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Sample records for carbohydrate retention composition

  1. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  2. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  3. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  4. The effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on apparent total tract digestibility, feed mean retention time, nitrogen and water balance in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, Dag; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    obtained by partly substituting mature hay and barley with sugar beet pulp (SBP), a soluble fibre source. The diets investigated were hay only (HAY), hay (85% of dry matter intake (DMI)) and molassed SBP (15% of DMI) (SBP), hay (68% of DMI) and barley (32% of DMI) (BAR), and hay (68% of DMI), barley (26...... (TMRT) of ytterbium-labelled hay, water balance, digestible energy (DE) intake and nitrogen balance were measured. An enzymatic chemical dietary fibre (DF) method was used to get detailed information on the composition and ATTD of the fibre fraction. Inclusion of SBP in the diet increased the ATTD...... of the constituent sugars galactose and arabinose (Pmatter was lower for HAY than the other diets (P=0...

  5. Clasp retention and composites: an abrasion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, J C; Hawamdeh, K; Harrington, E; Wilson, H J

    1990-08-01

    An in vitro test for screening the abrasion resistance and abrasivity of composite resins when used to provide tooth undercuts for removable partial denture clasps is described. In the present study nine composite resins were tested against wrought stainless steel round clasps. The results indicated that the abrasion of any of the composites tested was unlikely to cause a noticeable loss of retention in the clinical situation. However, there was marked abrasion of the clasps by two of the composites which would be likely to be clinically relevant.

  6. RETENTION AND PAPER-STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDES CONJUGATED WITH CARBOHYDRATE-BINDING MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The retention behavior of polymers having the specific affinities of glyco-hydrolases for pulp fibers was investigated with regard to paper-strength enhancement in contaminated papermaking systems. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs of cellulases derived from Trichoderma viride and T. reesei, and of xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, were obtained by site-directed digestion with papain, then introduced into anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM via a peptide condensation reaction. Three types of CBM-conjugated A-PAMs (CBM-A-PAMs displayed different retention behavior, depending on the kind of pulp substrates, i.e. hardwood and softwood fibers. The CBM-A-PAM from T. viride demonstrated good additive retention for hardwood pulp fibers, resulting in high tensile strength of paper sheets, even under contaminated conditions in the presence of Ca2+ ions and ligninsulfonate. The CBM-A-PAM from T. reesei showed better performance for softwood than for hardwood sheets. The xylanase CBM-A-PAM was preferentially retained on hardwood fibers in which hemicelluloses might be present. Such an additive retention system, with inherent affinities of enzymes for pulp fibers, is expected to expand the application range of CBM-polymers in practical wet-end processes.

  7. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  8. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  9. The study of carbohydrate composition of chicory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Khairullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main products produced from chicory in the food industry are soluble roasted chicory, roasted crushed chicory, chicory flour, inulin, oligofructose and others. Fried products are used as a substitute for coffee, because it is caffeine-free and has coffee taste and aroma. Chicory flour is used in the production of bakery products. Inulin and oligofructose are widely used in the manufacture of bakery and dairy products. The aim of this study was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the products from chicory. The objects of research in this research work were Fried chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (LLC Flagistom, Instant chicory with hawthorn (Iceberg Ltd and K, Instant chicory (LLC SlavKofe, Instant chicory (Ltd. Around the World, Instant chicory (LLC Favorit, Instant chicory (LLC Beta +, Dried Chirory and Dried crushed chicory № 1,2,3 (LLC Sovremennik, Chicory flour (Leroux, Inulin and Oligofructose (Spinnrad GmbH. Determination of fructans and their average degree of polymerization, the content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, which are contained in foods from chicory was carried out using biochemical method with kit Sucrose / D-Glucose / D-Fructose (R-Biopharm. Studies are suggested that fried chicory products do not contain fructans. Dried products of chicory are contained inulin, the contents of which are about 60–70%, and contained other biologically active substances. Content of fructans in commercial products, such as inulin and oligofructose is about 93% and 79%.

  10. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  11. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.

  12. Insights into glycogen metabolism in Lactobacillus acidophilus: impact on carbohydrate metabolism, stress tolerance and gut retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2014-11-20

    In prokaryotic species equipped with glycogen metabolism machinery, the co-regulation of glycogen biosynthesis and degradation has been associated with the synthesis of energy storage compounds and various crucial physiological functions, including global cellular processes such as carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy sensing and production, stress response and cell-cell communication. In addition, the glycogen metabolic pathway was proposed to serve as a carbon capacitor that regulates downstream carbon fluxes, and in some microorganisms the ability to synthesize intracellular glycogen has been implicated in host persistence. Among lactobacilli, complete glycogen metabolic pathway genes are present only in select species predominantly associated with mammalian hosts or natural environments. This observation highlights the potential involvement of glycogen biosynthesis in probiotic activities and persistence of intestinal lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we summarize recent findings on (i) the presence and potential ecological distribution of glycogen metabolic pathways among lactobacilli, (ii) influence of carbon substrates and growth phases on glycogen metabolic gene expression and glycogen accumulation in L. acidophilus, and (iii) the involvement of glycogen metabolism on growth, sugar utilization and bile tolerance. Our present in vivo studies established the significance of glycogen biosynthesis on the competitive retention of L. acidophilus in the mouse intestinal tract, demonstrating for the first time that the ability to synthesize intracellular glycogen contributes to gut fitness and retention among probiotic microorganisms.

  13. Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Seare T; Yuan, XianJun; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of Napier grass silage was examined. Napier grass ensiled with no additive control, 0.2% formic acid, 0.4% molasses, and 0.3% fibrolytic enzyme for, 7, 30, 60 and 90days. Additives increased lactic acid, soluble carbohydrate and decreased all of lignocellulosic contents except acid detergent lignin and pH than control. The highest value of nonstructural carbohydrate and large reduction in lignocellulosic contents was observed in formic acid and fibrolytic enzyme silage respectively. The content of glucose and fructose showed rapid drop in the first 7days of ensilage. Ensilage decreased lignocellulosic contents and increased ED compared to fresh material. The ED of formic acid and molasses silage was significantly higher than control and fibrolytic enzyme silages in all tested days. In summery the ensiling quality structural and nonstructural carbohydrate and ED value of mature Napier grass silage improved through additives.

  14. Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical Review and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Houltham, S; Musa-Veloso, K; Brown, F; Paulionis, L; Bailey, D

    2015-11-01

    Sports beverages formulated with fructose and glucose composites enhance exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, gut comfort, and endurance performance, relative to single-saccharide formulations. However, a critical review of performance data is absent. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the effect of fructose:glucose/maltodextrin (glucose or maltodextrin) composites versus glucose/maltodextrin on endurance performance. Mechanistic associations were drawn from effects on carbohydrate metabolism, gut, and other sensory responses. Overall, 14 studies contained estimates of 2.5-3.0-h endurance performance in men, mostly in cycling. Relative to isocaloric glucose/maltodextrin, the ingestion of 0.5-1.0:1-ratio fructose:glucose/maltodextrin beverages at 1.3-2.4 g carbohydrate·min(-1) produced small to moderate enhancements (1-9 %; 95 % confidence interval 0-19) in mean power. When 0.5:1-ratio composites were ingested at ≥1.7 g·min(-1), improvements were larger (4-9 %; 2-19) than at 1.4-1.6 g·min(-1) (1-3 %; 0-6). The effect sizes at higher ingestion rates were associated with increased exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate, unilateral fluid absorption, and lower gastrointestinal distress, relative to control. Solutions containing a 0.7-1.0:1 fructose:glucose ratio were absorbed fastest; when ingested at 1.5-1.8 g·min(-1), a 0.8:1 fructose:glucose ratio conveyed the highest exogenous carbohydrate energy and endurance power compared with lower or higher fructose:glucose ratios. To conclude, ingesting 0.5-1.0:1-ratio fructose:glucose/maltodextrin beverages at 1.3-2.4 g·min(-1) likely benefits 2.5-3.0 h endurance power versus isocaloric single saccharide. Further ratio and dose-response research should determine if meaningful performance benefits of composites accrue with ingestion carbohydrate demands may differ from the current analysis.

  15. Investigation of Carbohydrate Compositions for Poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Luohua; QIN Tefu; MAGARA Kengo

    2006-01-01

    The carbohydrate compositions of poplar Ⅰ-214 and Chinese fir were investigated by the methods of hydrolysis and HPLC.The result showed that the contents of glucose,xylose and arabinose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are higher than those in Chinese fir,while contents of rhamnose and mannose in poplar Ⅰ-214 are lower than those in Chinese fir.

  16. Carbohydrate and nutrient composition of corn stover from three Southeastern USA locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for bioenergy and bio-product production. Our objective was to quantify nutrient removal, carbohydrate composition, theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) for various stover fractions. In 2009, 2010, and 2011, whole-plant samples were ...

  17. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  18. Variation in the composition of carbohydrates in the Dona Paula, Bay (west of India) during May/June 1998

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Suspended particulate material was analysed for particulate carbohydrate concentration and composition and for the bulk parameters: suspended particulate matter, chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen and particulate...

  19. Mechanical and microstructural properties of "wet" alginate and composite films containing various carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, B Allison; Barbut, Shai; Smith, Alexandra; Marcone, Massimo F

    2015-01-01

    Composite "wet" alginate films were manufactured from alginate-carbohydrate solutions containing 5% alginate and 0.25% pectin, carrageenan (kappa or iota), potato starch (modified or unmodified), gellan gum, or cellulose (extracted or commercial). The "wet" alginate films were used as a model to understand co-extruded alginate sausage casings that are currently being used by several sausage manufacturers. The mechanical, optical, and microstructural properties of the calcium cross-linked composite films were explored. In addition, the water holding capacity and textural profile analysis properties of the alginate-carbohydrate gels were studied. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of "wet" alginate films/casings can be modified by adding various carbohydrates to them. Alginate films with pectin, carrageenan, and modified potato starch had significantly (P alginate films. The alginate-pectin films also had greater (P alginate films. Alginate films with extracted cellulose, commercial cellulose, and modified potato starch had lower (P alginate control films. Transmission electron microscopy images showed a very uniform alginate network in the control films. Several large cellulose fibers were visible in the films with extracted cellulose, while the cellulose fibers in the films with commercial cellulose were difficult to distinguish. Despite these apparent differences in cellulose fiber length, the 2 cellulose films had similar puncture and tensile properties.

  20. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (<50% of energy). Protein was generally above recommendations and ranged from 8.0 to 47.2g per serving. The inter-package variation was high, reaching 19.04 ± 2.90 g/package for fat. After proposing understandable guidelines to improve nutritional quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling.

  1. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives: To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation regarding their 1 carbohydrate composition, 2 viscosity and water solubility index (WSI, and 3 sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods: The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results: The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion: The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low

  2. Retention of composite resin restorations in class IV preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hani

    2002-01-01

    Clinicians often utilized composite resin restorations in combination with different types of preparation to restore class IV fractures on anterior incisors. A new preparation technique called (stair-step chamfer technique) is investigated in this study to detect bond strength to tooth structure. Eighty-eight bovine teeth were divided into 4 groups. Group I had twenty-three samples with a 45 degree bevel that extended 2 millimeters beyond the fracture line. Group II had twenty-three samples with a circumferential chamfer, which extended 2 mm beyond the fracture line and half the enamel thickness in depth. Group III had twenty-three samples with a facial stair-step chamfer, which followed the anatomical contour and extended 2 mm beyond the fracture line with a lingual plain chamfer. Group IV had eighteen samples as controls, which were untreated teeth. The first three groups were prepared and restored with hybrid composite resin in conjunction with a single step bonding agent and as surface penetrating sealer, then tested for shear-bond strength on the Instron machine. The results were that there was no significant difference found between the treated teeth when tested for shear-bond strength. However, according to the site of the fracture, the stair-step chamfer technique gave significantly better results. It can be concluded that, the stir-step chamfer technique provides the clinician better environment to place a composite resin restoration resulting in good shear-bond strength and better esthetics.

  3. Effects of pectin on fermentation characteristics, carbohydrate utilization, and microbial community composition in the gastrointestinal tract of weaning pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Lingmin; Bruggeman, Geert; Berg, van den Marco; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Bruininx, Erik; Vos, de Paul; Smidt, Hauke; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Scope: We aimed to investigate the effects of three different soluble pectins on the digestion of other consumed carbohydrates, and the consequent alterations of microbiota composition and SCFA levels in the intestine of pigs. Methods and results: Piglets were fed a low-methyl esterified pectin e

  4. Effects of pectin on fermentation characteristics, carbohydrate utilization and microbial community composition in the gastrointestinal tract of weaning pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Lingmin; Bruggeman, Geert; van den Berg, Marco; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Bruininx, Erik; de Vos, Paul; Smidt, Hauke; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-01-01

    SCOPE: We aimed to investigate the effects of three different soluble pectins on the digestion of other carbohydrates consumed, and the consequent alterations of microbiota composition and SCFA levels in the intestine of pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Piglets were fed a low-methyl esterified pectin enri

  5. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  6. Electrical conductivity retention and electrochemical activity of CSA doped graphene/gold nanoparticle@polyaniline composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Akherul Islam; M. Ehtisham Khan; Muhammad Mohsin Hossain; Mudassir Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of CTAB mediated CSA doped PANI and GN/GNP@ PANI composite na-nofibers. The as synthesized composite nanofibers were examined by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman spectro-scopy;UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and TGA. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers showed 59% higher DC electrical conductivity at ambient temperature than that of PANI, which might be due to the enhancement in the mobility of the charge carriers and reduction in hopping distance in the composite system. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers compared to PANI was observed to be showing enhanced DC electrical conductivity retention after various cycles of heating, suggesting an enhancement in thermal stability of the composite structure, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect of GN, GNP and PANI. Additionally, the composite nanofibers showed greater electrochemical activity and better capacitive performance and reduced optical bandgap than that of PANI.

  7. Electrical conductivity retention and electrochemical activity of CSA doped graphene/gold nanoparticle@ polyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akherul Islam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of CTAB mediated CSA doped PANI and GN/GNP@ PANI composite nanofibers. The as synthesized composite nanofibers were examined by TEM, SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy; UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and TGA. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers showed 59% higher DC electrical conductivity at ambient temperature than that of PANI, which might be due to the enhancement in the mobility of the charge carriers and reduction in hopping distance in the composite system. The CTAB mediated CSA doped composite nanofibers compared to PANI was observed to be showing enhanced DC electrical conductivity retention after various cycles of heating, suggesting an enhancement in thermal stability of the composite structure, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect of GN, GNP and PANI. Additionally, the composite nanofibers showed greater electrochemical activity and better capacitive performance and reduced optical bandgap than that of PANI.

  8. Study of the chemical composition of sweet sorghum stalks depleted in carbohydrates with applications in obtaining bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilica Manea; Andrei Tanase; Angela Casarica; Radu Albulesch; Georgeta Radulescu; Gheorghe Campeanu; Florentina Israel-Roming; Gheorghe Stoian

    2010-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a great energy crop that shows the benefits to ecosystems, energy and economics, being a valuable source of energy of the category 1st, 2nd and 3rd. bioethanol generation. Purpose of the paper is to study the chemical composition of sweet sorghum stalks depleted in carbohydrates with applications in obtaining ethanol. It shows appreciable compositional values of free sugars, starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. All these components can be easily made av...

  9. Extreme Variation of Nutritional Composition and Osmolality of Commercially Available Carbohydrate Energy Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Morton, James P

    2015-10-01

    The provision of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of energy gels is regularly practiced among endurance and team sport athletes. However, in those instances where athletes ingest suboptimal fluid intake, consuming gels during exercise may lead to gastrointestinal (GI) problems when the nutritional composition of the gel is not aligned with promoting gastric emptying. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to quantify the degree of diversity in nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels intended for use in the global sports nutrition market. We surveyed 31 product ranges (incorporating 51 flavor variants) from 23 brands (Accelerade, CNP, High5, GU, Hammer, Maxim, Clif, USN, Mule, Multipower, Nectar, Carb- Boom, Power Bar, Lucozade, Shotz, TORQ, Dextro, Kinetica, SiS, Zipvit, Maxifuel, Gatorade and Squeezy). Gels differed markedly in serving size (50 ± 22 g: 29-120), energy density (2.34 ± 0.7 kcal/g: 0.83-3.40), energy content (105 ± 24 kcal: 78-204), CHO content (26 ± 6 g: 18-51) and free sugar content (9.3 ± 7.0 g: 0.6-26.8). Most notably, gels displayed extreme variation in osmolality (4424 ± 2883 mmol/kg: 303-10,135) thereby having obvious implications for both GI discomfort and the total fluid intake likely required to optimize CHO delivery and oxidation. The large diversity of nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels illustrate that not all gels should be considered the same. Sports nutrition practitioners should therefore consider the aforementioned variables to make better-informed decisions regarding which gel product best suits the athlete's specific fueling and hydration requirements.

  10. Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2014-12-19

    Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and α-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification.

  11. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  12. Comparative Studies on the Carbohydrate Composition of Marine Macroalgae: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this subcontract is to evaluate carbohydrates from macroalgae common to the Gulf of Mexico. Information from these analyses will be used to provide an indication of the feasibility of fermenting macroalgae to ethanol. Knowledge of the carbohydrates will allow for assessment of required pretreatments and utilization efficiencies in converting algal feedstocks to ethanol.

  13. Carbohydrate composition of circulating multiple-modified low-density lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiev, Emile R; Sobenin, Igor A; Sukhorukov, Vasily N; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as modified LDL, but not native LDL, induces pronounced accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in the arterial wall. It is likely that LDL particles undergo multiple modifications in human plasma: desialylation, changes in size and density, acquisition of negative electric charge, oxidation, and complex formation. In a total LDL preparation isolated from pooled plasma of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and from healthy subjects, two subfractions of LDL could be identified: desialylated LDL bound by a lectin affinity column and normally sialylated (native) LDL that passed through the column. The desialylated LDL subfraction therefore represents circulating modified LDL. In this work, we performed a careful analysis of LDL particles to reveal changes in the composition of glycoconjugates associated with proteins and lipids. Protein fraction of LDL from atherosclerotic patients contained similar amounts of glucosamine, galactose, and mannose, but a 1.6-fold lower level of sialic acid as compared to healthy donors. Lipid-bound glycoconjugates of total LDL from patients with coronary atherosclerosis contained 1.5–2-fold less neutral monosaccharides than total LDL from healthy donors. Patient-derived LDL also contained significantly less sialic acid. Our results demonstrate that carbohydrate composition of LDL from atherosclerotic patients was altered in comparison to healthy controls. In particular, prominent decrease in the sialic acid content was observed. This strengthens the hypothesis of multiple modification of LDL particles in the bloodstream and underscores the clinical importance of desialylated LDL as a possible marker of atherosclerosis progression.

  14. [The mineral composition of the carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and dietary supplements for athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitiuk, D B; Novokshanova, A L; Abrosimova, S V; Gapparova, K M; Pozdniakov, A L

    2012-01-01

    In the article analyzes the macro- and trace element composition of sports drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives (BAA). The estimation of the mineral collection of these products compared with the recommended standards. Established mineral composition many of the carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives corresponds the physiology standards. However in some vitamin-mineral complexes and especially biologically active additives a number of minerals can be either unreasonably low or unreasonably high. Furthermore during labeling, mainly in the category D, a number of errors were revealed. Particularly there were lack of instructions about the number of declared ingredients, inaccuracies in the calculations of the daily requirement of mineral elements etc. Providing of an athlete organism with minerals should be carried out not only by carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and specialized BAA, but mainly through basal ration. Utilising of carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives can be justified only by the recommendations of experts. This is true not only in pro sports, but for the mass sports, as well as for individual physical training, in order to maintain physically fit.

  15. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  16. Facile preparation of graphene-copper nanoparticle composite by in situ chemical reduction for electrochemical sensing of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwen; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2012-01-03

    A novel graphene-copper nanoparticle composite was prepared by the in situ chemical reduction of a mixture containing graphene oxide and copper(II) ions using potassium borohydride as a reductant. It was mixed with paraffin oil and packed into one end of a fused capillary to fabricate microdisc electrodes for sensing carbohydrates. The morphology and structure of the graphene-copper nanoparticle composite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that copper nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20.8 nm were successfully deposited on graphene nanosheets to form a well interconnected hybrid network. The analytical performance of these unique graphene-copper nanoparticle composite paste electrodes was demonstrated by sensing five carbohydrates in combination with cyclic voltammetry and capillary electrophoresis (CE). The advantages of the composite detectors include higher sensitivity, satisfactory stability, surface renewability, bulk modification, and low expense of fabrication. They should find applications in microchip CE, flowing-injection analysis, and other microfluidic analysis systems.

  17. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: II. Rumen Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the rumen development of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 male Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2

  18. Comparative study between laser sintering and casting for retention of resin composite veneers to cobalt-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratomi, Ryuta; Kamada, Kohji; Taira, Yohsuke; Higuchi, Shizuo; Watanabe, Ikuya; Sawase, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the bond strengths between resin composite veneer and laser-sintered cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy with and without retention devices (Laser-R and Laser-N respectively). Cast Co-Cr alloy with and without retention devices (Cast-R and Cast-N respectively) were also prepared for fabrication technique comparison. Disk-shaped Co-Cr alloy specimens were air-abraded with alumina and veneered with a veneering system, Estenia C&B (ES) or Ceramage (CE). After 20,000 thermocycles, tensile testing was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and multiple comparison test. When no retention devices were present, no significant differences were observed between Laser-N/ES and Cast-N/ES, or between Laser- N/CE and Cast-N/CE, but ES exhibited significantly higher bond strength than CE. With retention devices, Laser-R/ES, Cast- R/ES and Laser-R/CE showed no significant differences, and their retention strengths were significantly higher than that of Cast- R/CE. Compared to cast Co-Cr alloy, laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy with retention devices provided better retention durability for resin composite-veneered prostheses.

  19. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SUPPLY IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE BASED RATION ON BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and protein supply in sugarcane bagasse based ration on the body composition of sheep. The study was consisted of two steps of experiment. The first step of experiment used two rumen cannulated adult rams to create formulation of three diets with different synchronization index, namely 0.37; 0.50 and 0.63 respectively. The experimental diets were designed to be iso-energy, iso-nitrogenous and iso-neutra...

  1. Characterisation of the arabinose-rich carbohydrate composition of immature and mature marama beans (Tylosema esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Minah M; Hansen, Ase S; Engelsen, Søren B; Diaz, Jerome; Sørensen, Iben; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G T; Blennow, Andreas; Harholt, Jesper

    2011-08-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an important component of the diet around the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa where this drought resistant plant can grow. The marama bean contains roughly 1/3 proteins, 1/3 lipids and 1/3 carbohydrates, but despite its potential as dietary supplement little is known about the carbohydrate fraction. In this study the carbohydrate fraction of "immature" and "mature" marama seeds are characterised. The study shows that the marama bean contains negligible amounts of starch and soluble sugars, both far less than 1%. The cell wall is characterised by a high arabinose content and a high resistance to extraction as even a 6M NaOH extraction was insufficient to extract considerable amounts of the arabinose. The arabinose fraction was characterised by arabinan-like linkages and recognised by the arabinan antibody LM6 and LM13 indicating that it is pectic arabinan. Two pools of pectin could be detected; a regular CDTA (1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) or enzymatically extractable pectin fraction and a recalcitrant pectin fraction containing the majority of the arabinans, of which about 40% was unextractable using 6M NaOH. Additionally, a high content of mannose was observed, possibly from mannosylated storage proteins.

  2. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  3. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  4. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrates Sources on Lipids Compositions in Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weifang; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; YAO Chunfeng; LI Huitao

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm±0.09 mm; initial weight. 3.42 g±0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05)higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly (P<0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly (P< 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  5. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta

    2013-10-01

    In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Carbohydrate compositions and molecular structure of dextrins in enzymatic high maltose syrups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebesny, E. (Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Dept. of Food Technology)

    1990-11-01

    Investigations of the potato starch hydrolysis during bacterial {alpha}-amylase liquefaction and saccharification with barley {beta}-amylase itself and with cooperation with pullulanase were carried out. In adequate conditions at different enzyme dosages hydrolyzates of the maltose content of 60 to about 85% in DS with significantly (6-10 times) lower maltotriose and minimal glucose content could be obtained. Investigations comprised both carbohydrate contents in hydrolyzates changing with hydrolyze course and dextrine molecular structure in hydrolyzates. It was found out that decreasing dextrine molecular weight and the number of branchings was accompanied by charateristic changes of the viscosity of hydrolyzate solutions. (orig.).

  7. Composite versus single transportable carbohydrate solution enhances race and laboratory cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Swift, Marilla; Ros, Marjolein; Green, Jackson G

    2012-06-01

    When ingested at high rates (1.8-2.4 g·min(-1)) in concentrated solutions, carbohydrates absorbed by multiple (e.g., fructose and glucose) vs. single intestinal transporters can increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation and endurance performance, but their effect when ingested at lower, more realistic, rates during intermittent high-intensity endurance competition and trials is unknown. Trained cyclists participated in two independent randomized crossover investigations comprising mountain-bike races (average 141 min; n = 10) and laboratory trials (94-min high-intensity intervals followed by 10 maximal sprints; n = 16). Solutions ingested during exercise contained electrolytes and fructose + maltodextrin or glucose + maltodextrin in 1:2 ratio ingested, on average, at 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1)·h(-1). Exertion, muscle fatigue, and gastrointestinal discomfort were recorded. Data were analysed using mixed models with gastrointestinal discomfort as a mechanism covariate; inferences were made against substantiveness thresholds (1.2% for performance) and standardized difference. The fructose-maltodextrin solution substantially reduced race time (-1.8%; 90% confidence interval = ±1.8%) and abdominal cramps (-8.1 on a 0-100 scale; ±6.6). After accounting for gastrointestinal discomfort, the effect of the fructose-maltodextrin solution on lap time was reduced (-1.1%; ±2.4%), suggesting that gastrointestinal discomfort explained part of the effect of fructose-maltodextrin on performance. In the laboratory, mean sprint power was enhanced (1.4%; ±0.8%) with fructose-maltodextrin, but the effect on peak power was unclear (0.7%; ±1.5%). Adjusting out gastrointestinal discomfort augmented the fructose-maltodextrin effect on mean (2.6%; ±1.9%) and peak (2.5%; ±3.0%) power. Ingestion of multiple transportable vs. single transportable carbohydrates enhanced mountain-bike race and high-intensity laboratory cycling performance, with inconsistent but not irreconcilable effects

  8. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Bibus, Doug M; Kraemer, William J; Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome. We tested whether these components of metabolic syndrome, like dyslipidemia and glycemia, are responsive to carbohydrate restriction. Overweight men and women with atherogenic dyslipidemia consumed ad libitum diets very low in carbohydrate (VLCKD) (1504 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 12:59:28) or low in fat (LFD) (1478 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 56:24:20) for 12 weeks. In comparison to the LFD, the VLCKD resulted in an increased proportion of serum total n-6 PUFA, mainly attributed to a marked increase in arachidonate (20:4n-6), while its biosynthetic metabolic intermediates were decreased. The n-6/n-3 and arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio also increased sharply. Total saturated fatty acids and 16:1n-7 were consistently decreased following the VLCKD. Both diets significantly decreased the concentration of several serum inflammatory markers, but there was an overall greater anti-inflammatory effect associated with the VLCKD, as evidenced by greater decreases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, I-CAM, and PAI-1. Increased 20:4n-6 and the ratios of 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 and n-6/n-3 are commonly viewed as pro-inflammatory, but unexpectedly were consistently inversely associated with responses in inflammatory proteins. In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet.

  9. The effect of type of carbohydrate (starch vs. nonstarch polysaccharides) on nutrients digestibility, energy retention and maintenance requirements in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud N.; Petie, Mischa; Heinsbroek, Leon T.N.; Verreth, Johan A.J.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    For Nile tilapia, the energetic value of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was compared to starch. It was assessed if carbohydrate type (NSP vs. starch) affected the energetic utilization for growth (KgDE) and the energy requirements for maintenance (DEm). Eighteen groups of fish were assigned in 2 ×

  10. THE EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SUPPLY IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE BASED RATION ON BODY COMPOSITION OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Wati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and protein supply in sugarcane bagasse based ration on the body composition of sheep. The study was consisted of two steps of experiment. The first step of experiment used two rumen cannulated adult rams to create formulation of three diets with different synchronization index, namely 0.37; 0.50 and 0.63 respectively. The experimental diets were designed to be iso-energy, iso-nitrogenous and iso-neutral detergent fibre (iso-NDF. The second step of experiment was to determine the body composition of sheep fed the experimental diets, which were created in the first experiment. The body composition of fifteen rams were determined on week 0; 4; and 8 of experimental period, these were accomplished using the technique of urea dilution. The alteration of synchronization index did not affect on feed intake, ratio of ruminal acetate to propionate and serum glucose concentration, but dry matter (DM digestibility was affected (P<0.05 by the treatment of synchronization index in the diet. The alteration of synchronization index in the diet did not affect on the percentage of body protein, fat and water significantly, though body weight of sheep gained slightly during the experimental period.

