferred option for patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes....

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice between Medical and Non-Medical Sciences Students about Food Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students’ major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.

  7. Metabolomics for measuring phytochemicals, and assessing human and animal responses to phytochemicals, in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Tony K; Rowan, Daryl D

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics, comprehensive metabolite analysis, is finding increasing application as a tool to measure and enable the manipulation of the phytochemical content of foods, to identify the measures of dietary intake, and to understand human and animal responses to phytochemicals in the diet. Recent applications of metabolomics directed toward understanding the role of phytochemicals in food and nutrition are reviewed.

  8. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  9. Food production, crops and sustainability: restoring confidence in science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    By 2050, the global food requirement will increase significantly, driven by a population increase to more than nine billion and by a richer diet. There is a need for agricultural and food systems that are not only more productive, but also sustainable. Currently, progress is hampered by a lack of un

  10. Food science challenge: Translating the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to Bring About Real Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food scientists and nutrition scientists (dietitians and nutrition communicators) are tasked with creating strategies to more closely align the American food supply and the public's diet with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). This paper is the result of 2 expert dialogues to address this m...

  11. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well.

  12. Food science challenge: translating the dietary guidelines for Americans to bring about real behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Almeida, Nelson; Black, Richard; Burns, Robbie; Bush, Laina; Crawford, Patricia; Keim, Nancy; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Weaver, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Food scientists and nutrition scientists (dietitians and nutrition communicators) are tasked with creating strategies to more closely align the American food supply and the public's diet with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). This paper is the result of 2 expert dialogues to address this mandate, which were held in Chicago, Illinois, and Washington, D.C., in early October 2010 between these 2 key scientific audiences. It is an objective that has largely eluded public health experts over the past several decades. This document takes the perspective of food scientists who are tasked with making positive modifications to the food supply, both in innovating and reformulating food products, to respond to both the DGA recommendations, and to consumer desires, needs, and choices. The paper is one of two to emerge from those October 2010 discussions; the other article focuses on the work of dietitians and nutrition communicators in effecting positive dietary change.

  13. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  14. A Study on Environmental Pollutants in the Food Subject Area of High School Family and Consumer Sciences Textbooks : Including the Relation to the Experimental Research

    OpenAIRE

    OKAZAKI, YUKAKO

    2005-01-01

    The chief aim of this paper is to examine the present state of environmental pollutants in the food subject area of family and consumer sciences textbooks for senior high school level. First, the author showed how course of study and textbooks for senior high school students deal with environment pollutants in the food subject area. Second, after considering their contents from the viewpoints of food life, books and experimental reports that deal with environmental pollutants were reviewed an...

  15. Molecular Gastronomy: A Food Fad or an Interface for Science-based Cooking?

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, van der, M.; McClements, D.J.; Ubbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    A review is given over the field of molecular gastronomy and its relation to science and cooking. We begin with a brief history of the field of molecular gastronomy, the definition of the term itself, and the current controversy surrounding this term. We then highlight the distinction between molecular gastronomy and science-based cooking, and we discuss both the similarities and the distinctions between science and cooking. In particular, we highlight the fact that the kitchen serves as an i...

  16. Following the trail of crumbs: A bibliometric study on consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia-Gabriela C. Kasemodel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to conduct an exploratory study regarding consumer preference in the field of the Food Science and Technology. Two questions guided this study: Is it possible to identify a trail of crumbs concerning consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field? And, if that trail exists, where is it leading academia in terms of research trends of interest? A bibliometric study was conducted using an analysis software called CiteSpace. The use of this methodology ensured the impartiality of the literature review of the topic of interest. A survey of all articles indexed in Web of Science between 1993 and 2013 regarding consumer behaviour was carried out. In total, 1,786 articles were analyzed. The recent increased concern regarding consumer behavior was evident.  With the USA and Spain having a significant  role in driving the trail. Eight other countries  that exhibited similar influences are: Italy, England, Australia, Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands and Brazil. The research trends observed were grouped into seven major hot topics: sensory, health, safety, willingness to pay, packaging, ethics, and lifestyle/convenience. However, the development of publishing trends depended on where the research was carried out. A final suggestive finding, demonstrated that scientific knowledge does not occur in a vacuum.

  17. 压力烹调对五种食材中淀粉消化性的影响%Effect of pressure cooking on in vitro carbohydrate digestion properties of five starchy food materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓丽; 范志红; 王淑颖; 吴伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of cooking methods on starchy materials including azuki bean,lotus seed,dried sliced Chinese yam,seeds of Euryale ferox Salisb,and seed of Semen Coicis with respect of carbohydrate digestion characteristics,in order to provide information need for scientific consumption of starchy traditional foodstuffs.Method:Starch hydrolysis time course,starch fractions including rapid digestion starch(RDS),slow digestion starch(SDS),resistant starch(RS) were measured by pancreatic digestion enzyme hydrolysis procedures in vitro.Result:Pressure-cooking significantly elevated the hydrolysis rate and modified the profile of starch fractions of the samples.Pressure-cooking samples had significantly higher hydrolysis index(HI) and RDS,and lower RS,comparing to that of the normal cooking treatments in all samples,while the expected glucose loads(EGLs) was still significantly lower than that of the cooked rice,the reference sample.The azuki bean and lotus seeds maintained low digestion rate and low EGL.Conclusion:The pressure cooking treatment can increase the in vitro digestibility of hard-to-cook starchy materials,which was beneficial to those who had compromised digestion ability.Control of starch fraction profile and EGL can be realized by choosing slow digestive food materials and modifying the pressure cooking parameters.%目的:探讨不同烹调方法对红小豆、莲子、山药片、芡实、薏米5种富含淀粉的保健食材的碳水化合物消化特性的影响,为科学食用传统食材提供依据。方法:体外模拟消化方法测定各时间点的水解率、快消化淀粉、慢消化淀粉和抗性淀粉等指标。结果:压力烹调显著影响样品的水解速率和淀粉类型,水解指数增大,快消化淀粉含量增加,抗性淀粉含量减少。但所有样品的预期血糖负荷均显著低于粳米样品。红小豆和莲子经过压力烹调仍保持低消化速度和低EGL特性

  18. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  19. EMERGING TRENDS IN THE NEW FOOD ECONOMY: CONSUMERS, FIRMS AND SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.

    2003-01-01

    Seven trends that emerge in the new global economy will be identified followed by a discussion of how they evolved and what they imply for public policy and for various types of firms and consumers. Some have called it the "brave new world" of food production and consumption. Some dislike what they see, others fear it, and many embrace it. The new food economy involves many non-food firms that provide ancillary services and products. They go way beyond the familiar farm input suppliers to con...

  20. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals: implication in agriculture, cereal processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long...

  1. The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephen, A.; Alles, M.; Graaf, de C.; Fleith, M.; Hadjilucas, E.; Isaacs, A.; Maffeis, C.; Zeinstra, G.G.; Gil, A.

    2012-01-01

    Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food

  2. Italy on the spotlight: Expo Milan 2015 and Italian Journal of Food Science

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fantozzi; M.F. Caboni; T. Gallina Toschi; V. Gerbi; Hidalgo, A.; V. Lavelli; G. Perretti; P. Pittia; Pompei, C.; RANTSIOU, K.; Rolle, L.; Sinigaglia, M.; B. Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 will certainly be remembered as the Year of the Universal Exposition (EXPO) hosted in Milan, Italy, focusing on a hot theme in the current scenario: “Feeding the Planet, Energyfor Life”.This event has drawn a wide international attention towards Italy as a country with peculiar and valuable food traditions, thus strengthening its reputation as “gastronomic capital of theworld” rich in protected designation of origin products (PDOs) and characterised by a longstanding food cultur...

  3. Tobacco regulatory science: research to inform regulatory action at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David L; Backinger, Cathy L; van Bemmel, Dana M; Neveleff, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promotes the development of regulatory science to ensure that a strong evidence base informs all of its regulatory activities related to the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products as well as public education about tobacco product constituents and effects. Toward that end, the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) provides funding for research studies with scientific aims that fall within its defined regulatory authority. However, given their traditional biomedical focus on basic and applied research, some researchers may not understand the principles of regulatory science or the types of studies CTP funds. The purpose of this paper is (1) to clarify the definition of regulatory science as a distinct scientific discipline, (2) to explore the role of tobacco regulatory science in order to help researchers understand the parameters and types of research that can be funded by CTP, and (3) to describe the types of research efforts that will inform the FDA's public health framework for tobacco product regulation. PMID:24638850

  4. Tobacco regulatory science: research to inform regulatory action at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David L; Backinger, Cathy L; van Bemmel, Dana M; Neveleff, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promotes the development of regulatory science to ensure that a strong evidence base informs all of its regulatory activities related to the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products as well as public education about tobacco product constituents and effects. Toward that end, the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) provides funding for research studies with scientific aims that fall within its defined regulatory authority. However, given their traditional biomedical focus on basic and applied research, some researchers may not understand the principles of regulatory science or the types of studies CTP funds. The purpose of this paper is (1) to clarify the definition of regulatory science as a distinct scientific discipline, (2) to explore the role of tobacco regulatory science in order to help researchers understand the parameters and types of research that can be funded by CTP, and (3) to describe the types of research efforts that will inform the FDA's public health framework for tobacco product regulation.

  5. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When You Have Diabetes Meal Plans and Diabetes Smart Supermarket Shopping Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Diabetes: What's True and False? Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Food Labels Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Contact Us ...

  6. The effects of marine carbohydrates and glycosylated compounds on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Recently, marine-derived carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and low molecular weight glycosylated oligosaccharides, have attracted much attention because of their numerous health benefits. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine carbohydrates exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-infection, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. The present review discusses the potential industrial applications of bioactive marine carbohydrates for health maintenance and disease prevention. Furthermore, the use of marine carbohydrates in food, cosmetics, agriculture, and environmental protection is discussed.

  7. Oral carbohydrate loading with 18% carbohydrate beverage alleviates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative 12.6% oral carbohydrate loading is an element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol aimed at alleviating postoperative insulin resistance; however, in Japan, beverages with 18% carbohydrate content are generally used for preoperative carbohydrate loading. We investigated the effect of 18% carbohydrate loading on alleviating insulin resistance. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover-randomized study and were segregated into 2 groups: volunteers in the carbohydrate-loading group (group A) who fasted from after 9 pm and ingested 375 mL of a beverage containing 18% carbohydrate (ArginaidWaterTM; Nestle, Tokyo, Japan) between 9 pm and 12 pm, and 250 mL of the same liquid at 6:30 am. Volunteers in control group (group B) drank only water. At 8:30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) and levels of ketone bodies and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) before clamping were evaluated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Levels of blood glucose, insulin, and cytokines at the start of the clamp were similar in both the groups. The GIR in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (11.5±2.4 vs 6.2±2.2 mg/kg/min, p=0.005), while blood ketone body levels were significantly lower in group A (22±4 vs 124±119 μmol/L, p=0.04). Preoperative 18% carbohydrate loading could prevent the decrease in insulin sensitivity and suppress catabolism in healthy volunteers. Thus, carbohydrate loading with a beverage with 18% carbohydrate content might contribute to improvements in perioperative management. PMID:23353610

  8. Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-06-16

    Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (≥0.8 OD600 nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

  9. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  10. A review of the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in food science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful nanoscale analysis technique used in food area. This versatile technique can be used to acquire high-resolution sample images and investigate local interactions in air or liquid surroundings. In this chapter, we explain the principles of AFM and review representative applications of AFM in gelatin, casein micelle, carrageenan, gellan gum, starch, and interface. We elucidate new knowledge revealed with AFM as well as ways to use AFM to obtain morphology and rheology information in different food fields.