  11. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  12. The effect of mango waste meal in the protein:carbohydrate ratio on performance and body composition of pacamã fish (Lophiosilurus alexandri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inclusion of peeled-mango waste meal as a source of carbohydrate in the protein:carbohydrate ratio (CP:CH on performance and chemical composition of pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles. One hundred and fifty fish (11.31±0.96g were stocked in sixteen 500 L tanks, fed three times daily (10% of live weight, in a system with water recirculation with biofilter. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets with decreasing levels of the ratio between crude protein and carbohydrate (1.40, 0.94, 0.56 and 0.29, with four replications per treatment. At the end of 60 days, we evaluated animal performance (final average weight gain, specific growth rate, total apparent feed intake, carcass yield, survival and physicochemical composition of the carcass. The protein:carbohydrate ratios affected all performance variables (P0.05. The carcass chemical composition variables were modified, except for mineral matter, pH and moisture. Mango meal can be used at the proportion of up to 15% in the diet for pacamã, establishing a CP:CHO ratio of 1.40 without impairing animal performance and the carcass chemical composition.

  13. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  14. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  15. Retention of a Flowable Composite Resin in Comparison to a Conventional Resin-Based Sealant: One-year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tadayon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Long-term retention of pit and fissure sealants is crucial for their success. This clinical study evaluated the retention rate of a flowable composite resin (Filtek SupremeXT Flowable Restorative compared to a conventional resin-based sealant (Concise Light Cure White Sealant over 12 months.Materials and Methods: Forty subjects aged 6 to 9 years were included in the study. Using a half-mouth design, a total of 80 first permanent molars were sealed with conventional fissure sealant on one side of the mouth and flowable composite on the contralateralside. Clinical evaluation was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months by a single blind examiner and the retention was classified as complete retention, partial loss, or total loss.Results: For both materials, there was no total loss of sealants over 12 months. Partial loss of both materials was observed in one sealant after 3 months. After 6 months, 36 teeth sealed with conventional fissure sealant were intact compared with 37 sealed with a flowable composite, and after 12 months, 33 teeth sealed with conventional fissure sealant were intact compared with 35 that were sealed with a flowable composite. There were no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 between the two materials regarding the retention rate at each follow-up period.Conclusion: As flowable composite resulted in comparable sealant retention rates, this material could be a good choice for fissure sealant.

  16. Improvement in endothelial cell adhesion and retention under physiological shear stress using a laminin-apatite composite layer on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fupo; Wang, Xiupeng; Maruyama, Osamu; Kosaka, Ryo; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Ye, Jiandong

    2013-04-06

    Apatite (Ap), laminin-apatite composite (L5Ap, L10Ap, L20Ap and L40Ap) and albumin-apatite (AlbAp) composite layers were prepared on titanium (Ti) using a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution supplemented with laminin (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg ml(-1)) or albumin (800 μg ml(-1)). With an increase in the concentrations of laminin in the supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions, the amounts of laminin immobilized on the Ti increased. The number of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) adhered to the laminin-apatite composite layers were remarkably higher than those to the untreated Ti, Ap layer and AlbAp composite layer. The number of cells adhered to the L40Ap was 4.3 times the untreated Ti. Moreover, cells adhered to the laminin-apatite composite layers showed significantly higher cell retention under the physiological shear stress for 1 h and 2 h than those to the untreated Ti, Ap layer and AlbAp composite layer. The number of cells remaining on the L40Ap under the physiological shear stress for 2 h was 9.5 times that of the untreated Ti. The laminin-apatite composite layer is a promising interfacial layer for endothelialization of blood-contacting materials.

  17. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla;

    2013-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber is a root vegetable with excellent gastronomic qualities, however the culinary properties are underexploited. Carbohydrate content, instrumental texture analysis and sensory profiling were used to study the effects of culinary preparation in...

  18. Effects of zirconium element on the microstructure and deuterium retention of W-Zr/Sc2O3 composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyu; Luo, Laima; Chen, Jingbo; Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Qiu; Luo, Guangnan; Chen, Junling; Wu, Yucheng

    2016-09-06

    Dense W and W-Zr composites reinforced with Sc2O3 particles were produced through powder metallurgy and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1700 °C and 58 MPa. Results showed that the W-1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composites exhibited optimal performance with the best relative density of up to 98.93% and high Vickers microhardness of approximately 583 Hv. The thermal conductivity of W-Zr/Sc2O3 composites decreased initially and then increased as the Zr content increased. The moderate Zr alloying element could combine well with Sc2O3 particles and W grains and form a solid solution. However, excess Zr element leads to agglomeration in the grain boundaries. W-1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composite had a good deuterium irradiation resistance very closing to pure tungsten compared with the other Zr element contents of composites. Under 500 K, D2 retention and release of them were similar to those of commercial tungsten, even lower between 400 K to 450 K. Pre-irradiation with 5 keV-He(+) ions to a fluence of 1 × 10(21) He(+)/m(2) resulted in an increase in deuterium retention (deuterium was implanted after He(+) irradiation), thereby shifting the desorption peak to a high temperature from 550 K to 650 K for the W-1vol.%Zr/2vol.%Sc2O3 composite.

  19. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  20. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola;

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol...

  1. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  2. Biodegradability and Molecular Composition of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Urban Stormwater Runoff and Outflow Water from a Stormwater Retention Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Mary G; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can be a significant part of the reactive N in aquatic ecosystems and can accelerate eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. A bioassay method was coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to determine the biodegradability and molecular composition of DON in the urban stormwater runoff and outflow water from an urban stormwater retention pond. The biodegradability of DON increased from 10% in the stormwater runoff to 40% in the pond outflow water and DON was less aromatic and had lower overall molecular weight in the pond outflow water than in the stormwater runoff. More than 1227 N-bearing organic formulas were identified with FT-ICR-MS in the stormwater runoff and pond outflow water, which were only 13% different in runoff and outflow water. These molecular formulas represented a wide range of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, amino sugars, lignins, and tannins in DON from runoff and pond outflow water. This work implies that the urban infrastructure (i.e., stormwater retention ponds) has the potential to influence biogeochemical processes in downstream water bodies because retention ponds are often a junction between the natural and the built environment.

  3. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2010-01-01

    as well as egg production and egg-to-adult viability. We raised larvae on a carbohydrate-enriched and a protein-enriched growth medium. We found that flies developed on the high protein medium had increased heat and desiccation tolerance compared to flies developed on the carbohydrate-enriched medium...... stress compared to males. Egg production was highest in females that had developed on the protein-enriched medium. However, there was a sex-specific effect of nutrition on egg-to-adult viability, with higher viability for males developing on the sucrose-enriched medium, while female survival was highest...... when developing on the protein-enriched medium. Our study indicates that larval nutrition has a strong impact on the ability to cope with stress, and that the optimal nutrient composition varies with the type of stress...

  4. Retention models for ionizable compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography: effect of variation of mobile phase composition and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosés, Martí; Subirats, Xavier; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2009-03-06

    General models in reversed-phase liquid chromatography that have been extended to relate retention of ionizable compounds to mobile phase composition, pH and/or temperature are reviewed. In particular, the fundamentals and applications of the solvation parameter model, the polarity parameter model and several classical models based on empirical equations are presented and compared. A main parameter in all these models is the degree of ionization of the acid-base compound, which depends on both the pH of the mobile phase and the acid-base constant of the compound. Thus, on one hand, the different procedures for pH measurement in the mobile phase and their influence on the performance of the models are outlined. On the other hand, equations that relate the variation of the pH of the buffer and the pK(a) of the compound with the mobile phase composition and/or temperature are reviewed and their applicability to the retention models critically discussed.

  5. Retention of a Flowable Composite Resin in Comparison to a Conventional Resin-Based Sealant: One-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    N. Tadayon; B. Malekafzali; M.Jafarzadeh; Fallahi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Long-term retention of pit and fissure sealants is crucial for their success. This clinical study evaluated the retention rate of a flowable composite resin (Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative) compared to a conventional resin-based sealant (Concise Light Cure White Sealant) over 12 months. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects aged 6 to 9 years were included in the study. Using a half-mouth design, a total of 80 first permanent molars were sealed with conventional fissure seal...

  6. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Dai, M.; Huang, W.; Liu, Q.; Chen, H.; Xu, L.

    2010-10-01

    Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N) ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13C), and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from -25.1‰ to -21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC)-1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose), were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC)-1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and/or transformation during transport. Sediment budget based on calculated regional accumulation rates

  7. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. He

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized using a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N ratio, bulk stable organic carbon isotopic composition13C, and carbohydrate composition analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC content was 1.21±0.45% in the upper reach, down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from −25.1‰ to −21.3‰ in Lingdingyang Bay and the South China Sea shelf, with a trend of enrichment seawards. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio offshore. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC−1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments. Total neutral sugars, as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose, were between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC−1 in the same sediments, suggesting that significant amounts of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to the surface sediment TOC was ca. 78±11% for Lingdingyang Bay, 34±4% for the inner shelf, and 5.5±1% for the outer shelf. The molecular composition of the carbohydrate in the surface sediments also suggested that the inner estuary was rich in terrestrially derived carbohydrates but that their contribution decreased offshore. A relatively high abundance of deoxyhexoses in the estuary and shelf indicated a considerable bacterial source of these carbohydrates, implying that sediment organic matter had undergone extensive degradation and

  8. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  9. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  10. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  11. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  12. Sources and accumulation of organic carbon in the Pearl River Estuary surface sediment as indicated by elemental, stable carbon isotopic, and carbohydrate compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. He

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter in surface sediments from the upper reach of the Pearl River Estuary and Lingdingyang Bay, as well as the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf was characterized by a variety of techniques, including elemental (C and N, stable carbon isotopic (δ 13C composition, as well as molecular-level analyses. Total organic carbon (TOC content was 1.61±1.20% in the upper reach down to 1.00±0.22% in Lingdingyang Bay and to 0.80±0.10% on the inner shelf and 0.58±0.06% on the outer shelf. δ13C values ranged from −25.11‰ to −21.28‰ across the studied area, with a trend of enrichment seaward. The spatial trend in C/N ratios mirrored that of δ13C, with a substantial decrease in C/N ratio from 10.9±1.3 in the Lingdingyang Bay surface sediments to 6.5±0.09 in the outer shelf surface sediments. Total carbohydrate yields ranged from 22.1 to 26.7 mg (100 mg OC−1, and typically followed TOC concentrations in the estuarine and shelf sediments, suggesting that the relative abundance of total carbohydrate was fairly constant in TOC. Total neutral sugars as detected by the nine major monosaccharides (lyxose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucose yielded between 4.0 and 18.6 mg (100 mg OC−1 in the same sediments, suggesting that a significant amount of carbohydrates were not neutral aldoses. The bulk organic matter properties, isotopic composition and C/N ratios, combined with molecular-level carbohydrate compositions were used to assess the sources and accumulation of terrestrial organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary and the adjacent northern South China Sea shelf. Results showed a mixture of terrestrial riverine organic carbon with in situ phytoplankton organic carbon in the areas studied. Using a two end-member mixing model based on δ13C values and C/N ratios, we estimated that the terrestrial organic carbon contribution to

  13. Effects of receptor-mediated endocytosis and tubular protein composition on volume retention in experimental glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastner, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Sendeski, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Human glomerulonephritis (GN) is characterized by sustained proteinuria, sodium retention, hypertension, and edema formation. Increasing quantities of filtered protein enter the renal tubule, where they may alter epithelial transport functions. Exaggerated endocytosis and consequent protein overl...... mechanism of channel activation which may involve the action of filtered plasma proteases....... and channels involved in volume regulation were altered in GN, and 2) proximal tubular endocytosis may influence locally as well as downstream expressed tubular transporters and channels. Effects of anti-glomerular basement membrane GN were studied in controls and megalin-deficient mice with blunted proximal...

  14. Complex carbohydrates--structure and function with respect to the glycoconjugate composition of the cupula of the semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Rudolf; Reher, Kerstin; Helling, Kai; Scherer, Hans

    2002-03-01

    The review briefly describes the structure and function of complex carbohydrates of glycoproteins and proteoglycans both in general and with particular respect to the potential roles sugar chains may play in the cupula, i.e. the molecular organization of these constituents, their biophysical properties, and their biological functions.

  15. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2). MEASUREMENTS

  16. Effect of Host Plant on the Chemical Composition of Tetranychus urticae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae): Variability in Soluble Protein, Anions, and Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical analyses of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and 3 of their host plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Phaseolus lunatus L., and Vigna unguiculata L. show that the content of total soluble protein, carbohydrates, and anions in the mites varies independently from the concentrat...

  17. Effect of adding Lactobacillus plantarum and soluble carbohydrates to swine manure on odorous compounds, chemical composition and indigenous flora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Can; LI Ji; KANG Wen-li; TANG Xin-yan

    2006-01-01

    Manure odor, which results in the increasing complaints and lawsuits, has increased the tension among swine producers and surrounding residents. The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and different rates of soluble carbohydrates additions to swine manure on odorous compounds, chemical compounds and indigenous flora were evaluated. Additions were calculated on dried manure weight basis. Variables monitored included ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), odor offensiveness, pH, ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N),volatile fatty acids (VFAs), urease and indigenous flora. The results indicated that the combination of L. plantarum and soluble carbohydrates dramatically reduced manure pH. Lower pH resulted in the reduction of NH3 volatilization (34.6%-92.4%, P<0.01),the increases of H2S (P< 0.05) and NH4+-N (5.3%-17.5%, P<0.05). In addition, L. plantarum and soluble carbohydrates additions significantly reduced odor offensiveness, those VFAs related to malodor indicators(valeric acids, 12.3%-47.7%, P<0.05; iso-valeric,3.5%-23.8%) and the main microorganisms responsible for odor production, with the number of Eubacteria in swine manure reducing by 4.9%, 11.6%, 17.4%, 34.1% and 32.2% respectively.

  18. The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Fuller, Nicholas Robert; Zulet, María Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Caterson, Ian Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

  19. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed.

  20. An Effective Honors Composition Class Improves Honors Retention Rates: Outcomes and Statistical Prestidigitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    Annmarie Guzy teaches honors composition at the University of South Alabama. This essay discusses her observation that students who took her class were more likely to complete the honors program, which led to her wondering what elements of her course might give students an edge in honors program completion. As an English professor with training in…

  1. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Carbohydrates A A ... of energy for the body. Two Types of Carbohydrates There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  2. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate-lipid Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Peanut Worm,Sipunculus nudus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Qin; Xu; Mingzhu; Tong; Tong; Tong; Wanping; Dong; Lanfang; Cheng; Guangping; Zou; Jie; Jiang; Yan

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate-lipid( C / L) ratios on growth performance,body composition and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile peanut worm. [Methods]Juvenile peanut worm with average body weight of( 16. 77 ± 0. 40) mg were fed with five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets formulated to contain different carbohydrate / lipid( C / L) ratios( 0. 68,1. 02,1. 62,2. 61 or 4. 35) for 8 weeks. [Results] The dietary C / L ratios had no significant effects on survival of juvenile peanut worm( P > 0. 05). With the increasing of dietary C / L ratios,weight growth rate( WGR)and specific growth rate( SGR) increased when dietary C / L ratios were between 0. 68 and 2. 61,and then decreased significantly with dietary C / L ratio further increased. When the dietary C / L ratio was 2. 61( carbohydrate level was 20. 64%,lipid level was 7. 92%) both WGR and SGR produced the maximum value,they were 451. 78 ± 16. 85% and 3. 41 ± 0. 06 % / d,respectively. The dietary C / L ratios had significant effects on body moisture,body protein content and body lipid content( P < 0. 05),but no significant effects on body ash content of juvenile peanut worm( P > 0. 05). Different C / L ratios had significant effects on amylase activity and lipases activity of juvenile peanut worm( P < 0. 05),but no significant effects on protease activity( P > 0. 05). [Conclusion]The regression model analysis showed that the most suitable dietary C / L ratio which can make juvenile peanut worm acquire the best weight growth rate is 2. 42.

  3. Analysis of Carbohydrate Composition in Dried Persimmon Icing by GC%中药柿霜中糖组分的气相色谱法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灏然; 钟晓红; 陆英; 张双; 张喻; 何艳君; 周敏

    2012-01-01

    The carbohydrate composition in traditional Chinese medicine dried persimmon icing, which was from two different origins (Shandong Caozhou and Hubei Tuanfeng), were determined by gas chromatography (GC). The glycosyl-nitrile-acetate derivatives were chosen to pre-treat the samples. The results indicated that the main carbohydrate composition of two kinds of dried persimmon icing all mainly was glucose, but there is a little different in content, the dried persimmon icing from Caozhou and Tuanfeng contains glucose of 27.65% and 23.67%, respectively, but the two samples have close content of ribose. The compositions of the other monosaccharide in dried persimmon icing from different origins also have relatively big differences, of which the sample from Caozhou contains ribose, arabinose and a little rhamnose, while the sample from Tuanfeng contains ribose and a little fucose.%采用气相色谱法测定山东曹州和湖北团风两个不同产地的中药柿霜的糖组分,样品的前处理选用糖腈衍生化的方法.结果表明:中药柿霜中糖组分主要以葡萄糖为主,但含量有一定的差异.曹州和团风两种柿霜分别含27.65%和23.67%的葡萄糖,核糖含量也比较接近.不同产地的中药柿霜中其他的单糖组成也存在着较大的差异,其中曹州样品含有核糖、阿拉伯糖及少量的鼠李糖,团风样品含有核糖及少量的岩藻糖.

  4. Compositional Analysis of Whole Grains, Processed Grains, Grain Co-Products, and Other Carbohydrate Sources with Applicability to Pet Animal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Buff, Preston R; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2016-03-25

    Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed. Crude protein, amino acid, fat, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and mineral concentrations were highly variable among the respective fractions (i.e., barley flake vs. malted barley vs. steamed rolled barley) as well as among the various grains (i.e., barley flake vs. brown rice vs. canary grass seed). These ingredients not only provide a readily available energy source, but also a source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, essential amino acids, and macrominerals for pet diets.

  5. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  6. Effect of the surface treatment of plain carbon fiber posts on the retention of the composite core: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, A F; Bottino, M A; Neisser, M P; de Araújo, M A

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the role of surface treatments performed on plain carbon fiber posts, in relation to serrated carbon fiber posts, in the retention of the composite core. Fifty carbon fiber posts received surface treatments in order to verify their influence on the retention of the core material. An acrylic resin mold was developed in order to precisely fit the post, leaving a machined space to accommodate a self-curing composite resin. After the surface treatment, a primer was applied on the coronal portion of all posts, which were then dried. They were fitted to the mold and received a 3 mm composite core. All specimens were thermocycled and then stored in distilled water for a week. Tension test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until there was lack of adhesion or fracture of the core. The conclusions were: a) the values of retention related to aluminum oxide spray (group A), depth cutter diamond burs (group C) and posts with machined coronal portion (group D) were comparable to those of serrated posts (group E), although no statistically significant difference between these groups was found; b) the mean values of core retention in group B (medium grit diamond burs) were statistically lower than those of other groups.

  7. Nutritional education and carbohydrate counting in children with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: the effects on dietary habits, body composition and glycometabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigliano, Marco; Morandi, Anita; Maschio, Maddalena; Sabbion, Alberto; Contreas, Giovanna; Tomasselli, Francesca; Tommasi, Mara; Maffeis, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Carbohydrate counting (CHC) in combination with nutritional education has been used to optimize the insulin dose in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to test the impact of CHC and nutritional education on changes in dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with insulin pumps (CSII). Twenty-five children with T1D and CSII were recruited and valuated at baseline and after 18 months of follow-up. They were trained in CHC and following standard nutrition education program (based on American Diabetes Association and International Society of Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines); clinical, biochemical and nutritional variables were measured. In the total population, body composition, body fat distribution and biochemical variables did not change, at follow-up; HbA1c was significantly reduced (8.50 ± 0.77 vs 7.92 ± 0.74 %; p nutritional education, does not affect dietary habits, body composition and body fat distribution in children with T1D treated with CSII. Moreover, the sub-group of subjects showing a significant improvement in glycometabolic control reported an increase in CHO intake and a reduction in fat and protein intake.

  8. Large-scale fabrication of linear low density polyethylene/layered double hydroxides composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiazhuo; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Qinghua; Wang, Qingguo; Xu, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Novel LDH intercalated with organic aliphatic long-chain anion was large-scale synthesized innovatively by high-energy ball milling in one pot. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/layered double hydroxides (LDH) composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties were fabricated by melt blending and blowing process. FT IR, XRD, SEM results show that LDH particles were dispersed uniformly in the LLDPE composite films. Particularly, LLDPE composite film with 1% LDH exhibited the optimal performance among all the composite films with a 60.36% enhancement in the water vapor barrier property and a 45.73 °C increase in the temperature of maximum mass loss rate compared with pure LLDPE film. Furthermore, the improved infrared absorbance (1180-914 cm-1) of LLDPE/LDH films revealed the significant enhancement of heat retention. Therefore, this study prompts the application of LLDPE/LDH films as agricultural films with superior heat retention.

  9. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  10. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content) ...

  11. Nutritional composition, acceptability, and shelf stability of carrot pomace-incorporated cookies with special reference to total and β-carotene retention

    OpenAIRE

    Shyamala Bellur Nagarajaiah; Jamuna Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated carrot pomace was assessed for the feasibility of incorporating into baked product by partial substitution of refined flour at 4, 8, and 12% level. As carrot pomace is a good source of antioxidant components and dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, it was added to the cookies. Carrot pomace and products were analyzed for chemical composition, and products were further evaluated for sensory quality, carotene retention and bioaccessibility, and storage stability. The results show...

  12. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  13. Influence of different cultivation methods on carbohydrate and lipid compositions and digestibility of energy of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    of harvest. Organic foods are defined as products that are produced under controlled cultivation conditions characterized by the absence of synthetic fertilisers and very restricted use of pesticides. Very limited information is available regarding the impact of organic cultivation systems on the composition...

  14. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; Arx, Von Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Juan, Sílvia Roig; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied

  15. Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuechao; Tong, Zhaohui; Geng, Yuqing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we synthesized a biobased polyurethane using liquefied corn stover, isocyanate, and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized polyurethane was used as a coating material to control nitrogen (N) release from polymer-coated urea. A novel superabsorbent composite was also formulated from chicken feather protein (CFP), acrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and used as an outer coating material for water retention. We studied the N release characteristics and water-retention capability of the double-layer polymer-coated urea (DPCU) applied in both water and soils. The ear yields, dry matter accumulation, total N use efficiency and N leaching from a sweet corn soil-plant system under two different irrigation regimes were also investigated. Comparison of DPCU treatments with conventional urea fertilizer revealed that DPCU treatments reduced the N release rate and improved water retention capability. Evaluation of soil and plant characteristics within the soil-plant system revealed that DPCU application effectively reduced N leaching loss, improved total N use efficiency, and increased soil water retention capability.

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Teens > Carbohydrates and Diabetes A A A What's in this ... that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates ...

  17. Effect of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) food, ugali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, K E; Munck, L; Eggum, B O

    1988-01-01

    1. The present work was undertaken to study the effects of cooking, pH and polyphenol level on carbohydrate composition and nutritional quality of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Three different sorghum varieties; Dabar, Feterita and Argentine containing zero, intermediate to low and high levels of polyphenols respectively were used in the study. From these varieties uncooked, uncooked acidified, cooked, and cooked acidified diets were prepared. Diets were characterized with regard to resistant starch (RS), dietary fibre (DF), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and amino acid content. Raw materials were further analysed for content and composition of non-starch polysaccharides and Klason lignin. The nutritional properties were studied in balance trials with rats. True protein digestibility (TD), biological value (BV), net protein utilization, digestible amino acids, digestible energy (DE) and digestible DF were used as criteria in the nutritional study. 2. Cooking at neutral and acid pH resulted in significantly higher assayed values for DF. Increase in DF could be accounted for by formation of RS. Approximately 50% of RS was recovered in the faeces. 3. In vitro values for protein associated with ADF and in vivo balance values using rats suggest that an endosperm protein fraction, kafirins, was made unavailable during cooking. This resulted in reduced TD and increased BV. It is assumed that unavailable kafirins serve as a nitrogen source for microflora in the hind-gut. 4. Dietary polyphenols changed the excretory route for N from urine to faeces. This resulted in lower TD and higher BV in Argentine (high in polyphenols) than in Dabar and Feterita (low in polyphenols), although dietary lysine (first limiting amino acid) was the same in the three varieties. 5. Variation in DE of the diets was attributed to DF, RS and the amount of faecal protein, which in turn were influenced by undigested kafirins and polyphenols.

  18. Short-term changes in carbon isotope composition of soluble carbohydrates and starch: from canopy leaves to the root system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttlicher, Sabine; Knohl, Alexander; Wanek, Wolfgang; Buchmann, Nina; Richter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the 13C discrimination of current leaf photosynthesis might have profound impacts on root respiratory substrates. Therefore, the aim of this study was (1) to refine a method for the isolation of root and leaf starch and soluble sugars (neutral fraction) for stable carbon isotope analysis and (2) to assess the short-term temporal variability of the C isotope composition (delta13C) of starch and of the neutral fraction of beech roots and leaves at different canopy heights. An existing method for isolating starch for stable C isotope analysis based on enzymatic hydrolysis was modified to account for the low starch content of the samples. This was achieved by removing the enzyme (alpha-amylase) by ultrafiltration after the hydrolysis, resulting in very low carbon blanks. The neutral fraction was separated from organic acids and cations by ion-exchange chromatography. An anion-exchange resin in the [HCO3]--form was chosen that ensured high precision of C blanks. Beech leaves at 5, 10 and 20 m above the forest floor as well as roots were sampled six times during a day/night cycle in July 2003. Delta13C values of bulk material, starch and the neutral fraction increased from the lower to the higher canopy with mean differences between 5 and 20 m of 3.8, 3.4 and 2.7 per thousand for the delta13C values of starch, neutral fraction and bulk foliage, respectively. The delta13C value of foliar starch increased from the morning to the afternoon and decreased during the night, but diurnal differences (up to 3.1 per thousand) were only statistically significant for leaves sampled at 5 and 10 m height. In roots, no diurnal variation in the delta13C of starch was observed during the short time frame of one day and the delta13C of the neutral fraction did not differ between samples taken at 16:30 and 22:00. Calculated delta13C values of starch, which was mobilised during the night, were more positive than the total starch (all sampling times pooled) in leaves. Furthermore

  19. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  20. Retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant and a photochromatic flowable composite resin placed on occlusal pits and fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the retention and penetration of a conventional resin-based sealant (Fluroshield and a photochromatic flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow Chroma placed on occlusal pits and fissures and submitted to thermal or chemical cycling regimens. Penetration assessment - ten premolars were sealed with each material, isolated (except for the sealed surface and immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B. The teeth were serially sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. The images of the sections were digitized and analyzed (ImageLab. The distance between the most superficial and the deepest points on the occlusal central groove was calculated to determine the groove′s total depth. The length of the central groove filled with the sealant was divided by its total depth to obtain the percentage of sealing of the occlusal groove. Retention assessment - 30 premolars were sealed, their occlusal surfaces were photographed and the area occupied by the sealing materials was demarcated (ImageLab. The teeth were submitted to different treatments: thermocycled, stored in artificial saliva and immersed in acetic acid and saliva (10 cycles/day protocol for 30 days. New photographs were taken to assess the final area occupied by the materials. The difference between the final and initial area was calculated to obtain the material loss. The data was analyzed (two-way anova and Tukey′s test P < 0.05. Both materials presented similar penetration of the occlusal central groove. After thermal and chemical cycling, the materials did not differ with respect to retention, except for immersion in acetic acid. In this case, Tetric Flow Chroma presented greater retention than Fluoroshield.

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  2. Challenges with nonfiber carbohydrate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B

    2003-12-01

    Nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) encompass a compositionally and nutritionally diverse group exclusive of those carbohydrates found in NDF. Their content in feeds has often been described as a single value estimated by difference as 100% of dry matter minus the percentages of CP, NDF (adjusted for CP in NDF), ether extract, and ash. A calculated value was used because of difficulties with assays for individual NFC, but it does not differentiate among nutritionally distinct NFC. Errors in NFC estimation can arise from not accounting for CP in NDF and when multipliers other than 6.25 are appropriate to estimate CP. Analyses that begin to distinguish among NFC are those for starch, soluble fiber (non-NDF, nonstarch polysaccharides), and low molecular weight carbohydrates (mono- and oligosaccharides). Many starch analyses quantify alpha-glucans through specific hydrolysis of alpha-(1 --> 4) and alpha-(1 --> 6) linkages in the glucan, and measurement of released glucose. Incomplete gelatinization and hydrolysis will lead to underestimation of starch content. Starch values are inflated by enzyme preparations that hydrolyze carbohydrates other than alpha-glucan, measurement of all released monosaccharides without specificity for glucose, and failure to exclude free glucose present in the unhydrolyzed sample. Soluble fiber analyses err in a fashion similar to NFC if estimation of CP requires multipliers other than 6.25, or if contaminants such as CP and starch have not been properly accounted. Depolymerization and incomplete precipitation can also decrease soluble fiber estimates. The low molecular weight carbohydrates have been defined as carbohydrates soluble in 78 to 80% ethanol, which separates them from polysaccharides. They can be measured in extracts using broad-spectrum colorimetric assays (phenol-sulfuric acid assay or reducing sugar analysis of acid hydrolyzed samples) or chromatographic methods. Limitations of the colorimetric assays include lack of differentiation

  3. Nutritional composition, acceptability, and shelf stability of carrot pomace-incorporated cookies with special reference to total and β-carotene retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Bellur Nagarajaiah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated carrot pomace was assessed for the feasibility of incorporating into baked product by partial substitution of refined flour at 4, 8, and 12% level. As carrot pomace is a good source of antioxidant components and dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, it was added to the cookies. Carrot pomace and products were analyzed for chemical composition, and products were further evaluated for sensory quality, carotene retention and bioaccessibility, and storage stability. The results showed that pomace contained protein, (6.50%; dietary fiber (44.75%; total carotene, (5,456 μg; and β-carotene (607 μg/100 g. Products with 4% pomace incorporation had highest retention in terms of total carotene (75% and β-carotene (69%. The highest level of replacement (12% had a significant adverse effect on the product. Overall acceptability indicated that panel members liked the products up to 8% of added carrot pomace compared to control. Thus, it can be stated that value-added cookies could be advantageous as they are nutrient dense containing dietary fiber and carotenoids.

  4. Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise and high-protein/reduced-carbohydrate and -fat diets have each been shown separately, or in combination with an energy-restricted diet to improve body composition and health in sedentary, overweight (BMI > 25 adults. The current study, instead, examined the physiological response to 10 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (EX versus exercise + minimal nutrition intervention designed to alter the macronutrient profile, in the absence of energy restriction, using a commercially available high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement (EXFS; versus control (CON. Methods Thirty-eight previously sedentary, overweight subjects (female = 19; male = 19 were randomly assigned to either CON (n = 10, EX (n = 14 or EXFS (n = 14. EX and EXFS participated in supervised resistance and endurance training (2× and 3×/wk, respectively; EXFS consumed 1 shake/d (weeks 1 and 2 and 2 shakes/d (weeks 3–10. Results EXFS significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate and fat intake (-14.4%, -27.2% and -26.7%, respectively; p p p p p p 2max improved in both exercise groups (EX = +5.0% and EXFS = +7.9%; p 2max (+6.2%; p = 0.001. Time-to-exhaustion during treadmill testing increased in EX (+9.8% but was significantly less (p p p Conclusion Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, provision of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate and -fat, nutrient-dense food supplement significantly, 1 modified ad libitum macronutrient and energy intake (behavior effect, 2 improved physiological adaptations to exercise (metabolic advantage, and 3 reduced the variability of individual responses for fat mass, muscle mass and time-to-exhaustion – all three variables improving in 100% of EXFS subjects.

  5. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  6. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls (13 Mcal day-1. Although non-supplemented bulls had less (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls. High-carbohydrate supplements were associated with more (p 0.05 in the energy efficiency between the groups. Therefore, supplementation increases the intake and retention of protein and energy without changing the retention efficiency.

  7. Carbohydrates as food allergens

    OpenAIRE

    SOH, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are t...

  8. Hydrogen production from cheese whey with ethanol-type fermentation: effect of hydraulic retention time on the microbial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paula Rúbia Ferreira; Santos, Samantha Christine; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4, 2, and 1h and varying sources of inoculum (sludge from swine and sludge from poultry) on the hydrogen production in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBRs) were evaluated. Cheese whey was used as a substrate, and 5000mgCODL(-1) was applied. The highest hydrogen yield (HY) of 1.33molmol(-1) lactose and highest ethanol yield (EtOHY) of 1.22molEtOHmol(-1) lactose were obtained at the highest HRT (4h). When the reactors were operated at an HRT of 1h, methane (0.68LCH4h(-1)L(-1)) was produced concurrently with hydrogen (0.51LH2h(-1)L(-1)). The major metabolites observed were soluble ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. Cloning of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the microbial community were affiliated with the genera Selenomonas sp. (69% of the sequences), and Methanobacterium sp. (98% of the sequences).

  9. Effect of flue gas CO2 on the growth, carbohydrate and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-10-31

    Effect of various flue gas CO2 concentrations (5%, 10% and 14.1%) on growth rate and biochemical properties of a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was investigated. S. obliquus showed the highest biomass production and growth rate (0.36 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.00 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (35.8 mg L(-1)), lipid productivity (9.9 mg L(-1) day) and carbohydrate productivity (10.3 mg L(-1) day) with 14.1% CO2 after 8 days of cultivation. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 5% and 7% with 14.1% CO2, respectively. Application of flue gas CO2 enhanced the growth along with lipid and carbohydrate productivity of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for reducing the CO2 concentration.

  10. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Pellegrino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons.Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  11. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  12. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...... monomers. This approach divides carbohydrates into 3 main groups, sugars (DP1–2), oligosaccharides (DP3–9), and polysaccharides (DP ≥ 10), the latter being further divided into starch (α-1:4,1,6-D-glucans) and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). Dietary fiber (DF) recently has been defined as carbohydrate...

  13. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) procedures for glycosidic linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of non-carbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often de...

  14. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  15. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  17. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  18. Super absorbent hydrogel composites as water retentive in soil; Hidrogeis compositos superabsorventes como retentores de agua no solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Antonio Savio G. [Faculdade de Educacao de Itapipoca, Curso de Quimica, UECE, Itapipoca, Ceara (Brazil); Almeida Neto, Manuel P. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do RN - IFRN, Caico, RN (Brazil); Bezerra, Maslandia N.; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, UFC, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Super absorbent hydrogels (SAP) were synthesized at room temperature, by the use of potassium persulfate as initiator, N,N'-methylene bis acrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent, and N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine. Gels at the same conditions were prepared with 10% of minerals (bentonite or dolomite). The materials of bentonite series were obtained from acrylamide followed by hydrolysis with NaOH. The gels of dolomite series were prepared from the two co-monomers (acrylamide and acrylate). All SAPs were characterized by elemental microanalysis, FTIR, x-ray diffraction, SEM, and by swelling measurements in water. An intercalated composite was obtained with bentonite hydrogel. After hydrolysis an exfoliated nanocomposite was formed. The dolomite mineral was dispersed in the polymeric matrix. The swelling degrees of the SAPs with mineral were higher than those gels without it. This degree was 1,000 times the dry gel weight. Taking into account the amount of water needed to the process, the gel with dolomite is the most promising as soil conditioner. (author)

  19. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  20. Biochemical passive reactors for treatment of acid mine drainage: Effect of hydraulic retention time on changes in efficiency, composition of reactive mixture, and microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Yaneth; Escobar, Maria C; Neculita, Carmen M; Arbeli, Ziv; Roldan, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical passive treatment represents a promising option for the remediation of acid mine drainage. This study determined the effect of three hydraulic retention times (1, 2, and 4 days) on changes in system efficiency, reactive mixture, and microbial activity in bioreactors under upward flow conditions. Bioreactors were sacrificed in the weeks 8, 17 and 36, and the reactive mixture was sampled at the bottom, middle, and top layers. Physicochemical analyses were performed on reactive mixture post-treatment and correlated with sulfate-reducing bacteria and cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity. All hydraulic retention times were efficient at increasing pH and alkalinity and removing sulfate (>60%) and metals (85-99% for Fe(2+) and 70-100% for Zn(2+)), except for Mn(2+). The longest hydraulic retention time (4 days) increased residual sulfides, deteriorated the quality of treated effluent and negatively impacted sulfate-reducing bacteria. Shortest hydraulic retention time (1 day) washed out biomass and increased input of dissolved oxygen in the reactors, leading to higher redox potential and decreasing metal removal efficiency. Concentrations of iron, zinc and metal sulfides were high in the bottom layer, especially with 2 day of hydraulic retention time. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, cellulolytic and dehydrogenase activity were higher in the middle layer at 4 days of hydraulic retention time. Hydraulic retention time had a strong influence on overall performance of passive reactors.

  1. Fermentation characteristics, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates and crude protein of silage of elephant grass wilted or with addition of castor bean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sampaio Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen potential, the losses of deriving the fermentative process, nutritional value, the fractioning of carbohydrates and protein the elephant grass silage wilted or not containing castor bean meal. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and with four replications: elephant grass wilted; elephant not wilted; elephant grass more castor bean meal (6%; elephant grass more castor bean meal (12% and elephant grass more castor bean meal (18%, the coproduct was added with base on natural matter. We adopted a specific mass of 600 kg/m3. The silage containing 18% castor bean meal showed higher (P0.05 among the silages with additives for fractions A+B1, B2 and C. For the protein fractioning, the fractions A and C decreased (P<0.05 with increase of the inclusion of castor bean meal, differently, of the fraction B1+B2 which increased. The castor bean stands out as a good additive in silage of elephant grass to reduce moisture and improve the fermentation characteristics of silages also was effective in increasing the protein value of silages, especially when using the dose 18%.

  2. The influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer and retention strength of carbon fiber post-resin composite core restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Peter; de Gee, Anton; Feilzer, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that endodontically treated teeth restored with short posts or deficient ferrules show a high failure risk. This study. evaluated the influence of fatigue loading on the quality of the cement layer between prefabricated quartz coated carbon fiber posts with restricted length and the root canal wall in maxillary pre-molars. Two adhesive resin composite cements, chemical-cured Panavia 21 (Group 1) and dual-cured RelyX-ARC (Group 2), and one resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, chemical-cured RelyX (Group 3), delta were selected for this study. Post- and-core restorations were made on single-rooted human maxillary premolars from which the coronal sections were removed at the level of the proximal cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Following endodontic treatment, a post-and-core restoration with 6-mm post length was prepared for each tooth. The posts were directly cemented into the root canal and, after applying an adhesive (Clearfil Photo Bond), they were built up with a core build-up composite (Clearfil Photo Core). For each group (n=8), half of the specimens were exposed to fatigue loading (10(6) load cycles) almost perpendicular to the axial axis (85 degrees), while the other half were used as the control. Three parallel, transverse root sections, 1.5-mm thick, were cut from each specimen at the apical, medial and coronal location. These sections were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the integrity of the cement layer, while the retention strength of the cemented post sections was determined with the push-out test. The multivariate results of MANOVA showed that the condition main effect (fatigue or control) was not significant (p=0.059); the two other main effects, type of cement and section location, were significant (p=0.001 and p=0.008). For both the push-out strength and SEM evaluation of the cement layer integrity, the results significantly improved from RelyX to RelyX-ARC to Panavia 21 and also from apical to

  3. Carbohydrates in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh

    2007-07-01

    Awareness of the importance of carbohydrates in living systems and medicine is growing due to the increasing understanding of their biological and pharmacological relevance. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous and perform a wide array of biological roles. Carbohydrate-based or -modified therapeutics are used extensively in cardiovascular and hematological treatments ranging from inflammatory diseases and anti-thrombotic treatments to wound healing. Heparin is a well-known and widely used example of a carbohydrate-based drug but will not be discussed as it has been extensively reviewed. We will detail carbohydrate-based and -modified therapeutics, both those that are currently marketed or in various stages of clinical trials and those that are potential therapeutics based on promising preclinical investigations. Carbohydrate-based therapeutics include polysaccharide and oligosaccharide anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant and anti-thrombotic agents from natural and synthetic sources, some as an alternative to heparin and others which were designed based on known structure-functional relationships. Some of these compounds have multiple biological effects, showing anti-adhesive, anti-HIV and anti-arthrithic activities. Small molecules, derivatives or mimetics of complement inhibitors, are detailed for use in limiting ischemia/ reperfusion injuries. Monosaccharides, both natural and synthetic, have been investigated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Modification by glycosylation of natural products, or glycosylation-mimicking modification, has a significant effect on the parent molecule including increased plasma half-life and refining or increasing desired functions. It is hoped that this review will highlight the vast therapeutic potential of these natural bioactive molecules.

  4. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology that would benefit from a greater understanding of the role of carbohydrate relations. PMID:26479502

  5. Carbohydrate composition of the alpha-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG alpha) and the free alpha molecules produced in pregnancy: most free alpha and some combined hCG alpha molecules are fucosylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blithe, D L

    1990-06-01

    The carbohydrate compositions of pregnancy-derived hCG alpha (dissociated from intact hCG) and free alpha-subunit were analyzed using a combination of chemical analysis, lectin affinity chromatography, and glycosidase sensitivity. For direct compositional analysis, parallel samples were hydrolyzed in trifluoroacetic acid and analyzed for sialic acid and neutral sugars without prior derivatization. Separation of the monosaccharides was achieved by HPLC on a Dionex CarboPac column eluted at high pH, and the resolved monosaccharides were quantified by pulsed amperometric detection. The amounts of sugar that were found relative to peptide indicated the presence of two N-linked oligosaccharides per molecule on both hCG alpha and free alpha. Free alpha contained 2.5-fold higher amounts of sialic acid and galactose as well as a higher amount of N-acetylglucosamine than did hCG alpha. Free alpha also contained a 6-fold higher amount of fucose than did hCG alpha (1.2 vs. 0.2 residues of fucose/molecule). Serial fractionation of intact hCG alpha and free alpha molecules by lectin affinity chromatography indicated that virtually all of the hCG alpha-subunits contained at least one Concanavalin-A (Con-A)-binding site, whereas as many as 32% of the free alpha molecules could not bind to Con-A. Chromatography on Lens culinaris (Lch) resulted in 12% binding of hCG alpha and approximately 72% binding of free alpha (80-85% of the Con-A-bound free alpha and 47-48% of the Con-A-nonbound free alpha bound to Lch). Endoglycosidase-H (endo-H) treatment of hCG alpha released a portion of the oligosaccharides. The endo-H-released material appeared to be a monoantennary hybrid based on DEAE-binding properties and carbohydrate composition. In contrast to hCG alpha, free alpha was completely resistant to endo-H treatment. Incubation of endo-H-resistant hCG alpha with glycopeptidase-A resulted in the release of two components, which could be separated into monoantennary and biantennary

  6. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  7. Description of the Retention and Peak Profile for Chromolith Columns in Isocratic and Gradient Elution Using Mobile Phase Composition and Flow Rate as Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cabo-Calvet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the modifier concentration and flow rate on the chromatographic performance of a second generation Chromolith® RP-18e column, under isocratic and gradient elution with acetonitrile-water mixtures, was examined using four sulphonamides as probe compounds. The acetonitrile concentration was varied between 5 and 55% (v/v, and the flow rate between 0.1 and 5.0 mL/min, keeping the other factors constant. The changes in both retention and peak profile were modelled, and used to build simple plots, where the logarithm of the retention factor was represented against the modifier concentration (in gradient elution, against the initial modifier concentration, and the half-widths or widths against the retention time (in gradient elution, against the time at the column outlet. A particular plot was needed for describing the retention of each sulphonamide, but due to the similar interaction kinetics, a unique plot described the changes in the half-widths for all four sulphonamides. The changes in retention with the flow showed that allegedly in the second generation Chromolith, the column deformation observed for the first generation Chromolith, with the applied pressure at increasing flow, is decreased.

  8. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  9. Functionalized carbon nanomaterials derived from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Dinesh; Eswaramoorthy, Muthusamy

    2010-02-01

    A tremendous growth in the field of carbon nanomaterials has led to the emergence of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, mesoporous carbon and more recently graphene. Some of these materials have found applications in electronics, sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, composites, and so forth. The high temperatures and hydrocarbon precursors involved in their synthesis usually yield highly inert graphitic surfaces. As some of the applications require functionalization of their inert graphitic surface with groups like -COOH, -OH, and -NH(2), treatment of these materials in oxidizing agents and concentrated acids become inevitable. More recent works have involved using precursors like carbohydrates to produce carbon nanostructures rich in functional groups in a single-step under hydrothermal conditions. These carbon nanostructures have already found many applications in composites, drug delivery, materials synthesis, and Li ion batteries. The review aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the application of carbohydrate derived carbon nanostructures and also provide an outlook of their future prospects.

  10. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  11. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide.

  12. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology th...

  13. Carbohydrate – protein complex of the waste of climacoptera obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Seitimova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Extract from Climacoptera obtusifolia family Chenopodiaceae has antidiabetic activity. For the first time carbohydrate-protein complex of the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia was studied. It was found that the quantity of extractive substances with 80% ethanol in aerial part – 52;6% and in the waste – 12;35%. The technique of separation of the carbohydrate-protein complex from the waste from Climacoptera obtusifolia is developed by means of classical and physical-chemical methods. The composition of carbohydrate-protein complex was identified: oligosaccharide; polysaccharide and two glycoproteins.

  14. Effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in Pummelo cultivar Thong Dee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee growing in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, were studied during January-August 2013. The results showed that 50% fruit thinning by hand at 1 month after fruit set increased percent of fruit retention throughout fruit development. At 2 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave 62% of fruit retention, which were significantly higher than no thinning (36.60%, whereas, 50% fruit thinning gave 40% of fruit retention at 6 month after fruit set, which significantly higher than no thinning (20.2%. A significant difference in leaf carbohydrate concentration was found in 3-6 month after fruit set. At 3 months after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (81.80 mg.g-1 than no thinning (73.56 mg.g-1, whereas, at 6 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (128.92 mg.g-1 than no thinning (102.90 mg.g-1. Although, 50% fruit thinning gave no effect on peel and pulp dry weight including peel and pulp carbohydrates concentration during fruit development. For plant nutrient analysis, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K concentration than no thinning during 3-6 month after fruit set. However, 50% fruit thinning had no effect on fruit weight, fruit circumstance, fruit diameter, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solid (TSS. It was concluded that 50% fruit thinning increased percent of fruit retention and may have an effect on the accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, leaf N, leaf P and leaf K concentrations in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee.

  15. The Effect of Growth Medium on B. anthracis Sterne Spore Carbohydrate Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Melville, Angela M.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2011-06-01

    The expressed characteristics of biothreat agents may be impacted by variations in the culture environment, including growth medium formulation. The carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis spores has been well studied, particularly for the exosporium, which is the outermost spore structure. The carbohydrate composition of the exosporium has been demonstrated to be distinct from the vegetative form containing unique monosaccharides.

  16. Modelling of the effect of solute structure and mobile phase pH and composition on the retention of phenoxy acid herbicides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschi, Massimiliano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); D' Archivio, Angelo Antonio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: darchivi@univaq.it; Mazzeo, Pietro; Pierabella, Mirko; Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-06-02

    A feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) learned by error back-propagation is used to generate a retention predictive model for phenoxy acid herbicides in isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The investigated solutes (18 compounds), apart from the most common herbicides of this class, include some derivatives of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid structurally related to phenoxy acids, as a whole covering a pK{sub a} range between 2.3 and 4.3. A mixed model in terms of both solute descriptors and eluent attributes is built with the aim of predicting retention in water-acetonitrile mobile phases within a large range of composition (acetonitrile from 30% to 70%, v/v) and acidity (pH of water before mixing with acetonitrile ranging between 2 and 5). The set of input variables consists of solute pK{sub a} and quantum chemical molecular descriptors of both the neutral and dissociated form, %v/v of acetonitrile in the mobile phase and pH of aqueous phase before mixing with acetonitrile. After elimination of redundant variables, a nine-dimensional model is identified and its prediction ability is evaluated by external validation based on three solutes not involved in model generation and by cross-validation. A multilinear counterpart in terms of the same descriptors is seen to provide a noticeably poorer retention prediction.

  17. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  18. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  19. Short communication. Effects of adding different protein and carbohydrates sources on chemical composition and in vitro gas production of corn stover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Mejía-Uribe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of protein-rich by-products based in swine manure (SM, poultry waste (PW or chemicals compounds as urea (U, as well as energy products like molasses (M and bakery by-product (BB, is a viable method to produce good quality silage. In addition, the use of a bacterial additive can improve the fermentation characteristics of silage. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition, in vitro gas production (GP and dry matter disappearance (DMd, using different sources of protein and energy in silage. The silages were made using SM, PW or U as protein sources and M or BB as energy source, with corn stover and with or without a bacterial additive. The organic matter (OM content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with UBB, UM and SMBB compared with the rest of the treatments; meanwhile crude protein content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with U. The addition of a bacterial additive increased (p < 0.05 OM content and decreased (p < 0.05 fiber content. Total GP was higher (p < 0.05 in silages containing BB, but DMd was higher (p < 0.05 in silages with U and SMBB. The inclusion of a bacterial additive decreased (p < 0.05 GP and DMd. The use of alternative sources of protein such as poultry and swine manure or urea, and of by-products of sugar industry and bakery is an alternative for silages based on corn stover. The results show that when properly formulated, the silages can provide more than 16% of crude protein and have DMd values above 60%.

  20. Composition of structural carbohydrates in biomass: precision of a liquid chromatography method using a neutral detergent extraction and a charged aerosol detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick A; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2011-09-30

    -SAH-LC-CAD method were smaller as compared to the Van Soest (VS) method. In addition, the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method was able to provide additional information on the composition of the hemicellulose (xylan, arabinan, mannan and galactan content) that is not provided by the Van Soest method. The NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method offers also the advantage of a better specificity for hemicellulose and cellulose, as compared to the NREL and Uppsala methods.

  1. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high......-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  2. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  3. Dietary glucose stimulus at larval stage modifies the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: An in vivo approach using (14)C-starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane; Engrola, Sofia

    2016-11-01

    The concept of nutritional programming was investigated in order to enhance the use of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead seabream juveniles. We assessed the long-term effects of high-glucose stimuli, exerted at the larval stage, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolic utilization and gene expression of seabream juveniles, challenged with a high-carbohydrate intake. During early development, a group of larvae (control, CTRL) were kept under a rich-protein-lipid feeding regime whereas another group (GLU) was subjected to high-glucose stimuli, delivered intermittently over time. At juvenile stage, triplicate groups (IBW: 2.5g) from each fish nutritional background were fed a high-protein (59.4%) low-carbohydrate (2.0%) diet before being subjected to a low-protein (43.0%) high-carbohydrate (33.0%) dietary challenge for 36-days. Fish from both treatments increased by 8-fold their initial body weight, but neither growth rate, feed intake, feed and protein efficiency, nutrient retention (except lipids) nor whole-body composition were affected (P˃0.05) by fish early nutritional history. Nutrient digestibility was also similar among both groups. The metabolic fate of (14)C-starch and (14)C-amino acids tracers was estimated; GLU juveniles showed higher absorption of starch-derived glucose in the gut, suggesting an enhanced digestion of carbohydrates, while amino acid use was not affected. Moreover, glucose was less used for de novo synthesis of hepatic proteins and muscle glycogen from GLU fish (Pjuveniles.

  4. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  5. DC Electrical Conductivity Retention, Optical Properties and Ammonia Sensing Analysis of Naturally Degraded CSA-Doped Graphene/polyaniline Composite Nanofibers Prepared with CTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Sayyed; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Mohd Y.; Hasan, Mudassir

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report surfactant-mediated synthesis of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PANI/GN) composite nanofibers as an electrical conductor and excellent ammonia sensor. The synthesis was mediated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. The as-synthesized composite nanofibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The electrical conductivity of the CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers was found to be remarkably enhanced as compared to the CSA-doped PANI. The boost in electronic conductivity could be attributed to an improved electronic interaction between CSA-doped PANI backbone and GN present in the composite system. The naturally degraded CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers showed a decrease in electrical conductivity but worked as a good ammonia sensor in open atmospheric conditions.

  6. DC Electrical Conductivity Retention, Optical Properties and Ammonia Sensing Analysis of Naturally Degraded CSA-Doped Graphene/polyaniline Composite Nanofibers Prepared with CTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Sayyed; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Mohd Y.; Hasan, Mudassir

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report surfactant-mediated synthesis of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PANI/GN) composite nanofibers as an electrical conductor and excellent ammonia sensor. The synthesis was mediated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. The as-synthesized composite nanofibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The electrical conductivity of the CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers was found to be remarkably enhanced as compared to the CSA-doped PANI. The boost in electronic conductivity could be attributed to an improved electronic interaction between CSA-doped PANI backbone and GN present in the composite system. The naturally degraded CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers showed a decrease in electrical conductivity but worked as a good ammonia sensor in open atmospheric conditions.

  7. Inhalation treatment of lung cancer:the inlfuence of composition, size and shape of nanocarriers on their lung accumulation and retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga B.Garbuzenko; Gediminas Mainelis; Oleh Taratula; Tamara Minko

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Various nanoparticles have been designed and tested in order to select optimal carriers for the inhalation delivery of anticancer drugs to the lungs. Methods:hTe following nanocarriers were studied:micelles, liposomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), poly propyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer-siRNA complexes nanoparticles, quantum dots (QDs), and poly (ethylene glycol) polymers. All particles were characterized using the following methods:dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, in vitro cyto-and genotoxicity. In vivo organ distribution of all nanoparticles, retention in the lungs, and anticancer effects of liposomes loaded with doxorubicin were examined in nude mice atfer the pulmonary or intravenous delivery. Results:Signiifcant differences in lung uptake were found atfer the inhalation delivery of lipid-based and non-lipid-based nanoparticles. hTe accumulation of liposomes and micelles in lungs remained relatively high even 24 h atfer inhalation when compared with MSNs, QDs, and PPI dendrimers. hTere were notable differences between nanoparticle accumulation in the lungs and other organs 1 and 3 h atfer inhalation or intravenous administrations, but 24 h atfer intravenous injection all nanoparticles were mainly accumulated in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Inhalation delivery of doxorubicin by liposomes signiifcantly enhanced its anticancer effect and prevented severe adverse side effects of the treatment in mice bearing the orthotopic model of lung cancer. Conclusion:hTe results of the study demonstrate that lipid-based nanocarriers had considerably higher accumulation and longer retention time in the lungs when compared with non-lipid-based carriers atfer the inhalation delivery. hTese particles are most suitable for effective inhalation treatment of lung cancer.

  8. Infant formula supplemented with low protein and high carbohydrate alters the intestinal microbiota in neonatal SD rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wenguang; Tang, Yaru; Qu, Yi; Cao, Fengbo; Huo, Guicheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula) and last but not least, the diet composition. In the diet composition, protein and carbohydrate are very important for the growth of microbiota, many infant fomulas (different ratio protein/carbohydrate) can regulate the development of gut microbiota by different metabolism. The effect of low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula on the establis...

  9. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  10. Decarbonylation and dehydrogenation of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark A.; Klaeren, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Carbohydrates, especially aldose or ketose sugars, including those whose carbonyl group is masked by hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal formation, are decarbonylated by heating the feed carbohydrate together with a transition metal complex in a suitable solvent. Also, primary alcohols, including sugar alditols are simultaneously dehydrogenated and decarbonylated by heating a mixture of rhodium and ruthenium complexes and the alcohol and optionally a hydrogen acceptor in an acceptable solvent. Such defarbonylation and/or dehydrogenation of sugars provides a convenient procedure for the synthesis of certain carbohydrates and may provide a means for the conversion of biomass into useful products.

  11. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Pedersen, Henriette L; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise I; Salmean, Armando Asuncion; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads H; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.

  12. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  13. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  14. 不同温度和恒温时间对卷烟料液中糖类成分含量的影响%Effects of Different Temperature and Constant Temperature Time on Content of Carbohydrate Compositions in Tobacco Material Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董高峰; 张强; 王浩雅; 李红武; 和智君

    2011-01-01

    为了分析不同温度和恒温时间条件下,卷烟料液中糖类成分含量的变化趋势.对不同温度和恒温时间条件下料液中果糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖和山梨糖醇的含量进行了检测分析.结果表明:(1)在处理温度为60、70℃时,随着恒温时间的增加料液中糖类成分的含量无明显的变化;处理温度为80℃时,果糖、葡萄糖和山梨糖醇含量随着恒温时间的增加而增加,但蔗糖含量下降,麦芽糖含量无明显变化.(2)相同恒温时间下,随着温度的升高料液中的糖类成分含量有较明显的变化.(3)经过加热处理后的料液中的糖类成分含量要高于未经加热处理的料液中的糖类成分含量;山梨糖醇在未加热的样品中未检出,在加热后的样品中都有检出.%In order to analyze the variation trend of the contents of carbohydrate compositions in tobacco material liquid under the conditions of different temperature and constant temperature time, the contents of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and sorbitol in tobacco material liquid were detected. The results indicated that the contents of carbohydrate compositions had no significant change a-long with the increase of constant temperature time at the treatment temperature of 60, 70 ℃; at the treatment temperature of 80 ℃, the contents of fructose, glucose and sorbitol increased with the rising of constant temperature time, while the sucrose content decreased, and the maltose content had no obvious change. The contents of carbohydrate compositions had obvious changes with the increase of temperature under the condition of equal constant temperature time. The contents of carbohydrate compositions in the treatment of heating was higher than those in the treatment of no - heating, and the sorbitol could not be detected in the no - heating treatment, but it was detected in all heating treatments.

  15. Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willoughby Darryn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to endurance competition, many endurance athletes participate in a carbohydrate loading regimen in order to help delay the onset of fatigue. The "classic" regimen generally includes an intense glycogen depleting training period of approximately two days followed by a glycogen loading period for 3–4 days, ingesting approximately 60–70% of total energy intake as carbohydrates, while the newer method does not consist of an intense glycogen depletion protocol. However, recent evidence has indicated that glycogen loading does not occur in the same manner for males and females, thus affecting performance. The scope of this literature review will include a brief description of the role of estradiol in relation to metabolism and gender differences seen in carbohydrate metabolism and loading.