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  12. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Törrönen, Riitta; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Pekkinen, Jenna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-03-31

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  13. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  14. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been vastly popular for weight loss. The association between a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively examine the association of 3 prepregnancy low-carbohydrate......, and it indicated closer adherence to a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern. RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using generalized estimating equations with log-binomial models. RESULTS: We documented 867 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 y follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM for comparisons...... by age, parity, family history of diabetes, physical activity, or overweight status. CONCLUSIONS: A prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high protein and fat from animal-food sources is positively associated with GDM risk, whereas a prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with high...

  15. The kitchen as laboratory : reflections on the science of food and cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega, C.; Ubbink, J.; Linden, van der E.

    2012-01-01

    In this global collaboration of essays, chefs and scientists advance culinary knowledge by testing hypotheses rooted in the physical and chemical properties of food. Using traditional and cutting-edge tools, ingredients, and techniques, these pioneers create, and sometimes revamp, dishes that respon

  16. Barriers to using consumer science information in food technology innovations: An exploratory study using Delphi methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raley, Marian E.; Ragona, Maddalena; Sijtsema, S.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Food technology innovation has the potential to deliver many benets to society, although some technologies have been problematic in terms of public acceptance. In promoting the commercial success of innovative technological processes and resultant products it will be important to incorporate
    inf

  17. Science and Technology review: The search for mutagens from cooked foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This past year and a half has been one of the most unsettled periods in the history of the Livermore Laboratory. Our laboratory, like all federal laboratories, has felt the winds of change from Washington. Various committees are questioning the way in which the federal government supports scientific research and the appropriateness of certain to programs. Science and Technology Review is one of the principal mechanisms by which we inform and educate a broad readership about our research programs and accomplishments. Much of the Laboratory`s research is at the cutting edge of science and technology, making it particularly challenging to describe state-of-the-art accomplishments and their significance in widely understood terms. Our goal is that the articles presented here represent the full range of projects at Livermore and convey the challenge and excitement of working at the frontiers of science and technology.

  18. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    consultation and outlines how these were taken into account in the final opinion. EFSA had received 100 contributions from 24 interested parties (individuals, non-governmental organisations, industry organisations, academia, national assessment bodies and Member States). The main comments which were received...... during the public consultation related to: total and glycaemic carbohydrates, possible adverse health effects of excessive consumption of sugar(s), sugar-sweetened beverages, the definition of dietary fibre, and the available updated evidence on the glycaemic index/glycaemic load. All the public comments...

  19. Advancing regulatory science to bring novel medical devices for use in emergency care to market: the role of the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Christopher G; Forrest, Shawn; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne B; Strauss, David G

    2015-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performs regulatory science to provide science-based medical product regulatory decisions. This article describes the types of scientific research the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health performs and highlights specific projects related to medical devices for emergency medicine. In addition, this article discusses how results from regulatory science are used by the FDA to support the regulatory process as well as how the results are communicated to the public. Regulatory science supports the FDA's mission to assure safe, effective, and high-quality medical products are available to patients.

  20. Teaching and learning about food and nutrition through science education in Brazilian schools: an intersection of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Carolina Netto; Nunn, Rebecca; Dysarz, Fernanda; Silva, Elizabete; Fonseca, Alexandre Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Science teachers are the main professionals in schools who address health-related subjects, though food and nutrition education (FNE) projects are mainly planned by health professionals, especially nutritionists. The objective of this study is to create a transdisciplinary approximation between scientific research fields and practical fields from the analysis of an integrated case study conducted in Brazilian schools. In 2011, 10 days of observation were programmed in six schools in five cities. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with different social actors and data was analyzed using the complex thinking theory and the bricolage method of educational research. Planting of vegetable gardens or projects to improve table manners during mealtimes were identified in the schools. The results describe educational approaches used by science teachers to include FNE in school activities, even when not described in the official curriculum. Health professionals can identify actions to support health education in schools starting with that already undertaken by science teachers. The successful initiatives also involved professionals with practical knowledge and experience of life.

  1. Bioanalytical Methods for Food Contaminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods are complex mixtures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic compounds and other naturally occurring compounds. Sometimes added to this mixture are residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food proc...

  2. Molecular Gastronomy: A Food Fad or an Interface for Science-based Cooking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.; McClements, D.J.; Ubbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    A review is given over the field of molecular gastronomy and its relation to science and cooking. We begin with a brief history of the field of molecular gastronomy, the definition of the term itself, and the current controversy surrounding this term. We then highlight the distinction between molecu

  3. Science and Biotechnology plant will be ready to ensure food the world population 2050?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new challenges of modern agriculture to feed the world will rely more and more on science and technological innovation, particularly that derived from 'omics' disciplines, and the speed with which these new techniques will reach the farm.

  4. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  5. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  6. Barriers to using consumer science information in food technology innovations: An exploratory study using Delphi methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Marian E. Raley; Maddalena Ragona; Siet J. Sijtsema; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Food technology innovation has the potential to deliver many benefits to society, although some technologies have been problematic in terms of public acceptance. In promoting the commercial success of innovative technological processes and resultant products it will be important to incorporate information relating to consumer preferences and concerns during their development. The barriers to the utilisation of consumer information during technological development was explored using a two roun...

  7. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  8. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  9. Food selection for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkooper, L

    1992-09-01

    1) The body requires at least 40 nutrients that are classified into six groups: protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, and water. These nutrients cannot be made in the body and so they must be supplied from solid or liquid foods. 2) Fat, carbohydrate, and protein contain energy that is measured in units called kilocalories. Alcohol also contains kilocalories, but is not a recommended energy source for endurance exercise. 3) Foods in endurance sports training programs should provide adequate fluids to prevent dehydration; energy intake that is high in carbohydrate, low in fat, adequate in protein, and that maintains desirable body weight and desirable proportions of fat and lean weight; and sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals. 4) Six categories of food types form the fundamentals of good diets for endurance exercise training and include: fruits, vegetables, grains-legumes, lean meats, low-fat milk products, and fats-sweets. Vegetarian diets include all food type categories except meat and/or milk products. 5) Fat and carbohydrate content of foods in each food type category varies greatly because of how foods are prepared. 6) The Food Pyramid and Sports Food Swap are guides for selecting foods that provide recommended amounts of essential nutrients for endurance exercise. 7) Before, during, and after endurance exercise, food intake should include adequate amounts of easily digestible, high carbohydrate foods that are familiar and psychologically satisfying. 8) Easily digestible high carbohydrate liquid or solid foods should be eaten soon after exercise is stopped to maximize rates of glycogen replacement. 9) Dehydration can be prevented by adequate fluid intake before, during, and after exercise. 10) Any food plan should be tested before a competition to find out how well that plan works for an athlete.

  10. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country.

  11. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  12. Applying the Taguchi Method for Optimized Fabrication of α -Lactalbumin Nanoparticles as Carrier in Drug Delivery and Food Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabeah Mehravar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein nannoparticles fabrication as well as characterization have been extensively studied in our previous works as suitable carrier for drug delivery and food science, since they are biodegradable, non-toxic and non antigenic. The objective of the present study was to optimize the fabrication of alpha-lactalbumin nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi robust method which is a statistical approach to overcome the limitation of the factorial and fractional factorial experiments. The process variables were pH, temprature and agitation speed. The optimal levels of the different factors for the nanoparticle production based on coacervation method were pH 2.5, temperature 50 0C and 750 rpm for agitation speed. The nanoparticle size at the determined condition was less than 220 nm. The mechanistic of the optimum conditions for preparing alpha-lactalbumin nanoparticles and their characterization as a drug delivery vehicles are strongly discussed.

  13. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  14. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  15. Integrating Research on Food and the Environment: an Exit Strategy from the Rational Fool Syndrome in Agricultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Ashby

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this paper is that the "rational fool" syndrome can be applied to mainstream public sector agricultural research that is conducted in a way that is rational in the short term, but acts against its own long-term viability. Historically, a main concern of such research has been to maximize high levels of food production together with low prices to consumers. As a result, mainstream agricultural science has ignored negative impacts or externalities, which has contributed to a crisis of credibility with the general public and politically sensitive decision makers. A long-term strategic research agenda for the public sector is being defined that is new and relevant to present efforts to integrate natural resource management and sustainable agricultural production. Such an agenda must be understood as a way of managing natural resources for the production of food and environmental services essential to human well-being. If agricultural systems are viewed and managed as parts of whole ecosystems, the key properties of complex systems that need to be taken into account will force researchers to consider long-term effects and environmental externalities. Research products will then be increasingly strategic in nature, and the research process will be "democratized" as it involves and gains the support of a broad set of stakeholders. Private sector research cannot be expected to meet this need because strategic studies of resource management are required that cannot be made exclusive or proprietary and are, in other words, public goods. Several innovative research initiatives are under way that signal opportunities for change. This paper first elaborates on this argument and then illustrates key elements of the integrated natural resource management approach, with examples of approaches that show promise as alternatives to mainstream agricultural science. Although numerous and diverse, integrated approaches manifest several properties that

  16. Refined carbohydrate enhancement of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon induced by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1996-01-01

    . In the present study it is shown that a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ doses (0.03% in the diet) throughout a study period of 10 weeks has a significant effect on the induction of ACF in the colon of male F344 rats. In addition, the study illustrates that the incidence of the IQ-induced ACF can...... be modulated by the amount of refined carbohydrates in the diet. Rats given a high sucrose/dextrin diet showed a significantly higher number of ACF compared to rats given a diet high in starches. The effect on tumor outcome will await the termination of a ongoing parallel study.......,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and azoxymethane (AOM), the use of a diet-related colon cancer initiator, such as the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) formed during meat cooking, would probably give a more relevant insight into diet-related colon carcinogenesis...

  17. Common Amino Acid Subsequences in a Universal Proteome--Relevance for Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkiewicz, Piotr; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Iwaniak, Anna; Sokołowska, Jolanta; Starowicz, Piotr; Bucholska, Justyna; Hrynkiewicz, Monika

    2015-09-01

    A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. An individual bioactive fragment, in particular the shortest fragment containing two or three amino acid residues, may occur in many protein sequences. An individual linear epitope may also be present in multiple sequences of precursor proteins. Although recent recommendations for prediction of allergenicity and cross-reactivity include not only sequence identity, but also similarities in secondary and tertiary structures surrounding the common fragment, local sequence identity may be used to screen protein sequence databases for potential allergens in silico. The main weakness of the screening process is that it overlooks allergens and cross-reactivity cases without identical fragments corresponding to linear epitopes. A single peptide may also serve as a marker of a group of allergens that belong to the same family and, possibly, reveal cross-reactivity. This review article discusses the benefits for food scientists that follow from the common subsequences concept.

  18. Common Amino Acid Subsequences in a Universal Proteome—Relevance for Food Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. An individual bioactive fragment, in particular the shortest fragment containing two or three amino acid residues, may occur in many protein sequences. An individual linear epitope may also be present in multiple sequences of precursor proteins. Although recent recommendations for prediction of allergenicity and cross-reactivity include not only sequence identity, but also similarities in secondary and tertiary structures surrounding the common fragment, local sequence identity may be used to screen protein sequence databases for potential allergens in silico. The main weakness of the screening process is that it overlooks allergens and cross-reactivity cases without identical fragments corresponding to linear epitopes. A single peptide may also serve as a marker of a group of allergens that belong to the same family and, possibly, reveal cross-reactivity. This review article discusses the benefits for food scientists that follow from the common subsequences concept.

  19. Science and technology for the mastership of probiotic applications in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, K; Berger, B; Bel-Rhlid, R; Ananta, E

    2012-12-31

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms which when consumed in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host, are a common part of our daily diet. Since their conception in the early 20th century, the health benefit applications of probiotics have been expanding, culminating in the recent challenge of health claim substantiation in Europe. This paper highlights the different application areas of probiotics, introduces the use of non-viable microorganisms to confer health benefits, and explains the recent regulatory challenges surrounding probiotics. It then describes in detail the different stages in the development of food products containing probiotic bacteria starting from the selection of suitable strains for industrial production. The description of production of probiotic powders with specific focus on strategies to maintain high viability during drying and storage then follows. The paper finishes with a discussion of probiotic stability in liquid products, followed by a description of the use of probiotics to improve nutrient bioavailability and digestibility of the food products, which they ferment or biotransform.