  16. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  17. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well.

  18. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  19. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  20. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  1. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-11-01

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed.

  2. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  3. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...

  4. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all...

  5. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  6. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  7. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  8. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  9. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  10. Meningitis retention syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of meningitis preceded by a 3 day history of flu-like symptoms and progressive difficulty with urination. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis. She was found to have a significant urinary retention secondary to atonic bladder. MRI of the brain and spine were normal and CSF-PCR (polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-2. Urinary retention in the context of meningitis and CSF pleocytosis is known as Meningitis Retention Syndrome (MRS. MRS is a rare but important complication of meningitis most commonly associated with HSV-2. Involvement of central pathways may have a role in the pathogenesis of MRS but this is poorly documented. MRS is different from Elsberg syndrome wherein patients display features of lumbosacral polyradiculitis or radiculomyelitis. Early treatment with antiviral therapy was associated with a favorable outcome in our patient.

  11. Disorders of carbohydrate digestion and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlinger, L A; Lebenthal, E

    1988-04-01

    The carbohydrate malabsorptive syndromes are frequently seen by pediatricians. The congenital deficiency states are quite rare, but adult type hypolactasia and lactose intolerance following rotavirus infection are recognized with increasing frequency by primary care physicians. Therapy for these disorders involves identification of the offending carbohydrate, removal of the carbohydrate from the diet, and exclusion of other entities that may result in carbohydrate malabsorption but not respond to its removal from the diet. Prognosis for both the primary and secondary carbohydrate malabsorption syndromes is excellent. Compliance with diets for those pediatric patients who will require lifelong therapy remains problematic.

  12. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells.

  13. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Submariner Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    metabolism the Wilkerson Point System, for glucose values, used in conjunction with patterns of insulin response described by Kraft(4) serves as the means...amount of exercise and carbohydrate metabolism characteristics occurred in both submariners and non-submariners. An inverse relationship also seems to...individuals(7). In the present study a significant negative correlation was also found between exercise vs one and two hour postprandial glucose and two hour

  14. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Sugai; M.S.R. Figueiredo; ANTÔNIO, R. V.; P. M. Oliveira; V.A Cardoso; Ricardo, J.; Merino, E.; L.F Figueiredo; D.N. Heidrich

    2004-01-01

    Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approach...

  15. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  16. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadata. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of...

  17. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  18. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  19. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, and do not help you feel as satisfied. FIBER High-fiber foods include: Whole grains, such ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  20. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  1. Surface characterization of carbohydrate microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, David J; Horlacher, Tim; Oberli, Matthias A; Werz, Daniel B; Kroeck, Lenz; Bufali, Simone; Seeberger, Peter H; Shard, Alexander G; Alexander, Morgan R

    2010-11-16

    Carbohydrate microarrays are essential tools to determine the biological function of glycans. Here, we analyze a glycan array by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to gain a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of the individual spots and to improve carbohydrate microarray quality. The carbohydrate microarray is prepared by piezo printing of thiol-terminated sugars onto a maleimide functionalized glass slide. The hyperspectral ToF-SIMS imaging data are analyzed by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to discern secondary ions from regions of the array containing saccharide, linker, salts from the printing buffer, and the background linker chemistry. Analysis of secondary ions from the linker common to all of the sugar molecules employed reveals a relatively uniform distribution of the sugars within the spots formed from solutions with saccharide concentration of 0.4 mM and less, whereas a doughnut shape is often formed at higher-concentration solutions. A detailed analysis of individual spots reveals that in the larger spots the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) salts are heterogeneously distributed, apparently resulting in saccharide concentrated at the rim of the spots. A model of spot formation from the evaporating sessile drop is proposed to explain these observations. Saccharide spot diameters increase with saccharide concentration due to a reduction in surface tension of the saccharide solution compared to PBS. The multivariate analytical partial least squares (PLS) technique identifies ions from the sugars that in the complex ToF-SIMS spectra correlate with the binding of galectin proteins.

  2. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  3. Applications of synthetic carbohydrates to chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepenies, Bernd; Yin, Jian; Seeberger, Peter H

    2010-06-01

    Access to synthetic carbohydrates is an urgent need for the development of carbohydrate-based drugs, vaccines, adjuvants as well as novel drug delivery systems. Besides traditional synthesis in solution, synthetic carbohydrates have been generated by chemoenzymatic methods as well as automated solid-phase synthesis. Synthetic oligosaccharides have proven to be useful for identifying ligands of carbohydrate-binding proteins such as C-type lectins and siglecs using glycan arrays. Furthermore, glyconanoparticles and glycodendrimers have been used for specific targeting of lectins of the immune system such as selectins, DC-SIGN, and CD22. This review focuses on how diverse carbohydrate structures can be synthetically derived and highlights the benefit of synthetic carbohydrates for glycobiology.

  4. New fabrication and applications of carbohydrate arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Chen, Xin; Xiao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are used as high-throughput screening platforms to study the carbohydrate-mediated recognition events for glycobiology. The polysaccharide arrays are easy to fabricate by non-covalently or covalently immobilizing polysaccharides onto array surfaces because polysaccharides have hydrophobic interactions. Oligosaccharides must be derived and covalently or non-covalently immobilized onto array surfaces to fabricate oligosaccharide arrays because they have hydrophilic interactions. At the moment, carbohydrate arrays are mainly used to study the carbohydrate-protein interactions and carbohydrate-binding lectins or antibodies, which are possible to be applied to clinics and diagnoses. This review mainly summed up the new fabrication strategies of carbohydrate arrays and their applications in recent four years.

  5. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Eric C; Feinman, Richard D; Mavropoulos, John C; Vernon, Mary C; Volek, Jeff S; Wortman, James A; Yancy, William S; Phinney, Stephen D

    2007-08-01

    The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is carbohydrate restriction. Recent studies show that, under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitum-fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  7. Regioselective azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates and applications thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Mallikharjuna Rao; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Taneja, Subhash Chandra

    2012-12-07

    Azidotrimethylsilylation of carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides) has been achieved in high yields under Mitsunobu conditions. The azidation of carbohydrates is effected at 0 °C essentially only at the primary alcoholic position in mono, di- and triols in protected/unprotected glycosides, whereas the remaining secondary hydroxyl groups got silylated. Surprisingly, no azidation of the secondary hydroxyls was observed in all the carbohydrate substrates. Applications of the methodology for the synthesis of amino sugars, triazoles and azasugars are reported.

  8. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  9. Effect of Different Rice-Crab Coculture Modes on Soil Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ying; LIU Ming-da; YANG Dan; ZHANG Wei; AN Hui; WANG Yao-jing; XIE Hong-tu; ZHANG Xu-dong

    2014-01-01

    Traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security. Rice-crab coculture (RC) is an important eco-agricultural process in rice production in northern China. Recognizing the soil fertility in RC may help develop novel sustainable agriculture. Soil carbohydrates are important factors in determining soil fertility in different culture modes. In this study, soil carbohydrates were analyzed under three different culture modes including rice monoculture (RM), conventional rice-crab coculture (CRC) and organic rice-crab coculture (ORC). Results showed that the contents of soil organic carbon and carbohydrates were signiifcantly higher in the ORC than those in RM. The increasing effect was greater with increased organic manure. Similar tendency was found in CRC, but the overall effect was less pronounced compared with ORC. Carbohydrates were more sensitive to RC mode and manure amendment than soil organic carbon. Compare to RM, the (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio decreased in all the RC modes, indicating a relative enrichment in plant-derived carbohydrates due to the input of crab feed and manure. While the increasing (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio in ORC modes with increased organic manure suggested that crab activity and metabolism induced microbially derived carbohydrates accumulation. The lower GluN/MurA ratio in ORC indicated an enhancement of bacteria contribution to SOM turnover in a short term. The ifndings reveal that the ORC mode could improve the quantity and composition of soil carbohydrates, effectively, to ensure a sustainable use of paddy soil.

  10. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought.

  11. Regioselective monodeprotection of peracetylated carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Marco; Guisan, Jose M; Terreni, Marco; Palomo, Jose M

    2012-10-01

    This protocol describes the regioselective deprotection of single hydroxyls in peracetylated monosaccharides and disaccharides by enzymatic or chemoenzymatic strategies. The introduction of a one-pot enzymatic step by using immobilized biocatalysts obviates the requirement to carry out tedious workups and time-consuming purifications. By using this straightforward protocol, different per-O-acetylated glycopyranosides (mono- or disaccharides, 1-substituted or glycals) can be transformed into a whole set of differentially monodeprotected 1-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 4-alcohols and 6-alcohols in high yields. These tailor-made glycosyl acceptors can then be used for stereoselective glycosylation for oligosaccharide and glycoderivative synthesis. They have been successfully used as building blocks to synthesize tailor-made di- and trisaccharides involved in the structure of lacto-N-neo-tetraose and precursors of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen T and the antitumoral drug peracetylated β-naphtyl-lactosamine. We are able to prepare a purified monoprotected carbohydrate in between 1 and 4 d. With this protocol, the small library of monodeprotected products can be synthesized in 1-2 weeks.

  12. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...... in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several...

  13. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  14. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Keiko; Inukai, Kouichi; Onuma, Hirohisa; Kudo, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tsugawa, Kazue; Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Kawakami, Hayato; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22), a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37) diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37) diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  15. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Handa

    Full Text Available We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22, a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37 diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37 diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1. Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  16. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  17. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  18. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized.

  19. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  1. Derivatization Reaction of Carbohydrates with Urea as the Reagent and Fluorimetric Determination of Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Jing-He(杨景和); CAO,Xi-Hui(曹西慧); WANG,Min(王敏); WU,Xia(吴霞); SUN,Chang-Xia(孙长侠)

    2002-01-01

    It is found that in the presence of sulfuric acid carbohydrates condense with urea to afford the condensation products, which emit fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensities of system are proportional to the concentrations of carbohydrates. Based on this linear relationship,quantitative determination of kinds of carbohydrates has been made. Among an the carbohydrates tested, the sensitivity of α-rhamnose is the highest and its limits of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-8 mol/L. So α-rhamnose can be selectively determed in the presence of other carbohydrates. A interaction mechanism is also discussed.

  2. Industrial applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Prasad N; Aisverya, S; Nithya, R; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials have been used increasingly in various fields, such as drug delivery, imaging, and tissue engineering. The main reason justifying the widespread use of biomaterials relies on its valuable and low-cost source of new drugs. Current research goals are focused on identifying more potent and specific compounds with antitumor, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant, and antiviral activities. The increasing knowledge of structural analysis and chemical modifications enables the use of these marine carbohydrates in a newer way for the human welfare. This chapter focuses on the recent developments related to industrial and biomedical applications using chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan derivatives and reports the main advances published over the last 10-15 years.

  3. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  4. Trade-Off between Growth and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Nutrient-Limited Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 Studied by Integrating Transcriptomic and Proteomic Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have a strong potential for biofuel production due to their ability to accumulate large amounts of carbohydrates. Nitrogen (N) stress can be used to increase the content of carbohydrates in the biomass, but it is expected to reduce biomass productivity. To study this trade-off between carbohydrate accumulation and biomass productivity, we characterized the biomass productivity, biomass composition as well as the transcriptome and proteome of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PC...

  5. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2011-01-01

    (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel...... coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel...

  6. Consumo, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e diferentes fontes de carboidratos na dieta Effects of different carbohydrates sources and soybean oil on intake, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas lactantes Holandês-Gir com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de dietas formuladas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos no concentrado, associadas ou não à suplementação com óleo de soja, sobre o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e a composição do leite. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrados à base de milho ou farelo de trigo (FT ou polpa cítrica (PC, associados ou não a óleo de soja (0 e 2,25%. Não houve interação significativa entre a presença de óleo e a fonte de carboidratos em qualquer variável avaliada. O consumo de MS (18,4 kg/dia e a produção de leite (23,5 kg/dia não diferiram entre MI, FT ou PC, mas a dieta com FT proporcionou maior consumo de FDN e menor digestibilidade aparente total da MO e dos CHOT e reduziu o teor de lactose no leite. A síntese microbiana não foi influenciada pela fonte de carboidrato ou pelo óleo, sendo, em média, de 239,4 g N/dia. Os animais alimentados com as dietas contendo óleo apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca (19,0 vs 17,8 kg/dia e menores teores de lactose (4,49 vs 4,33% e gordura (3,34 vs 3,13% no leite, mas não diferiram quanto à produção de leite, ao teor de proteína, à digestibilidade dos nutrientes e à síntese microbiana. A presença de óleo promoveu maior eficiência alimentar (1,35 vs 1,23 e aumentou a relação proteína:gordura do leite (0,94 vs 1,00. Do ponto de vista econômico, PC e FT podem substituir totalmente o milho no concentrado em dietas para vacas com produção de até 24 kg/dia. O óleo na dieta diminui o consumo e mantém o nível de produção, aumentando a eficiência alimentar e alterando a composição do leite.Twelve Holstein-Zebu lactating dairy cows were used to study the effects of different carbohydrate sources and soybean oil on dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition. The following carbohydrate sources were used: corn (CO, wheat bran (WB or citric pulp (CP

  7. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  8. Seasonal organic matter dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon: Contribution of carbohydrates and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønborg, Christian; Doyle, Jason; Furnas, Miles; Menendez, Patricia; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Carreira, Cátia

    2017-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a fundamental role in sustaining the high productivity of coral reef ecosystems. Carbohydrates and proteins constitute two of the major chemical classes identified in the OM pool and are used as indicators of bioavailability due to their fast turn-over. We conducted three cruises across the southern shelf of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) during the early dry, late dry and wet seasons in 2009-2010 to 1) assess the relative bioavailability of particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) organic matter, 2) track the temporal and spatial variability in the carbohydrate and protein contribution to the OM pool, and 3) assess factors influencing protein and carbohydrate fractions of the OM pool. Generally, higher concentrations of particulate carbohydrates were found during the wet season, while similar concentrations of particulate protein were found during the three seasons. Both the dissolved carbohydrates and proteins had highest levels during the early dry season and lowest during the wet season, suggesting seasonal variations in the chemical composition of the DOM pool. Spatially, carbohydrates showed higher concentrations at the inshore stations, while no clear spatial pattern was found for the protein concentrations. On average carbohydrates and proteins accounted for a similar fraction (13±5 and 12±6% respectively) of POM, while carbohydrates accounted for a smaller fraction of the DOM than the proteins (6±3 and 13±10%). This suggests that the POM bioavailability was similar between seasons, while the DOM bioavailability varied seasonally with highest levels during the early dry season. This demonstrates that carbohydrates and proteins in the GBR have temporal and spatial variations. Our statistical analysis showed that 1) both carbohydrates and proteins were related with the POM and DOM C:N:P stoichiometry, demonstrating that both bulk estimates (stoichiometry) and specific compounds (CHO and Prot) provide useful measures of OM

  9. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  10. Effects of specific carbohydrates on the intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lene; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.

    The current screening study aimed at testing a set of well-characterized carbohydrates derived from pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from sugar beet for their specific effect on intestinal microbiotas derived from healthy people and from patients suffering from the inflammatory bowel disease...... microbiotas. Changes in the microbial composition were addressed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, DGGE, using Fructo- Oligosaccharides (FOS, a goldenstandard prebiotic) and glucose as reference substrates. Comparison between the DGGE profiles obtained by fermentations of S1, S2 and FOS showed...

  11. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Buddington, Randal K; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Siggers, Richard H; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T; Burrin, Douglas G

    2009-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs.

  12. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  13. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  14. Carbohydrate functionalized carbon nanotubes and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorityala, Bala Kishan; Ma, Jimei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Peng; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted tremendous attention in biomedical applications due to their molecular size and unique properties. This tutorial review summarizes the strategies to functionalize CNTs with bioactive carbohydrates, which improve their solubility, biocompatibility and biofunctionalities while preserving their desired properties. In addition, studies on the usage of carbohydrate functionalized CNTs to detect bacteria, to bind to specific lectins, to deliver glycomimetic drug molecules into cells and to probe cellular activities as biosensors are reviewed. Improvement in biocompatibility and introduction of bio-functionalities by integration of carbohydrate with CNTs are paving the way to glyconanotechnology and may provide new tools for glycobiological studies.

  15. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  16. Nutritional and metabolic responses in common dentex (Dentex dentex) fed on different types and levels of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; Cardenete, Gabriel; Morales, Amalia E; Hidalgo, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the capacity of common dentex (Dentex dentex) to efficiently use dietary carbohydrates. So, the effects of different type and levels of carbohydrates on growth performance, feed utilization, fish composition, plasma metabolites and key metabolic pathways in liver and white muscle of common dentex are presented. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22 MJ kg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types, pregelatinized starch (PS), dextrin (Dx) and maltodextrin (Mx), and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates. Growth performance was not significantly influenced by treatments. The best feed utilization was observed in 18% Mx group. Higher hepatic lipid content was found in fish fed lower dietary carbohydrate levels. PS induced higher liver and white muscle hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities compared to the lower values observed for Mx. Malic enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver and white muscle were lower in Mx group. The influence of dietary carbohydrates source was more noticeable than those induced by the carbohydrate level, when glycolysis and lipogenesis pathways were considered. Common dentex is able to use properly dietary carbohydrates, although optimal dietary inclusion levels are below 24%. The greater protein-sparing effect was promoted by the less complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin) and the best feed utilization indices were obtained at intermediate levels of inclusion (18%).

  17. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  19. Chemical and biochemical generation of carbohydrates from lignocellulose-feedstock (Lupinus nootkatensis)--quantification of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, B; Kamm, M; Schmidt, M; Starke, I; Kleinpeter, E

    2006-01-01

    Different chemical and enzymatic methods were applied for the hydrolysis of main stems from Lupinus nootkatensis (harvest November 2002). The whole process (all steps) is based on the lignocellulose-feedstock biorefinery regime. The acid hydrolysis of L. was performed with concentrated hydrochloric acid; advantages in this process are exothermic hydrolysis and the possibility of acid recovery. Enzymatic hydrolysis achieved high yields of fermentable carbohydrates (regarding to input cellulose) with high selectivity. However, this way requires the generation of cellulose from L. by chemical pulping. Monosaccharide derivatives thus obtained were identified by their GC retention times and the corresponding MS fragmentation. Hexamethyldisilazane was used as derivatization reagent to prepare the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the carbohydrates and of the degradations products of cellulose from the different fractions. The glucose content was quantified by GC peak integration with respect to an internal standard.

  20. Immobilization of invertase through its carbohydrate moiety on Ocimum basilicum seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F

    1992-01-01

    Yeast invertase, a glycoprotein, was covalently coupled to Ocimum basilicum seeds either through its protein or carbohydrate moiety. Of the various methods investigated, binding of the enzyme through its carbohydrate moiety resulted in the retention of considerably higher amounts of enzyme activity. Immobilized invertase showed a shift in the pH optimum toward the alkaline side without appreciable change in temperature optimum. However, the immobilized preparation was more thermostable than the free enzyme. Invertase bound to the seeds could be used repeatedly for the hydrolysis of sucrose syrups in a batch process without appreciable loss in activity. The seeds could serve as an inexpensive, ready-to-use, natural pellicular polysaccharide support for immobilizing enzymes.

  1. The Retention Behaviors of Benzene and Its Alkyl Homologues in Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The retention behaviors of benzene and its alkyl homologues in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography were investigated in both anionic and cationic surfactant MEEKC systems. The effects of the composition of microemulsion on retention time and selectivity were studied. A good linear relationship was obtained between log k' and the carbon number of alkyl chain.

  2. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2002-01-01

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by infus

  3. Combined Carbohydrates Support Rich Communities of Particle-Associated Marine Bacterioplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Martin; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Niggemann, Jutta; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wichels, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent an important fraction of labile and semi-labile marine organic matter that is mainly comprised of exopolymeric substances derived from phytoplankton exudation and decay. This study investigates the composition of total combined carbohydrates (tCCHO; >1 kDa) and the community development of free-living (0.2–3 μm) and particle-associated (PA) (3–10 μm) bacterioplankton during a spring phytoplankton bloom in the southern North Sea. Furthermore, rates were determined for the extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis that catalyzes the initial step in bacterial organic matter remineralization. Concentrations of tCCHO greatly increased during bloom development, while the composition showed only minor changes over time. The combined concentration of glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose, galactosamine, glucosamine, and glucuronic acid in tCCHO was a significant factor shaping the community composition of the PA bacteria. The richness of PA bacteria greatly increased in the post-bloom phase. At the same time, the increase in extracellular β-glucosidase activity was sufficient to explain the observed decrease in tCCHO, indicating the efficient utilization of carbohydrates by the bacterioplankton community during the post-bloom phase. Our results suggest that carbohydrate concentration and composition are important factors in the multifactorial environmental control of bacterioplankton succession and the enzymatic hydrolysis of organic matter during phytoplankton blooms. PMID:28197132

  4. The impact of carbohydrate and protein level and sources on swine manure foaming properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explored the impact of swine diet on the composition, methane production potential, and foaming properties of manure. Samples of swine manure were collected from controlled feeding trials with diets varying in protein and carbohydrate levels and sources. Protein sources consisted of corn ...

  5. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) for linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural assignment of complex carbohydrates typically requires the analysis of at least three parameters: 1. composition; 2. linkage; and 3. substituents. These are often assigned on a small scale by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Linkage positions are determined by permethylat...

  6. Low-temperature carbonization and more effective degradation of carbohydrates induced by ferric trichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Song, Le Xin; Dang, Zheng

    2012-07-05

    The present work is devoted to an attempt to understand the effect of an inorganic salt such as ferric trichloride (FeCl(3)) on the carbonization and degradation of carbohydrates such as β-cyclodextrin (CD), amylose, and cellulose. Our data revealed two important observations. First, the presence of FeCl(3) led to the occurrence of a low carbonization temperature of 373 K. This is a rare phenomenon, in which carbonization improvement is present even if a small amount of FeCl(3) was added. Experimental results had provided evidence for the fact that a redox process was started during the low-temperature carbonization of β-CD, causing the reduction of FeCl(3) to ferrous chloride (FeCl(2)) by carbon materials formed in the carbonization process in air. However, the reduction process of FeCl(3) produced the in situ composite nanomaterial of Fe-FeCl(2) combination in nitrogen. Second, a molecule-ion interaction emerged between FeCl(3) and the carbohydrates in aqueous solution, resulting in a more effective degradation of the carbohydrates. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FeCl(3) played the role of a catalyst during the degradation of the carbohydrates in solution. We believe that the current work not only has a significant potential application in disposal of waste carbohydrates but also could be helpful in many fields such as environmental protection, biomass energy development, and inorganic composite nanomaterials.

  7. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  8. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  9. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  10. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...... production into a suitable levulinic acid ester in the presence of a zeolite or zeotype catalyst and a suitable alcohol, and the ester may be further converted into levulinic acid if desired....

  11. Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    The characterization of the 3D structure of oligosaccharides, their conjugates and analogs is particularly challenging for traditional experimental methods. Molecular simulation methods provide a basis for interpreting sparse experimental data and for independently predicting conformational and dynamic properties of glycans. Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in terms of applicability to natural glycans, carbohydrate-protein complexes and the emerging area of glycomimetic drugs. In addition, we discuss prospectives and new applications of carbohydrate modeling in drug discovery.

  12. Retention in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C D; Littlewood, S J

    2015-02-16

    Retention is necessary following orthodontic treatment to prevent relapse of the final occlusal outcome. Relapse can occur as a result of forces from the periodontal fibres around the teeth which tend to pull the teeth back towards their pre-treatment positions, and also from deflecting occlusal contacts if the final occlusion is less than ideal. Age changes, in the form of ongoing dentofacial growth, as well as changes in the surrounding soft tissues, can also affect the stability of the orthodontic outcome. It is therefore essential that orthodontists, patients and their general dental practitioners understand the importance of wearing retainers after orthodontic treatment. This article will update the reader on the different types of removable and fixed retainers, including their indications, duration of wear, and how they should be managed in order to minimise any unwanted effects on oral health and orthodontic outcomes. The key roles that the general dental practitioner can play in supporting their patients wearing orthodontic retainers are also emphasised.

  13. Effects of specific carbohydrates on the intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lene; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.;

    The current screening study aimed at testing a set of well-characterized carbohydrates derived from pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from sugar beet for their specific effect on intestinal microbiotas derived from healthy people and from patients suffering from the inflammatory bowel disease...... designated Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Two such oligosaccharides having different degrees of polymerization, in the following designated S1 and S2, respectively, were tested. Small scale anaerobic fermentation studies were performed to test the effect of S1 and S2 on the composition of the intestinal...... microbiotas. Changes in the microbial composition were addressed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, DGGE, using Fructo- Oligosaccharides (FOS, a goldenstandard prebiotic) and glucose as reference substrates. Comparison between the DGGE profiles obtained by fermentations of S1, S2 and FOS showed...

  14. Release of dissolved carbohydrates by

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oostende, N.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Vyverman, W.; Sabbe, K.

    2013-01-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi plays a pivotal role in the marine carbon cycle. However, we have only limited understanding of how its life cycle and bacterial interactions affect the production and composition of dissolved extracellular organic carbon and its transfer to the particu

  15. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Peters Sandra; LeBlanc Paul

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  16. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  17. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  18. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982).

  19. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  20. Biofilm retention on surfaces with variable roughness and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schramm, Andreas; Bischoff, Claus; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms on food processing equipment cause food spoilage and pose a hazard to consumers. The bacterial community on steel surfaces in a butcher's shop was characterized, and bacteria representative of this community enriched from minced pork were used to study biofilm retention. Stainless steel (SS) was compared to two novel nanostructured sol-gel coatings with differing hydrophobicity. Surfaces were characterized with respect to roughness, hydrophobicity, protein adsorption, biofilm retention, and community composition of the retained bacteria. Fewer bacteria were retained on the sol-gel coated surfaces compared to the rougher SS. However, the two sol-gel coatings did not differ in either protein adsorption, biofilm retention, or microbial community composition. When polished to a roughness similar to sol-gel, the SS was colonized by the same amount of bacteria as the sol-gel, but the bacterial community contained fewer Pseudomonas cells. In conclusion, biofilm retention was affected more by surface roughness than chemical composition under the condition described in this study.

  1. EFFECT OF PAPERMAKING CONDITIONS ON THE RETENTION OF REVERSIBLE THERMOCHROMIC MICROCAPSULE IN PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reversible thermochromic paper able to resist counterfeiting was prepared by adding reversible thermochromic microcapsules (RTM to a slurry of cellulosic fibers, a process that is difficult to imitate. However, the loss of RTM is one of the biggest problems that inhibits industrial use of this approach. So, the retention of RTM in pulp was investigated. The RTM was synthesized by in-situ polymerization, and its properties were characterized. It exhibited strong color contrast between cool and heated conditions, and such behavior could be used to achieve distinctive anticounterfeiting characteristics in the paper. The surface of each microcapsule was smooth, and there was no coherence between particles. The diameters of the microcapsules were mainly in the range 3.0 μm to 5.0 μm. Retention of RTM was closely related to beating degree and pulp composition; the higher the beating degree and hardwood pulp content, the higher the retention of RTM. On the other hand, the retention of RTM was influenced by filler and retention aid. Retention aid promoted retention of RTM to some degree; however, filler was not conductive to retention of RTM. Different addition sequences between RTM and filler or retention aid also influenced the retention of RTM.

  2. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  3. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  4. Carbohydrates and T cells: a sweet twosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Fikri Y; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-04-01

    Carbohydrates as T cell-activating antigens have been generating significant interest. For many years, carbohydrates were thought of as T-independent antigens, however, more recent research had demonstrated that mono- or oligosaccharides glycosidically linked to peptides can be recognized by T cells. T cell recognition of these glycopeptides depends on the structure of both peptide and glycan portions of the antigen. Subsequently, it was discovered that natural killer T cells recognized glycolipids when presented by the antigen presenting molecule CD1d. A transformative insight into glycan-recognition by T cells occurred when zwitterionic polysaccharides were discovered to bind to and be presented by MHCII to CD4+ T cells. Based on this latter observation, the role that carbohydrate epitopes generated from glycoconjugate vaccines had in activating helper T cells was explored and it was found that these epitopes are presented to specific carbohydrate recognizing T cells through a unique mechanism. Here we review the key interactions between carbohydrate antigens and the adaptive immune system at the molecular, cellular and systems levels exploring the significant biological implications in health and disease.

  5. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk...... by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat...

  6. Evaluation of carbohydrate molecular mechanical force fields by quantum mechanical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Madsen, D.E.; Esbensen, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of 20 second-generation carbohydrate force fields was carried out using ab initio and density functional methods. Geometry-optimized structures (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) and relative energies using augmented correlation consistent basis sets were calculated in gas phase...... for monosaccharide carbohydrate benchmark systems. Selected results are: (i) The interaction energy of the alpha-D-alucopyranose-H2O heterodimer is estimated to be 4.9 kcal/mol, using a composite method including terms at highly correlated (CCSD(T)) level. Most molecular mechanics force fields are in error......-generation carbohydrate force fields. No single force field is consistently better than the others for all the test cases. A statistical assessment of the performance of the force fields indicates that CHEAT(95), CFF, certain versions of Amber and of MM3 have the best overall performance, for these gas phase...

  7. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowerman Susan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the

  8. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  9. Nutraceutical and pharmacological implications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallela, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin R. Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  11. Molecular fingerprinting of carbohydrate structure phenotypes of three porifera proteoglycan-like glyconectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerardel, Yann; Czeszak, Xavier; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Karamanos, Yannis; Popescu, Octavian; Strecker, Gerard; Misevic, Gradimir N

    2004-04-01

    Glyconectins (GNs) represent a new class of proteoglycan-like cell adhesion and recognition molecules found in several Porifera species. Physico-chemical properties of GN carbohydrate moieties, such as size, composition, and resistance to most glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes, distinguish them from any other type of known glycoproteins. The molecular mechanism of GN-mediated self/non-self discrimination function is based on highly species-specific and Ca(2+)-dependent GN to GN associations that approach the selectivity of the evolutionarily advanced immunoglobulin superfamily. Carbohydrates of glyconectins 1, 2, and 3 are essential for species-specific auto-aggregation properties in three respective Porifera species. To obtain a structural insight into the molecular mechanisms, we performed carbohydrate structural analyses of glyconectins isolated from the three sponge model systems, Microciona prolifera (GN1), Halichondria panicea (GN2), and Cliona celata (GN3). The glycan content of all three GNs ranged between 40 and 60% of their total mass. Our approach using sequential and selective chemical degradation of GN glycans and subsequent mass spectrometric and NMR analyses revealed that each glyconectin presents novel and highly species-specific carbohydrate sequences. All three GNs include distinct acid-resistant and acid-labile carbohydrate domains, the latter composed of novel repetitive units. We have sequenced four short sulfated and one pyruvilated unit in GN1, eight larger and branched pyruvilated oligosaccharides in GN2, which represent a heterogeneous but related family of structures, and four sulfated units in GN3.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust, and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This chapter summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications.

  13. Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji

    2014-07-01

    Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study.

  14. Rapid analysis of Listeria monocytogenes cell wall teichoic acid carbohydrates by ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Marcel R; Loessner, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    We report the application of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry for compositional characterization of wall teichoic acids (WTA), a major component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. Tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of purified and chemically hydrolyzed monomeric WTA components provided sufficient information to identify WTA monomers and their specific carbohydrate constituents. A lithium matrix was used for ionization of uncharged WTA monomers, and successfully applied to analyze the WTA molecules of four Listeria strains differing in carbohydrate substitution on a conserved polyribitol-phosphate backbone structure. Carbohydrate residues such as N-acetylglucosamine or rhamnose linked to the WTA could directly be identified by ESI-MS/MS, circumventing the need for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. The presence of a terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue tethered to the ribitol was confirmed using fluorescently labeled wheat-germ agglutinin. In conclusion, the mass spectrometry method described here will greatly facilitate compositional analysis and characterization of teichoic acids and similar macromolecules from diverse bacterial species, and represents a significant advance in the identification of serovar-specific carbohydrates and sugar molecules on bacteria.

  15. Rapid analysis of Listeria monocytogenes cell wall teichoic acid carbohydrates by ESI-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel R Eugster

    Full Text Available We report the application of electrospray ionization (ESI mass spectrometry for compositional characterization of wall teichoic acids (WTA, a major component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. Tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS of purified and chemically hydrolyzed monomeric WTA components provided sufficient information to identify WTA monomers and their specific carbohydrate constituents. A lithium matrix was used for ionization of uncharged WTA monomers, and successfully applied to analyze the WTA molecules of four Listeria strains differing in carbohydrate substitution on a conserved polyribitol-phosphate backbone structure. Carbohydrate residues such as N-acetylglucosamine or rhamnose linked to the WTA could directly be identified by ESI-MS/MS, circumventing the need for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. The presence of a terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue tethered to the ribitol was confirmed using fluorescently labeled wheat-germ agglutinin. In conclusion, the mass spectrometry method described here will greatly facilitate compositional analysis and characterization of teichoic acids and similar macromolecules from diverse bacterial species, and represents a significant advance in the identification of serovar-specific carbohydrates and sugar molecules on bacteria.

  16. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  17. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges (Porifera): an ancestor cell-cell adhesion event based on the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Eduardo; Coutinho, Cristiano C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-08-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are ancient and simple eumetazoans. They constitute key organisms in the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals. We now demonstrated that pure sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges are responsible for the species-specific cell-cell interaction in these invertebrates. This conclusion was based on the following observations: (1) each species of marine sponge has a single population of sulfated polysaccharide, which differ among the species in their sugar composition and sulfate content; (2) sulfated polysaccharides from sponge interact with each other in a species-specific way, as indicated by an affinity chromatography assay, and this interaction requires calcium; (3) homologous, but not heterologous, sulfated polysaccharide inhibits aggregation of dissociated sponge cells; (4) we also observed a parallel between synthesis of the sulfated polysaccharide and formation of large aggregates of sponge cells, known as primmorphs. Once aggregation reached a plateau, the demand for the de novo synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides ceased. Heparin can mimic the homologous sulfated polysaccharide on the in vitro interaction and also as an inhibitor of aggregation of the dissociated sponge cells. However, this observation is not relevant for the biology of the sponge since heparin is not found in the invertebrate. In conclusion, marine sponges display an ancestor event of cell-cell adhesion, based on the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

  18. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse.

  19. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  20. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  1. Selective carbohydrate utilization by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, D.; O'Connell Motherway, M.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Nauta, A.; Sinderen, van D.

    2013-01-01

    Aim - To evaluate the ability of specific carbohydrates, including commercially available products, to support the growth of representatives of two well-known groups of gut commensals, namely lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Methods and Results - Sixty-eight bacterial strains, representing 29 human-

  2. Effect of the surface treatment of plain carbon fiber posts on the retention of the composite core: an in vitro evaluation Efeito do tratamento superficial de pinos de fibra de carbono lisos na retenção da resina de preenchimento: uma avaliação in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira QUINTAS

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the role of surface treatments performed on plain carbon fiber posts, in relation to serrated carbon fiber posts, in the retention of the composite core. Fifty carbon fiber posts received surface treatments in order to verify their influence on the retention of the core material. An acrylic resin mold was developed in order to precisely fit the post, leaving a machined space to accommodate a self-curing composite resin. After the surface treatment, a primer was applied on the coronal portion of all posts, which were then dried. They were fitted to the mold and received a 3 mm composite core. All specimens were thermocycled and then stored in distilled water for a week. Tension test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until there was lack of adhesion or fracture of the core. The conclusions were: a the values of retention related to aluminum oxide spray (group A, depth cutter diamond burs (group C and posts with machined coronal portion (group D were comparable to those of serrated posts (group E, although no statistically significant difference between these groups was found; b the mean values of core retention in group B (medium grit diamond burs were statistically lower than those of other groups.Foi avaliado o possível efeito de tratamentos superficiais em pinos de fibra de carbono lisos, quando comparados aos pinos serrilhados, na retenção à resina composta empregada na confecção de núcleos de preenchimento. Foram utilizados cinqüenta pinos de fibra de carbono, divididos em cinco grupos: os quatro primeiros grupos eram constituídos por pinos do tipo liso, cujas superfícies foram tratadas, e o último grupo por dez pinos do tipo serrilhado. Foram desenvolvidas matrizes de resina acrílica com um leito ajustado para conter o pino, com um alargamento na porção coronária para posterior preenchimento com resina composta. Após o tratamento superficial, todos os pinos receberam camadas de "primer", foram

  3. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  4. Carbohydrate analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Ricky; Jarroll, Edward L; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2009-08-01

    We analyzed biochemically Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites, intact cysts and cyst walls belonging to the T4 genotype using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Cyst walls were prepared by removing intracellular material from cysts by pre-treating them with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) containing dithiothreitol, and then subjecting these to a series of sequential enzymatic digestions using amyloglucosidase, papain, DNase, RNase and proteinase K. The resulting "cyst wall" material was subsequently lyophilized and subjected to glycosyl composition analysis. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the removal of intracystic material following enzymatic treatment. Our results showed that treated A. castellanii trophozoites, intact cysts and cyst walls contained various sugar moieties, of which a high percentage was galactose and glucose, in addition to small amounts of mannose, and xylose. Linkage analysis revealed several types of glycosidic linkages including the 1,4-linked glucosyl conformation, indicative of cellulose. Inhibitor studies suggested that, beside sugar synthesis, cytoskeletal re-arrangement and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated pathways are involved in A. castellanii encystment.

  5. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  6. Tracing the flow of plant carbohydrates into the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the flow of 13C labeled CO2 from plant sugars in leaves, stems and roots into rhizospheric organisms, respired CO2 and soil organic matter in order to better understand the role of the plant-microorganism-soil-continuum for ecosystem carbon cycling. We compared trees and grassland species that had different sugar transport strategies, storage compartments, community compositions and environmental stresses. We used short but highly enriched 13C pulses at controlled CO2 concentrations and temperatures that avoided non-physiological plant responses. We used compound specific 13C measurements of sugars and phospholipids (PLFA) to calculate the carbon turnover of plant sugars and rhizospheric microorganisms. Our results unexpectedly identified transport limitations in the root-shoot carbohydrate transfer, diurnal variations in label respiration and community effects in the carbon transfer to microbial groups. Our results highlight that sophisticated experimental setups and analytical techniques are necessary to gain new knowledge on ecosystem carbon cycling under climate change.

  7. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    , and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty...... that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11...... acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin-or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42...

  8. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kieber-Emmons; Anastas Pashov; Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi; Fariba Jousheghany; Cecile Artaud; Leah Hennings

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- an...

  9. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-12-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely

  10. Institutionalization of a Retention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. J.; Campbell, A.

    2006-05-01

    Bowie State University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center have, for the past 10 years, worked diligently together to enhance the science, mathematics, engineering and technology (SMET) domain. Efforts made, because of a Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Award, have changed the landscape of the SMET domain by increasing the retention and graduation rates, the number of students entering graduate and professional schools, and the number of students entering SMET related careers for minorities and women. Several initiatives a Scholarship Program, PRISEM Tutoring Center, Safety-net Program, Research emphasis, Focused Mentoring, a Summer Academy for accepted incoming students, a Bridge Program for students needing assistance being admitted to the University, the RISE Program and the Bowie State Satellite Operations and Control Center (BSOCC) provide the nurturing, mentoring, and opportunities for our students. As a result of efforts made, the retention rate has increase to approximately 80%, the graduation rate has increased 40%, and 85% of the SMET students are now interested or entering graduate and professional schools. Successes that have been documented by various assessment activities have led to the institutionalization of the Retention Model of the MIE Initiative. It is anticipated that University-wide application of the retention model will prove the incentives necessary to obtain similar results as the MIE Initiative.

  11. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  12. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-03-28

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined.

  13. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  14. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is r

  15. Changes of carbohydrates and molecular structure of dextrins during enzymatic liquefaction of starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebesny, E. (Dept. of Food Technology, Technical Univ. Lodz (Poland))

    1992-10-01

    Investigations of potato starch hydrolysis during bacterial [alpha]-amylase 'Amylogal CS' liquefaction to a different dextrose equivalent were carried out at 85deg C and pH 6,5. DE-values, carbohydrate compositions and molecular structure of dextrins were investigated in starch hydrolyzate samples taken at DE-values from 3,4 to 20,6. In the progress of liquefaction, that is at increasing DE-values, changes in carbohydrate compositions, and there the decrease only of maltoheptaose and dextrins content in hydrolyzate were observed. Simultaneously, it was found that molecular weight and number of dextrin branchings decreased particularly rapidly to a significant degree of nearly 3,4 DE. At further increase of DE-value during starch liquefaction the decrease of dextrins molecular weight and the number of branchings was lower and not that significant. (orig.).

  16. Proximate Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes. Analyses used may be rapid methods for QC or more accurate but time-consuming official methods. Sample collection and preparation must be considered carefully to ensure analysis of a homogeneous and representative sample, and to obtain accurate results. Estimation methods of moisture content, ash value, crude lipid, total carbohydrates, starch, total free amino acids and total proteins are put together in a lucid manner.

  17. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme).

  18. Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D; Phinney, Stephen D

    2008-09-01

    Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and dyslipidemia play an intimate role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. The availability of glucose and insulin predominate as upstream regulatory elements that operate through a collection of transcription factors to partition lipids toward anabolic pathways. The unraveling of the details of these cellular events has proceeded rapidly, but their physiologic relevance to lifestyle modification has been largely ignored. Here we highlight the role of dietary input, specifically carbohydrate intake, in the mechanism of metabolic regulation germane to metabolic syndrome. The key principle is that carbohydrate, directly or indirectly through the effect of insulin, controls the disposition of excess dietary nutrients. Dietary carbohydrate modulates lipolysis, lipoprotein assembly and processing and affects the relation between dietary intake of saturated fat intake and circulating levels. Several of these processes are the subject of intense investigation at the cellular level. We see the need to integrate these cellular mechanisms with results from low-carbohydrate diet trials that have shown reduced cardiovascular risk through improvement in hepatic, intravascular, and peripheral processing of lipoproteins, alterations in fatty acid composition, and reductions in other cardiovascular risk factors, notably inflammation. From the current state of the literature, however, low-carbohydrate diets are grounded in basic metabolic principles and the data suggest that some form of carbohydrate restriction is a candidate to be the preferred dietary strategy for cardiovascular health beyond weight regulation.

  19. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions.

  20. Method for conversion of carbohydrate polymers to value-added chemical products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongchao C [Norwood, NJ; Brown, Heather M [Kennewick, WA; Su, Yu [Richland, WA

    2012-02-07

    Methods are described for conversion of carbohydrate polymers in ionic liquids, including cellulose, that yield value-added chemicals including, e.g., glucose and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) at temperatures below 120.degree. C. Catalyst compositions that include various mixed metal halides are described that are selective for specified products with yields, e.g., of up to about 56% in a single step process.

  1. 78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Part 246 24 CFR Part 267 Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 267 RIN 2501-AD53 Credit Risk Retention AGENCY: Office of the... published in the Federal Register on April 29, 2011, and to implement the credit risk retention...

  2. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory R; Clark, Sally A; Cox, Amanda J; Halson, Shona L; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Jeacocke, Nikki; Snow, Rodney J; Yeo, Wee Kian; Burke, Louise M

    2010-07-01

    We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = 8) or an energy-matched low-carbohydrate group (Low group; n = 8) for 28 days. Immediately before study commencement and during the final 5 days, subjects undertook a 5-day test block in which they completed an exercise trial consisting of a 100 min of steady-state cycling (100SS) followed by a 7-kJ/kg time trial on two occasions separated by 72 h. In a counterbalanced design, subjects consumed either water (water trial) or a 10% glucose solution (glucose trial) throughout the exercise trial. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle on day 1 of the first test block, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout 100SS. Training induced a marked increase in maximal citrate synthase activity after the intervention in the High group (27 vs. 34 micromol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Tracer-derived estimates of exogenous glucose oxidation during 100SS in the glucose trial increased from 54.6 to 63.6 g (P < 0.01) in the High group with no change in the Low group. Cycling performance improved by approximately 6% after training. We conclude that altering total daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training in trained athletes results in differences in selected metabolic adaptations to exercise, including the oxidation of exogenous carbohydrate. However, these metabolic changes do not alter the training-induced magnitude of increase in exercise performance.

  3. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k......Da and HES 450 kDa) and dextran (DEX 500 kDa). Particle size and molecular weight distribution were determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The biodistribution was investigated non-invasively in nude mice using multispectral optical imaging. The most promising polymer conjugate...

  4. Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhaus, A; Chantelau, E

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27 +/- 9 years; diabetes duration 13 +/- 8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22 +/- 5 months; means +/- SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two 6-week periods on self-selected refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets respectively. As a result, energy intake differed between the experimental diets (2372 +/- 669 kcal/day on unrefined diet vs 2757 +/- 654 kcal/day on refined diet, p = 0.04), as did the fibre intake (18 +/- 5 g/day with the refined carbohydrate diet vs 35 +/- 13 g/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, p = 0.02). The composition of nutrients was approximately 40% carbohydrate, 45% fat, and 13% protein with both diets. Body weight, HbA1c, daily mean blood glucose (7.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) and serum lipids remained virtually unchanged during the entire study. Insulin requirement varied between 40.1 +/- 7.9 U/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, and 42.5 +/- 10.1 U/day with the refined carbohydrate diet (NS). Thus, neither the refined nor the unrefined carbohydrate diet affected insulin requirement and metabolic control in these near-normoglycaemic, normolipaemic, non-obese, insulin-pump-treated Type 1 diabetic patients.

  5. Aerobic Exercise Training Adaptations Are Increased by Postexercise Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ferguson-Stegall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-protein supplementation has been found to increase the rate of training adaptation when provided postresistance exercise. The present study compared the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement in the form of chocolate milk (CM, isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO, and placebo on training adaptations occurring over 4.5 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Thirty-two untrained subjects cycled 60 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4.5 wks at 75–80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max. Supplements were ingested immediately and 1 h after each exercise session. VO2 max and body composition were assessed before the start and end of training. VO2 max improvements were significantly greater in CM than CHO and placebo. Greater improvements in body composition, represented by a calculated lean and fat mass differential for whole body and trunk, were found in the CM group compared to CHO. We conclude supplementing with CM postexercise improves aerobic power and body composition more effectively than CHO alone.

  6. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the comm...

  7. Small-Molecule Carbohydrate-Based Immunostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzabadi, Cecilia H; Franck, Richard W

    2017-02-03

    In this review, we discuss small-molecule, carbohydrate-based immunostimulants that target Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and cluster of differentiation 1D (CD1d) receptors. The design and use of these molecules in immunotherapy as well as results from their use in clinical trials are described. How these molecules work and their utilization as vaccine adjuvants are also discussed. Future applications and extensions for the use of these analogues as therapeutic agents will be outlined.

  8. Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Lorna

    This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains

  9. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  10. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  11. Retention Strength after Compressive Cyclic Loading of Five Luting Agents Used in Implant-Supported Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alvarez-Arenal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of five cement types commonly used in implant-retained fixed partial dentures, before and after compressive cyclic loading. In five solid abutments screwed to 5 implant analogs, 50 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented with five luting agents: resin-modified glass ionomer (RmGI, resin composite (RC, glass ionomer (GI, resin urethane-based (RUB, and compomer cement (CC. Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, one after the first luting of the copings and the other after 100,000 cycles of 100 N loading at 0.72 Hz. The one way ANOVA test was applied for the statistical analysis using the post hoc Tukey test when required. Before and after applying the compressive load, RmGI and RC cement types showed the greatest retention strength. After compressive loading, RUB cement showed the highest percentage loss of retention (64.45%. GI cement recorded the lowest retention strength (50.35 N and the resin composite cement recorded the highest (352.02 N. The type of cement influences the retention loss. The clinician should give preference to lower retention strength cement (RUB, CC, and GI if he envisages any complications and a high retention strength one (RmGI, RC for a specific clinical situation.

  12. Impact of suboptimal temperature on growth, photosynthesis, leaf pigments and carbohydrates of domestic and high-altitude wild Lycopersicon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, J.H.; Posthumus, F.S; van Hasselt, P.R

    1999-01-01

    The impact of near-optimal (25/20 degrees C) and suboptimal (16/14 degrees C) day/night temperatures on growth, photosynthesis, pigment composition and carbohydrate content was compared between domestic and high-altitude wild Lycopersicon species. When related to the relative shoot growth rate (RSGR

  13. Effects of monounsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on serum lipoproteins and apoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Groot, de M.J.M.; Broeke, van den L.T.; Severijnen-Nobels, A.P.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet and an olive-oil-rich diet on the distribution of cholesterol over the various lipoproteins, on serum apolipoproteins, and on the composition of HDL2 and HDL3 were studied under strict dietary control. Forty-eight healthy subjects first consumed a

  14. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  15. An investigation of the retention sulfur during briquette combustion at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Yu Hongguan; Wu Junqing; Zhang Jun [Shandong Institute of Mining and Technology, Jinan (China). Jinan Branch, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Two high sulphur coals from China, one high in organic sulphur, the other high in non-organic sulphur, were combusted as briquettes, and their sulphur retention analysed. Using calcium oxide as an additive reduced sulphur emissions. Sulphur retention was best with inorganic sulphur coal. Adding calcium carbide slag to the briquette mixture improved sulphur retention, but led to vast numbers of other impurities which weakened the briquettes. Further investigation is needed of coal briquette composition to reduce sulphur emissions. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Optimization based on retention prediction and information theory for liquid-chromatographic analysis of alkylbenzenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Rieko; Hayashi Yuzuru; Suzuki Takashi; Saito Yukio (National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Jinno Kiyokatsu (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    The mobile phase composition and column length are optimized for analyses of six alkylbenzenes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with the aid of retention prediction and information theory. Optimal conditions selected according to the resolution Rs and information theory are evaluated from the viewpoint of the precision and analytical efficiency (rapidity) of chromatography. The combination of the information-theoretical optimization with the retention prediction will accelerate the development in the automation of liquid-chromatographic analysis.

  17. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  18. Colorimetric measurement of carbohydrates in biological wastewater treatment systems: A critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chencheng; Stuckey, David C

    2016-05-01

    Four laboratory preparations and three commercially available assay kits were tested on the same carbohydrate samples with the addition of 14 different interfering solutes typically found in wastewater treatment plants. This work shows that a wide variety of solutes can interfere with these assays. In addition, a comparative study on the use of these assays with different carbohydrate samples was also carried out, and the metachromatic response was clearly influenced by variation in sample composition. The carbohydrate content in the supernatant of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) was also measured using these assays, and the amount in the different supernatant samples, with and without a standard addition of glucose to the samples, showed substantial differences. We concluded that the carbohydrates present in wastewater measured using these colorimetric methods could be seriously under- or over-estimated. A new analytical method needs to be developed in order to better understand the biological transformations occurring in anaerobic digestion that leads to the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS).

  19. Development and evaluation of a fluorescence microplate assay for quantification of heparins and other sulfated carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühn, Susanne; Schrader, Thomas; Sun, Wei; Alban, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Due to their complex composition, quantification of heparins is difficult. On the one hand there are many biological tests, which only indirectly detect effects of the antithrombin-binding material. On the other hand direct quantitative methods are available but they are often insensitive, challenging, time-consuming or expensive. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive, rapid, simple as well as inexpensive direct quantification assay suitable for routine analysis. Based on Polymer-H, a novel heparin complexing, fluorescent labeled synthetic polymer (lambda((ex)) 320nm, lambda((em)) 510nm), a microplate assay was developed and optimized. The specificity of the assay was evaluated by structure-assay response relationships studies using structurally defined glucan sulfates, heparins, and other natural and synthetic sulfated carbohydrates. The fluorescence intensity of Polymer-H (7.5microg/ml) showed to be concentration-dependently amplified by heparins as well as by other sulfated carbohydrates. The best sensitivity, accuracy and linearity were observed in a range from 0.63 to 5.0microg/ml heparins. No differences in the fluorescence between various heparins were observed, so that only one calibration curve is needed. In addition, all types of carbohydrates with a degree of sulfation (DS)> approximately 1.2 and a M(r)>3000 can be quantified as well. By own calibration curves also other sulfated carbohydrates like fondaparinux or other glycosaminoglycans (DS>0.4) can be determined.

  20. Regioselective monochloro substitution in carbohydrates and non-sugar alcohols via Mitsunobu reaction: applications in the synthesis of reboxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Abdul Rouf; Aga, Mushtaq A; Kumar, Brijesh; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Taneja, Subhash Chandra

    2013-09-28

    A regioselective high yielding monochloro substitution (chlorohydrin formation) via Mitsunobu reaction is reported. In carbohydrates and sterically hindered non-sugars, only the primary hydroxyl group is chlorinated, whereas in the non-sugar 1,2- and 1,3-alcohols, predominantly the secondary chloride substitution occurs. The versatile methodology provides indirect access to epoxides with the retention of configuration, as against conventional Mitsunobu reaction which generates epoxides with inversion. The methodology was successfully used as a key step in the synthesis of optically active diastereoisomers of the antidepressant drug reboxetine from (R)-2,3-O-cyclohexylidene-d-glyceraldehyde in ∼43% overall yields.

  1. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  2. The effect of serrations on carbon fibre posts-retention within the root canal, core retention, and post rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M; Purton, D G

    1996-01-01

    The retention in root canals of serrated carbon fibre Composiposts and stainless steel Paraposts was tested under tensile load. Twenty unrestored human roots were endodontically prepared and root filled. Two groups of 10 roots received 1.4-mm Composiposts or 1.25-mm Paraposts luted with a resin cement. The specimens were then embedded in acrylic resin and mounted in an Instron machine. The tensile force (kg) required to dislodge the posts was recorded and analysed with Student's test. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the retention of either post (P > .05). The rigidty of 10 1.4-mm serrated Composiposts was tested in a three-point bend test in an Instron machine, and the retention of composite cores to 10 of these posts under tensile force was also tested. The results from these tests were compared to previous data from the authors' laboratory and revealed that the serrations significantly reduced the rigidity of the post (P < .001) and increased the retention of a core material (P < .001).

  3. Carbohydrate-protein interactions and their biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-04-01

    Carbohydrate recognition is clearly present throughout nature, playing a major role in the initial attachment of one biological entity to another. The important question is whether these prevalent interactions could provide a real suitable alternative to the use of antibodies or nucleic acid for detection and identification. Currently, examples of carbohydrates being employed in biological detection systems are limited. The challenges of using carbohydrate recognition for detection mainly come from the weak affinity of carbohydrate-protein interactions, the lack of versatile carbohydrate scaffolds with well-defined structures, and the less developed high-information-content, real-time, and label-free assay technology. In this review, we focus on discussing the characteristics of carbohydrate-protein interactions in nature and the methods for carbohydrate immobilization based on surface coupling chemistry in terms of their general applicability for developing carbohydrate- and lectin-based label-free sensors. Furthermore, examples of innovative design of multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions for sensor applications are given. We limit our review to show the feasibility of carbohydrate and lectin as recognition elements for label-free sensor development in several representative cases to formulate a flexible platform for their use as recognition elements for real-world biosensor applications.

  4. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker

    2014-05-01

    There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise.

  5. [Malabsorption of carbohydrates in children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; Escobar, H; Polanco, I; Codoceo, R; Vitoria, J C

    1975-01-01

    Physiological bases of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are reviewed, as a preliminary step, in order to draw a general scheme of its patholophysiology. Clasification of different types of carbohydrate malabsorption is presented. Various exploration methods are discussed in terms of autors' own experiences. Relationship between a sugar screening test, faecal lactic acid contents and a simplified lactose tolerance test, is described in detail. Systematic diagnoses of these diseases are established. Different clinical pictures are reviewed. It is not yet well defined if a starch malabsorption can be caused by either a primary or secondary duodenal amylase deficiency. The clinical forms of congenital sucrose-isomaltose intolerance may be more attenuated than its classical form; incertain cases, secondary sucrose intolerance may also be present due to mucosa anatomic lesions. Maltose malabsorption has no clinical implications. As compared to other alpha-glycosidades, the trehalase activity has been not more affected by not using trehalose in feeding. Primary congenital lactase deficiency is not frequent, whereas secondary forms as much more usual and appear, in primary malabsorption syndromes and in the coeliac disease, very often along with clinical tolerance to lactose. In Spain, lactose nonabsorbers in 16.5% for adults 11.2% for adolescents and 18.3% for children, meaning, that it is being favored by environmental factors in the latter. The unspecified sugar malabsorption during the child's first year is still the most frequent cause of carbohydrate intolerance in children and, although certain progress has been achieved in its diagnosis and therapy, its pathogenic mechanism is not satisfactorily known yet.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism of rats with biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim,Hitoshi

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate metabolism of rats with obstructive jaundice caused by bile duct ligation was studied by intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT and by liver perfusion. The altered levels of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzyme were examined in relation to the glucose metabolism of the cholestatic rats. In the IVGTT, the rate of fractional glucose removal was increased with increases in plasma insulin and glucagon and with a decrease in non-esterified fatty acid. In liver perfusion, neither the glucose uptake nor insulin extraction by the whole liver of icteric rats was different from the control. The increased rate of glucose removal in IVGTT may be due to enhanced glucose utilization by peripheral tissues resulting from hypersecretion of insulin. In liver perfusate supplemented with glucose, a decrease in the glucose uptake per unit liver weight was observed in relation to the lowered glucokinase activity. Formation of glycogen from glucose and of glucose from lactate was also impaired, indicating inhibition of the gluconeogenic system or relative hyperfunction of the glycolytic system, which may further contribute to the reduction in glycogen content. These metabolic disorders correlated well with the changes in activities of key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, which showed a characteristic pattern consistent with the loss of differentiated hepatic functions. Uptake of glucose and its conversion to glycogen were reduced in the cholestatic liver in close association with altered activities of some of related enzymes. However, due to increased utilization by the peripheral tissues, the total amount of glucose utilized in the whole rat was not reduced.