  20. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  1. Challenges and Opportunities for the community of Food Sciences to contribute Towards a Society of Healthier Consumers and a Better World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris N. Lazarides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous scientific and technological achievements in the production of food, human well-being has not been served to a satisfactory extent. Millions of people are literally killing themselves by excessive eating or wrong use of food, leading to obesity and nutrition-related diseases. At the same time millions of people continue to suffer from lack of food, leading to starvation, malnutrition and death, often before reaching adult age. Parallel to striving for better-safer-healthier food, the community of Food Sciences is faced with the challenge to help educate the average consumer on how to select, handle, store and use food for safe and healthy eating. The need to reshape and reform public education to better serve this task is obvious. What is also obvious is the need for medical professionals to recognize healthy eating (and exercise as the most valuable tool in preventive medical care. This perspective will concentrate on challenges and opportunities for Food Scientists/Engineers: to contribute towards a society of well-informed, self-protected, active and considerate citizens; to support public (food-related education and actively participate in the fight against obesity and nutrition-related diseases; to intervene in decision making bodies and underline the importance of education on nutrition and food; to invent avenues and possibilities to contribute to the fight against world hunger; and all in all, to contribute towards a healthier world, a world that will not be split between hunger and obesity.

  2. Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. April 1986-November 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-November 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 43 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Chernobyl nuclear accident: effects on foods. April 1986-October 1988 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and food chains. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 65 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  4. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  5. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Nutrition, Food Science, and Dietetics Faculty Have Information Needs Similar to Basic and Medical Sciences Faculty – Online Access to Electronic Journals, PubMed/Medline, and Google. A Review of: Shpilko, I. (2011. Assessing information-seeking patterns and needs of nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty. Library & Information Science Research, 33(2, 151-157.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mê-Linh Lê

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the information needs of nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty members by specifically examining how they locate and access information sources and which scholarly journals are consulted for teaching, research, and current awareness; and identifying any perceived information service needs (e.g., training.Design – Online survey questionnaire.Setting – Four senior colleges within the City University of New York (CUNY system.Subjects – Nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty members.Methods – Using institutional websites and the assistance of relevant affiliated librarians, 29 full-time and adjunct nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty members were identified at Queens College, Brooklyn College, Hunter College, and Lehman College (all part of the CUNY system. A survey was emailed in June and July 2007 and had 14 (48.4% responses. The study was temporarily halted in late 2007. When resumed in January 2009, the survey was re-sent to the initial non-respondents; five additional responses were received for a final 65.5% (n=19 response rate.Main Results – The majority of respondents held a PhD in their field of study (63.1%, were full-time faculty (no percentage given, and female (89.5%. Information sources were ranked for usage by respondents, with scholarly journals unsurprisingly ranked highly (100%, followed by conference and seminar proceedings (78.9%, search engines (73.6%, government sources (68.4%, and information from professional organizations (68.4%. Respondents ranked the top ten journals they used for current awareness and for research and teaching purposes. Perhaps due to a lack of distinction by faculty in terms of what they use journals for, the two journal lists differ by only two titles.The majority browse e-journals (55.6% rather than print, obtain access to e-journals through home or work computers (23.6%, and obtain access to print through personal collections (42

  7. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  8. Multimedia's Effect on College Students' Quantitative Mental Effort Scores and Qualitative Extraneous Cognitive Load Responses in a Food Science and Human Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jeanette; Huang, Wen-Hao David; Bohn, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective use of multimedia (MM) in instructional design is critical for student learning, especially for large lecture introductory courses. This study used a mixed-method approach to explore the effect of food science supporting course materials that utilized different MM formats, designed with Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML)…

  9. Paolo Mantegazza as Didatic Gastronome: Food, Art, Science and the New Italian Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele De Feo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is in Risorgimento Italy that there is an incessant quest for a definition of what it means to be Italian amongst a reality of economic paucity and clear social divisiveness. During this tenuous yet crucial epoch, there is a cohesive attempt to define Italian taste with an ideological terminology previously absent from sensorial and aesthetic discourse. A fundamental purveyor of this novel approach is the self-defined “poligamo delle scienze,” Paolo Mantegazza. To the plurality of roles attributed to the medic (anthropologist, pathologist, senator, writer, etc., there is one yet to be explored—Mantegazza as didactic gastronome. In the attempt to combat what he considers the anti-hygienic conditions plaguing the nation, the medic inaugurates a pedagogic process that would ideally lead to the formation of the Italian citizen. With the goal of creating a stronger and more capable Italian populace, the author goes to great lengths to provide guidelines for maximizing nourishment through the humblest of foods. Ultimately, Mantegazza’s pedagogic gourmandism is integral in the propagation of a social model of comportment that defines the Positivist framework of biological and nationalistic renewal and to a new vision of taste.

  10. The regulatory environment past and future--incentive or impediment to developments in food science and technology: a perspective from FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, F R; Carson, K

    1994-01-01

    The best system for protecting public health is one that involves two layers of control before food reaches the consumer. The first layer of control is the industry's clear responsibility to prepare food that is safe. The second layer of control is the monitoring that is provided by government to ensure that the industry is doing its job and is in fact producing safe food. While some may view this "second layer" as an impediment in the development and marketing of new technologies, there is another way to look at the "regulatory environment". The regulatory environment itself, is not an impediment to the development of food science and technology. The regulatory environment, with all its components--scientists, consumers, industry, and Congress--defines "safety" within the context of today's technology, scientific capability, and tolerance level of the lay public. The entire regulatory environment serves to guide the development of food science and technology by providing signposts, in the form of scientifically sound regulatory decisions. The scientific basis of these decisions becomes building blocks on which to rest further refinement of the technology, product, ingredient, or packaging material or on which research in related technologies or research in innovative directions can build. This scientific groundwork becomes very important as more and more companies move away from having self-contained research laboratories toward using commercial laboratories and academic institutions, as well as participating in cooperative research endeavors to meet food safety and product development research needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Animal board invited review: advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A M; Bassols, A; Bendixen, E; Bhide, M; Ceciliani, F; Cristobal, S; Eckersall, P D; Hollung, K; Lisacek, F; Mazzucchelli, G; McLaughlin, M; Miller, I; Nally, J E; Plowman, J; Renaut, J; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Staric, J; Turk, R

    2015-01-01

    Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for a variety of reasons and in contrast to disciplines such as plant sciences or human biomedicine, such potential is only now being tapped. To counter such limited usage, 6 years ago we created a consortium dedicated to the applications of Proteomics to APH, specifically in the form of a Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, termed FA1002--Proteomics in Farm Animals: www.cost-faproteomics.org. In 4 years, the consortium quickly enlarged to a total of 31 countries in Europe, as well as Israel, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This article has a triple purpose. First, we aim to provide clear examples on the applications and benefits of the use of proteomics in all aspects related to APH. Second, we provide insights and possibilities on the new trends and objectives for APH proteomics applications and technologies for the years to come. Finally, we provide an overview and balance of the major activities and accomplishments of the COST Action on Farm Animal Proteomics. These include activities such as the organization of seminars, workshops and major scientific conferences, organization of summer schools, financing Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) and the generation of scientific literature. Overall, the Action has attained all of the proposed objectives and has made considerable difference by putting proteomics on the global map for animal and veterinary researchers in general and by contributing significantly to reduce the East-West and North-South gaps

  12. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long...

  13. The factors affecting on estimation of carbohydrate content of meals in carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Takamura, Chihiro; Hirose, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Higashide, Takashi; Kashihara, Yoneo; Hashimura, Kayako; Shintaku, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors affecting on errors in carbohydrate (CHO) content estimation during CHO counting. Thirty-seven type 1 diabetes patients and 22 of their parents and 28 physicians/dieticians were enrolled in this study. CHO counting was counted in "Carb", with 1 Carb defined as 10 g of CHO. To evaluate the accuracy of CHO counting, 80 real-size photographs of cooked meals were presented to the subjects for Carb estimation. Carbs tended to be overestimated for foods containing relatively small amounts of Carbs. On the other hands, Carbs tended to be underestimated for foods with higher than 6 Carbs. Accurate estimation of the Carbs in food containing a large amount of rice was particularly difficult even in the subjects having the CHO counting experience. The Carb contents of high-calorie foods such as meats, fried foods, and desserts tended to be overestimated. This error was smaller in subjects having the CHO counting experience. In conclusion, misunderstanding of high-calorie dishes containing high amounts of CHO was observed in inexperienced subjects, indicating the efficacy of the current methodology of CHO counting. On the other hand it was difficult even for experienced subjects to assess the amount of seasoned rice, suggesting the need for a new methodology for accurate estimation. PMID:26568656

  14. Compositional Analysis of Carbohydrates of a Family of Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Raghothama, Arvind; Hamaker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Legumes, most commonly identified as beans or lentils, provide a good source of both protein and carbohydrates. Many legumes contain the polysaccharide arabinogalactans, classified as dietary fiber and have unique functional properties in foods. However, these, and other plant polysaccharides have not been well characterized. A preliminary collaborative study between Florida State University and the Whistler Center at Purdue indicated that isolated legume arabinogalactans appear to have high ...

  15. Glycemic Response of a Carbohydrate-Protein Bar with Ewe-Goat Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Eirini Manthou; Maria Kanaki; Kalliopi Georgakouli; Chariklia K Deli; Dimitrios Kouretas; Yiannis Koutedakis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0) randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast...

  16. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate-rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests th

  17. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate- rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests t

  18. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from Karger AG Publishing Co., P.O. Box, Ch-4009 Basel... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or...

  19. 75 FR 18849 - Food and Drug Administration/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute/National Science Foundation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Integration of Nonclinical and Clinical Models; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/National Heart Lung and...

  20. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  1. Glycemic Response of a Carbohydrate-Protein Bar with Ewe-Goat Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Manthou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI and glycaemic load (GL of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0 randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55 and low GL (<10 food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition.

  2. 粉状富淀粉传统保健食材碳水化合物体外消化特性%In vitro carbohydrate digestion properties of traditional powder starchy food materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓丽; 范志红; 王淑颖

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of pasting condition on roasted and powdered starchy materials with respect of carbohydrate digestion characteristics. The contents of various starche fractions such as rapid digestion starch, slow digestion starch, resistant starch and hydrolysis rate were measured by in vitro pancreatic digestion enzyme hydrolysis procedure. The pasting temperatures were determined by rapid viscosity analyzer. The degree of gelatinization also was measured. The results indicated that the temperature and volume of boiling water added significantly affected the hydrolysis rate and the ratio of starch types of the starchy paste samples. Increasing the volumes of boiling water may render remarkably higher hydrolysis index comparing to that of the normal cooking treatments in all samples. The expected glucose loads of dry yams, gordon euryales, lotus seeds, coix seeds and adzuki beans were 47.38,42.28, 29.05,42.79 and 28.96, respectively, in normal cooking treatments, while the expected glucose loads were 51.80, 55.49,50.19,50.93 and 40.26, respectively, in more boiling water pasting procedures. There is the possibility that carbohydrates digestion rate and the starch type profile be effectively modified by adjusting the pasting procedures so as to accommodate the needs of the people of different physiological conditions in terms of blood glucose response.%探讨焙烤后打粉冲糊方法对富淀粉保健食材碳水化合物消化特性的影响。采用体外模拟消化方法测定各样品快消化淀粉、慢消化淀粉和抗性淀粉的含量及水解率,并对淀粉糊化温度、糊化度等进行研究。试验结果表明:冲糊水量和温度显著影响样品的水解速率和淀粉类型,增加沸水量可使所有样品的水解指数超过蒸煮处理水平,蒸煮处理山药干、芡实、莲子、薏米和红小豆血糖负荷评估值分别为47.38、42.28、29.05、42.79和28.96;沸水量大冲糊方法的血

  3. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  4. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  5. Nanotechnology: the word is new but the concept is old. An overview of the science and technology in food and food products at the nanoscale level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Bryksa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food scientists and technologists are actively engaged in examining and developing nanotechnologies for applications such as novel functional ingredients and nutrient delivery systems, safety testing, packaging, and authenticity/authentication at an ever-increasing pace. However, before these new products/technologies are commercialised, rigorous safety testing and risk/benefit analysis are required to ensure that public and environmental concerns are addressed. This review provides an overview of food nanoscience and technology including a brief history, education, definitions pertaining to policy and regulation, and applications. The most recent findings and advances are emphasised, focussing on bioactives' delivery. In addition, proposed directions in the area of nano-based targeting of pathogens for food safety as well as medical foods are discussed. As food nanoscience and technology has been extensively reviewed in recent years, specific case examples will be limited to those reported within the past year.

  6. Eduardo Primo Yúfera, founder of Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos and pioneer on food science and technology research in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Gascón, M; Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Gandía-Balaguer, A

    2011-12-01

    Eduardo Primo Yúfera was the founder and director of the Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA, 1957-1974) until he was appointed president of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). His aim to publicize food science led him to create the Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos in 1961, the forerunner of this journal, Food Science and Technology International, which he directed until 1977. Of his scientific output, 50% has been published in this journal. He is considered to be the promoter and exponent of Food Science and Technology and Chemical Ecology in Spain as well as the instigator of the country's innovation model (R&D and innovation). In his work, he was able to combine basic research excellence and socially relevant applied research to move both science and society forward. He was an example and inspiration to many colleagues and followers. The aim of this study is to highlight the influence and importance of Primo Yúfera in the formation, development and consolidation of the journal Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, and to appraise his scientific contribution to this journal.

  7. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. PMID:27184288

  8. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.

  9. Bridging the science-policy gap: development and reception of a joint research agenda on sustainable food consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sedlacko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To increase the uptake of research findings by policy makers and to encourage European researchers to better reflect policy needs, we facilitated the development of a joint research agenda (JRA on sustainable food consumption (SFC involving scientists, policy makers, and other stakeholders. Pursuing interpretive action research and using a number of data sources, we tried to understand how the “fit” between the characteristics of policy makers’ organizational contexts and the attributes of the JRA development process affects the reception of the JRA and its outcomes. Our framework was based on three distinct formations of discursive and material practices related to the use of knowledge in public policy making: bureaucratic, managerial, and communicative. Two dominant patterns seem to be represented in SFC consumption in the European Union: a transition between the bureaucratic and the managerial formation and a highly developed managerial formation with occasional communicative practices. We found that reflecting national policy priorities would help overcome some of the structural barriers between science and policy, whereas other barriers could be addressed by designing the process to better fit with the logics of the three formations, such as the fragmentation of knowledge (bureaucratic formation or breadth of participation (communicative formation.

  10. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  11. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core struc...

  12. [Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2010-05-01

    Among a variety of food materials, some are being used as resources of traditional, alternative, and/or complementary medicines all over the world. These medicinal foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects, and they are prescribed in various traditional preparations. Regarding this point, we focused on exploring bioactive constituents in these medicinal foods, which would be applicable to remedy so-called metabolic syndrome. In this review, our recent studies on anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from flowers of Bellis perennis are described.

  13. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  14. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton. PMID:27510848

  15. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE LEVELS ON THE GENE EXPRESSION AND THE ACTIVITY OF PEPCK IN MARINE FISHES WITH DIFFERENT FOOD HABITS%饲料中糖水平对不同食性海水鱼类PEPCK基因表达和酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑云; 刘泓宇; 谭北平; 董晓慧; 杨奇慧; 迟淑艳; 章双

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, E.C.4.1.1.32) is a key gluconeogenic enzyme in aquatic organisms. In this experiment, three marine fish species with different food habits—omnivorous Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), moderate carnivorous Derbio (Trachinotus ovatus) and ferocious carnivorous Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) were selected as the experimental subjects. Dextrin was used as the main dietary carbohydrate source to generate three equal-nitrogen groups of diets with different carbohydrate levels (low dextrin LD, middle dextrin MD and high dextrin HD). Sixty juvenile fish with normal size were randomly selected from each species and fed for 8 weeks during the experimental period. To identify the effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on the gene expression and the enzymatic acidity of PEPCK, we also cloned and analyzed the full-length sequence of PEPCK gene cDNA of Trachinotus ovatus. The full-length cDNA of Derbio PEPCK was 2652 bp and encoded 624 amino acids. The bioinformatics study showed that PEPCK gene was highly conserved between the three species and the homology was higher than 90%. The PEPCK activity of Derbio and Cobia were reduced by 28.05% and 26.03% respectively in the HD groups compared to the LD groups (P<0.05), suggesting the increased carbohydrate level may cause decrease in the enzymatic activity. The expression of PEPCK in the liver of Tilapia, Derbio and Cobia was also reduced with the increase in the carbohydrate level. Compared to the LD group, the PEPCK mRNA level of the HD group exhibited a 100-, 4.3- and 4.77-fold decrease in Tilapia, Derbio and Cobia respectively. These results suggested that the gluconeogenic capacity might be related to the food habit of the fish, and that the gene expression and the enzymatic activity of PEPCK of the three fish species could be significantly inhibited by the elevated dietary dextrin level. The degree of inhibition in mRNA expression also varied probably due to different food habits, and

  16. 76 FR 49775 - Food and Drug Administration/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/National Science...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``FDA/NHLBI/NSF Workshop on Computer Methods for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/National Heart, Lung, and...

  17. Ionizing energy in food processing and pest control. 1. Wholesomeness of food treated with ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congressional concerns about the use of ionizing energy for food preservation and to control pests in food products for export and domestic use promoted the preparation of this report by a special task force of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). An overview surveys research conducted on the toxicological safety, nutritional quality, and microbiological safety of foods treated with ionizing energy. Background information is provided on various types of electromagnetic radiation, effects of ionizing energy level and dose, sources of natural background radiation and induced radioactivity, and the nature and safety of various radiolytic products. Objectives, methodologies, and problems associated with feeding studies of toxicological safety are outlined; results of scientific studies, U.S. government wholesomeness studies, and international feeding studies are summarized. Studies on the nutritional value of food products processed using ionized energy have examined the effects of ionizing energy on 1) composite diets, 2) carbohydrates, 3) fats, 4) proteins and amino acids, 5) vitamins (potatoes, onions, fruits, meat, seafood, cereals, vegetables, dairy products, oils), 6) antivitamins, and 7) minerals. The report concludes that currently available scientific evidence indicates that foods exposed to ionizing energy under the conditions proposed for commercial application are 1) wholesome (safe to eat) and 2) comparable in nutritional adequacy to fresh or conventionally processed foods

  18. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium on advances in microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enormous quantities of food and agricultural produce are spoiled by microbial activity, which is a major challenge to food security today. Besides, contamination of foods by pathogens or their toxins pose serious problems affecting food safety worldwide. Development of cost effective, reliable, and user friendly methods for detection and identification of microbial pathogens has always remained a challenge in microbiology. Microbial research has also aided development of probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals, which are important for health. The objective of the symposium was to address and dwell upon the recent advances in some of the mentioned research areas pertaining to microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment. The major themes of the symposium were: Adaptation to Stresses, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Safety, Food Security and Nutrition, Environmental Microbiology etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Reduced-fat foods: the complex science of developing diet-based strategies for tackling overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David J

    2015-05-01

    Fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical properties, sensory attributes, nutritional profile, and biologic response of food products. Overconsumption of fats is linked to chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. There is therefore a need to develop reduced-fat products with physicochemical properties and sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. In addition, foods may be redesigned to increase the feelings of satiety and satiation, and thereby reduce overall food intake. The successful design of these types of functional foods requires a good understanding of the numerous roles that fat plays in determining food attributes and the development of effective strategies to replace these attributes. This article provides an overview of the current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiologic attributes of emulsion-based food products and highlights approaches to create high-quality foods with reduced-fat contents.

  20. Microbial Evaluation of Cooked Foods Served in the Central Restaurant of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Winter and Summer 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are the most important thing cause of illness and death in developing countries. Food safety is essential for central university kitchens because of the high number of meals served every day. These central university kitchen systems are of special interest as students are at relatively high-risk of developing serious complications from exposure to food bacterial contamination hazards. A total of 144 samples of cooked foods, collected in winter and summer 2015 from the restaurants of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were studied to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Results were analyzed through SPSS 22.0 and t-test. According to coliform count, the highest rate of contamination was in Kebab (1.17×102 CFU/g and lowest was in fish (0.8×102 CFU/g and also the highest rate of contamination of Escherichia coli (E.coli was in Kebab (6 samples, and the lowest contamination level was in fish and in this regard no sample was reported to be positive. According to staphylococcus aureus, the highest contamination rate was in rice (0.97×102 CFU/g and lowest was in fish (0.63×102 CFU/g. Kebab had the highest contamination of ‎coliforms and staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus in summer. None of the tested samples was confirmed with respect to salmonella, clostridium perfringens and staphylococcus aureus. Among the foods served in the university restaurants, Kebab had the highest bacterial contamination and fishes the lowest. Improved methods of cooking and food processing, prevention of secondary bacterial contamination, continuous monitoring and surveillance of food processing are the most important measures to prevent food contamination.

  1. FOOD POLICY, TRADE, MARKETS, AND GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, POLITICS, AND ECONOMICS OF LABELING

    OpenAIRE

    Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Ekanem, Enefiok P.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of whether or not to label will be a crucial one for the U.S. agricultural sector in the coming years. This paper develops a discussion of biotechnology in agriculture in the U.S., reports on the results of a survey to examine consumer response to labeling genetically modified foods, and discusses policy implications for markets and trade in genetically modified foods. Two hundred and fifty responses to a 2003 mail questionnaire survey were analyzed for the paper. Chi-square test of...