  7. Carbohydrate nanotechnology: hierarchical assembly using nature's other information carrying biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Zheng, Yeting; Munro, Catherine J; Ji, Yiwen; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2015-08-01

    Despite their central role in directing some of the most complex biological processes, carbohydrates--nature's other information carrying biopolymer--have been largely ignored as building blocks for synthetic hierarchical assemblies. The non-stoichiometric binding and astronomical diversity characteristic of carbohydrates could lead to tantalizingly complex assembly algorithms, but these attributes simultaneously increase the difficulty of preparing carbohydrate assemblies and anticipating their behavior. Convergences in biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, surface science, and supramolecular chemistry have led to many recent important breakthroughs in glycan microarrays and synthetic carbohydrate receptors, where the idiosyncrasies of carbohydrate structure and binding are increasingly considered. We hope to inspire more researchers to consider carbohydrate structure, diversity, and binding as attractive tools for constructing synthetic hierarchical assemblies.

  8. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  9. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Moffatt, Douglas J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-11-08

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm(-1)-3400 cm(-1)), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm(-1)-2970 cm(-1)) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials.

  10. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  11. A high-power carbohydrate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ragnar [SuFuCell AB, Bytaregatan 23, SE 222 21 Lund (Sweden); Folkesson, Boerje [Bronsaaldersvaegen 21, SE-226 54 Lund (Sweden); Spaziante, Placido M. [Cellennium Co., Ltd., 14th Floor Gypsum Metropolitan Tower, 539 Sri Ayudhaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Veerasai, Waret [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Exell, Robert H.B. [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachauthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the development of a fuel cell consisting of a vanadium flow battery in which the vanadium ions are reduced by sugar (from a carbohydrate) to oxidation state +3 on one side of a membrane, and are oxidized to state +5 on the other side by oxygen. The theoretical upper limit to the conversion efficiency of the energy in sugar by this method under standard conditions is 54%. We have obtained efficiencies up to 45% in our laboratory tests. This way of using biomass for electricity production avoids the Carnot cycle losses in heat engines. (author)

  12. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained.

  13. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  14. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  15. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-03-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of different dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no differences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with different protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly affected by the different diets ( Pconversion ratio were not different in fish fed the different dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased ( Pphosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level ( P 0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  16. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.

  17. Application of carbohydrate polymers as corrosion inhibitors for metal substrates in different media: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Saviour A; Eduok, Ubong M

    2016-04-20

    Naturally occurring polysaccharides are biopolymers existing as products of biochemical processes in living systems. A wide variety of them have been employed for various material applications; as binders, coatings, drug delivery, corrosion inhibitors etc. This review describes the application of some green and benign carbohydrate biopolymers and their derivatives for inhibition of metal corrosion. Their modes and mechanisms of protection have also been described as directly related to their macromolecular weights, chemical composition and their unique molecular and electronic structures. For instance, cellulose and chitosan possess free amine and hydroxyl groups capable of metal ion chelation and their lone pairs of electrons are readily utilized for coordinate bonding at the metal/solution interface. Some of the carbohydrate polymers reviewed in this work are either pure or modified forms; their grafted systems and nanoparticle composites with multitude potentials for metal protection applications have also been highlighted. Few inhibitors grafted to introduce more compact structures with polar groups capable of increasing the total energy of the surface have also been mentioned. Exudate gums, carboxymethyl and hydroxyethyl cellulose, starch, pectin and pectates, substituted/modified chitosans, carrageenan, dextrin/cyclodextrins and alginates have been elaborately reviewed, including the effects of halide additives on their anticorrosion performances. Aspects of computational/theoretical approach to corrosion monitoring have been recommended for future studies. This non-experimental approach to corrosion could foster a better understanding of the corrosion inhibition processes by correlating actual inhibition mechanisms with molecular structures of these carbohydrate polymers.

  18. Effect of CoO nanoparticles on the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of CoO nanoparticles (NPs on the brain of mice administered through gastrointestinal tract for a period of 30 days was studied. AAS analysis revealed that NPs administered orally were retained by cerebellum, cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb. This retention of nanoparticles by the brain promoted a significant increase in glucose, pyruvate, lactate and glycogen levels along with the concomitant increase in hexokinase, glucose 6 phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogense activities. However, a decrease in glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed in the brain regions indicating a deterioration of the pentose phosphate pathway. Thus, the present study suggests that the CoO NPs affect the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain.

  19. Differences among Elite Female Rowers Regarding Carbohydrate Consumption at Rest

    OpenAIRE

    BADAU, Dana; TOMESCU, VALERIU; BADAU, Adela; MARTIN, Ștefan Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Backround: The objective of this study was interpreting the reported differences within carbohydrate consumption at rest, in female rowing groups. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study, on a group of elite rowing athletes, monitoring carbohydrate consumption at rest. 34 subjects, divided in 3 groups of activities (senior, youth, junior) took part in this study being monitored through Cosmed Quark CPET device. Results: The average amount of carbohydrates consumed at rest among the group...

  20. Structure-function relations of carbohydrates by neoglycolipid arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang-Liang; Huang, Hua-Liang; Zhang, Hou-Cheng; Wang, Peng-George

    2006-06-01

    The work presented herein is a new noncovalent glycoarray assembly method for microplates created by simply mixing together a carbohydrate and a tetradecylamine. alpha-D-Mannopyranoside, alpha-D-glucopyranoside, and alpha-D-galactopyranoside were utilized in model studies and product formations were detected by lectin binding. The method can be extended to study the steric hindrance effect of carbohydrate-protein interactions, namely the structure-function relations of carbohydrates.

  1. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  2. Metabolic and hormonal responses to body carbohydrate store depletion followed by high or low carbohydrate meal in sedentary and physically active subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, T; Ziemba, A; Nazar, K

    2010-04-01

    The study was designed to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to acute modification of body carbohydrate stores by exercise and subsequent meals and to find out whether the responses depend on the training status of subjects. Nine sedentary students and 10 endurance athletes took part in four experimental sessions. During control session, after overnight fast oxygen uptake and CO2 production were measured and blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (I), leptin (L), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), catecholamines, ACTH and cortisol were determined. The remaining sessions were preceded by 1.5 h exercise at 70% HRmax in the evening followed by 12-16 hrs fast till morning when subjects ate either high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) or low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) meal or fasted. Respiratory gases and blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after meal. In glycogen depleted subjects respiratory quotient (RQ), I, norepinephrine (NE) and L decreased, whilst other variables were unaltered. Changes in I and NE were greater in athletes than in sedentary subjects. After H-CHO RQ, blood glucose, I and NE increased and FFA, GH and T decreased. The latter effect was greater in athletes than in untrained subjects. After L-CHO, RQ was at the fasting level and FFA increased only in sedentary group. In both groups I increased and GH and T decreased. Neither meal affected L concentration. In conclusion, hormonal and metabolic changes observed after depleting carbohydrate stores resemble those occurring during starvation. Composition of the ingested meal affects postprandial metabolism, which additionally depends on the subjects' training status.

  3. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  4. Ten-year responses of ground-dwelling spiders to retention harvest in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jaime; Spence, John R; Langor, David W; Shorthouse, David P

    2016-12-01

    The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps. Lasting effects on forest structure were proportional to harvest intensity. These changes strongly influenced spider richness, abundance, and species composition, as well as assemblage recovery. Distinctive assemblages were associated with disturbance level, especially with partial harvests (≤50% retention), and these were dominated by open-habitat species even 10 yr after harvest. Assemblages were more similar to those of controls in the highest (75%) retention treatment, but significant recovery toward the structure of pre-disturbance assemblages was not detected for any prescription in any cover type. Although early responses to retention harvest suggested positive effects on spider assemblages, these are better explained as lag effects after harvest because assemblages were less similar to those of unharvested controls 5 yr post-harvest, and only minor recovery was observed 10 yr following harvest. Retention of forest biodiversity decreased over time, especially in conifer stands and the lower (10-50%) retention treatments. Overall, retention harvests retained biodiversity and promoted landscape heterogeneity somewhat better than clear-cutting; however, there was a clear gradient of response and no retention "threshold" for conservation can be recommended on the basis of our data. Furthermore, results suggest that retention harvest prescriptions should be adjusted for cover type. We show that low retention ameliorated impacts in broadleaved

  5. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked...... to subsequent metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2...... with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat...

  6. The least-cost low-carbohydrate diet is expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of operations research methods to study the minimum possible cost of a low-carbohydrate diet. The study compares this cost to the minimum cost of a diet with no limitation on carbohydrate. The rationale for this study is the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diets and their perceived high cost. The method used was an operations research approach to find a set of least cost diets, varying the required carbohydrate. This method was chosen to avoid potential concerns with real diets that may be nutritionally deficient or could be had for a lower cost. The major finding is that the cheapest possible low-carbohydrate diet costs about triple the cost of the cheapest diet with no constraint on carbohydrate. Furthermore, the minimum cost of a diet low in both carbohydrate and fat is 5 to 10 times the cost of the cheapest diet, depending on the relative amounts of these nutrients. As carbohydrate and fat are constrained, cost increases dramatically and nonlinearly. The study identifies which nutrients had the greatest effect on cost for a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

  7. Biophotonic perception on Desmodesmus sp. VIT growth, lipid and carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Srinivasan; Seenivasan, Ramasubbu

    2015-12-01

    Constant and fluctuating light intensity significantly affects the growth and biochemical composition of microalgae and it is essential to identify suitable illumination conditions for commercial microalgae biofuel production. In the present study, effects of light intensities, light:dark cycles, incremental light intensity strategies and fluctuating light intensities simulating different sky conditions in indoor photobioreactor on Desmodesmus sp. VIT growth, lipid and carbohydrate content were analyzed in batch culture. The results revealed that Desmodesmus sp. VIT obtained maximum lipid content (22.5%) and biomass production (1.033 g/L) under incremental light intensity strategy. The highest carbohydrate content of 25.4% was observed under constant light intensity of 16,000 lx and 16:08 h light:dark cycle. The maximum biomass productivity of Desmodesmus sp. VIT (53.38 mg/L/d) was occurred under fluctuating light intensity simulating intermediate overcast sky condition.

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  9. Carbohydrates and phenols as quantitative molecular vegetation proxies in peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation in peatlands is intricately linked to local environmental conditions and climate. Here we use chemical analyses of carbohydrates and phenols to reconstruct paleovegetation in peat cores collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland. Lignin phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols) were sensitive biomarkers for vascular plant contributions and provided additional information on the relative contributions of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. Specific neutral sugar compositions allowed identification of sphagnum mosses, sedges (Cyperaceae) and lichens. Hydroxyphenols released by CuO oxidation were useful tracers of sphagnum moss contributions. The three independent molecular proxies were calibrated with a diverse group of peat-forming plants to yield quantitative estimates (%C) of vascular plant, sphagnum moss and lichen contributions in peat core samples. Correlation analysis indicated the three molecular proxies produced fairly similar results for paleovegetation compositions, generally within the error interval of each approach (≤26%). The lignin-based method generally lead to higher estimates of vascular plant vegetation. Several significant deviations were also observed due to different reactivities of carbohydrate and phenolic polymers during peat decomposition. Rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years were observed in the southern cores SIB04 and SIB06 over the last 2000 years. Vanillyl and syringyl phenol ratios indicated these vegetation changes were largely due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The northern permafrost cores G137 and E113 showed a more stable development. Lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants in both of these cores. Shifts in vegetation did not correlate well with Northern hemisphere climate variability over the last 2000 years. This suggested that direct climate forcing of peatland dynamics was overridden

  10. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  11. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  12. A Study on Employee Retention Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Savarimuthu, Dr. A; Hemalatha, N

    2013-01-01

    The objective of perusing this study is to assess the level of satisfaction of employee retention techniques at GB Engineering Enterprises PVT Limited., Trichy.This study gains significance because of employee retention techniques can be approached from various angles. It is desirable state of existence involving retention strategies generally fall in to one of four categories salary, working conditions, job enrichment and education. These four elements together constitute. The structure of e...

  13. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  14. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Törrönen, Riitta; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Pekkinen, Jenna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-03-31

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  15. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  16. Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses to High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Meals in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gregersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The postprandial state is hypothesised to be proinflammatory and prooxidative, but the relative contributions of fat versus carbohydrate are unclear. Therefore, we examined inflammation and oxidative stress responses in serum and skeletal muscle before and after 1000 kcal meals, which were high in either fat or carbohydrate in 15 healthy individuals. Serum and muscle expression of IL6 was elevated 3 hours after each meal, independently of macronutrient composition (P<0.01. Serum IL18 was decreased after high-fat meal only (P<0.01. Plasma total antioxidative status and muscle Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase were decreased after high-carbohydrate meal only (P<0.05. We conclude that a high-carbohydrate meal may evoke a greater postprandial oxidative stress response, whereas both fat and carbohydrate increased IL6. We speculate that the observed increases in postprandial IL6, without increases in any other markers of inflammation, may indicate a normal IL6 response to enhance glucose uptake, similar to its role postexercise.

  17. Effect of curing on clinical retention. A 7-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    Objective: To evaluate in a prospective evaluation the retention of Class V compomer and hybrid resin composite restorations placed with a 1-step self etch system and cured with continuous, soft-start and pulse-delay curing. Methods: 139 Class V restorations were placed and cured at random in 60...... subjects with a compomer (Dyract AP;68) or resin composite (Tetric Ceram:67) and cured for 40s with continuous, soft-start and pulse-delay modes. The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria yearly during 7 years. Results: Of 135 restorations evaluated at 7 years, 29 were lost, 17...... compomer (25%) and 12 Tetric Ceram (18%). The cumulative loss rates for the compomer and resin composite restorations cured with the three curing modes were. continuous cure: 26.1%/18.2%, soft-start: 22.7%/19.0%, pulse delay: 26.1%/16.7%. No statistical difference were seen between the curing modes...

  18. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  19. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  20. THE RESPONSE OF PLANT CARBOHYDRATES TO ELEVATED CO2: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT FROM FACE STUDIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS,A.; AINSWORTH,E.A.; BERNACCHI,C.J.; GIBON,Y.; STITT,M.; LONG,S.P.

    2004-08-29

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) is expected to rise from a current level of 372 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} to about 550 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} by the middle of the century (Prentice 2001). Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and universal changes observed in the leaves of C{sub 3} plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] (Drake et al 1997). Carbohydrates are the product of photosynthetic cells and the substrate for sink metabolism. However, carbohydrates are not just substrates, changes in the composition and pool size of foliar carbohydrates have the potential to communicate source-sink balance and a role for carbohydrates in the regulation of the expression of many plant genes is well established (Koch 1996). Importantly, carbohydrate feedback is thought to be the mechanism through which long-term exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] leads to a reduction in carboxylation capacity (Rogers et a1 199S, Long et al 2004). Foliar sugar content has recently been linked to an increased susceptibility of soybeans to insect herbivory (Hamilton et al submitted). In addition increases in the C:N ratio of leaf litter of plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] has been implicated in negative feedbacks on ecosystem productivity (Oechel et al 1994). Understanding of the response of foliar carbohydrates will form an important part of our ability to understand and predict the effects of rising [CO{sub 2}] on plants and ecosystems. As Free-Air CO{sub 2} enrichment technology was emerging, understanding of the link between carbohydrates and plant responses to rising [CO{sub 2}] was increasing. However, there were concerns that the hypotheses generated using model system or from studies on mostly juvenile plants grown for relatively short periods of time in controlled environments may not translate to the field. Of particular concern was the effect of a limited rooting volume. Arp (1991) argued that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2

  1. PMR Composites Of Increased Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Toughness increased without sacrificing processability or hot strength. Resin composition provides best overall balance of composite toughness and retention of mechanical properties at 600 degree F (316 degree C) with processability obtained by substituting 20 mole percent of diamine used in PMR-15 resins with diamine containing twice number of flexible phenyl connecting groups.

  2. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-11-01

    Carbohydrate and fat are the two primary fuel sources oxidized by skeletal muscle tissue during prolonged (endurance-type) exercise. The relative contribution of these fuel sources largely depends on the exercise intensity and duration, with a greater contribution from carbohydrate as exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, endurance performance and endurance capacity are largely dictated by endogenous carbohydrate availability. As such, improving carbohydrate availability during prolonged exercise through carbohydrate ingestion has dominated the field of sports nutrition research. As a result, it has been well-established that carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged (>2 h) moderate-to-high intensity exercise can significantly improve endurance performance. Although the precise mechanism(s) responsible for the ergogenic effects are still unclear, they are likely related to the sparing of skeletal muscle glycogen, prevention of liver glycogen depletion and subsequent development of hypoglycemia, and/or allowing high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Currently, for prolonged exercise lasting 2-3 h, athletes are advised to ingest carbohydrates at a rate of 60 g·h⁻¹ (~1.0-1.1 g·min⁻¹) to allow for maximal exogenous glucose oxidation rates. However, well-trained endurance athletes competing longer than 2.5 h can metabolize carbohydrate up to 90 g·h⁻¹ (~1.5-1.8 g·min⁻¹) provided that multiple transportable carbohydrates are ingested (e.g. 1.2 g·min⁻¹ glucose plus 0.6 g·min⁻¹ of fructose). Surprisingly, small amounts of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise may also enhance the performance of shorter (45-60 min), more intense (>75 % peak oxygen uptake; VO(₂peak)) exercise bouts, despite the fact that endogenous carbohydrate stores are unlikely to be limiting. The mechanism(s) responsible for such ergogenic properties of carbohydrate ingestion during short, more intense exercise bouts has been suggested to reside in the central nervous

  3. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  4. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    ) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those......BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity...

  5. Effect of relining on fiber post retention to root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Faria-e-Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the clinically relevant problems dentists face when restoring endodontically treated teeth is the mismatch between fiber post and post space diameters, which results in an excessively thick resin cement layer. Fiber post relining appears as a solution for this problem. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fiber post relining with composite resin on push-out bond strength. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty bovine incisors were selected to assess post retention. The crowns were removed below the cementoenamel junction and the root canals were treated endodontically and flared with diamond burs. The roots were allocated into two groups (n=10: G1: fiber posts without relining and G2: fiber posts relined with composite resin. The posts were cemented with a dual-cured resin cement and the specimens were sectioned transversally. Three 1.5-mm thick slabs were obtained per root and identified as cervical, medium and apical thirds. The push-out test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement occurred. The failure mode of fractured specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by split-plot ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. RESULTS: Relined fiber posts presented higher retention values than non-relined post in all thirds. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05 were found among thirds for relined posts. All failures occurred at the interface between resin cement and root dentin. CONCLUSIONS: Relining with composite resin seems to be an effective method to improve the retention of fiber posts to flared root canals.

  6. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentration

  7. Carbohydrate-responsive gene expression in adipose tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although obesity is often associated with high fat diets, it can develop from a variety of meal patterns. Excessive intake of simple carbohydrates is one consistent eating behavior leading to obesity. However, the impact of over-consumption of diets with high carbohydrate-to-fat ratios (C/F) on body...

  8. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity measuremen

  9. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  10. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  11. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  12. Dynamic fluctuations of protein-carbohydrate interactions promote protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Voynov

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interactions are important for glycoprotein structure and function. Antibodies of the IgG class, with increasing significance as therapeutics, are glycosylated at a conserved site in the constant Fc region. We hypothesized that disruption of protein-carbohydrate interactions in the glycosylated domain of antibodies leads to the exposure of aggregation-prone motifs. Aggregation is one of the main problems in protein-based therapeutics because of immunogenicity concerns and decreased efficacy. To explore the significance of intramolecular interactions between aromatic amino acids and carbohydrates in the IgG glycosylated domain, we utilized computer simulations, fluorescence analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We find that the surface exposure of one aromatic amino acid increases due to dynamic fluctuations. Moreover, protein-carbohydrate interactions decrease upon stress, while protein-protein and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions increase. Substitution of the carbohydrate-interacting aromatic amino acids with non-aromatic residues leads to a significantly lower stability than wild type, and to compromised binding to Fc receptors. Our results support a mechanism for antibody aggregation via decreased protein-carbohydrate interactions, leading to the exposure of aggregation-prone regions, and to aggregation.

  13. Why use DFT methods in the study of carbohydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) and computer technology allow us to study systems with more than 100 atoms routinely. This makes it feasible to study large carbohydrate molecules via quantum mechanical methods, whereas in the past, studies of carbohydrates were restricted to ...

  14. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Cowie, Gregory L.; Ertel, John R.; James Barbour, R.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    1985-03-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p- hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > α-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source.

  15. Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Dorothy L; Craft, Kelly M; Townsend, Steven D

    2017-01-02

    Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.

  16. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  17. [Carbohydrate absorption and malabsorption (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, W F

    1977-06-01

    Starch is digested intraluminally by alpha-amylase to maltose, maltotriose, and alpha-limit dextrins. These products, as well as the disaccharides sucrose and lactose, undergo enzymatic hydrolysis to monosaccharides at the brush border surface. The monosaccharides enter the absorbing cell by specific transport mechanisms ("carriers"). Primary carbohydrate (CH) intolerance is characterized by the congenital or acquired absence of individual brush border enzymes or of monosaccharide "carriers" without morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal villus: lactose, sucrose and trehalose intolerance and glucose-galactose malabsorption (brush border diseases). Secondary CH intolerance arises when surface digestion and absorption are reduced due to structural changes of the intestinal mucosa: e.g., decrease or absence of villi with sprue and reduction of the absorbing surface with intestinal resection. Watery diarrhea is the lead symptom. Many drugs delay or interfere with CH absorption. This action may be viewed either as an unwanted side effect or as a welcome therapeutic principle.

  18. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  19. Carbohydrate based materials for gamma radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, F.; Babaee, V.; Naghsh-Nezhad, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Due to the limitation in using lead as a shielding material for its toxic properties and limitation in abundance, price or non-flexibility of other commonly used materials, finding new shielding materials and compounds is strongly required. In this conceptual study carbohydrate based compounds were considered as new shielding materials. The simulation of radiation attenuation is performed using MCNP and Geant4 with a good agreement in the results. It is found that, the thickness of 2 mm of the proposed compound may reduce up to 5% and 50% of 1 MeV and 35 keV gamma-rays respectively in comparison with 15% and 100% for the same thickness of lead.

  20. Glycosidases: a key to tailored carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarová, Pavla; Kren, Vladimír

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, carbohydrate-processing enzymes have become the enzymes of choice in many applications thanks to their stereoselectivity and efficiency. This review presents recent developments in glycosidase-catalyzed synthesis via two complementary approaches: the use of wild-type enzymes with engineered substrates, and mutant glycosidases. Genetic engineering has recently produced glucuronyl synthases, an inverting xylosynthase and the first mutant endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. A thorough selection of enzyme strains and aptly modified substrates have resulted in rare glycostructures, such as N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminuronates, beta1,4-linked mannosides and alpha1,4-linked galactosides. The efficient selection of mutant enzymes is facilitated by high-throughput screening assays involving the co-expression of coupled enzymes or chemical complementation. Selective glycosidase inhibitors and highly specific glycosidases are finding attractive applications in biomedicine, biology and proteomics.

  1. Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D

    2016-12-08

    With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density. This problem renders the affected structures unusable in glyco-chemical terms. Bringing structural glycobiology up to 'protein standards' will require a total overhaul of the methodology. Time is of the essence, as the community is steadily increasing the production rate of glycoproteins, and electron cryo-microscopy has just started to image them in precisely that resolution range where crystallographic methods falter most.

  2. 76 FR 24089 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Department of Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Part 267 Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule #0;#0..., and HUD (the Agencies) are proposing rules to implement the credit risk retention requirements of... securitizer of asset-backed securities to retain not less than five percent of the credit risk of the...

  3. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...-AA43 DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 267 RIN 2501-AD53 Credit Risk Retention... a joint notice of proposed rulemaking for public comment to implement the credit risk retention... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Credit Risk NPR'' or ``proposed rule''). Due to the complexity...

  4. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  5. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  6. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  7. Removal of Invisalign retention attachments: a new minimally invasive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jose Luis; Finger, Werner J; Sasazaki, Hiromi; Komatsu, Masahi

    2009-01-01

    Removal of Invisalign resin retention buttons without damaging underlying enamel is a major challenge. To date, the use of tungsten carbide burs is the most common and fastest--yet a risky-ablation method. Stainbuster, a fiber-reinforced resin bur, has been introduced for removal of surface stains and resin remnants from tooth surfaces. This comparative in vitro and in vivo study proved that a combined technique, using multifluted tungsten carbide burs for fast removal of the bulk of resin followed by Stainbuster grinding for gentle removal of the final resin layer, is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for removing composite buttons from enamel.

  8. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    concentration than controls with a low alcohol intake (detected between carbohydrate deficient transferrin in artery and liver vein or artery and renal vein, either in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 11) or in controls (n = 8......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns...

  9. Carbohydrate CuAAC click chemistry for therapy and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Peng; Zeng, Ya-Li; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Field, Robert A; Chen, Guo-Rong

    2016-06-24

    Carbohydrates are important as signaling molecules and for cellular recognition events, therefore offering scope for the development of carbohydrate-mimetic diagnostics and drug candidates. As a consequence, the construction of carbohydrate-based bioactive compounds and sensors has become an active research area. While the advent of click chemistry has greatly accelerated the progress of medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, recent literature has seen an extensive use of such approaches to construct functionally diverse carbohydrate derivatives. Here we summarize some of the progress, covering the period 2010 to mid-2015, in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition CuAAC "click chemistry" of carbohydrate derivatives, in the context of potential therapeutic and diagnostic tool development.

  10. Defined presentation of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Mark K; Hütter, Julia; Eriksson, Magdalena; Lepenies, Bernd; Seeberger, Peter H

    2011-12-16

    A new method for the spatially defined alignment of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold is presented. The use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester phosphoramidite along with carbohydrates containing an alkylamine linker allows for on-column labeling during solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. This modification method during solid-phase synthesis only requires the use of minimal amounts of complex carbohydrates. The covalently attached carbohydrates are presented in the major groove of the B-form duplex DNA as potential substrates for murine type II C-type lectin receptors mMGL1 and mMGL2. CD spectroscopy and thermal melting revealed only minimal disturbance of the overall helical structure. Surface plasmon resonance and cellular uptake studies with bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells were used to assess the capability of these carbohydrate-modified duplexes to bind to mMGL receptors.

  11. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... and carbohydrate mimetics. Such polyhydroxylated compounds are conveniently synthesized from carbohydrates, however, due to the scarcity of many sugars from nature, efficient methods for transformation of readily available carbohydrates into valuable chiral building blocks are required. The work presented...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  12. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...... for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon...... sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites...

  13. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  14. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  15. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  16. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  17. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  18. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  19. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  20. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  1. Effect of Different Carbohydrate Sources on the Growth, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemical Indices and Glycolytic Enzyme Activities of Trachinotus ovatus%不同糖源饲料对卵形鲳鲹(Trachinotus ovatus)生长、体组成、血糖水平和肝脏糖酵解酶活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兰芳; 张琴; 程光平; 许明珠; 童潼; 熊向英

    2016-01-01

    分别以葡萄糖、蔗糖、糊精、玉米淀粉和糊化玉米淀粉为糖源配制成5种等氮等脂饲料,对初始体重为(31.24±0.58) g 的卵形鲳鲹(Trachinotus ovatus)进行为期56 d 的饲养实验,比较不同糖源饲料对卵形鲳鲹生长、体组成、血液指标和糖酵解酶活力的影响,筛选出最有利于生长的糖种类。结果显示,不同糖源对卵形鲳鲹增重率(WG)和特定生长率(SGR)均有显著影响(P0.05). Activities of glucokinase (GK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) reached the highest in the glucose group (P<0.05). These results suggested that macromolecules (starch) are better for the growth of T. ovatus than glucose, sucrose, and dextrin, thus gelatinized corn starch should be the optimal carbohydrate source. Furthermore, carbohydrate sources may also have effects on the glycogen synthesis, glycolipid transformation and glycolysis.

  2. The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipopolysaccharide of Pectinatus frisingensis strain VTT E-79104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgeny; Li, Jianjun; Sadovskaya, Irina; Jabbouri, Said; Helander, Ilkka M

    2004-06-22

    The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipopolysaccharide from Pectinatus frisingensis strain VTT E-79104 was analyzed using chemical degradations, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. The LPS contains two major structural variants, differing in the presence or absence of an octasaccharide fragment. The largest structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the LPS, that could be deduced from experimental results, consists of 20 monosaccharides arranged in a nonrepetitive sequence: [carbohydrate structure: see text] where R is H or 4-O-Me-alpha-L-Fuc-(1-2)-4-O-Me-beta-Hep-(1-3)-alpha-GlcNAc-(1-2)-beta-Man-(1-3)-beta-ManNAc-(1-4)-alpha-Gal-(1-4)-beta-Hep-(1-3)-beta-GalNAc-(1- where Hep is a residue of D-glycero-D-galacto-heptose; all monosaccharides have the D-configuration except for 4-O-Me-L-Fuc and L-Ara4N. This structure is architecturally similar to the oligosaccharide system reported previously in P. frisingensis VTT E-82164 LPS, but differs from the latter in composition and also in the size of the outer region.