  2. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-01

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  3. Functional foods for health promotion: state-of-the-science on dietary flavonoids. Extended abstracts from the 12th Annual Conference on Functional Foods for Health Promotion, April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary; Sies, Helmut; Heber, David; Keen, Carl L; Macdonald, Ian A; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Actis-Gorreta, Lucas; Momma, Tony Y; Ottaviani, Javier I; Holt, Roberta R; Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian

    2009-12-01

    The extended abstracts in this report are based on presentations from the 12(th) Special Conference on Functional Foods for Health Promotion, cosponsored by the North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Project Committee on Flavonoids and the American Society for Nutrition at the Experimental Biology meeting in April 2009. The theme of this year's special conference was "State-of-the-Science on Dietary Flavonoids." The conference began with a general introduction and overview of flavonoids and their presence in the diet as well as the estimated intake levels in the US population. Subsequent presentations addressed issues pertaining to study design and interpretation, mechanisms of action, and the potential health impacts related to inflammation, the vasculature, and the brain. The present summary of the current science indicates that dietary flavonoids, particularly flavanols, show promising potential for reducing cardiovascular disease risk via reduction of inflammation and improvement in vascular function. However, the existing data must be interpreted cautiously, with consideration given to the compound tested (i.e., parent or metabolite), the use of controls, and the practicality of the concentrations used. While more data are needed on the long-term health impacts of dietary flavonoids in humans, including the efficacious dose, current data indicate it may soon be possible to develop public health messages about flavonoid-rich foods. PMID:19941619

  4. The relationship between carbohydrate and the mealtime insulin dose in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kirstine J; King, Bruce R; Shafat, Amir; Smart, Carmel E

    2015-01-01

    A primary focus of the nutritional management of type 1 diabetes has been on matching prandial insulin therapy with carbohydrate amount consumed. Different methods exist to quantify carbohydrate including counting in one gram increments, 10g portions or 15g exchanges. Clinicians have assumed that counting in one gram increments is necessary to precisely dose insulin and optimize postprandial control. Carbohydrate estimations in portions or exchanges have been thought of as inadequate because they may result in less precise matching of insulin dose to carbohydrate amount. However, studies examining the impact of errors in carbohydrate quantification on postprandial glycemia challenge this commonly held view. In addition it has been found that a single mealtime bolus of insulin can cover a range of carbohydrate intake without deterioration in postprandial control. Furthermore, limitations exist in the accuracy of the nutrition information panel on a food label. This article reviews the relationship between carbohydrate quantity and insulin dose, highlighting limitations in the evidence for a linear association. These insights have significant implications for patient education and mealtime insulin dose calculations. PMID:26422396

  5. Effect of Different Rice-Crab Coculture Modes on Soil Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ying; LIU Ming-da; YANG Dan; ZHANG Wei; AN Hui; WANG Yao-jing; XIE Hong-tu; ZHANG Xu-dong

    2014-01-01

    Traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security. Rice-crab coculture (RC) is an important eco-agricultural process in rice production in northern China. Recognizing the soil fertility in RC may help develop novel sustainable agriculture. Soil carbohydrates are important factors in determining soil fertility in different culture modes. In this study, soil carbohydrates were analyzed under three different culture modes including rice monoculture (RM), conventional rice-crab coculture (CRC) and organic rice-crab coculture (ORC). Results showed that the contents of soil organic carbon and carbohydrates were signiifcantly higher in the ORC than those in RM. The increasing effect was greater with increased organic manure. Similar tendency was found in CRC, but the overall effect was less pronounced compared with ORC. Carbohydrates were more sensitive to RC mode and manure amendment than soil organic carbon. Compare to RM, the (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio decreased in all the RC modes, indicating a relative enrichment in plant-derived carbohydrates due to the input of crab feed and manure. While the increasing (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio in ORC modes with increased organic manure suggested that crab activity and metabolism induced microbially derived carbohydrates accumulation. The lower GluN/MurA ratio in ORC indicated an enhancement of bacteria contribution to SOM turnover in a short term. The ifndings reveal that the ORC mode could improve the quantity and composition of soil carbohydrates, effectively, to ensure a sustainable use of paddy soil.

  6. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in...... majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several...

  7. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other information on the label is given in percentages . Food contains fat, protein, carbohydrates, and fiber. Food also contains vitamins, ... grams contained in one serving of the food. Fat is an important nutrient that your body uses for growth and development, but you don' ...

  8. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health...Information/ucm241740.htm . Contact Persons: Donna Lochner, Center for Devices and Radiological Health,...

  9. Nanotechnology: the word is new but the concept is old. An overview of the science and technology in food and food products at the nanoscale level

    OpenAIRE

    Bryksa, Brian C.; Yada, Rickey Y.

    2012-01-01

    Food scientists and technologists are actively engaged in examining and developing nanotechnologies for applications such as novel functional ingredients and nutrient delivery systems, safety testing, packaging, and authenticity/authentication at an ever-increasing pace. However, before these new products/technologies are commercialised, rigorous safety testing and risk/benefit analysis are required to ensure that public and environmental concerns are addressed. This review provides an overvi...

  10. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  12. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  13. Science serving people. IAEA-supported projects are helping countries apply the right tools to fight food, health, and water problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new booklet 'Science Serving People' features stories about how IAEA-supported projects are making a difference in many poorer countries. The stories describe applications of nuclear science and technology that are being used through technical cooperation channels to overcome challenges of water scarcity, food shortage, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. They also illustrate how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fostering atoms for peace in the developing world. Extreme poverty and deprivation remain a problem of monumental proportions at the dawn of the 21st century, notes IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in the booklet's Introduction. Through effective partnerships, collaborative research, and strategic direction, the IAEA is contributing to global efforts to help the poor. IAEA programmes have entered an important phase, he said, in which scientific contributions to Member States are yielding very sizeable human benefits. It's clear that science and technology must be better mobilized to meet the needs of the poor, emphasizes Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, USA, and Special Advisor to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The UN agencies, such as the IAEA, have a great role to play, he says in the booklet's Foreword. This is especially so, he points out, if they act as a bridge between the activities of advanced- country and developing country scientific centres, and if they help to harness the advances of world science for the poor as well as the rich. The bottom line, he concludes, is that rich countries should expand support for those United Nations organizations that can help in solving the unique problems confronting the world's poorest peoples. The booklet features stories on managing water resources, promoting food security, focusing science on health problems, new tools for environmental management, and strengthening nuclear

  14. 食品中感官评定发展现状%Development of sensory evaluation in food science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金虎; 黄卉; 李来好

    2012-01-01

    食品感官评定在食品质量评估中占有重要的作用,其在食品生产与食品研究中越来越得到更多人的重视。从感官评定发展的标志性事件,及国内感官评定现状总结了感官评定的历史;由感官评定的定义出发,通过味觉、触觉、视觉、嗅觉和听觉五个方面对感官评定常用的方法手段等相应状况进行了概述;概述了感官评定人员、食品基质、食品加工处理对食品感官评定的影响。%Food sensory evaluation plays an important role in food quality assessment.Sensory evaluation in food production and food research gets more and more importance.The landmark events of the developmental sensory evaluation and the domestic status of sensory evaluation were summarized.According to the definition of sensory evaluation, through five aspects of sensory evaluation, taste, touch, sight, smell and hearing, generalized the common method of sensory evaluation, and summarized the effects of sensory evaluation staff, the food matrix, food processing to food sensory evaluation.

  15. A STUDY OF AN INNOVATIVE BREAKTHROUGH IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY%粮食科技突破性创新问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成志

    2011-01-01

    认为只有不断地突破性创新,才能掌握更多先进的核心技术、以支撑行业可持续发展。粮食科技创新需求可分为国家需求和市场需求两方面,具体的需求为粮食减损、节能降耗、信息采集、食品安全、高效物流、新颖食品等。提出了粮食科技突破创新的几个题目:东北低水分高产量玉米新品种培育;低割茬回收遗洒粮的联合收割配套设备;吨粮单元真空包装运输体系;粮食存储信息自动采集技术体系;原粮快速熟化技术设备等。%An unceasing innovative breakthrough makes possible the acquisition of more advanced core technology so as to support sustainable development of food industry. The need for innovation in food sci-teeh involves both national demand and market demand of which the major demand lies in grain reduction, energy saving, information collection, food safety, efficient logistics and innovative food. The paper puts forward several topics regarding the innovative breakthrough in food science and technology such as cultivating new varieties of high yield corn with less moisture content in the northeast; auxiliary equipment of combine recovering spilled grain with short stubble ; transportation system of vacuum packaging of grain with tons as units ; technical system of automatic acquisition of information about food storage ; technical equipment for rapidly processing cereal crops.

  16. Diet and acne update: carbohydrates emerge as the main culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shereen N; Bowe, Whitney P

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of adult acne in the US appears to be increasing over the last few decades. But what's behind the rise: is it nature or nurture? We are well aware that genetics can strongly influence a patient's risk of developing acne. However, significant changes in germline genetic variants are unlikely to have occurred over the last 20 years. Consequently, we are forced to examine environmental variables, including diet. This review article presents the most updated evidence supporting a link between refined carbohydrates and acne. Based on the data summarized here, dermatologists should encourage their acne patients to minimize their intake of high glycemic index foods. PMID:24719062

  17. Combining nutrition, food science and engineering in developing solutions to Inflammatory bowel diseases--omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Smith, Bronwen G; James, Bryony J

    2010-10-01

    The Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are debilitating conditions, characterised by lifelong sensitivity to certain foods, and often a need for surgery and life-long medication. The anti-inflammatory effects of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated acids justify their inclusion in enteral nutrition formulas that have been associated with disease remission. However, there have been variable data in clinical trials to test supplementary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inducing or maintaining remission in these diseases. Although variability in trial design has been suggested as a major factor, we suggest that variability in processing and presentation of the products may be equally or more important. The nature of the source, and rapidity of getting the fish or other food source to processing or to market, will affect the percentage of the various fatty acids, possible presence of heavy metal contaminants and oxidation status of the various fatty acids. For dietary supplements or fortified foods, whether the product is encapsulated or not, whether storage is under nitrogen or not, and length of time between harvest, processing and marketing will again profoundly affect the properties of the final product. Clinical trials to test efficacy of these products in IBD to date have utilised the relevant skills of pharmacology and gastroenterology. We suggest that knowledge from food science, nutrition and engineering will be essential to establish the true role of this important group of compounds in these diseases.

  18. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  19. Protein Quality, Growth, and Malnutrition: Advances in Science and the Role of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett-Morrow, Dacia; LaGrange, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This article is the introduction to our formal proceedings of the symposium titled "Protein Quality, Growth and Malnutrition: Latest Scientific Findings and the Role of Dairy in Food Aid," held during the Experimental Biology 2015 annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.

  20. Food and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of drugs, the interval between a meal and drug intake and food composition. Food consistency is of lesser influence on drug bioavailability than food composition (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, cereals. Important interactions can occur during application of drugs with low therapeutic index, whereby the plasma level significantly varies due to changes in resorption or metabolism (e.g. digoxin, theophyllin, cyclosporin and drugs such as antibiotics, whose proper therapeutic effect requires precise plasma concentrations.

  1. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  2. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  3. Derivatization Reaction of Carbohydrates with Urea as the Reagent and Fluorimetric Determination of Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Jing-He(杨景和); CAO,Xi-Hui(曹西慧); WANG,Min(王敏); WU,Xia(吴霞); SUN,Chang-Xia(孙长侠)

    2002-01-01

    It is found that in the presence of sulfuric acid carbohydrates condense with urea to afford the condensation products, which emit fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensities of system are proportional to the concentrations of carbohydrates. Based on this linear relationship,quantitative determination of kinds of carbohydrates has been made. Among an the carbohydrates tested, the sensitivity of α-rhamnose is the highest and its limits of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-8 mol/L. So α-rhamnose can be selectively determed in the presence of other carbohydrates. A interaction mechanism is also discussed.

  4. Carbohydrate Nutrition Differs by Diabetes Status and Is Associated with Dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican Adults without Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Maria I.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Ordovás, José M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y enrolled in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Using the Pearson chi-square test and ANCOVA, lifestyle characteristics and dietary intake, as assessed by semiquantitative FFQ, were compared by T2D status based on fasting plasma glucose concentration and medication use. Food source rankings for carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load (GL), and fiber were obtained using the SAS procedure PROC RANK. Geometric mean plasma HDL-C and TG concentrations were compared across quintiles of dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), GL, and fiber by using ANCOVA and tests for linear trend. In multivariable analyses, individuals with T2D (39.5%) had lower dietary carbohydrate, GL, and total sugar intake from lower intake of sugar, fruit drinks, and soda compared with those without T2D. In individuals without T2D, dietary carbohydrate and GL were inversely associated with HDL-C (P < 0.0001). Associations between dietary fiber and HDL-C were confounded by carbohydrate intake, apparently from concurrent consumption of legumes with white rice, a refined carbohydrate food. No associations were observed between carbohydrate, dietary GI, GL, or fiber and TG. In conclusion, individuals with T2D showed evidence of dietary modification. Among those without diabetes, a high intake of refined carbohydrates was associated with decreased HDL-C. Longitudinal research on carbohydrate nutrition in relation to diabetes risk factors and blood lipids in Puerto Ricans is warranted. PMID:23269655

  5. Ghrelin response to carbohydrate-enriched breakfast is related to insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C.de; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Little is known about how ghrelin concentrations are modified by dietary factors. Objective: We examined the effects of both amount and type of carbohydrate on ghrelin concentrations and all correlations among the variable

  6. The perils of high carbohydrate drinks in the undiagnosed diabetic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Saad Aldeen; Hameed, Asjad; Yousif, Saif; Lessan, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in its incidence and prevalence. Reduction in refined carbohydrate (sugar) intake is an important part of nutritional advice to patients with known diabetes. Sugar is available in a variety of confectionary products. It is also available in especially packaged ‘convenience foods’ as high energy drinks. Among people without diabetes, such food can have its own health risks.

  7. Genetic characterization of Italian tomato varieties and their traceability in tomato food products-Sardaro-2012-Food Science & Nutrition-Wiley Online Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Marmiroli, Marta; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Landraces of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) can contain valuable alleles not common in modern germplasms. The aim was to measure genetic diversity present in 47 most common tomato varieties grown in Italy, 35 were varieties used for processing and 12 were landraces considered "salad varieties". Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility that the variety traceability can be extended through the entire production chain. Diversity was measured using 11 microsatellite markers and 94 genotypes. Among the markers used, a total of 48 alleles were detected. A dendrogram based on total microsatellite polymorphism grouped 47 varieties into three major clusters at 0.75 similarity coefficient, differentiating the modern varieties from tomatoes landraces. The DNA markers developed confirmed the possibility to support the genotype identification all along the tomato production chain. The number of alleles and genotypes identified in the present work is the largest considering papers on food traceability.

  8. Science and plant biotechnology will be ready to ensure food for the world's population in 2050?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new challenges of modern agriculture to feed the world will rely more and more on science and technological innovation, in particular one derived disciplines omics, and the speed with which these new techniques will reach the farm.

  9. 'Mind genomics': the experimental, inductive science of the ordinary, and its application to aspects of food and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Howard R

    2012-11-01

    The paper introduces the empirical science of 'mind genomics', whose objective is to understand the dimensions of ordinary, everyday experience, identify mind-set segments of people who value different aspects of that everyday experience, and then assign a new person to a mind-set by a statistically appropriate procedure. By studying different experiences using experimental design of ideas, 'mind genomics' constructs an empirical, inductive science of perception and experience, layer by layer. The ultimate objective of 'mind genomics' is a large-scale science of experience created using induction, with the science based upon emergent commonalities across many different types of daily experience. The particular topic investigated in the paper is the experience of healthful snacks, what makes a person 'want' them, and the dollar value of different sensory aspects of the healthful snack.

  10. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population. PMID:22977690

  11. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Investment into Offspring Number, Size, and Condition in a Social Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill D Wills

    Full Text Available Resource availability can determine an organism's investment strategies for growth and reproduction. When nutrients are limited, there are potential tradeoffs between investing into offspring number versus individual offspring size. In social insects, colony investment in offspring size and number may shift in response to colony needs and the availability of food resources. We experimentally manipulated the diet of a polymorphic ant species (Solenopsis invicta to test how access to the carbohydrate and amino acid components of nectar resources affect colony investment in worker number, body size, size distributions, and individual percent fat mass. We reared field-collected colonies on one of four macronutrient treatment supplements: water, amino acids, carbohydrates, and amino acid and carbohydrates. Having access to carbohydrates nearly doubled colony biomass after 60 days. This increase in biomass resulted from an increase in worker number and mean worker size. Access to carbohydrates also altered worker body size distributions. Finally, we found a negative relationship between worker number and size, suggesting a tradeoff in colony investment strategies. This tradeoff was more pronounced for colonies without access to carbohydrate resources. The monopolization of plant-based resources has been implicated in the ecological success of ants. Our results shed light on a possible mechanism for this success, and also have implications for the success of introduced species. In addition to increases in colony size, our results suggest that having access to plant-based carbohydrates can also result in larger workers that may have better individual fighting ability, and that can withstand greater temperature fluctuations and periods of food deprivation.

  12. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony......The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...

  13. Solutions on Science and Technology Innovation Driven Development of Food Industry in China%科技创新驱动我国食品产业发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏繤; 朱华平; 孙康泰; 何荣海; 张波; 车东升; 蒋大华; 王旭波; 葛毅强

    2013-01-01

    Rural Development,Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,Beijing 102488;3. College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology,Tianjin 300222;4. School of Food and Biological Engineering,Jiangsu University, Jiangsu Zhenjiang 212013;5. College of Agriculture and Biotechnology,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310058;6. College of Aminal Science and Technology,Jilin Agricultural University,Changchun 130118;7. Academy of Science,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing 210095;8. College of Marine Life Science,Ocean University of China,Shandong Qingdao 266003,China) In order to analyze and promote the science and technology innovation of food industry in China,based on the food industry chain and the innovation chain theories,the importance of science and technology innovation on food industry was discussed,and the development status especially new characteristics of food industry science and technology in the new century were analyzed. According to the guidelines of“the livelihood of the people,innovation-driven,nutrition and health,safety and quality,high efficient and green”,strategy framework,main task and key direction of science and technology innovation for the food industry were explored,and the corresponding security measures and policy suggestions to promote food industry science and technology innovation were also discussed.%  为了对我国当前的食品产业科技创新状况进行系统梳理,促进食品产业科技创新能力提升,从食品全产业链、全创新链的角度阐述了我国食品产业科技创新的重要性,分析了进入新世纪以来食品产业科技发展的现状特别是呈现出的新特征,按照“民生为本、创新驱动、营养健康、优质安全、绿色高效”的指导方针,提出了食品产业科技创新的发展战略构架、主要任务和重点方向,并讨论了促进食品产业科技创新相应的保障措施与政策建议。

  14. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text presents instructional materials for a unit of science within the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP), a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum aimed at preparing high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Lessons concentrate on…

  15. 代谢指纹分析及其在食品科学中的应用%Metabolic Fingerprinting Analysis and the Application in Food Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁强; 郭晓晖; 周蓓莉; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic fingerprinting analysis is one of the important research strategies of metabolomics. It is fast, high - throughput, and overall analysis. With the summarizes of relevant metabolites from home and abroad in recent years, the paper describes its concept and classification, processing and application in metabolic markers in nutrition study, metabolism study, investigation and evaluation of diet, differences identification in raw materials, and food quality evaluation and food trace back. Meanwhile, the problems of the technology applied in food science and future development of the technology were discussed.%代谢指纹分析是代谢组学的重要研究手段之一,它具有快速、高通量、全局分析的特点。文中在总结国内外近几年来有关代谢指纹分析研究开发与应用文献的基础上,对其概念与分类、分析流程及其在营养代谢性标记物研究、物质代谢规律研究、膳食调查与评价、食品原料差异性鉴别、食品质量评价与追溯等方面的应用,并对该技术在食品科学中应用进行了综述。

  16. Implementation of a Food-Based Science Curriculum Improves Fourth-Grade Educators' Self-Efficacy for Teaching Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C.; Roseno, Ashley; Hodges, Caroline D.; Hovland, Jana; Diaz, Sebastian; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teacher self-efficacy for teaching nutrition can positively impact student dietary behaviors; however, limited curricular resources and professional development can serve as barriers to the provision of nutrition education in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a food-based, integrative science…

  17. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  18. Molecular simulations of carbohydrate-protein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Sameh Mansour Abbas

    2013-01-01

    I. Generation and validation of a free-energy model for carbohydrate binding. Carbohy-drates play a key role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and, hence, represent a rich source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Being able to predict binding mode and binding affinity is an essential, yet lacking, aspect of the stru-cture-based design of carbohydrate-based ligands. To this end, we assembled a diverse data set of 316 carbohydrate–protein crystal structu...

  19. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...

  20. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. An Assessment of the Perception of Learning Gains of Freshmen Students in an Introductory Course in Nutrition and Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alfred K.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of learning gains of students in science and other disciplines is becoming a reality following the gradual shift from the traditional style of teaching to a curriculum-based assessment of learning outcomes. The degree to which students perceive to have obtained the outcomes of a course can be measured through an assessment of…

  2. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  3. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  4. Food Microscopy and the Nutritional Quality of Cereal Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Yiu, Suk Hing

    1993-01-01

    The nutritional quality of cereal foods is directly related to the nature of nutrient storage in cereal grains. Most cereal nutrients, such as carbohydrates and minerals , are st ructurally bound. Processing alters the structural organization of the cereal grain. Results obtained from many nutritional studies indicate that the structure and physical form of a cereal food greatly influence the availability of its nutrients. Using oats and wheat as examples, this review demonstrates how micr...

  5. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  6. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  7. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  8. One-Pot Conversion of Carbohydrates into Pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes as Sustainable Platform Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Nirmal Das; Kwon, Sunjeong; Chung, Wook-Jin; Koo, Sangho

    2015-08-01

    A practical conversion method of carbohydrates into N-substituted 5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole-2-carbaldehydes (pyrralines) was developed by the reaction with primary amines and oxalic acid in DMSO at 90 °C. Further cyclization of the highly functionalized pyrralines afforded the pyrrole-fused poly-heterocyclic compounds as potential intermediates for drugs, food flavors, and functional materials. The mild Maillard variant of carbohydrates and amino esters in heated DMSO with oxalic acid expeditiously produced the pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde skeleton, which can be concisely transformed into the pyrrole alkaloid natural products, 2-benzyl- and 2-methylpyrrolo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones 8 and 9, lobechine 10, and (-)-hanishin 11 in 23-32% overall yields from each carbohydrate.

  9. A good time for life sciences from GM food to Dolly the sheep, biotechnology is a hot topic

    CERN Multimedia

    Curtis, P

    2002-01-01

    Julia Goodfellow, the new chief executive of BBSRC has a clear priority: excellence in science. To achieve this, last week she launched a 10-year plan. The idea is to consolidate a strategy to allocate funds to the wide range of activities the BBSRC's remit covers. One area that is particularly interesting is data handling since for example Genome sequencing requires the capacity to deal with very large amounts of data.

  10. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  11. Influence of various carbohydrate sources on postprandial glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations in obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Ueda, K; Lee, P; Oda, H; Ishioka, K; Sako, T

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments. PMID:27487514

  12. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  13. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  14. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  15. Research Progress on Application of Nanotechnology in Food Science%纳米技术在食品科学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅立; 孙中琦; 庞杰

    2014-01-01

    At present,nanotechnology is one of the most promising technologies in scientific,it has been widely used in chemical,material,medicine,food and energy fields. In this paper,the nanotechnology related policy of the government planning and development at home and abroad,its basic application status in the field of food science,and its development direction is prospected.%纳米技术是当今科学界最具前景的科学技术之一,目前已广泛应用于化工、材料、医药、食品以及能源等领域。该文概述了纳米技术的国内外相关政府计划和发展政策,以及其在食品科学领域的基本应用现状,并对其发展方向进行了展望。

  16. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  17. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  18. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  19. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Brown, Katherine D; Thomas, Mark G; Copeland, Les

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT We propose that plant foods containing high quantities of starch were essential for the evolution of the human phenotype during the Pleistocene. Although previous studies have highlighted a stone tool-mediated shift from primarily plant-based to primarily meat-based diets as critical in the development of the brain and other human traits, we argue that digestible carbohydrates were also necessary to accommodate the increased metabolic demands of a growing brain. Furthermore, we acknowledge the adaptive role cooking played in improving the digestibility and palatability of key carbohydrates. We provide evidence that cooked starch, a source of preformed glucose, greatly increased energy availability to human tissues with high glucose demands, such as the brain, red blood cells, and the developing fetus. We also highlight the auxiliary role copy number variation in the salivary amylase genes may have played in increasing the importance of starch in human evolution following the origins of cooking. Salivary amylases are largely ineffective on raw crystalline starch, but cooking substantially increases both their energy-yielding potential and glycemia. Although uncertainties remain regarding the antiquity of cooking and the origins of salivary amylase gene copy number variation, the hypothesis we present makes a testable prediction that these events are correlated. PMID:26591850

  1. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin R. Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  3. 当代科技革命与食品科学发展的哲学思考%Philosophic Think on Development of Food Science Under the Conditions of Contemporary Scientific and Technological Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田洪磊; 詹萍

    2012-01-01

      The theories and thought processes of food science coincide with those of modern science. The revolution of Science and technology can be seen as food source for their development,to enhance the cooperation among production, study and research, To achieve the innovation and development of food science and technology based on practice. The revolution of Science and technology have produced a huge impact on the traditional food processing industry, processing methods, testing standards, testing methods, early warning systems of quality control, as well as the theoretical framework of food science and technology, and provided a novel technology research platform. On the contrary, in order to meet the needs of scientific and technological development, food science and technology also promoted the revolution of science and technology at the same time of innovation.%  食品科学创新理论及研究开发的思维方法与现代科学理论及创新思维方法相吻合。科技革命可以看作食品科学技术发展的原动力,加强产学研合作,在实践的基础上实现食品科学技术的创新发展。现代科技革命对传统的食品加工产业的加工方法、检测标准、检测手段、质量控制预警体系乃至食品科学技术的理论框架都产生了巨大的冲击,并提供了新颖的技术研究平台,为适应科技发展的需要,食品科学技术在不断创新的同时,也促进科技革命的进程。

  4. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  5. Green Brand Development in Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study is to research the current situation and the effect which is brought by the nutrition food of the green band development in sports nutrition food. Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important pa...

  6. Modern processing technologies and food quality. 18th Food Technology Days '97 dedicated to prof. F. Bitenc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern processing technologies and food quality. Proceedings of thematic survey of topics in food science and technology and nutrition for postgraduate students, Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Biotechnical Fac., Food Science and Technology Dept

  7. Role of food-type in yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement of food-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, S. G.; Gray, S.M.; Ghitza, U.E.

    2006-01-01

    We have recently adapted a reinstatement model, commonly used to study relapse to drugs of abuse, to study the role of stress and anxiety in relapse to palatable food seeking [20]. We found that the anxiogenic drug yohimbine, as well as pellet-priming, reinstate food seeking in food restricted rats previously trained to lever press for palatable food pellets (25% fat, 48% carbohydrate). Here, we studied the generality of the effect of yohimbine and pellet-priming on reinstatement of food seek...

  8. Comprehensive Training System Design of Food Science and Engineering Professionals in Food Factories%食品科学与工程专业食品工厂综合实训体系设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俪珍; 梁鹏; 黄宗海

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the food science and engineering plant design comprehensive training concept, idea, purpose and content of the framework as well as specific training, etc., and through our specific practice and train the students to ana-lyze problems and problem-solving skills, practical exercises skills, in order to strengthen the practice of teaching and embark on a new path.%本文介绍食品科学与工程专业工厂综合实训设计的理念、思路、目的和框架以及具体实训的内容等,并通过我们的具体实践,培养了学生的分析问题和解决问题的能力,锻炼了实际操作技能,为高校加强实践教学开辟一条新路。

  9. Restricting carbohydrates to fight head and neck cancer—is this realistic?

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are aggressive tumors that typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to cytotoxic therapy and poor prognosis. Due to their location these tumors specifically impair food intake and quality of life, so that prevention of weight loss through nutrition support becomes an important treatment goal. Dietary restriction of carbohydrates (CHOs) and their replacement with fat, mostly in form of a ketogenic diet (KD), have been suggested to a...

  10. Dietary ratio of protein to carbohydrate induces plastic responses in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen James;

    2010-01-01

    Some vertebrates change the size of their digestive system in response to quantity and fibre content of ingested food, but the effects of dietary nutrients on gut structure remain poorly understood. Here we investigate how the protein to carbohydrate ratio of diets affects the mass of the gastroi...... an example of plasticity in the differential allocation of resources to organ function, which is triggered by variation in resource quality...

  11. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer.

  12. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

  13. The functional foods: development and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Micsunica Rosu

    2009-01-01

    : The development of food science in near future depends on advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly in the 1980s. The Japanese government developed a regulatory agency to oversee the approval of functional foods in 1991. The name of this agency is called Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU). Functional foods are increasingly popular in the United States. Furthermore, functional foods are reported as one of the fastest growing s...

  14. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23177152

  15. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  16. The diagenesis of carbohydrates by hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Frank D.

    1983-08-01

    Carbohydrates react with hydrogen sulfide under low temperature (100° to 200°C) yielding a variety of organosulfur compounds including thiophenes, thiols, sulfides and sulfones. A polymer is also produced, whose elemental composition is within the range of natural coals. When reductive dehydration is carried out in the presence of hydrocarbon, organosulfur compounds are formed in the carbon number range of the hydrocarbon used. In these processes, an active hydrogen transfer catalyst is produced which facilitates the passage of hydrogen between normal paraffins and saccharide units, distributing sulfur between these two families primarily in the form of thiophene rings. The simplicity of these systems - H 2S, carbohydrates, H 2O, hydrocarbon - and the facility of the chemistry would suggest that the carbohydrates and hydrogen sulfide may be important agents in the diagenetic processes leading to petroleum and coal. Carbohydrate reduction by hydrogen sulfide may constitute an important route through which certain organosulfur compounds found in petroleum and coal entered these materials in early diagenesis.

  17. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in obs

  18. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  19. A multi nutrient concept to enhance synapse formation and function: science behind a medical food for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijben John W.C.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is the leading cause of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that AD is linked with poor status of nutrients including DHA, B-vitamins and the vitamins E and C. Ongoing neurodegeneration, particularly synaptic loss, leads to the classical clinical features of AD namely, memory impairment, language deterioration, and executive and visuospatial dysfunction. The main constituents of neural and synaptic membranes are phospholipids. Supplemenation of animals with three dietary precursors of phospholipids namely, DHA, uridine monophosphate and choline, results in increased levels of brain phospholipids, synaptic proteins, neurite outgrowth, dendritic spines formation (i.e. the anatomical precursors of new synapses and an improvement in learning and memory. Other nutrients act as co-factors in the synthesis pathway of neuronal membranes. For example B-vitamins are involved in methylation processes, thereby enhancing the availability of choline as a synaptic membrane precursor. A multi-nutrient concept that includes these nutrients may improve membrane integrity, thereby influencing membrane-dependent processes such as receptor function and amyloid precursor protein (APP processing, as shown by reduced amyloid production and amyloid β plaque burden, as well as toxicity. Together, these insights provided the basis for the development of a medical food for patients with AD, Souvenaid®, containing a specific combination of nutrients (Fortasyn™ Connect and designed to enhance synapse formation in AD. The effect of Souvenaid on memory and cognitive performance was recently assessed in a proof-of-concept study, SOUVENIR I, with 212 drug-naïve mild AD patients (MMSE 20-26. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that oral nutritional supplementation with Souvenaid® for 12 weeks improves memory in patients with mild AD. To confirm and extend these findings, we have designed and initiated three additional studies. Two of

  20. Exercise and functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito Yuji

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.

  1. Energy and carbohydrate for training and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Loucks, Anne B; Broad, Nick

    2006-07-01

    Soccer players should achieve an energy intake that provides sufficient carbohydrate to fuel the training and competition programme, supplies all nutrient requirements, and allows manipulation of energy or nutrient balance to achieve changes in lean body mass, body fat or growth. Although the traditional culture of soccer has focused on carbohydrate intake for immediate match preparation, top players should adapt their carbohydrate intake on a daily basis to ensure adequate fuel for training and recovery between matches. For players with a mobile playing style, there is sound evidence that dietary programmes that restore and even super-compensate muscle glycogen levels can enhance activity patterns during matches. This will presumably also benefit intensive training, such as twice daily practices. As well as achieving a total intake of carbohydrate commensurate with fuel needs, the everyday diet should promote strategic intake of carbohydrate and protein before and after key training sessions to optimize the adaptations and enhance recovery. The achievement of the ideal physique for soccer is a long-term goal that should be undertaken over successive years, and particularly during the off-season and pre-season. An increase in lean body mass or a decrease in body fat is the product of a targeted training and eating programme. Consultation with a sports nutrition expert can assist soccer players to manipulate energy and nutrient intake to meet such goals. Players should be warned against the accidental or deliberate mismatch of energy intake and energy expenditure, such that energy availability (intake minus the cost of exercise) falls below 125 kJ (30 kcal) per kilogram of fat-free mass per day. Such low energy availability causes disturbances to hormonal, metabolic, and immune function. PMID:16766497

  2. The association between food cravings and consumption of specific foods in a laboratory taste test

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Corby K.; O’Neil, Patrick M.; Tollefson, Gary; Greenway, Frank L.; White, Marney A.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study tested the relation between food cravings and food intake in the laboratory. Participants (n = 91; mean BMI = 35.1 kg/m2) completed the Food Craving Inventory to measure cravings for sweets, fats, carbohydrates, and fast food fats, and a taste test consisting of four foods (jelly beans, M&M’s®, regular potato chips, and baked low-fat potato chips). Thereafter, participants could eat the items ad libitum. Specific food cravings were significantly correlated with consumption of...

  3. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  4. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar; Maricel Castellanos; María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 th...

  5. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  6. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  7. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Migliozzi; Dil Thavarajah; Pushparajah Thavarajah; Powell Smith

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-co...

  8. Which Foods May Be Addictive? The Roles of Processing, Fat Content, and Glycemic Load

    OpenAIRE

    Erica M Schulte; Avena, Nicole M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption) with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University (Study One) and ...

  9. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process. PMID:26254676

  10. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  11. The study of carbohydrate composition of chicory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Khairullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main products produced from chicory in the food industry are soluble roasted chicory, roasted crushed chicory, chicory flour, inulin, oligofructose and others. Fried products are used as a substitute for coffee, because it is caffeine-free and has coffee taste and aroma. Chicory flour is used in the production of bakery products. Inulin and oligofructose are widely used in the manufacture of bakery and dairy products. The aim of this study was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the products from chicory. The objects of research in this research work were Fried chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (LLC Flagistom, Instant chicory with hawthorn (Iceberg Ltd and K, Instant chicory (LLC SlavKofe, Instant chicory (Ltd. Around the World, Instant chicory (LLC Favorit, Instant chicory (LLC Beta +, Dried Chirory and Dried crushed chicory № 1,2,3 (LLC Sovremennik, Chicory flour (Leroux, Inulin and Oligofructose (Spinnrad GmbH. Determination of fructans and their average degree of polymerization, the content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, which are contained in foods from chicory was carried out using biochemical method with kit Sucrose / D-Glucose / D-Fructose (R-Biopharm. Studies are suggested that fried chicory products do not contain fructans. Dried products of chicory are contained inulin, the contents of which are about 60–70%, and contained other biologically active substances. Content of fructans in commercial products, such as inulin and oligofructose is about 93% and 79%.

  12. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  13. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  14. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. PMID:22480785

  15. Carbohydrate drugs%糖类药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓光; 耿美玉

    2011-01-01

    As an important biological information molecules and high-density information carriers, sugar chain involved in almost all life processes in living beings, especially in cell differentiation, development, immunity, aging, cancer, signal transduction and other basic life activities and diseases. For the bioactivities of carbohydrates, carbohydrate drugs had been widely used in anti-tumor, Alzheimer's disease, immune, anti-virus, and other diseases. And the use of carbohydrates is still expanding. Therefore, the various bioactivities and low toxicity endow carbohydrates broad prospects.%糖链作为重要的生物信息分了和高密度的信息载体,参与细胞生物几乎所有的生命过程,特别是在细胞分化、发育、免疫、老化、癌变、信息传递等生命基础活动和重大疾病过程中起着特异性的识别、介导与调控作用.由于糖类物质的多种多样的生物活性,糖类药物在抗肿瘤、老年痴呆、免疫、抗病毒等多个重大疾病领域广泛应用,而且其使用范围还在不断开拓中.因此,糖类药物生物活性多样,毒副作用低,具有广阔的发展前景.

  16. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  17. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  18. Carbohydrate Detection and Lectin Isolation from Tegumental Tissue of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Molaei Rad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Fascioliasis is a chronic hepatic disease and may be resulted from mechani­cal/molecular parasite adhesion to host liver tissue. The aim of this study was to detect surface car­bohydrate and lectin, carbohydrate-binding protein isolation that might be responsible of this molecular binding."nMethods: The present experimental work was conducted in the Department of Medical Parasitol­ogy and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Te­hran, Iran.  Fasciola hepatica parasites were collected from abattoir (Saman, Tehran, Iran and surface mannose-carbohydrate was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC conju­gated lectin (Lentil. Lectin of tegumental tissue from F. hepatica was isolated by affinity chroma­tography and detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE."nResults: Mannose carbohydrate was observed on the surface of tegumental tissue from para­site under fluorescence microscope. Carbohydrate-binding protein or lectin with MW of 50 kDa also was isolated from homogenized tegument of helminth."nConclusion: These results are important for understanding of molecular pathogenesis of F. hepat­ica at the chronic phase of fascioliasis

  19. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  20. Functional properties of nisin-carbohydrate conjugates formed by radiation induced Maillard reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppalla, Shobita R.; Sonavale, Rahul; Chawla, Surinder P.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-12-01

    Nisin-carbohydrate conjugates were prepared by irradiating nisin either with glucose or dextran. Increase in browning and formation of intermediate products was observed with a concomitant decrease in free amino and reducing sugar groups indicating occurrence of the Maillard reaction catalyzed by irradiation. Nisin-carbohydrate conjugates showed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence) as well as Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus). Results of antioxidant assays, including that of DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, showed that the nisin-dextran conjugates possessed better antioxidant potential than nisin-glucose conjugate. These results suggested that it was possible to enhance the functional properties of nisin by preparing radiation induced conjugates suitable for application in food industry.

  1. Effects of Salt Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Jing; Pan, Daodong; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Cheng, Kemeng

    2016-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented foods, especially cheese products. In this study, we observed the salt tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 after exposure to different concentrations of NaCl in MRS medium. Quantitative proteomic profiles using two-dimensional electrophoresis identified 384 proteins, of which 26 were upregulated and 31 downregulated. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry was then used to identify 11 proteins, of which three were linked to carbohydrate metabolism. The downregulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthase in carbohydrate metabolism revealed a bacterial regulation mechanism to save energy in order to survive during the salt tolerance. Other proteins were found involved in transcription-translation processes, fatty acid biosynthesis, and the primary metabolic process. PMID:27342422

  2. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  3. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (<50% of energy). Protein was generally above recommendations and ranged from 8.0 to 47.2g per serving. The inter-package variation was high, reaching 19.04 ± 2.90 g/package for fat. After proposing understandable guidelines to improve nutritional quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling.

  4. Radiation chemistry of major food components

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter summarizes radiolysis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The major focuses of the chapter are on recent developments in radiation chemistry and the use of irradiation to reduce undesirable chemicals in foods. Specifically, formation of volatile sulfur compounds from...

  5. Biorefinery of microalgae for food and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanthoor-Koopmans, M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising source for proteins, lipids and carbohydrates for the food/feed and biofuel industry. In comparison with soya and palm oil, microalgae can be grown in a more efficient and sustainable way. To make microalgae production economically feasible it is necessary to optimally use

  6. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Five-year report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan

    1992-05-01

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) is the home of ten independent but complementary interdisciplinary research groups led by nine regular faculty and one adjunct faculty. The research of these groups represents a broad spectrum of interests, and they are involved in about 90 collaborations with their CCRC and UGA colleagues and with scientists at other institutions and companies in the US, Canada, Europe, Israel, and Japan. The hallmark of the CCRC is the collaborative, interactive environment encouraged by its directors, faculty and tong-term staff. Newcomers to the CCRC or short-term members soon learn that everyone benefits from this process. The team-oriented approach in carbohydrate science translates into the day-today generous giving of one's time and expertise to the work of others, whether it be in sharing specialized instrumentation, participating in the design of experiments and interpretalon of data, providing service to scientists outside the CCRC, or joining collaborative projects. The CCRC is founded on the principle that the cross-fertilization of ideas and know-how leads to the synergistic advancement of science. This report contains a series of appendices that document the extent and breadth of the Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Center's contributions to collaborative research and education. Several collaborative research projects that have received postdoctoral research associate support from the Grant are highlighted, as these projects are particularly illustrative of the wide-ranging collaborations that have evolved as a result of this Grant and the quality of the science that the Grant enables.

  7. The color of hamburger: slow steps toward the development of a science-based food safety system in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, J. Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about food safety have played a key role in the emergence of the public health system in the United States. Unfortunately, the food safety regulatory system that was established in the early part of the 20th century in response to these concerns has not kept pace with our advancing scientific knowledge. In 1995, basic changes were made in the structure of the U.S. food safety regulatory structure, including implementation by USDA of the Pathogen Reduction: Hazard Analysis and Critica...

  8. Challenges and Opportunities for the community of Food Sciences to contribute Towards a Society of Healthier Consumers and a Better World

    OpenAIRE

    Harris N. Lazarides

    2012-01-01

    Despite the tremendous scientific and technological achievements in the production of food, human well-being has not been served to a satisfactory extent. Millions of people are literally killing themselves by excessive eating or wrong use of food, leading to obesity and nutrition-related diseases. At the same time millions of people continue to suffer from lack of food, leading to starvation, malnutrition and death, often before reaching adult age. Parallel to striving for better-safer-healt...

  9. A Study on University Student's Perception of Food Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study compared the perception of food safety between students majoring in Food Science and Nutrition and other students who are ordinary food consumers. The importance of factors related to food safety was high in order of pesticide residue (45%), food additives (24%), food pathogens (15%), GM foods (7%), antibiotics (4%) and irradiated foods (4%), and no significant difference was observed according to major(p less than 0.10). Particularly with regard to irradiated food, students majoring in Food Science and Nutrition replied 'no hamful' (21%), 'harmful' (58%) or 'not sure' (21%), showing that more than half of them thought that irradiated food is harmful

  10. Science, LCM AND communication tools for harmonised enironmental and social sustainability in the european food and drink chain – the SENSE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aransson, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Sonesson, Ulf;

    This paper presents the first outcome of the SENSE project (HarmoniSed ENvironmental Sustainability in the European food and drink chain). In Work Package (WP) 1 of the SENSE project eight key environmental impact categories has been identified as the most relevant for food supply chains and for ......This paper presents the first outcome of the SENSE project (HarmoniSed ENvironmental Sustainability in the European food and drink chain). In Work Package (WP) 1 of the SENSE project eight key environmental impact categories has been identified as the most relevant for food supply chains...

  11. Marine Functional Foods and Functional Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, D.

    2006-01-01

    This briefing paper gives insights into the issues surrounding marine functional foods and highlights opportunities for researchers in the marine sciences and food sciences areas to engage in collaborative research. It will be used as the basis for further consultation with the research community and firms in the marine and food sectors and to assist in exploring and prioritising research themes.

  12. Food Attitudes towards Food Safety Concept among Turkish University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Aycan; Suat Türkoğuz; Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated university students food choices focusing on their reported usual intake and food safety perceptions and conducted at Manisa Celal Bayar University Engineering Faculty, Science and Art Faculty and Education Faculty students. The present study primary investigated how affects the storage style, manufacturing qualification, shelf life and food safety concept, advertisement effect on consuming, natural and fortificated foods to university students. Meanwhile, faculty diff...

  13. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  14. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  15. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  16. 加强产学研合作 全力推进粮食丰产科技工程%Strengthening University-Industry Cooperation and Promoting Science and Technology Project of Food Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桂茹; 吴金华; 张月辰

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural universities and scientific research institutions are the sources of the science and technology innovation. In order to promote the transformation of science and technology innovation achievements, there is growing demand for the university-industry cooperation. With the implement of science and technology project of food production, the university-industry cooperation patterns are explored actively to popularize the new achievements and technology, and to give full play to the achievements' demonstration and drive functions. The significant effect is got, which plays an important scientific support role in promoting the construction of science and technology innovation system of high yield of food in Hebei Province, and improving the comprehensive productivity of food in China.%农业院校和科研单位是科技创新成果之源。为推进其科技创新成果的转化,产学研结合的呼声越来越高。随着粮食丰产科技工程项目的实施,为加速新成果、新技术的推广应用,充分发挥课题研发成果的示范带动作用,课题积极探索产学研结合模式,取得了显著的实施效果,对进一步促进河北省粮食丰产科技创新体系建设、全面提升粮食综合生产能力起到了重要的科技支撑作用。

  17. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  18. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003-2008: a report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2012-11-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ≥2 y of age in the 2003-2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods' nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet.

  19. 宏基因组学在食品科学领域的应用研究进展%Research Progress and Applications of Metagenomics in Food Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维潇; 李键; 骞宇; 索化夷

    2012-01-01

    Metagenomics is an advanced methodology by means of extracting all microbialgenomic DNAs in certain environmental habitat, constructing and screening metagenomic libraries to seek novel functional genes and biologically active compounds without cultivating. It can mine microbial resources to the greatest extent. Therefore, it is increasingly becoming one of the most important subjects in microbiological research and development. This paper reviews the recent research progress of metagenomics and its applications in the area of food science, especially in enzyme preparation development, food safety and hygiene, food fermentation, ecological evolution, food nutrition, and the discovery of new compounds, and explores its future prospects in the area of food science.%宏基因组学是一种免培养,能够直接从环境中提取全部微生物基因组DNA,通过构建宏基因组文库并适当筛选,得到目的基因及生物活化物质的新型研究方法,它可以最大限度地挖掘微生物资源,现在愈渐成为微生物研究和开发最重要的课题之一。本文综述了宏基因组学的研究方法及其近几年来在食品科学领域的应用,着重介绍其在酶制剂开发、食品安全卫生、食品发酵群落、生态演化,食品营养和发现新型物质等领域的应用。同时探讨宏基因组学在食品科学领域未来的应用前景。

  20. Ruminal degradation kinetics of protein foods by in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of carbohydrates and nitrogen fractions, as well as, determination their carbohydrates digestion rates in soyben meal (SM, crambe meal (CM, radish meal (RM, wet brewery residue (WBR and dehydrated silkworm chrysalis (SCD were accomplished. The kinetics parameters of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and B2 fraction were estimated using cumulative gas production technique. Among the foods studied there was considerable variation in chemical composition. The crambe meal was the only food that did not present synchronism between carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions. In this food there was predominance of A+B1 carbohydrates fractions and B1+B2 nitrogen compounds fraction, and for the other predominated B2 carbohydrate fraction and B1+ B2 nitrogen compounds fraction. There were differences among the digestive kinetic parameters for all foods. The greater participation in gas production due to non-fibrous carbohydrates was found in the crambe meal and oilseed radish meal. The fermentation of fibrous carbohydrates provided higher gas volume in the wet brewery residue and in the soybean meal, however, the soybean meal was food with higher total gas volume. Non fibrous carbohydrates degradation rates of wet brewery residue and dehydrated silkworm chrysalis were far below the limits of degradation of this fraction. Due to the parameters obtained by the cumulative gas production, the soybean meal was the best food, however, all others have potential for use in animal nutrition. The cumulative gas production technique allows the estimative of degradation rates and provides further information about the ruminal fermentation kinetics of foods.