  3. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  4. Effects of a short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jason C; Wood, Richard J; Davidson, Patrick W; Collins, Sean M; Matthews, Tracey D; Gregory, Sara M; Paolone, Vincent J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of switching from a habitual diet to a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) on strength and power performance in trained men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Subjects performed handgrip dynamometry, vertical jump, 1RM bench press and back squat, maximum-repetition bench press, and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic cycling test after consuming a habitual diet (40.7% carbohydrate, 22.2% protein, and 34.4% fat) for 7 days and again after following a CRD (5.4% carbohydrate, 35.1% protein, and 53.6% fat) for 7 days. Before both testing sessions, body weight and composition were examined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Three 2 × 2 multiple analyses of variance were used to compare performance variables between the habitual diet and CRD. Subjects consumed significantly fewer (p diet (2,537.43 ± 99.5). Body mass decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Despite a reduction in body mass, strength and power outputs were maintained for men and women during the CRD. These findings may have implications for sports that use weight classes, and in which strength and power are determinants of success. A CRD may be an alternative method for short-term weight loss without compromising strength and power outputs. The use of a 7-day CRD could replace weight loss methods employing severe dehydration before competition.

  5. Nutrients other than carbohydrates: their effects on glucose homeostasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Egert, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Besides carbohydrates, other nutrients, such as dietary protein and amino acids; the supply of fat, vitamin D, and vitamin K; and sodium intake seem to affect glucose homeostasis. Although their effect is less pronounced than that of the amount and composition of carbohydrates, it seems reasonable to consider how nutrient intake habits may be modified to support an improved glucose homeostasis. For instance, taking into account the effect of some nutrients to lower blood glucose concentration on a day-by-day basis might support improvement of glucose homeostasis in the long run. On the other hand, lowering sodium intake too much, as recommended to avoid the development of hypertension, particularly in sodium-sensitive people, might lead to insulin resistance and thereby might risk increasing fasting as well as postprandial blood glucose concentrations. This review summarizes the state of our knowledge of how several nutrients other than carbohydrates, such as protein, fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium, zinc, chromium, and sodium, affect blood glucose concentrations. Sufficient evidence exists to show that, in prospective studies based on randomized controlled trials, these selected nutrients affect blood glucose regulation. The review describes potential mechanisms leading to the observed effect. As much as is possible from the available data, the extent of the effect, is considered.

  6. Rainwater runoff retention on an aged intensive green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2013-09-01

    Urban areas are characterised by large proportions of impervious surfaces which increases rainwater runoff and the potential for surface water flooding. Increased precipitation is predicted under current climate change projections, which will put further pressure on urban populations and infrastructure. Roof greening can be used within flood mitigation schemes to restore the urban hydrological balance of cities. Intensive green roofs, with their deeper substrates and higher plant biomass, are able to retain greater quantities of runoff, and there is a need for more studies on this less common type of green roof which also investigate the effect of factors such as age and vegetation composition. Runoff quantities from an aged intensive green roof in Manchester, UK, were analysed for 69 rainfall events, and compared to those on an adjacent paved roof. Average retention was 65.7% on the green roof and 33.6% on the bare roof. A comprehensive soil classification revealed the substrate, a mineral soil, to be in good general condition and also high in organic matter content which can increase the water holding capacity of soils. Large variation in the retention data made the use of predictive regression models unfeasible. This variation arose from complex interactions between Antecedant Dry Weather Period (ADWP), season, monthly weather trends, and rainfall duration, quantity and peak intensity. However, significantly lower retention was seen for high rainfall events, and in autumn, which had above average rainfall. The study period only covers one unusually wet year, so a longer study may uncover relationships to factors which can be applied to intensive roofs elsewhere. Annual rainfall retention for Manchester city centre could be increased by 2.3% by a 10% increase in intensive green roof construction. The results of this study will be of particular interest to practitioners implementing greenspace adaptation in temperate and cool maritime climates.

  7. A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

  8. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    was capable of adaptation to higher substrate concentrations, at least up to 20 g l-1 xylose. T. pentosaceus was able to metabolize two typical inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furfural, up to concentrations of 1 and 0.5 g l-1, respectively. Above these levels, xylose consumption was inhibited up to 75 % (at 3.4 g l-1 5-HMF) and 70 % (at 3.4 g l-1 furfural). T. pentosaceus could grow and produce ethanol directly from the liquid fraction of pretreated rapeseed straw, without any dilution or need for additives. When T. pentosaceus was used in combination with S. cerevisiae in a sequential fermentation of pretreated rapeseed straw, it achieved 85 % of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the sugar composition of the rapeseed straw. This was 50 % and 14 % higher than the yield obtained with the bacteria or the yeast alone, respectively. When T. pentosaceus was immobilized in rapeseed straw, an improvement of 11 % in ethanol production was observed in batch mode. In continuous mode, it was shown that hydraulic retention time (HRT) affected ethanol yield, and a dramatic shift from ethanol to acetate and lactate production occurred at an HRT of 6 h. The maximum ethanol yield and concentration, 1.50 mol mol-1 consumed sugars and 12.4 g l-1, were obtained with an HRT of 12 h. The latter represented an improvement of 60 % in relation to previously obtained results. The results obtained confirm that the extreme thermophile T. pentosaceus is a promising candidate for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, and that improvement and optimization of existing processes are possible using different approaches. Further insight into the metabolism of the strain, as well as its improvement by genetic engineering can bring second-generation ethanol production one step closer to its industrial application. (Author)

  9. Clay particle retention in small constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskerud, B C

    2003-09-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used to mitigate non-point source pollution from arable fields. Previous investigations have shown that the relative soil particle retention in small CWs increases when hydraulic load increases. This paper investigates why this phenomenon occurs, even though common retention models predict the opposite, by studying clay and silt particle retention in two Norwegian CWs. Retention was measured with water flow proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet of the wetlands, and the texture of the suspended solids was analyzed. The surface area of the CWs was small compared to the watershed area (approximately 0.07%), giving high average hydraulic loads (1.1 and 2.0 md(-1)). One of the watersheds included only old arable land, whereas the other included areas with disturbed topsoil after artificial land leveling. Clay particle retention was 57% for the CW in the first watershed, and 22% for the CW in the disturbed watershed. The different behavior of the wetlands could be due to differences in aggregate size and stability of the particles entering the wetlands. Results showed that increased hydraulic loads did affect CW retention negatively. However, as runoff increased, soil particles/aggregates with higher sedimentation velocities entered the CWs (e.g., the clay particles behaved as silt particles). Hence, clay particle settling velocity is not constant as assumed in many prediction models. The net result was increased retention.

  10. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter.

  11. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  12. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  13. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon...... carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...

  14. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    -defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors....

  15. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner....... Subsequently, the immunomodulating substance is also bound in a chemoselective manner, to give a dendrimer conjugate with a well-defined structure and connectivity and containing a precise, pre-determined ratio of carbohydrate to immunomodulating substance. The invention also relates to novel dendrimer...

  16. Carbohydrate metabolism and its regulatory hormones in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, R C

    1996-04-16

    Findings of studies of carbohydrate metabolism in anorexia nervosa are reviewed. Topics covered included fasting blood sugar concentrations; serum insulin concentrations, insulin receptor binding activity, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance; plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids; glucose tolerance tests; growth hormone, cortisol, intestinal hormones, and norepinephrine. Metabolic changes reported in anorexia nervosa are similar to those found in human and animal studies of states of caloric and carbohydrate restriction. Restoration of normal body weight is associated with normalization of virtually all measures. It is concluded that published studies offer no conclusive evidence for a syndrome-specific impairment in carbohydrate metabolism in anorexia nervosa.

  17. Quantitative structure-retention relationships of pesticides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschi, Massimiliano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); D' Archivio, Angelo Antonio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: darchivi@univaq.it; Maggi, Maria Anna [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Mazzeo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi di L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-01-23

    In this paper, a quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) method is employed to predict the retention behaviour of pesticides in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A six-parameter nonlinear model is developed by means of a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with back-propagation learning rule. Accurate description of the retention factors of 26 compounds including commonly used insecticides, herbicides and fungicides and some metabolites is successfully achieved. In addition to the acetonitrile content, included to describe composition of the water-acetonitrile mobile phase, the octanol-water partition coefficient (from literature) and four quantum chemical descriptors are considered to account for the effect of solute structure on the retention. These are: the total dipole moment, the mean polarizability, the anisotropy of polarizability and a descriptor of hydrogen bonding ability based on the atomic charges on hydrogen bond donor and acceptor chemical functionalities. The proposed nonlinear QSRR model exhibits a high degree of correlation between observed and computed retention factors and a good predictive performance in wide range of mobile phase composition (40-65%, v/v acetonitrile) that supports its application for the prediction of the chromatographic behaviour of unknown pesticides. A multilinear regression model based on the same six descriptors shows a significantly worse predictive capability.

  18. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christian L.; Czarnecki-Maulden, Gail; Pan, Yuanlong; Hannah, Steven S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate) or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate) in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). PMID:28119466

  19. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms. Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  20. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, R S; de Graaf, D J; Luxwolda, M F; Muskiet, M H A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2011-09-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in observational cohorts, while replacing SAFA with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with reduced CVD risk. However, replacing a combination of SAFA and trans-fatty acids with n-6 PUFA (notably linoleic acid) in controlled trials showed no indication of benefit and a signal toward increased coronary heart disease risk, suggesting that n-3 PUFA may be responsible for the protective association between total PUFA and CVD. High CHO intakes stimulate hepatic SAFA synthesis and conservation of dietary SAFA . Hepatic de novo lipogenesis from CHO is also stimulated during eucaloric dietary substitution of SAFA by CHO with high glycaemic index in normo-insulinaemic subjects and during hypocaloric high-CHO/low-fat diets in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The accumulation of SAFA stimulates chronic systemic low-grade inflammation through its mimicking of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and÷or the induction of other pro-inflammatory stimuli. The resulting systemic low-grade inflammation promotes insulin resistance, reallocation of energy-rich substrates and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that concertedly give rise to increased CVD risk. We conclude that avoidance of SAFA accumulation by reducing the intake of CHO with high glycaemic index is more effective in the prevention of CVD than reducing SAFA intake per se.

  1. Retention models for programmed gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, G; Moretti, P; Vezzani, S

    2009-03-06

    The models proposed by many authors for the prediction of retention times and temperatures, peak widths, retention indices and separation numbers in programmed temperature and pressure gas chromatography by starting from preliminary measurements of the retention in isothermal and isobaric conditions are reviewed. Several articles showing the correlation between retention data and thermodynamic parameters and the determination of the optimum programming rate are reported. The columns of different polarity used for the experimental measurement and the main equations, mathematical models and calculation procedures are listed. An empirical approach was used in the early models, followed by the application of thermodynamic considerations, iterative calculation procedures and statistical methods, based on increased computing power now available. Multiple column arrangements, simultaneous temperature and pressure programming, applications of two-dimensional and fast chromatography are summarised.

  2. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented.

  3. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  4. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  5. Differential response of domestic and wild Lycopersicon species to chilling under low light : Growth, carbohydrate content, photosynthesis and the xanthophyll cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Posthumus, F; van Hasselt, PR; de Vries, Michal

    1999-01-01

    The response of five Lycopersicon species to 14 days moderate chilling at 10 degrees C under low light (75 mu mol m(-2) s(-1)) and subsequent recovery was examined by measurements on relative shoot growth rate, leaf dry matter and carbohydrate content, CO2-exchange and pigment composition. In additi

  6. Carbohydrate biomarkers for future disease detection and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REID; Suazette

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrates are considered as one of the most important classes of biomarkers for cell types,disease states,protein functions,and developmental states.Carbohydrate"binders"that can specifically recognize a carbohydrate biomarker can be used for developing novel types of site specific delivery methods and imaging agents.In this review,we present selected examples of important carbohydrate biomarkers and how they can be targeted for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic agents.Examples are arranged based on disease categories including(1) infectious diseases,(2) cancer,(3) inflammation and immune responses,(4) signal transduction,(5) stem cell transformation,(6) embryo development,and(7) cardiovascular diseases,though some issues cross therapeutic boundaries.

  7. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  8. Retention Benefit Based Intelligent Cache Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌达; 陆俊林; 程旭

    2014-01-01

    The performance loss resulting from different cache misses is variable in modern systems for two reasons: 1) memory access latency is not uniform, and 2) the latency toleration ability of processor cores varies across different misses. Compared with parallel misses and store misses, isolated fetch and load misses are more costly. The variation of cache miss penalty suggests that the cache replacement policy should take it into account. To that end, first, we propose the notion of retention benefit. Retention benefits can evaluate not only the increment of processor stall cycles on cache misses, but also the reduction of processor stall cycles due to cache hits. Then, we propose Retention Benefit Based Replacement (RBR) which aims to maximize the aggregate retention benefits of blocks reserved in the cache. RBR keeps track of the total retention benefit for each block in the cache, and it preferentially evicts the block with the minimum total retention benefit on replacement. The evaluation shows that RBR can improve cache performance significantly in both single-core and multi-core environment while requiring a low storage overhead. It also outperforms other state-of-the-art techniques.

  9. Simulating retention in gas-liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.G.; Siepmann, J.I.; Schure, M.R.

    1999-12-16

    Accurate predictions of retention times, retention indices, and partition constants are a long sought-after goal for theoretical studies in chromatography. Configurational-bias Monte Carlo (CBMC) simulations in the Gibbs ensemble using the transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom (TraPPE-UA) force field have been carried out to obtain a microscopic picture of the partitioning of 10 alkane isomers between a helium vapor phase and a squalane liquid phase, a protypical gas-liquid chromatography system. The alkane solutes include some topological isomers that differ only in the arrangement of their building blocks (e.g., 2,5-dimethylhexane and 3,4-dimethylhexane), for which the prediction of the retention order is particularly difficult. The Kovats retention indices, a measure of the relative retention times, are calculated directly from the partition constants and are in good agreement with experimental values. The calculated Gibbs free energies of transfer for the normal alkanes conform to Martin's equation which is the basis of linear free energy relationships used in many process modeling packages. Analysis of radial distribution functions and the corresponding energy integrals does not yield evidence for specific retention structures and shows that the internal energy of solvation is not the main driving force for the separation of topological isomers in this system.

  10. Sensitive carbohydrate detection using surface enhanced Raman tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Yanney, Michael; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige; Sygula, Andrzej; Zhang, Dongmao

    2010-12-15

    Glycomic analysis is an increasingly important field in biological and biomedical research as glycosylation is one of the most important protein post-translational modifications. We have developed a new technique to detect carbohydrates using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by designing and applying a Rhodamine B derivative as the SERS tag. Using a reductive amination reaction, the Rhodamine-based tag (RT) was successfully conjugated to three model carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, and glucuronic acid). SERS detection limits obtained with a 633 nm HeNe laser were ∼1 nM in concentration for all the RT-carbohydrate conjugates and ∼10 fmol in total sample consumption. The dynamic range of the SERS method is about 4 orders of magnitude, spanning from 1 nM to 5 μM. Ratiometric SERS quantification using isotope-substituted SERS internal references allows comparative quantifications of carbohydrates labeled with RT and deuterium/hydrogen substituted RT tags, respectively. In addition to enhancing the SERS detection of the tagged carbohydrates, the Rhodamine tagging facilitates fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates. Current fluorescence sensitivity of RT-carbohydrates is ∼3 nM in concentration while the mass spectrometry (MS) sensitivity is about 1 fmol, achieved with a linear ion trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS instrument. Potential applications that take advantage of the high SERS, fluorescence, and MS sensitivity of this SERS tagging strategy are discussed for practical glycomic analysis where carbohydrates may be quantified with a fluorescence and SERS technique and then identified with ESI-MS techniques.

  11. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens.

  12. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.

  13. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKieber-Emmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology which transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience in bringing a tumor-associated carbohydrate mimetic peptide to the clinic. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor associated carbohydrate antigens and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to pan-glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells.

  14. Simulation of carbohydrates, from molecular docking to dynamics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapay, Nicolas; Nurisso, Alessandra; Imberty, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of carbohydrates is particularly challenging because of the variety of structures resulting for the high number of monosaccharides and possible linkages and also because of their intrinsic flexibility. The development of carbohydrate parameters for molecular modeling is still an active field. Nowadays, main carbohydrates force fields are GLYCAM06, CHARMM36, and GROMOS 45A4. GLYCAM06 includes the largest choice of compounds and is compatible with the AMBER force fields and associated. Furthermore, AMBER includes tools for the implementation of new parameters. When looking at protein-carbohydrate interaction, the choice of the starting structure is of importance. Such complex can be sometimes obtained from the Protein Data Bank-although the stereochemistry of sugars may require some corrections. When no experimental data is available, molecular docking simulation is generally used to the obtain protein-carbohydrate complex coordinates. As molecular docking parameters are not specifically dedicated to carbohydrates, inaccuracies should be expected, especially for the docking of polysaccharides. This issue can be addressed at least partially by combining molecular docking with molecular dynamics simulation in water.

  15. Bacterial, plant, and fungal carbohydrate structure databases: daily usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukach, Philip V; Egorova, Ksenia S

    2015-01-01

    Natural carbohydrates play important roles in living systems and therefore are used as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The main goal of glycomics is systematization of carbohydrates and elucidation of their role in human health and disease. The amount of information on natural carbohydrates accumulates rapidly, but scientists still lack databases and computer-assisted tools needed for orientation in the glycomic information space. Therefore, freely available, regularly updated, and cross-linked databases are demanded. Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (Bacterial CSDB) was developed for provision of structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other related information on bacterial and archaeal carbohydrate structures. Its main features are (1) coverage above 90%, (2) high data consistence (above 90% of error-free records), and (3) presence of manually verified bibliographic, NMR spectroscopic, and taxonomic annotations. Recently, CSDB has been expanded to cover carbohydrates of plant and fungal origin. The achievement of full coverage in the plant and fungal domains is expected in the future. CSDB is freely available on the Internet as a web service at http://csdb.glycoscience.ru. This chapter aims at showing how to use CSDB in your daily scientific practice.

  16. Carbohydrate-based nanoparticles for potential applications in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Penadés, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Although carbohydrates are essential for life, the development of medical tools based on these important biomolecules is significantly slower than those based on proteins or nucleic acids. This chapter deals with the applications of nanoparticles decorated with carbohydrates and discusses the perspectives of their use in the field of medicine. The review is divided into two sections: diagnosis and therapy. Within these topics, the focus will be on two main types of systems: carbohydrate-coated metallic nanoparticles in which the carbohydrate ligands are "covalently" linked to a nanosized metallic cluster and polysaccharide-encapsulated metallic cores. The former glyconanoparticles (GNPs) represent a powerful chemical tool in the field of glycobiology as a specific carbohydrate can be selected to exert a concrete biological function and profile carbohydrate-based interactions. Up to now, these GNPs have been mainly used as potential anti-adhesion agents against pathogens. The opportunity of inserting multifunctionality and changing the nucleus size/material is giving birth to new targeted systems for imaging and therapy. On the other hand, nonmetallic polysaccharide-based nanoparticles have been successfully used as drug delivery carriers in addition to molecular imaging.

  17. Signal Amplification by Glyco-qPCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carbohydrates: Applications in Glycobiology**

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Masuko, Sayaka; Ly, Mellisa; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Robert J Linhardt

    2012-01-01

    Tiny amounts of carbohydrates (ca. 1 zmol) can be detected quantitatively by a real-time method based on the conjugation of carbohydrates with DNA markers (see picture). The proposed method (glyco-qPCR) provides uniform, ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrates, which can be applied to glycobiology, as well as carbohydrate-based drug discovery.

  18. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  19. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieber-Emmons

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs. To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I, and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  20. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. PMID:24213131

  1. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  2. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  3. Molecular Distribution of Particulate Carbohydrates In Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, C.; Lafont, R.; Sempéré, R.

    Particulate samples were collected by using floating sediment traps (50-300 m) and in situ pumps (30 and 200 m) collected in the southern Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. They were studied for monosaccharide composition after acid hydrolysis (HCl 0.09 M, 20 h, 100 °C) by using High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography followed by Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC- PAD) (1). The initial chemical composition of particles greatly varied between the Subtropical Zone (SZ), the Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and the Agulhas Front Zone (AFZ) with sugars being more abundant in SZ (5-20 % of POC) than in PFZ (5-8 % of POC) and AFZ (4-5 % of POC). Similar contributions were also found for Atlantic Ocean particles (3-5% of POC) whereas in Mediterranean particles total aldoses represented 7-12% of POC. Ribose was the most abundant aldose in PFZ and AFZ in all samples and contributed 20-36 % of total monosaccharides followed by galactose (15-26 %) or glucose (15-16 %) (2). In SZ, glucose was the dominant aldose (38-54 %) followed by galactose (13-21 %) and xylose (9-13%). Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean samples were characterized by a predominance of glucose (23-59 %) followed by galactose (8-35%) and ribose (3-17 %). Total carbohydrate (TCHO) fluxes were in same order of magnitude for all the study areas including Mediterranean Sea (0.12-1.36 mg m-2 d-1), Southern Indian Ocean (0.18- 0.42 mg m-2 d-1) and Atlantic Ocean (0.27-0.37 mg m-2 d-1). Particles collected from AFZ and PFZ were distinguishable in term of mannose and (arabinose+galactose) relative abundances which may suggest different organic matter origine. Experimental studies performed with large particles (fucose+rhamnose increased indicating that deoxysugars are better preserved during organic matter decomposition. (1) Panagiotopoulos, C., Sempéré, R., Lafont, R., Kerhervé, P., 2001. Sub-ambient temperature effects on separation of monosaccharides by HPAEC-PAD. Application to marine chemistry

  4. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2014-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Alo...

  5. STUDY ON A NEW NONIONIC MICRIOPARTICLE RETENTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuwu Hou; Xiaofan Zhou; Rui Peng; Fei Wang

    2004-01-01

    The retention and drainage performances of microparticle retention system were studied in this paper, through measuring the improvement of beaten degree and retention ratio of slurry. The effects the retention system on paper sheet were discussed by measuring physical properties of paper. Compared with the influence of Hydrocol system (CPAM/bentonite) on the aspects of retention aid and drainage properties as well as increased product cost per ton paper, the developed nonionic system has some superiority and better practicability.

  6. The temperature and ion energy dependence of deuterium retention in lithium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Skinner, Charles H.

    2016-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components in magnetic fusion devices has improved plasma performance and lowered hydrogen recycling. For applications of lithium in future high heat flux and long pulse duration machines it is important to understand and parameterize deuterium retention in lithium. This work presents surface science studies of deuterium retention in lithium films as a function of surface temperature, incident deuterium ion energy and flux. Initial experiments are performed on thin (3-30 ML) lithium films deposited on a single crystal molybdenum substrate to avoid effects due to grain boundaries, intrinsic defects and impurities. A monoenergetic and mass-filtered deuterium ion beam was generated in a differentially pumped Colutron ion gun. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the elemental composition and temperature programmed desorption was used to measure the deuterium retention under the different conditions. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Nursing Student Retention in Associate Degree Nursing Programs Utilizing a Retention Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Ronna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific variables associated with nursing student retention in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs. Jeffreys (2004) Nursing Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS) conceptual model provided the framework for this descriptive correlational study. One hundred sixty eight pre-licensure associate degree…

  8. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the

  9. Carbohydrate Supplementation Influences Serum Cytokines after Exercise under Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Venticinque Caris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise performed at the hypoxia equivalent of an altitude of 4200 m is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators and changes in the Th1/Th2 response. By contrast, supplementation with carbohydrates has an anti-inflammatory effect when exercise is performed under normoxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate supplementation on cytokines and cellular damage markers after exercise under hypoxic conditions at a simulated altitude of 4200 m. Methods: Seven adult male volunteers who exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 50% VO2Peak were randomly evaluated under three distinct conditions; normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation. Blood samples were collected at rest, at the end of exercise and after 60 min of recovery. To evaluate hypoxia + carbohydrate supplementation, volunteers received a solution of 6% carbohydrate (maltodextrin or a placebo (strawberry-flavored Crystal Light®; Kraft Foods, Northfield, IL, USA every 20 min during exercise and recovery. Statistical analyses comprised analysis of variance, with a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 after exercise and after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05, while in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group, there was a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α after exercise compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Furthermore, under this condition, TNF-α, IL-2 and the balance of IL-2/IL-4 were increased after recovery compared to at rest (p < 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that carbohydrate supplementation modified the IL-6 and TNF-α serum concentrations and shifted the IL-2/IL-4 balance towards Th1 in response without glycemic, glutaminemia and cell damage effects.

  10. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherryl W. Johnson, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention remains under review. This study includes a healthcare learning community as a cutting-edge teaching and learning modality. The results of an introspective survey of 22 students in a learning community explore strategies to enhance culturally relevant teaching, learning, and retention. Although learning and retention studies have been conducted at numerous universities, few have included feedback from students in a healthcare learning community. Frequencies from student responses were tabulated using five thematic factors: social support, career knowledge/opportunities, academic support, networking and faculty rapport/relationship building. Of the five theme areas, social support was identified most frequently by students as a means to support their learning and retention in the university setting.

  11. Determination of theoretical retention times for peptides analyzed by reversed- -phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dziuba

    2011-06-01

    -line application and experimental retention times. The above function can effectively predict retention times in situations when experimental conditions differ from the computational environment (various columns, mobile phase composition, use or resignation from chemical modifications during sample preparation, various HPLC equipments. On-line available tR predicting application with correction based on user’s own data may be a useful tool in food peptidomics.  

  12. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  13. Selectivity switch in the catalytic functionalization of nonprotected carbohydrates: selective synthesis in the presence of anomeric and structurally similar carbohydrates under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Takemoto, Yuki

    2013-03-15

    A catalytic process for the chemo- and regioselective functionalization of nonprotected carbohydrates has been developed. This novel process allows selective thiocarbonylation, acylation, and sulfonylation of a particular hydroxy group in a particular carbohydrate in the simultaneous presence of structurally similar carbohydrates such as anomers. In addition, the chemoselectivity can be switched by regulating only the length of the alkyl chain in the organotin catalyst.

  14. Effect of concentration, homogenization and stabilizing salts on heat stability and rheological properties of cow skim milk ultrafiltered retentate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Borad, Sanket; Panjagari, Narender Raju

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) of skimmed milk altered the composition of UF retentate and decreased the heat stability. Heat stability further reduced upon its subsequent homogenization or diafiltration. Poor heat stability of UF retentate restricts its processing at elevated temperatures. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of protein concentration, homogenization and addition of stabilizing salts on the heat stability and rheological properties of UF retentates. Changes in the heat stability of fivefold homogenized UF retentate (5× HUFR) was studied in the pH range of 6.1-7.0. Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate significantly increased the heat coagulation time (HCT) from 1.45 min (pH 6.41) to 120 min (at pH 6.5, 6.6, 7.0) and 80 min (pH 6.6), respectively. Significant reduction in ζ-potential of UF retentates was observed with an increase in calcium and reduction in pH during UF process. Rheological behaviour of retentates above threefold concentration exhibited Herschel-Bulkley behavior with linear increase in flow behavior index (n). Changes in the viscosity of the homogenized retentates were measured at the respective pH of maximum heat stability as a function of temperature (20-80 °C). Promising approaches that might improve the heat stability, solubility and other functional properties of protein rich powders have been discussed in this article.

  15. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poe, Sarah [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  16. Mercury retention, a trait of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; Bearse, G.E.; Hammermeister, K.E.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments were performed in order to gain further information on the mercury retention of two strains of chickens, the reciprocal crosses of these lines and sex differences in retention. White Leghorns were selected for resistance and susceptibility to the avian leukosis complex. Approximately 6 males and 6 females from each of the strains and reciprocal crosses were injected in the breast muscle with phenylmercury acetate at the rate of 3.0 mg. mercury per kg. body weight. The kidneys were excised and analyzed for total mercury. Results indicate that the first generation cross chicks resembled the parent that retained mercury poorly more closely than they did the one retaining large amounts of mercury. There was no significant differences between sexes in mercury retention. 4 references, 1 table.

  17. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para......Post Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost) received one of several surface treatments-sandblasting, CoJet treatment, application of Metalprimer II, or sandblasting followed by silane application-and were then luted in the prepared root canal of human incisors and canines (n = 10). Following water storage...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  18. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  19. Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate–peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:25071769

  20. GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, S; Ranzinger, R; Maass, K; Lieth, C-W V D

    2008-08-11

    As part of the EUROCarbDB project (www.eurocarbdb.org) we have carefully analyzed the encoding capabilities of all existing carbohydrate sequence formats and the content of publically available structure databases. We have found that none of the existing structural encoding schemata are capable of coping with the full complexity to be expected for experimentally derived structural carbohydrate sequence data across all taxonomic sources. This gap motivated us to define an encoding scheme for complex carbohydrates, named GlycoCT, to overcome the current limitations. This new format is based on a connection table approach, instead of a linear encoding scheme, to describe the carbohydrate sequences, with a controlled vocabulary to name monosaccharides, adopting IUPAC rules to generate a consistent, machine-readable nomenclature. The format uses a block concept to describe frequently occurring special features of carbohydrate sequences like repeating units. It exists in two variants, a condensed form and a more verbose XML syntax. Sorting rules assure the uniqueness of the condensed form, thus making it suitable as a direct primary key for database applications, which rely on unique identifiers. GlycoCT encompasses the capabilities of the heterogeneous landscape of digital encoding schemata in glycomics and is thus a step forward on the way to a unified and broadly accepted sequence format in glycobioinformatics.

  1. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes. PMID:27907133

  2. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  3. The role of carbohydrates in seed germination and seedling establishment of Himatanthus sucuuba, an Amazonian tree with populations adapted to flooded and non-flooded conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferreira, Cristiane; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Parolin, Pia; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In the Amazonian floodplains plants withstand annual periods of flooding which can last 7 months. Under these conditions seedlings remain submerged in the dark for long periods since light penetration in the water is limited. Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree species found in the ‘várzea’ (VZ) floodplains and adjacent non-flooded ‘terra-firme’ (TF) forests. Biochemical traits which enhance flood tolerance and colonization success of H. sucuuba in periodically flooded environments were investigated. Methods Storage carbohydrates of seeds of VZ and TF populations were extracted and analysed by HPAEC/PAD. Starch was analysed by enzyme (glucoamylase) degradation followed by quantification of glucose oxidase. Carbohydrate composition of roots of VZ and TF seedlings was studied after experimental exposure to a 15-d period of submersion in light versus darkness. Key Results The endosperm contains a large proportion of the seed reserves, raffinose being the main non-structural carbohydrate. Around 93 % of the cell wall storage polysaccharides (percentage dry weight basis) in the endosperm of VZ seeds was composed of mannose, while soluble sugars accounted for 2·5%. In contrast, 74 % of the endosperm in TF seeds was composed of galactomannans, while 22 % of the endosperm was soluble sugars. This suggested a larger carbohydrate allocation to germination in TF populations whereas VZ populations allocate comparatively more to carbohydrates mobilized during seedling development. The concentration of root non-structural carbohydrates in non-flooded seedlings strongly decreased after a 15-d period of darkness, whereas flooded seedlings were less affected. These effects were more pronounced in TF seedlings, which showed significantly lower root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations. Conclusions There seem to be metabolic adjustments in VZ but not TF seedlings that lead to adaptation to the combined stresses of darkness and flooding. This seems to be

  4. Carbohydrate-Binding Non-Peptidic Pradimicins for the Treatment of Acute Sleeping Sickness in Murine Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M.; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M.; Reichardt, Niels C.; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments available for African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are limited, with poor efficacy and unacceptable safety profiles. Here, we report a new approach to address treatment of this disease based on the use of compounds that bind to parasite surface glycans leading to rapid killing of trypanosomes. Pradimicin and its derivatives are non-peptidic carbohydrate-binding agents that adhere to the carbohydrate moiety of the parasite surface glycoproteins inducing parasite lysis in vitro. Notably, pradimicin S has good pharmaceutical properties and enables cure of an acute form of the disease in mice. By inducing resistance in vitro we have established that the composition of the sugars attached to the variant surface glycoproteins are critical to the mode of action of pradimicins and play an important role in infectivity. The compounds identified represent a novel approach to develop drugs to treat HAT. PMID:27662652

  5. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  6. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls (PURD) refers to an athlete's inability to urinate during a doping control. This paper reports PURD to occur quite frequently in elite athletes, investigates the relationship to the clinical disorder of paruresis (PAR), and investigates its...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self......-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Suggestions for psychological interventions and recommendations for improving the doping control system are given....

  7. USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J E; Foley, B J

    1992-09-01

    In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England.

  8. Predictors of retention in a drug-free unit/substance abuse treatment in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-López, María José; González-Menéndez, Ana; Festinger, David S; Fernández-García, Paula; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Secades, Roberto; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of dropout from treatment programs is a recurring problem in the field of drug dependence. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of retention in a prison-based drug-free unit (DFU). The relationships among subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as well as motivation and personality profiles and length of stay in a DFU, of 57 prisoners admitted for the first time to the program were analyzed. The mean dropout rates were 52.9% at six months and 67.8% at one year. The mean length of stay was 195.05 days. Predictors of retention at six months included the ASI Family Composite Score, the motivation subscale Taking Steps, and Narcissistic personality trait score. Predictors of retention at one year included lower ASI Psychological Composite Score, higher scores on the motivation subscale Ambivalence, and higher number of charges pending at the time of admission to the program. Identification of these predictor variables may be useful for developing strategies to increase retention in the context of in-prison substance abuse treatment.

  9. Deuterium Retention and Physical Sputtering of Low Activation Ferritic Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Hino; K. Yamaguchi; Y. Yamauchi; Y. Hirohata; K. Tsuzuki; Y.Kusama

    2005-01-01

    Low activation materials have to be developed toward fusion demonstration reactors. Ferritic steel, vanadium alloy and SiC/SiC composite are candidate materials of the first wall,vacuum vessel and blanket components, respectively. Although changes of mechanical-thermal properties owing to neutron irradiation have been investigated so far, there is little data for the plasma material interactions, such as fuel hydrogen retention and erosion. In the present study,deuterium retention and physical sputtering of low activation ferritic steel, F82H, were investigated by using deuterium ion irradiation apparatus.After a ferritic steel sample was irradiated by 1.7 kev D+ ions, the weight loss was measured to obtain the physical sputtering yield. The sputtering yield was 0.04, comparable to that of stainless steel. In order to obtain the retained amount of deuterium, technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was employed to the irradiated sample. The retained deuterium desorbed at temperature ranging from 450 K to 700 K, in the forms of DHO, D2, D2O and hydrocarbons. Hence, the deuterium retained can be reduced by baking with a relatively low temperature. The fluence dependence of retained amount of deuterium was measured by changing the ion fluence. In the ferritic steel without mechanical polish, the retained amount was large even when the fluence was low. In such a case, a large amount of deuterium was trapped in the surface oxide layer containing O and C. When the fluence was large, the thickness of surface oxide layer was reduced by the ion sputtering, and then the retained amount in the oxide layer decreased. In the case of a high fluence, the retained amount of deuterium became comparable to that of ferritic steel with mechanical polish or SS 316 L, and one order of magnitude smaller than that of graphite. When the ferritic steel is used, it is required to remove the surface oxide layer for reduction of fuel hydrogen retention.Ferritic steel sample was

  10. Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox conditions (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Disnar, J. R.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Lottier, N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and δ 13C analyses, was carried out on sedimentary cores, and on various vascular plant species collected in mangrove swamps of French Guiana. The main purpose of this study was to assess the diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox conditions. Distribution of carbohydrates in sediments reflects both the lability of these compounds and their efficient recycling. They are subject to selective degradation, cellulosic glucose and xylose appearing to be the two most labile neutral sugars. In contrast a relative increase in arabinose, rhamnose, fucose and hemicellulosic glucose between plants and sediments, suggests that they may be more refractory and/or that they also derive from microbial synthesis. The total carbon from lignin-derived phenols is higher in sediments than in mangrove plants as a consequence of their rather refractory character. Nevertheless, evidence of lignin decomposition was found to be independent of local environmental conditions. The various redox processes that occur in mangrove sediments depend on plant species, stages in forest development and season. Different redox conditions induce different mechanisms for the decomposition of lignin and thus induce changes in phenol distributions. At depth, in most mangroves, an increase in (Ad/Al) v ratios and in deoxy sugars (fucose and rhamnose) content was significantly correlated with increased proportions of oxidized allochthonous organic debris deriving from the Amazonian detrital discharge, thus suggesting a specific source effect rather than a diagenesis induced change. Therefore, this study illustrates that both lignin and cellulose, derived from vascular plant debris, can be degraded in waterlogged mangrove sediments, and that their distribution depends on environmental conditions.

  11. Shape retention of injection molded stainless steel compacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-min; K.A.Khalil; HUANG Bai-yun

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the binder composition, the powder loading, the thermal properties of feedstocks, and the injection molding parameters on the compact shape retention for metal injection molding 17-4PH stainless steel were investigated. The high-density polyethylene is more effective than ethylene vinyl acetate as a second component of the wax-based binder to retain compact shape due to its higher pyrolytic temperature and less heat of fusion. The compact distortion decreases with increasing the powder loading, molding pressure and molding temperature. There exists an optimal process combination including the powder loading of 68%, molding pressure of 120 MPa and molding temperature of 150 ℃. Under this process condition, the percentage of distorted compacts is the lowest.

  12. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    , in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns...... side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least......The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...

  13. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...

  14. Structure-property relationships and biocompatibility of carbohydrate crosslinked polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Archana; Mehta, Jayen; Thakore, Sonal

    2014-09-22

    Biocompatible and biodegradable polyurethanes (PUs) based on castor oil and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) were prepared using various carbohydrate crosslinkers: monosaccharide (glucose), disaccharide (sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch and cellulose). The mechanical and thermal properties were investigated and interpreted on the basis of SEM study. The advantage of incorporating various carbohydrates is to have tunable mechanical properties and biodegradability due to variety in their structure. The glass transition temperature and sorption behavior were dominated by the type of polyol than by the type of crosslinker. All the PUs were observed to be biodegradable as well as non-cytotoxic as revealed by MTT assay in normal lung cell line L132. The study supports the suitability of carbohydrates as important components of biocompatible PUs for development of biomedical devices.

  15. Carbohydrate mimetics and scaffolds: sweet spots in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; La Ferla, Barbara; Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Orsato, Alexandre; Shaikh, Nasrin; Russo, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Several glycoprocessing enzymes and glycoreceptors have been recognized as important targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept has inspired the development of important classes of therapeutics, such as anti-influenza drugs inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting lectin-sialyl-Lewis X interaction and glycosidase inhibitors against HIV, Gaucher's disease, hepatitis and cancer. These therapeutics are mainly carbohydrate mimics in which proper modifications permit stronger interactions with the target protein, higher stability, better pharmacokinetic properties and easier synthesis. Furthermore, the conformational rigidity and polyfunctionality of carbohydrates stimulate their use as scaffolds for the generation of libraries by combinatorial decoration with different pharmacophores. This mini-review will present examples of how to exploit carbohydrates mimics and scaffolds in drug research.

  16. Derivatization of carbohydrates for GC and GC-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Hernández-Hernández, O; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, M L; Martínez-Castro, I

    2011-05-15

    GC and GC-MS are excellent techniques for the analysis of carbohydrates; nevertheless the preparation of adequate derivatives is necessary. The different functional groups that can be found and the diversity of samples require specific methods. This review aims to collect the most important methodologies currently used, either published as new procedures or as new applications, for the analysis of carbohydrates. A high diversity of compounds with diverse functionalities has been selected: neutral carbohydrates (saccharides and polyalcohols), sugar acids, amino and iminosugars, polysaccharides, glycosides, glycoconjugates, anhydrosugars, difructose anhydrides and products resulting of Maillard reaction (osuloses, Amadori compounds). Chiral analysis has also been considered, describing the use of diastereomers and derivatives to be eluted on chiral stationary phases.

  17. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female...... participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  18. Neoglycoproteins as carbohydrate antigens: synthesis, analysis, and polyclonal antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerékgyártó, Márta; Fekete, Anikó; Szurmai, Zoltán; Kerékgyártó, János; Takács, László; Kurucz, István; Guttman, András

    2013-08-01

    The analysis and polyclonal antibody response for newly synthesized maltose-BSA conjugate neoglycoproteins is described. In this first proof of concept study, a simple carbohydrate antigen, maltose, was linked to BSA by reductive amination. An aglycone spacer was utilized to conserve the intact annular maltose structure and to promote the accessibility of the carbohydrate immunogen hapten during immunization. The neoglycoproteins were investigated by CGE and the number of conjugated maltose residues was determined by MALDI-TOF MS. The neoglycoproteins were then evaluated by immunization of BALB/c mice and the polyclonal antibody response was tested by ELISA as evidence for the presence of sugar-containing epitope-specific antibodies. Selective antibody binding was demonstrated to the synthesized neoglycoproteins with different (low and high) glycosylation degrees suggesting the possible use of this approach to generate antibodies. Moreover, the polyclonal antibody response was not inhibited by maltose or other simple carbohydrates to confirm presence of the neoglycoprotein-specific antibodies.

  19. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    , in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns......The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...... side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least...

  20. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

  1. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  2. Preparation of water-soluble glycoconjugated poly(acrylamide) for NMR analyses of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Trinh Anh; Trung, Phan Nghia; Dinh, Bui Long; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    Oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates are important biopolymers not only as carriers of information in cell-cell interactions but also as markers of cellular differentiation, aging, and malignant alteration. Molecular interactions where carbohydrates are involved are usually considered as weak interactions, so the study and evaluation of these interactions is still in its infancy. The evidences and studies of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCI) will be confirming the importance of this mechanism for specific cell adhesion and communication. Their development will go hand in hand with the development of new and more sensitive techniques to study weak interactions. Recently, synthetic glycopolymers with functions similar to those of such natural carbohydrates and with specific pendant saccharide moieties were used as a solution for enhancement CCI when forming polyvalent interactions. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components of cell wall membranes and occur as glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and capsular polysaccharides. As such they can participate in forefront intramolecular and intracellular events. Apart from their recognized roles in the physicochemical properties of glycolipids and glycoproteins. In this study, we designed trisaccharide monomers for free radical polymerization. Subsequently, the trisaccharide unit for chemical conjugation was synthesized from galactosamine in good yield. For further NMR analyses of CCI, glycopolymers composed of these sugar derivatives will be provided.

  3. Solvent structure improves docking prediction in lectin-carbohydrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauto, Diego F; Petruk, Ariel A; Modenutti, Carlos P; Blanco, Juan I; Di Lella, Santiago; Martí, Marcelo A

    2013-02-01

    Recognition and complex formation between proteins and carbohydrates is a key issue in many important biological processes. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of such complexes is thus most relevant, but particularly challenging because of their usually low binding affinity. In silico docking methods have a long-standing tradition in predicting protein-ligand complexes, and allow a potentially fast exploration of a number of possible protein-carbohydrate complex structures. However, determining which of these predicted complexes represents the correct structure is not always straightforward. In this work, we present a modification of the scoring function provided by AutoDock4, a widely used docking software, on the basis of analysis of the solvent structure adjacent to the protein surface, as derived from molecular dynamics simulations, that allows the definition and characterization of regions with higher water occupancy than the bulk solvent, called water sites. They mimic the interaction held between the carbohydrate -OH groups and the protein. We used this information for an improved docking method in relation to its capacity to correctly predict the protein-carbohydrate complexes for a number of tested proteins, whose ligands range in size from mono- to tetrasaccharide. Our results show that the presented method significantly improves the docking predictions. The resulting solvent-structure-biased docking protocol, therefore, appears as a powerful tool for the design and optimization of development of glycomimetic drugs, while providing new insights into protein-carbohydrate interactions. Moreover, the achieved improvement also underscores the relevance of the solvent structure to the protein carbohydrate recognition process.

  4. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  5. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching is associated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent that the loss of the cellulose DP (degree ofpolymisation)is strongly affected by the extent of the delignification. A strong linear correlation can be established between the DP of cellulose chains and the residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growth concept and Percolation Theory for heterogenous system can be combined to formulate kinetic models for both the delignification and the degradation of carbohydrate. The models prediction is statistically robust and can be applied to different pulps at different bleaching conditions.

  6. Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Victor J.; Bin Wang; Xiangyong Li; Lin Wu; Kang, Jing X.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ∼1∶1. This study thus presents an in...

  7. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  8. Carbohydrate nanocarriers in biomedical applications: functionalization and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Biao; Opatz, Till; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-11-21

    The specific targeting of either tumor cells or immune cells in vivo by carefully designed and appropriately surface-functionalized nanocarriers may become an effective therapeutic treatment for a variety of diseases. Carbohydrates, which are prominent biomolecules, have shown their outstanding ability in balancing the biocompatibility, stability, biodegradability, and functionality of nanocarriers. The recent applications of sugar (mono/oligosaccharides and/or polysaccharides) for the development of nanomedicines are summarized in this review, including the application of carbohydrates for the surface-functionalization of various nanocarriers and for the construction of the nanocarrier itself. Current problems and challenges are also addressed.

  9. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Audrey G; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Ryan, Michael G; Tissue, David T; Baggett, L Scott; Adams, Henry D; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R L; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W; Dickman, L Turin; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Saint Joanis, Brigitte; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R

    2015-11-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also asked whether any differences among laboratories were related to the extraction and quantification methods used to determine starch and sugar concentrations. These questions were addressed by sending sub-samples collected from five woody plant tissues, which varied in NSC content and chemical composition, to 29 laboratories. Each laboratory analyzed the samples with their laboratory-specific protocols, based on recent publications, to determine concentrations of soluble sugars, starch and their sum, total NSC. Laboratory estimates differed substantially for all samples. For example, estimates for Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EGL) varied from 23 to 116 (mean = 56) mg g(-1) for soluble sugars, 6-533 (mean = 94) mg g(-1) for starch and 53-649 (mean = 153) mg g(-1) for total NSC. Mixed model analysis of variance showed that much of the variability among laboratories was unrelated to the categories we used for extraction and quantification methods (method category R(2) = 0.05-0.12 for soluble sugars, 0.10-0.33 for starch and 0.01-0.09 for total NSC). For EGL, the difference between the highest and lowest least squares means for categories in the mixed model analysis was 33 mg g(-1) for total NSC, compared with the range of laboratory estimates of 596 mg g(-1). Laboratories were reasonably consistent in their ranks of estimates among tissues for starch (r = 0.41-0.91), but less so for total NSC (r = 0.45-0.84) and soluble sugars (r = 0.11-0.83). Our results show that NSC estimates for woody plant tissues cannot be compared among laboratories. The relative changes in NSC between treatments measured within a laboratory

  10. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish a

  11. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  12. Conjoint Retention of Maps and Related Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Raymond, W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments used fifth grade students to test the hypothesis that conjointly presented verbal/spatial information facilitates retrieval from either stimulus format. Results support the notion of conjoint retention which assumes that related verbal/spatial arrays are stored in a fashion which allows separate use of both formats during…

  13. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  14. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  15. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must... accordance with General Records Schedule (GRS) 1, item 21, issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). (b) Occupational Medical Records considered to be long-term records must be maintained...

  16. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  17. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies…

  18. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.404 Retention schedule. (a)(1) Except as provided... in this system, including transfer with the employee who changes positions, shall be as agencies... performance-related documents five years old or less shall be forwarded in the Employee Performance File...

  19. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  20. Studies on nitrogen retention in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Henckel, S; Chwalibog, André;

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen retention (RN) was measured in 60 barrows of Danish Landrace and a total of 470 balance periods was carried out during the growth period from 20 to 85 kg live weight. In the first serie (Expt A) six different feed compounds of high biological value (HBV) were fed to 48 barrows, while...... in the second serie (Expt B) 12 barrows were measured on feed compounds of HBV or low biological value (LBV). Three different levels of gross energy were used in Expt B. Individual differences of 10-20% in the pigs capability for nitrogen retention were observed. Nitrogen retention increased from 12 to 21 g N....../d on the HBV-compounds and was not influenced by increasing nitrogen or energy intake. Nitrogen retention was curvilinear in relation to metabolic live weight (kg0.75) in both series. A parabolic function on kg0.75 gave the best fit to the data with the following regression equations: Expt A + B: RN, g/d = 1...

  1. Retention--A Pseudo-Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, George L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses retention of learning; training methods; maintenance issues; the effect of punishment; reinforcement; the performance environment; transfer of training; forgetting; implications for designers of instructional materials or designers of training programs; and the division between training and on-the-job performance. (LRW)

  2. Biosourced polymetallic catalysts: an efficient means to synthesize underexploited platform molecules from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Olszewski, Tomasz K; Petit, Eddy; Grison, Claude

    2014-07-01

    Polymetallic hyperaccumulating plants growing on wastes from former mining activity were used as the starting material in the preparation of novel plant-based Lewis acid catalysts. The preparation of biosourced Lewis acid catalysts is a new way to make use of mining wastes. These catalysts were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed a complex composition of metal species, present mainly as polymetallic chlorides. The catalysts proved to be efficient and recyclable in a solid-state version of the Garcia Gonzalez reaction, which has been underexploited until now in efforts to use carbohydrates from biomass. This methodology was extended to various carbohydrates to obtain the corresponding polyhydroxyalkyl furans in 38-98% yield. These plant-based catalysts may be a better alternative to classical Lewis acid catalysts that were previously used for the Garcia Gonzalez reaction, such as ZnCl2 , FeCl3 , and CeCl3 , which are often unrecyclable, require aqueous treatments, or rely on metals, the current known reserves of which will be consumed in the coming decades. Moreover, the plant-based catalysts allowed novel control of the Garcia Gonzalez reaction, as two different products were obtained depending on the reaction conditions.

  3. Histochemical characterisation of complex carbohydrates expressed in the alimentary tract of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Pedini, Vera

    2010-08-01

    This study characterised the composition of surface and secretion complex carbohydrates in the alimentary tract of organically and intensively housed chickens. Histochemical labelling was carried out on samples of oesophagus, glandular stomach and proximal duodenum using (1) alcian blue (AB) at pH 2.5 combined with neuraminidase digestion (Sial) with or without saponification (KOH), (2) AB at pH 1 and 0.5, (3) periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), (4) a combined AB-PAS stain, and (5) both low and high iron diamine stains combined with enzymatic treatments specific for glycosaminoglycans. Semi-quantitative scoring of the histochemical staining indicated abundant acidic sulfated glycoconjugates in each alimentary tract region, in addition to the presence of sialoglycoderivatives in the oesophagus. These complex carbohydrate components are likely to have various functions including the provision of a protective visco-elastic barrier and a role in the defence against specific pathogens. The findings provide a starting point for a more in-depth study of alimentary tract glycoconjugates in poultry.

  4. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; Vanlangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein). The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein). No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (μU·mL(-1)) levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1) vs. 26.0 (21.0)]. Postexercise (PE) FFA (mEq·L(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3) vs. 0.5 (0.3)]. PE TG (mg·dL(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1) vs. 114.4 (40.9)]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization. Key pointsThe relative carbohydrate content of a single meal has a significant impact on postprandial metabolism and substrate utilization in healthy, active females.A single bout of aerobic exercise performed within an hour of meal ingestion has the potential to modify the postprandial response.Interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing chronic disease should focus on dietary

  5. δ18O analysis of individual carbohydrates - a new method for GC-pyrolysis-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marco M.; Fischer, Maria; Zech, Michael; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Saurer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Measuring the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of various plant tissues is a widely used tool to investigate biochemical and physiological processes. While we have a good understanding about the hydrological cycle in plants with an evaporative enrichment in 18O in leaf water, we still lack knowledge about the biochemical link between the oxygen atoms in leaf water, leaf assimilates, and stem cellulose and associated isotope fractionations. Especially, the influence of different environmental factors on δ18O of individual carbohydrates (i.e. sugars) and thus on δ18O of cellulose is not fully resolved. A better understanding of these processes may improve climatic reconstructions of tree-ring studies about past environmental conditions. However, further progress in this topic is limited since a precise and reliable method to determine δ18O of individual sugars has not been available yet. With our new approach we attempt to overcome this issue by establishing a new methylation derivatization method suitable for GC-pyrolysis -IRMS. A methyl group (CH3) was thereby added to all hydroxyl groups of a sugar (e.g., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) during a catalyzed one-pot reaction overnight in acetonitrile with methyl iodide (CH3-I) and silver oxide, making them amenable for GC analysis. First results show a very good precision for δ18O of sucrose, but also δ18O of other high-abundant sugars such as glucose and fructose could be measured for the first time. We successfully analyzed a standard mix of all three sugars and determined various other carbohydrates not only related to plant sciences (e.g. mannitol, lactose), showing promising δ18O results. First tests with real plant samples were performed to make this method available for determining δ18O of individual carbohydrates of diverse plant tissues. In future, this new methylation derivatization method should allow us analyzing plant samples of different field sites and of lab experiments to investigate the

  6. Analysis of iminosugars and other low molecular weight carbohydrates in Aglaonema sp. extracts by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; García-Sarrió, M J; Quintanilla-López, J E; Soria, A C; Sanz, M L

    2015-12-01

    A method by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS(2)) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous analysis of bioactive iminosugars and other low molecular weight carbohydrates in Aglaonema leaf extracts. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase eluents, additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry provided for target carbohydrates. In general, narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) with good symmetry (As: 0.9-1.3) and excellent resolution (Rs>1.8) were obtained for iminosugars using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 5mM ammonium acetate in both eluents at 55°C. Tandem mass spectra were used to confirm the presence of previously detected iminosugars in Aglaonema extracts and to tentatively identify for the first time others such as miglitol isomer, glycosyl-miglitol isomers and glycosyl-DMDP isomers. Concentration of total iminosugars varied from 1.35 to 2.84mgg(-1) in the extracts of the different Aglaonema samples analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a HILIC-MS(2) method has been proposed for the simultaneous analysis of iminosugars and other low molecular weight carbohydrates of Aglaonema sp. extracts.

  7. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2015-11-01

    To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease.One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, Salazar-Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention.Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; -9.3 [-10.6, -8.0] kg) and blood pressure (-6 [-9, -4]/-6[-8, -5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [-1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC -4 [-6, -2], HC -2 [-3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC --2.4 [-6, 1.2], HC -1.8 [-5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30-300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks.Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese adults with T2DM and no preexisting kidney disease.

  8. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  9. DRAINAGE AND RETENTION ENHANCEMENT OF A WHEAT STRAW PULP CONTAINING FURNISH USING MICROPARTICLE RETENTION AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hultholm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The usage of non-wood pulps in furnishes for the production of various paper grades is a real alternative for the substitution of wood pulp in papermaking. In terms of the papermaking process, the main limiting factor for non-wood pulp utilization is poor dewatering. This problem can be partially solved by means of retention aids, and the modern microparticle-based retention aids are very promising for this application. In this study the main aim was to characterize how the microparticle retention systems affect the retention, dewatering, and formation of a non-wood pulp furnish and how these effects and mechanisms differ when compared to normal wood pulp. The performance of several commercially available retention aids was studied by making dynamic sheet forming tests for reference and an organosolv wheat straw furnish. The emphasis in the experiments was on drainage enhancement. The maximum drainage gain obtained with the bentonite-CPAM retention aid system was about 5%. Despite the improved drainage, dewatering of the reference furnish was better than for the non-wood containing furnish.

  10. Dense understory dwarf bamboo alters the retention of canopy tree seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Zhang, Tengda; Guo, Qinxue; Tao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    Tree seed retention is thought to be an important factor in the process of forest community regeneration. Although dense understory dwarf bamboo has been considered to have serious negative effects on the regeneration of forest community species, little attention has been paid to the relationship between dwarf bamboo and seed retention. In a field experiment we manipulated the density of Fargesia decurvata, a common understory dwarf bamboo, to investigate the retention of seeds from five canopy tree species in an evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Jinfoshan National Nature Reserve, SW China. We found that the median survival time and retention ratio of seeds increased with the increase in bamboo density. Fauna discriminately altered seed retention in bamboo groves of different densities. Arthropods reduced seed survival the most, and seeds removed decreased with increasing bamboo density. Birds removed or ate more seeds in groves of medium bamboo density and consumed fewer seeds in dense or sparse bamboo habitats. Rodents removed a greater number of large and highly profitable seeds in dense bamboo groves but more small and thin-husked seeds in sparse bamboo groves. Seed characteristics, including seed size, seed mass and seed profitability, were important factors affecting seed retention. The results suggested that dense understory dwarf bamboo not only increased seeds concealment and reduced the probability and speed of seed removal but also influenced the trade-off between predation and risk of animal predatory strategies, thereby impacting the quantity and composition of surviving seeds. Our results also indicated that dense understory dwarf bamboo and various seed characteristics can provide good opportunities for seed storage and seed germination and has a potential positive effect on canopy tree regeneration.

  11. Syntheses of Novel Highly Symmetric Carbohydrates Bearing Diacylhydrazine Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; ZHANG Shu-sheng; LI Hui-xiang; LI Ji-zhi; JIAO Kui

    2005-01-01

    Several novel highly symmetric carbohydrates bearing a diacylhydrazine framework have been synthesized via a five-step procedure by utilizing D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose as the starting materials, respectively. The target compounds have been characterized with IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis.

  12. Science Study Aids 3: Carbohydrates - Nature's Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the third of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grade levels 7 through 12. It is concerned with the role of carbohydrates as important nutrients for consumers. This guide will enable…

  13. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  14. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. lactose ...

  15. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions

  16. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent lite

  17. Protease-induced solubilisation of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faulds, C.B.; Collins, S.; Robertson, J.A.; Treimo, J.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Buchert, J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of microbial proteases on the release of carbohydrates from BSG was studied. The proteases were able to release the non-cellulosic glucose, a portion of feruloylated arabinoxylan and over 50% of the protein from brewers' spent grain (BSG) after 24 h hydrolysis. The non-cellulosic glucose

  18. Hydrolysis of Brewers' Spent Grain by Carbohydrate Degrading Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forssell, P.; Kontkanen, H.; Schols, H.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Eijsink, V.G.H.; Treimo, J.; Robertson, J.A.; Waldron, K.W.; Faulds, C.B.; Buchert, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work four commercial cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures with different activity profiles were used for solubilization of carbohydrates from brewers' spent grain (BSG). After the enzyme treatment, both the solubilised fraction and the unhydrolysed residue were characterized. Treatment with 5,00

  19. Transporter’s evolution and carbohydrate metabolic clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Titia H.; Does, Chris van der; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The yiaQRS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Clustering of homologous genes was found throughout several unrelated bacteria. Strikingly, all four bacterial transport protein classes were found, conserving transport function but not mechanism. It appears that dur

  20. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZy