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Sample records for carbohydrate metabolism determined

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose ( ...

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  3. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  5. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammer, Alexandra; Gasperl, Anna; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora;

    2015-01-01

    shown to be strongly associated with growth performance, crop yield, and quality, as well as stress responses. A simple, fast, and cost-effective method to determine activities for 13 key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism has been established, mainly based on coupled spectrophotometric kinetic......The analysis of physiological parameters is important to understand the link between plant phenotypes and their genetic bases, and therefore is needed as an important element in the analysis of model and crop plants. The activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism have been...... and adapted for a semi-high-throughput 96-well assay format. These assays proved to be robust and are thus suitable for physiological phenotyping, enabling the characterization and diagnosis of the physiological state. The potential of the determination of distinct enzyme activity signatures as part...

  6. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  7. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  8. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  9. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  10. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jammer, A.; Gapserl, A.; Luschin-Ebengreuth, N.; Heyneke, E.; Chu, H.; Cantero-Navarro, E.; Grosskinsky, D. K.; Albacete, A.; Stabentheiner, E.; Franzaring, J.; Fangmeier, A.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 18 (2015), s. 5531-5542. ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Carbohydrate metabolism * dialysis * enzyme activities * kinetic assay * physiological phenotyping * physiological state * protein extraction * signatures Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism of cactus in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, B G

    1981-09-01

    The concentration of glucan, mucilage, soluble carbohydrates, and malic acid were determined in Opuntia bigelovii Engelm. during a 23-week period. The experiment began during the dry summer by irrigation to stimulate Crassulacean acid metabolism and was followed by 13 weeks of drought. After the 13-week drought period, the plants were irrigated throughout a 10-week period until late December. The maximum level of malic acid determined each day at dawn decreased throughout the drought period and increased after irrigation. High levels of malic acid occurring at dawn are indicative of active Crassulacean acid metabolism. Soluble carbohydrates also decreased during drought and increased after irrigation. Both glucan and mucilage increased slightly for about 9 weeks during the drought period and then began to decrease. Irrigation was accompanied by a further decrease in concentration of glucan and mucilage. Since both glucan and mucilage changed in a similar manner and since their concentrations in the tissue are correlated, it is hypothesized that both function as storage carbohydrates. Whereas glucan is the nocturnal substrate for malic acid synthesis, there are no data to support or refute a similar hypothesis for mucilage. PMID:16661999

  12. In vivo 13C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. 13C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. 13C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of 13C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [113C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (FTCA) and neurotransmitter cycling (Fcyc). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in FTCA upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in Fcyc due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  13. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  14. Postexercise recovery period: carbohydrate and protein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viru, A

    1996-02-01

    The essence of the postexercise recovery period is normalization of function and homeostatic equilibrium, and replenishment of energy resources and accomplishment of the reconstructive function. The repletion of energy stores is actualized in a certain sequence and followed by a transitory supercompensation. The main substrate for repletion of the muscle glycogen store is blood glucose derived from hepatic glucose output as well as from consumption of carbohydrates during the postexercise period. The repletion of liver glycogen is realized less rapidly. It depends to a certain extent on hepatic gluconeogenesis but mainly on supply with exogenous carbohydrates. The constructive function is founded on elevated protein turnover and adaptive protein synthesis. Whereas during and shortly after endurance exercise intensive protein breakdown was found in less active fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, during the later course of the recovery period the protein degradation rate increased together with intensification of protein synthesis rate in more active fast-twitch glycolytic oxidative and slow-twitch oxidative fibers. PMID:8680938

  15. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. PMID:27184288

  16. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  17. Protein,carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950255 Effects of TPN and indomethacin on stressresponse and protein metabolism after surgery.QUANZhufu(全竹富),et al.General Hosp,Nanjing Com-mand,Nanjing,210002.Med J Chin PLA 1995;20(1):24-26.The study was planned to evaluate effects of TPNand indomethacin on stress response after trauma,andprotein metabolism in patients who had received totalgastrectomy for cardiac cancer of stomach.19 caseswere divided into control,TPN,and indomethacin

  18. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  19. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  20. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  1. INFLUENCE OF CHITOSAN ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN EXERCISING MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 黄伟

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of chitosan on carbohydrate metabolism disorder in exercising mice. Methods The animal model of carbohydrate metabolism disorder was established through swimming trainings and the content of blood glucose, muscle glycogen and liver glycogen in mice were all surveyed. Results When quiet, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose of drug-taking group were much higher than those of control group(P<0.05). Compared with control group, the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of instant drug-taking group after exercises level to a higher degree (P<0.05). The renewing level of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose in drug-taking group after spending 24 hours on recovery was evidently higher than that of control-group (P<0.05). The exhaustive swimming time of drug-taking group was longer than that of exercise-control group by 33.99%. Conclusion Chitosan takes good effect on improving carbohydrate metabolism disorder resulting from exercises.

  2. Regulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by Selenium during diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Qiu, Qinqin; Zou, Caiyan; Dou, Lianjun; Liang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we have tried to unravel the role of Selenium supplementation in containing hyperglycemia by regulating enzymes activities involved in carbohydrate metabolism in liver of diabetic animals. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups: normal control, diabetic, Selenium treated control and Selenium treated diabetic group. Diabetes was induced in the animals by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally at a dose level of 150 mg/kg body weight. Selenium in the form of sodium selenite was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 1 PPM in drinking water, ad libitum for two time durations of 2 and 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and livers were excised for the analyses of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism as well as the levels of glycogen. In-vitro (14)C-d glucose uptake and its turnover were also assessed in liver slices of all the treatment groups using radiorespirometry. Selenium supplementation to the diabetic rats normalized the enzyme activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase as well as restored the glycogen levels to within the normal limits which were altered during diabetes. Interestingly, when Selenium was supplemented to diabetic rats, (14)C-d glucose uptake and its turnover showed a statistically significant increase in their values which however, were decreased in diabetic rats. In conclusion, Selenium mediates insulin-like role during diabetes by tending to normalize the altered activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes and also improves the glucose uptake and its metabolism by the liver. PMID:25779343

  3. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar; Maricel Castellanos; María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 th...

  4. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girls Eating healthy at restaurants Special food issues Vegetarian eating Eating for strong bones Quiz: Food Facts Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates (say: kar-boh- ...

  5. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming;

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, has been studied for decades as a putative ergogenic aid. In the past 2 decades, the information has overwhelmingly demonstrated that it indeed is a powerful ergogenic aid, and frequently theories have been proposed that this is due to alterations in fat...... and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be.......05) glycogen and increased (p < 0.05) citrate, acetyl-CoA, and glucose-6-phosphate. The only effects of caffeine were to increase (p < 0.05) citrate in resting muscle and cAMP in exercise. There is very little evidence to support the hypothesis that caffeine has ergogenic effects as a result of enhanced fat...

  6. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  7. Endocrine regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in hypometabolic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental hypothermia and natural hibernation are two forms of hypometabolism with recognized physiological changes, including depression of endocrine and metabolic functions. To better understand functional changes, helox (i.e., helium and oxygen (80:20) mixtures) and low ambient temperatures have been used to induce hypothermia in hamsters and rats. Both clinical and biological survival, i.e., survival without recovery and survival with recovery from hypothermia, respectively, are related to depth and length of hypothermia. In the rat, body temperatures of 15 degrees C for periods greater than 6-10 h greatly restrict biological survival. The role of glucocorticoids in enhancing thermogenic capacity of rats was assessed using triamcinolone [correction of triamcinalone] acetonide. In the hamster, treatment with cortisone acetate prolonged both clinical and biological survival. Hypothermic hamsters continue utilizing circulating glucose until they become hypoglycemic and die. Hypothermic rats do not utilize glucose and respond with a significant hypoinsulinema. The role of endocrines in the regulation of carbohydrate homeostasis and metabolism differs in hibernation and hypothermia. Glucocorticoids influence the hypothermic response in both species, specifically by prolonging induction of hypothermia in rats and by prolonging survival in hypothermic hamsters.

  8. The regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during and after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloszy, J O; Kohrt, W M; Hansen, P A

    1998-09-15

    The rate of carbohydrate utilization during prolonged, strenuous exercise is closely geared to the energy needs of the working muscles. In contrast, fat utilization during exercise is not tightly regulated, as there are no mechanisms for closely matching availability and metabolism of fatty acids to the rate of energy expenditure. As a result, the rate of fat oxidation during exercise is determined by the availability of fatty acids and the rate of carbohydrate utilization. Blood glucose and muscle glycogen are essential for prolonged strenuous exercise, and exhaustion can result either from development of hypoglycemia or depletion of muscle glycogen. Both absolute and relative (i.e. % of maximal O2 uptake) exercise intensities play important roles in the regulation of substrate metabolism. The absolute work rate determines the total quantity of fuel required, while relative exercise intensity plays a major role in determining the proportions of carbohydrate and fat oxidized by the working muscles. As relative exercise intensity is increased, there is a decrease in the proportion of the energy requirement derived from fat oxidation and an increase in that provided by carbohydrate oxidation. During moderately strenuous exercise of an intensity that can be maintained for 90 minutes or longer ( approximately 55-75% of VO2max), there is a progressive decline in the proportion of energy derived from muscle glycogen and a progressive increase in plasma fatty acid oxidation. The adaptations induced by endurance exercise training result in a marked sparing of carbohydrate during exercise, with an increased proportion of the energy being provided by fat oxidation. The mechanisms by which training decreases utilization of blood glucose are not well understood. However, the slower rate of glycogenolysis can be explained on the basis of lower concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in trained, as compared to untrained, muscles during exercise of the same intensity. The

  9. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumrad NA, Nassi F, Marcus A. Digestion and absorption of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. ...

  10. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  11. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO. Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG, low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The

  12. Carbohydrate metabolism after one year of using a gestodene containing monophasic oral contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yıldırım

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To prospectively evaluate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene on carbohydrate metabolism in ordinary Turkish women Material / Method: Carbohydrate metabolism was prospectively evaluated in 53 normal women prior to and during their use of monophasic oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene plus ethinyl estradiol for one year. The women had a two hour oral glucose tolerance test using 75 gram glucose load, measuring serum glucose and insulin level, performed at the beginning of the contraceptive therapy and after one year. Results: The results demonstrate no significant changes in either of carbohydrate metabolic indices between the two tests.  Conclusion: The progestin containing contraceptive pill can be safely used in consideration of the carbohydrate metabolism.

  13. Carbon catabolite repression and global control of the carbohydrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Luesink, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of fermented dairy products considerable scientific attention has been given to various steps of fermentation processes, including the L-lactate formation of lactic acid bacteria (de Vos, 1996). In particular, the carbohydrate metabolism of L. lactis has been the subject of extensive research and several genes encoding proteins involved in the central carbohydrate metabolism have been described (Llanos et al., 1992; Llanos et al., 1993; Cancilla et al., 1995...

  14. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is fine because they contain important vitamins and minerals. But your body rapidly digests the starch in white potatoes. This can raise your blood glucose level. Healthy carbohydrates include: Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Dietary fiber Starches in whole- ...

  15. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in late-onset Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforet, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt;

    2012-01-01

    Pompe disease is caused by absence of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. It is generally assumed that intra-lysosomal hydrolysis of glycogen does not contribute to skeletal muscle energy production during exercise. However, this hypothesis has never been tested in vivo during exercise. We...... examined the metabolic response to exercise in patients with late-onset Pompe disease, in order to determine if a defect in energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of Pompe disease. We studied six adult patients with Pompe disease and 10 healthy subjects. The participants underwent ischemic...... oxidation, between the patients and the healthy subjects. None of the subjects improved exercise tolerance by IV glucose infusion. In conclusion, peak oxidative capacity is reduced in Pompe disease. However, skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate use during exercise was normal. The results indicate that a...

  16. The nutritional and metabolic effects of a carbohydrate-rich diet in a glycogen supercompensation training regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetté, M; Pelletier, O; Parker, L; Thoden, J

    1978-12-01

    It has been suggested that glycogen depletion followed by a protein-fat diet and a carbohydrate-rich diet improves performance. This study was designed to determine the nutritional and metabolic effects of a carbohydrate-rich diet in a glycogen supercompensation training regimen. Four male subjects participated in a 5-week protocol of which the first 3 weeks were devoted to a control period and the last 2 weeks to the experimental phase of the study. The variables measured before, during, and following the experimental phase included anthropometric and basal metabolic rate measurements, urinary and serum analysis for vitamins, SMA 12/60 blood profile and aerobic performance (VO2max). Results indicated an appreciable modification of the metabolic and nutritional profile of the subjects as a result of the diets. During the protein-fat diet there was a decrease in serum glucose and resting respiratory quotient and an increase in cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, riboflavin, and N1-methylnicotinamide excretion. Subsequent to the carbohydrate-rich diet there was an increase in triglycerides and vitamin C, riboflavin, and thiamin excretion while there was a decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen, and N1-methylnicotinamide excretion. Aerobic performance was slightly decreased and the mean postexercise lactate levels were slightly higher after the carbohydrate-rich diet. It was hypothesized that the reduced niacin intake during the carohydrate-rich diet may hamper the aerobic oxidative pathways. PMID:727161

  17. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Laughlin, Maren R.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose ac...

  18. Seasonal influences on carbohydrate metabolism in the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’: consequences for carbohydrate partitioning and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M.; Ceusters, Nathalie; Verdoodt, Veerle; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Photosynthetic plasticity in response to a range of environmental factors that include [CO2], water availability, light intensity and temperature, is ubiquitous among plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). The present study examined how seasonal changes in light availability, as experienced by greenhouse CAM crops in northern latitude regions, influence diel carboxylation patterns and impact on carbon gain and seasonal accumulation of biomass. Methods In the CAM bromeliad Aechmea ‘Maya’ integrated measurements of leaf gas exchange, diel metabolite dynamics (e.g. malate, soluble sugars and starch) and biomass accumulation were made four times a year, i.e. in winter, spring, summer and autumn. Key Results During the brighter seasons (spring and summer) daytime Phases II and IV were dominated by C4 carboxylation, whilst the higher diurnal uptake in the autumn and winter was characterized by equal contributions of both Rubisco and PEPC. As a consequence, net CO2 uptake showed a significant depression at the end of the day in the darker months when supplementary illumination was turned off. Remarkable seasonal consistency was found in the amount of storage reserves available for nocturnal carboxylation, a consequence of predominantly daytime export of carbohydrate in spring and summer whilst nocturnal export was the major sink for carbohydrate in autumn and winter. Conclusions Throughout the different seasons Aechmea ‘Maya’ showed considerable plasticity in the timing and magnitude of C3 and C4 carboxylation processes over the diel cycle. Under low PPFD (i.e. winter and autumn) it appears that there was a constraint on the amount of carbohydrate exported during the day in order to maintain a consistent pool of transient carbohydrate reserves. This gave remarkable seasonal consistency in the amount of storage reserves available at night, thereby optimizing biomass gain throughout the year. The data have important practical

  19. The role of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the development of perinatalcomplications

    OpenAIRE

    Roza Mikhaylovna Esayan; Ol'ga Rafael'evna Grigoryan; Elena Vladimirovna Pekareva

    2009-01-01

    With DM1 morbidity reaching epidemic growth in young people including women of childbearing age, planning and managing pregnancy in patients with disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism acquires increasingly greater significance. Of primary importance are evening mutual influence of DM1 and pregnancy (a high-risk condition) and prevention of perinatal complications resulting from poor compensation of carbohydrate metabolism.

  20. Carbon catabolite repression and global control of the carbohydrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of fermented dairy products considerable scientific attention has been given to various steps of fermentation processes, including the L-lactate formation of lactic acid bacteria (de Vos, 1996). In particular, the carbohydrate metabolism of L. lactis has been the s

  1. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O;

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after the...... training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake...

  2. Genomic profiling of carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaroli, P; Buffalini, M; Saltarelli, R; Barbieri, E; Polidori, E; Ottonello, S; Kohler, A; Tisserant, E; Martin, F; Stocchi, V

    2011-02-01

    • Primary carbohydrate metabolism plays a special role related to carbon/nitrogen exchange, as well as metabolic support of fruiting body development, in ectomycorrhizal macrofungi. In this study, we used information retrieved from the recently sequenced Tuber melanosporum genome, together with transcriptome analysis data and targeted validation experiments, to construct the first genome-wide catalogue of the proteins supporting carbohydrate metabolism in a plant-symbiotic ascomycete. • More than 100 genes coding for enzymes of the glycolysis, pentose phosphate, tricarboxylic acid, glyoxylate and methylcitrate pathways, glycogen, trehalose and mannitol metabolism and cell wall precursor were annotated. Transcriptional regulation of these pathways in different stages of the T. melanosporum lifecycle was investigated using whole-genome oligoarray expression data together with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected genes. • The most significant results were the identification of methylcitrate cycle genes and of an acid invertase, the first enzyme of this kind to be described in a plant-symbiotic filamentous fungus. • A subset of transcripts coding for trehalose, glyoxylate and methylcitrate enzymes was up-regulated in fruiting bodies, whereas genes involved in mannitol and glycogen metabolism were preferentially expressed in mycelia and ectomycorrhizas, respectively. These data indicate a high degree of lifecycle stage specialization for particular branches of carbohydrate metabolism in T. melanosporum. PMID:21039570

  3. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  4. Metabolic profiling reveals coordinated switches in primary carbohydrate metabolism in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.), a non-climacteric fleshy fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Z.; Leon, C.; Feil, R.; Lunn, J.; Delrot, S.; Gomes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in carbohydrate metabolism during grape berry development play a central role in shaping the final composition of the fruit. The present work aimed to identify metabolic switches during grape development and to provide insights into the timing of developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolites from central carbon metabolism were measured using high-pressure anion-exchange chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays during the development of...

  5. A central role of abscisic acid in stress-regulated carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kempa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and development. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. However, apart from the well established role of ABA in regulating gene expression programmes, little is known about its function in plant stress metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an integrative multiparallel approach of metabolome and transcriptome analyses, we studied the dynamic response of the model glyophyte Arabidopsis thaliana to ABA and high salt conditions. Our work shows that salt stress induces complex re-adjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and that ABA triggers the initial steps of carbon mobilisation. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings open new perspectives on how high salinity and ABA impact on central carbohydrate metabolism and highlight the power of iterative combinatorial approaches of non-targeted and hypothesis-driven experiments in stress biology.

  6. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid as a spray to Na CI-treated corn (Zea mays L,) significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots as measured after seven days of treatment. Spraying of salicylic acid caused significant increases in the activity of both ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) enzyme and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, salicylic acid treatment induced high values of soluble carbohydrate fractions in salt stressed plants as compared with salicylic acid treated samples. These data suggest that salicylic acid might improve the growth pattern of NaCl-treated maize plants via increasing the rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

  7. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Jurak, E.; Kohler, A; Baker, A.; Battaglia, E; Bruijn, de, M.E.; Burton, K.S.; Challen, M.P.; Cuotinho, P.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Gruben, B.S.; Makela, M.R.; Martin, F.; Nadal, M; Brink, van den, A Arno

    2013-01-01

    Background - Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present. Results - In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were i...

  8. Mcy protein, a potential antidiabetic agent: evaluation of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Saritha; Maddirela, Dilip Rajasekhar; Kumar, E G T V; Tilak, Thandaiah Krishna; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Chippada, Apparao

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study is to elucidate the long-term effects of anti-hyperglycemic active principle, Mcy protein (MCP), isolated from the fruits of Momordica cymbalaria on carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rats. We used streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for the current studies. Our studies showed that MCP (2.5mg/kg.b.w) treatment significantly normalized the deranged activities of critical carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase. In addition MCP showed inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and aldose reductase enzymes in in vitro assays. Further MCP treatment improved the antioxidant defensive mechanism by preventing deleterious oxidative products of cellular metabolism, which initiates the lipid peroxidation and by normalizing the antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) activities. Additional structural studies using circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that MCP contains majorly α-helix. Our findings suggest MCP regulates blood glucose and better manage diabetes mellitus associated complications by regulating carbohydrate metabolism and by protecting from the deleterious effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26826289

  9. Green tea attenuates cardiovascular remodelling and metabolic symptoms in high carbohydrate-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Celestine; Iyer, Abishek; Chan, Vincent; Brown, Lindsay

    2010-12-01

    Excess carbohydrate in the diet may initiate a chronic state of oxidative stress exacerbating the clinical and biochemical symptoms of diet-induced type 2 diabetes, especially glucose intolerance, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. This study has tested whether green tea, rich in antioxidants, improves both cardiovascular symptoms and glucose intolerance and also reduces oxidative stress in rats fed a high carbohydrate diet. Male 8 week old Wistar rats were fed a diet including fructose and condensed milk (each 40%) for 16 weeks (112 days); control rats were fed corn starch. Green tea-containing food was started from day 1 for the prevention protocol and from day 56 for the reversal protocol. High carbohydrate diet-fed rats showed glucose intolerance, hypertension, mild left ventricular hypertrophy, approximate doubling of cardiac interstitial and perivascular collagen deposition, increased passive diastolic stiffness and increased plasma malondialdehyde concentrations. Administration of green tea to high carbohydrate diet-fed rats prevented and reversed glucose intolerance and the increased systolic blood pressure, left ventricular wet weight, interstitial collagen and passive diastolic stiffness. Plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were also normalized. In summary, treatment with green tea both prevented and reversed the cardiovascular remodelling and metabolic changes seen in high carbohydrate-fed rats suggesting a chronic state of oxidative stress plays a key role in the symptom initiation and progression. Further, green tea may be a useful complementary therapy in diet-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID:20874683

  10. Effects of Salt Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Desert Soil Alga Microcoleus vaginatus Gom.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhou Chen; Dun-Hai Li; Li-Rong Song; Chun-Xiang Hu; Gao-Hong Wang; Yong-Ding Liu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of salt stress on carbohydrate metabolism in Microcoleus vaginatus Gom., a cyanobacterium isolated from desert algal crusts, were investigated in the present study. Extracellular total carbohydrates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) in the culture medium produced by M. vaginatus increased significantly during the growth phase and reached a maximum during the stationary phase. The production of extracellular carbohydrates also significantly increased under higher salt concentrations, which was attributed to an increase in low molecular weight carbohydrates. In the presence of NaCl, the production of cellular total carbohydrates decreased and photosynthetic activity was impaired, whereas cellular reducing sugars,water-soluble sugars and sucrose content and sucrose phosphate synthase activity increased, reaching a maximum in the presence of 200 mmol/L NaCl. These parameters were restored to original levels when the algae were transferred to a non-saline medium. Sodium and K+ concentrations of stressed cells decreased significantly and H+-ATPase activity increased after the addition of exogenous sucrose or EPS. The results suggest that EPS and sucrose are synthesized to maintain the cellular osmotic equilibrium between the intra- and extracellular environment, thus protecting algal cells from osmotic damage, which was attributed to the selective exclusion of cellular Na+ and K+ by H+-ATPase.

  11. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: the role of carbohydrates and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilián E Canavoso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  12. Role of Leu-enkephalin in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoloev, G.K.

    1987-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of Leuenkephalin (LE) is the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Experiments were carried out on 166 mole albino rats weighing 180-220 g. Opioid peptides, namely LE, D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-Arg/sup 6/-enkephalin, and d-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-D-Arg/sup 6/-enkephalin were injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 500 ..mu..g/kg, naloxone, a blocker of opiate receptors, was injected in a dose of 100 ..mu..g/kg, and the pharmacopoeial preparations Parathyroidin in a dose of 10 U/kg and adrenalin hydrochloride in a dose of 500 ..mu..g/kg. Animals of the control group were given injections of 0.2 ml of physiological saline. The rats were decapitated under superficial ether anesthesia 1 h after injection of the drugs. Insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Radioactivity was counted on a gamma-spectrometer. The glycogen concentration in the samples was determined spectrophotometrically and the cAMP concentration by radioimmunoassay. Radioactivity was counted on a Mark III scintillation counter.

  13. Role of Leu-enkephalin in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of Leuenkephalin (LE) is the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Experiments were carried out on 166 mole albino rats weighing 180-220 g. Opioid peptides, namely LE, D-Ala2-Leu5-Arg6-enkephalin, and d-Ala2-D-Leu5-D-Arg6-enkephalin were injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 500 μg/kg, naloxone, a blocker of opiate receptors, was injected in a dose of 100 μg/kg, and the pharmacopoeial preparations Parathyroidin in a dose of 10 U/kg and adrenalin hydrochloride in a dose of 500 μg/kg. Animals of the control group were given injections of 0.2 ml of physiological saline. The rats were decapitated under superficial ether anesthesia 1 h after injection of the drugs. Insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Radioactivity was counted on a gamma-spectrometer. The glycogen concentration in the samples was determined spectrophotometrically and the cAMP concentration by radioimmunoassay. Radioactivity was counted on a Mark III scintillation counter

  14. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.;

    2006-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline...... activity (P < 0.05) and increased PDH kinase 4 mRNA (P < 0.05) during exercise and recovery. At 1 h of exercise, pyruvate production was greatest and was closely linked to glutamate, which was the predominant amino acid taken up during exercise and recovery. Alanine and glutamine were also associated with...... pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism in...

  15. A Model for Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Deduced from Comparative Whole Genome Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kroth, Peter G.; Chiovitti, Anthony; Gruber, Ansgar; Martin-jezequel, Veronique; Mock, Thomas; Schnitzler Parker, Micaela; Michele S. Stanley; Kaplan, Aaron; Caron, Lise; Weber, Till; Maheswari, Uma; Armbrust, Elisabeth Virginia; Bowler, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Background:Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids.Methodology/Principal Findings:The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to ...

  16. Effects of Different Carbohydrate Sources on Fructan Metabolism in Plants of Chrysolaena obovata Grown in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio eTrevisan; Vanessa Fatima eOliveira; Maria Angela Machado Carvalho; Marília Gaspar Gaspar

    2015-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata (Less.) Dematt., previously named Vernonia herbacea, is an Asteraceae native to the Cerrado which accumulates about 80% of the rhizophore dry mass as inulin-type fructans. Considering its high inulin production and the wide application of fructans, a protocol for C. obovata in vitro culture was recently established. Carbohydrates are essential for in vitro growth and development of plants and can also act as signaling molecules involved in cellular adjustments and metabol...

  17. Changes in the carbohydrate-energy metabolism with radiation-induced intestine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local exposure of the rat abdomen in a dose of 3.6 cC/kg decreases the oxygen uptake, oxidation of glucose and fatty acids, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and also causes a trend toward lactic acidosis. These changes in the carbohydrate-energy metabolism are normalized with the administration of insulin and dichloracetate, and they may be interpreted as consequences of a shock provoked by a massive predominant injury to the intestine

  18. INFLUENCE OF LIFETIME EXPOSURE OF SUBLETHAL DOSES OF CADMIUM TO SELECTED PARAMETERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    František Ništiar; Iveta Cimboláková; Eva Lovásová; Jaroslava Nováková; Agnesa Lukačínová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of exposure to low doses of cadmium dissolved in drinking water (at a concentration 200 times higher than the maximum permissible dose) on selected parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in 20 Wistar rats. Animals were divided into two groups – control and experimental groups exposed to low doses of cadmium chloride in concentration 20 μM of drinking water. We studied the biochemical parameters, as glucose, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin...

  19. [Determination of the total quantity of carbohydrates in dried yeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, O A; Ziukova, L A; Fedorovich, R M

    1975-01-01

    Different colourimetric methods for measuring carbohydrates in yeast have been compared. A method using 5% phenol aqueous solution in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid has been developed to quantitate carbohydrates. The method has been described as applied to an analysis of dry yeast. PMID:1129224

  20. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 through July 2012. The variables analyzed were age, sex, blood pressure, waist circumference, tobacco use, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A and B, TC/HDL ratio and apo B/apo AI ratio. Results: women older than 45 years had a higher prevalence of elevated waist circumference (60.0 %, hypertension (46.7 % and type 2 diabetes mellitus (54.3 % with hypertriglyceridemia (43.3 %, low HDLc levels (36.7 % and were 2.8 times more likely to develop elevated waist circumference; 66.7 % of the diabetic patients had low HDLc levels, 33.3 % developed hypertriglyceridemia and 66.7 % had a high total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. Conclusions: an association between age older than 45 years, female sex, obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed. There was a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels in obese and diabetic patients. Increased risk of low HDL cholesterol and high total cholesterol / HDL cholesterol ratio were also found.

  1. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in t

  2. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in Plasmopara viticola-infected grapevine leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Magdalena; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Bligny, Richard; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Trouvelot, Sophie; Alcaraz, Gérard; Frettinger, Patrick; Clément, Christophe; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David; Adrian, Marielle

    2011-09-01

    The oomycete Plasmopara viticola is responsible for downy mildew, a severe grapevine disease. In infected grapevine leaves, we have observed an abnormal starch accumulation at the end of the dark period, suggesting modifications in starch metabolism. Therefore, several complementary approaches, including transcriptomic analyses, measurements of enzyme activities, and sugar quantification, were performed in order to investigate and to understand the effects of P. viticola infection on leaf starch and-to a larger extent-carbohydrate metabolism. Our results indicate that starch accumulation is associated with an increase in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity and modifications in the starch degradation pathway, especially an increased α-amylase activity. Together with these alterations in starch metabolism, we have observed an accumulation of hexoses, an increase in invertase activity, and a reduction of photosynthesis, indicating a source-to-sink transition in infected leaf tissue. Additionally, we have measured an accumulation of the disaccharide trehalose correlated to an increased trehalase gene expression and enzyme activity. Altogether, these results highlight a dramatic alteration of carbohydrate metabolism correlated with later stages of P. viticola development in leaves. PMID:21649510

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis – impact of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dąbrowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation – the crucial pathogenic mechanism of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis – is the main cause of accelerated atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and well-known consequences related to it. The conservative treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis may provide a significant influence on glucose metabolism. The paper is a literature overview concerning insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism during treatment with disease-modifying drugs including biologic DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, corticosteroids and commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID. It has been found that the risk of carbohydrate disorders among those patients is much lower after therapy with hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and TNF blockers – particularly with infliximab. The NSAID may play an important protective role in reducing risk of diabetes. The recent data show, contrary to general opinion, the advantageous outcome for glucose metabolism after treatment with corticosteroids, especially in the early active stage of rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. In vivo sup 1 sup 3 C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, J

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in th...

  5. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  6. Chitosan-Mediated shRNA Knockdown of Cytosolic Alanine Aminotransferase Improves Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan D; Silva-Marrero, Jonás I; Metón, Isidoro; Caballero-Solares, Albert; Viegas, Ivan; Fernández, Felipe; Miñarro, Montserrat; Fàbregas, Anna; Ticó, Josep R; Jones, John G; Baanante, Isabel V

    2016-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) catalyses a transamination reaction that links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. In this study, we examined the effect of silencing cytosolic ALT (cALT) expression on the hepatic metabolism in Sparus aurata. A number of siRNA and shRNA designed to down-regulate cALT expression were validated in HEK-293 cells transfected with plasmids expressing S. aurata cALT or mitochondrial ALT (mALT) isoforms: ALT silencing significantly decreased the expression levels of S. aurata mRNA cALT1 to 62% (siRNA) and 48% (shRNA) of the values observed in control cells. The effect of cALT silencing was analysed in the liver of S. aurata 72 h after intraperitoneal injection of chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles complexed with a plasmid encoding a shRNA to down-regulate cALT expression (pCpG-si1sh1). In fish fed diets with different ratio of protein to carbohydrate and treated with chitosan-TPP-pCpG-si1sh1, cALT1 and cALT2 mRNA levels significantly decreased irrespective of the diet. Consistently, ALT activity decreased in liver of treated animals. In the liver of S. aurata treated with chitosan-TPP-pCpG-si1sh1 nanoparticles, down-regulation of cALT expression increased the activity of key enzymes in glycolysis (6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and pyruvate kinase) and protein metabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase). Besides showing for the first time that administration of chitosan-TPP-pCpG-si1sh1 nanoparticles silences hepatic cALT expression in vivo, our data support that down-regulation of cALT could improve the use of dietary carbohydrates to obtain energy and spare protein catabolism. PMID:26475146

  7. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  8. Carbohydrate metabolism and quality of life in patients after surgical treatment of insulinoma

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    Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. T study the quality of life and status of carbohydrate metabolism in patients after surgical treatment insulinoma. Methods: The study involved 20 patients divided in two groups: the first group with a catamnesis duration of up to five years; the second group with a catamnesis duration of more than five years. We studied anthropometric parameters and carbohydrate metabolism as well as psychological questioning of patients using SF-36 questionnaire, the data was considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results. severe combined postoperative complications were more frequent in the first group (63.6% vs. 22.2%, p=0.07, due to extend of the performed surgery. Adrenergic symptoms prior to the surgery were detected in 90.9% of cases in the first group and in 77.7% of cases in the second group. After treatment these numbers decreased to 36.4% and 11.1% respectively (p=0.039 and 0.026. Neuroglycopeniс symptoms before treatment were detected in 90.9% of cases in the first group and for all patients in the second, while after treatment persisted only in 45.5% and 33.3% of cases respectively (p=0.045 and 0.036. Carbohydrate metabolism have normalized for the majority of patients. Two patients (18.2% of the first group showed impaired glucose tolerance. Improved carbohydrate metabolism was associated with a decrease in body weight in both groups. Results of psychological questionnaires were comparable with the survey data obtained in general population in the Russian Federation. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of insulinomas is highly effective. Physical and psychological status of patients in most cases corresponds with those typical for this age-sex group of the population of the Russian Federation. Long-term treatment results do not depend on duration of the catamnesis. Complications that developed from surgical treatment have the main influence on the health of patients.

  9. Chemical radiation protection of certain aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the practical importance of certain compounds that exhibit protective character against lethal effects of ionizing radiation, repeated investigations have been carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficiency of such compounds and to study the mechanism through which they manifest their radioprotective effects. The present study is an attempt to investigate the possible role which the heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds (glyoxaline and benzoglyoxaline) can play as radioprotectors against radiation-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The parameters studied were, survival rate, bloodglucose level, gamma insulin level and liver glycogen concentration

  10. beta-adrenergic effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the unweighted rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of unweighting on the response of the soleus-muscle carbohydrate metabolism to a beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) was investigated in rats that were subjected to three days of tail-cast suspension. It was found that isoproterenol promoted glycogen degradation in soleus from suspended rats to a higher degree than in weighted soleus from control rats, and had no effect in unweighted digitorum longus. However, isoproterenol did not have a greater inhibitory effect on the net uptake of tritium-labeled 2-deoxy-glucose by the unweighted soleus and that isoproterenol inhibited hexose phosphorylation less in the unweighted than in the control muscle.

  11. Serum neutral amino acid concentrations in cirrhotic patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutral amino acid levels in cirrhotic patients with abnormal oral glucose tolerance test patterns were not different from those of subjects without impaired carbohydrate metabolism. However, the characteristic features of serum aminograms in the patients, that is, increased levels of tyrosine, decreased levels of valine and leucine and the diminished ratio of branched chain amino acids to phenylalanine and tyrosine levels, were less pronounced in those treated with insulin. This finding is clinically important for evaluating the serum aminogram of cirrhotic patients under insulin therapy.

  12. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gasperl, A.; Morvan-Bertrand, A.; Prud'homme, M. P.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, jan (2016), s. 1251. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzymatic activity * fructan exohydrolase * fructan metabolism * fructosyltransferase * perennial ryegrass * phytohormones * primary carbohydrate metabolism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  13. Role and metabolism of free leucine in skeletal muscle in protein sparing action of dietary carbohydrate and fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding rats with either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal to the previously fasted rats caused significant decrease in urinary output of urea and total nitrogen. The content of free leucine in skeletal muscle decreased in the rats fed either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. Feeding of either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal stimulated incorporation of L-leucine-1-14C into protein fraction of skeletal muscle and reduced its oxidation to 14CO2. These results suggest that the metabolism of leucine is under nutritional regulation and that the decrease in content of free leucine in skeletal muscle might be caused by enhanced reutilization of leucine into protein by the feeding of a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. The role of free leucine in skeletal muscle as a regulator of protein turnover in the tissue are discussed in relation to the metabolism of this branched chain amino acid. (auth.)

  14. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

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    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  15. The Roles of Vitamin A in the Regulation of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism

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    Wei Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese. This high prevalence of overweight/obesity negatively affects the health of the population, as obese individuals tend to develop several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Due to obesity’s impact on health, medical costs, and longevity, the rise in the number of obese people has become a public health concern. Both genetic and environmental/dietary factors play a role in the development of metabolic diseases. Intuitively, it seems to be obvious to link over-nutrition to the development of obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dietary nutrients not only provide energy derived from macronutrients, but also factors such as micronutrients with regulatory roles. How micronutrients, such as vitamin A (VA; retinol, regulate macronutrient homeostasis is still an ongoing research topic. As an essential micronutrient, VA plays a key role in the general health of an individual. This review summarizes recent research progress regarding VA’s role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Due to the large amount of information regarding VA functions, this review focusses on metabolism in metabolic active organs and tissues. Additionally, some perspectives for future studies will be provided.

  16. [Carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism condition in the rat tissue under experimental rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Okhrimenko, S M

    2012-01-01

    Some effects of glycerol injection on indices of the condition of the thiol-disulfide system as well as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in rats in vivo were studied. A decrease was revealed in levels of non-protein SH-groups in the liver, kidney and heart, as well as of protein SH-groups in the kidney and heart of rats following glycerol injection. That might be connected with SH-group oxidation under the excessive arrival of free haem into tissues under rhabdomyolysis. A decrease in glycogen and increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver were observed. Activation of nitrogenous metabolism following glycerol injection is indicated by the increase of aminotransferase activity in organs, and concentration of blood urea. High concentration of creatinine in the rat serum can reflect malfiltration in kidneys. PMID:22679761

  17. Human hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. Dynamic observation using 13C MRS without proton decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dynamic natural-abundance 13C MR spectroscopy (MRS) studies without proton decoupling were performed in the human liver using commercial 1.5 T MR equipment. Material and methods: A single tuned custom-made circular surface coil with an OD of 20 cm operating at 16.04 MHz was used for the 13C study. Seventy-five grams of glucose dissolved in water was administered for the natural-abundance 13C-MRS dynamic study which lasted for approximately 40 to 60 min. Data acquisition was broken into 20-min and 1.7-min blocks. Localized proton shimming with a whole-body coil was performed with sufficient volume to include the observing area of the surface coil; the line width of the water signal was less than 20 Hz. Results and Conclusion: The glucose and glycogen spectra were clearly visible at 80 to 120 ppm after oral administration of the glucose solution. These data demonstrate that dynamic hepatic carbohydrate metabolism can be observed with commercially available MR equipment. Given that the human hepatic glycogen pool reaches maximum level within less than 10 min, this technique should provide a direct diagnosis of hepatic carbohydrate metabolic disorders. (orig.)

  18. The effect of hexavalent chromium at different pH values on the carbohydrate metabolism of Tilapia sparrmanii (Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Wepener; J. H. J. van Vuuren; H.H. du Preez

    1992-01-01

    The effect of hexavalent chromium at different pH values on the carbohydrate metabolism of Tilapia sparrmanii was investigated. The indicator organisms were exposed to Cr(V1) for short and long-term exposures, after which the blood glucose levels and activities of pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined. It was found that short-term exposures of Cr(V1) at an acidic medium caused an increase in energy production and glucose concentrati...

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets cause obesity, low-carbohydrate diets reverse obesity: a metabolic mechanism resolving the paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Mobbs, Charles V.; Mastaitis, Jason; Yen, Kelvin; Schwartz, Joseph; Mohan, Vinuta; Poplawski, Michal; Isoda, Fumiko

    2006-01-01

    High-fat diets produce obesity in part because, per calorie, glucose produces greater post-prandial thermogenesis than lipids, an effect probably mediated by glucose-sensing neurons. A very low carbohydrate/high-fat/high-protein Atkins-type diet produces obesity but is marginally ketogenic in mice. In contrast, high-sucrose/low-fat diets, and very low carbohydrate/high-fat/low-protein (anti-epileptic) ketogenic diets reverse diet-induced obesity independent of caloric intake. We propose that ...

  20. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Iyer, Abishek; Nazer, Reeza; Alam, Md Ashraful; Diwan, Vishal; Kauter, Kathleen; Sernia, Conrad; Campbell, Fiona; Ward, Leigh; Gobe, Glenda; Fenning, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome. PMID:21572266

  1. High-carbohydrate high-fat diet–induced metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular remodeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Iyer, Abishek; Nazer, Reeza; Alam, Ashraful; Diwan, Vishal; Kauter, Kathleen; Sernia, Conrad; Campbell, Fiona; Ward, Leigh; Gobe, Glenda; Fenning, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome. PMID:20966763

  2. A model for carbohydrate metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum deduced from comparative whole genome analysis.

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    Peter G Kroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based putative localization of relevant proteins, discuss possible differences in carbon concentrating mechanisms and CO(2 fixation between the two diatoms. We also identified genes encoding enzymes involved in photorespiration with one interesting exception: glycerate kinase was not found in either P. tricornutum or T. pseudonana. Various Calvin cycle enzymes were found in up to five different isoforms, distributed between plastids, mitochondria and the cytosol. Diatoms store energy either as lipids or as chrysolaminaran (a beta-1,3-glucan outside of the plastids. We identified various beta-glucanases and large membrane-bound glucan synthases. Interestingly most of the glucanases appear to contain C-terminal anchor domains that may attach the enzymes to membranes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present a detailed synthesis of carbohydrate metabolism in diatoms based on the genome sequences of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum

  3. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

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    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  4. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle.

  5. A mini review of dolphin carbohydrate metabolism and suggestions for future research using exhaled air

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    Sam eRidgway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health.

  6. Abdominal ultrasonography in inheredited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism; Ecografia dell'addome nelle malattie ereditarie del metabolismo dei carboidrati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzato, Carlo; Curti, Alessandra; Cornalba, Gianpaolo [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Milano (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche; Radaelli, Giovanni [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Milano (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Statistica Medica; Fiori, Laura; Rossi, Samantha; Riva, Enrica [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Mialno (Italy). Dipartimento di Pediatria

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of abdominal sonography in inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods: Thirty patients (age range, 4 months to 27 years) with glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, disorders of fructose metabolism were studied with sonography. Echogenicity of the liver, sonographic dimensions of liver, kidneys and spleen were evaluated. Plasma blood parameters (ALT, AST, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were determined. Results: Liver was enlarged in 21/22 patients (95.4%) with glycogen storage diseases, in both subjects with disorders of fructose metabolism, and in 2/6 patients (33.3%) with galactosemia. Hepatic echogenicity was increased in 20/22 patients (90.9%) with glycogen storage diseases, and in the subject with hereditary fructose intolerance. Patients with galactosemia did not show increased liver echogenicity. Both kidney were enlarged in 8/17 patients (47.0%) with glycogen storage disease type I. Subjects with increased hepatic echogenicity exhibited higher plasma concentrations of any blood parameter than the others with normal echogenicity (p<0.05). Conclusions: Sonography can be useful in identification of inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism even if further examinations are necessary for an ultimate diagnosis. [Italian] Scopo: Determinare l'utilita' dell'ecografia addominale nelle malattie ereditarie del metabolismo dei carboidrati. Materiale e metodi: Di 30 pazienti (eta' compresa tra 4 mesi e 27 anni), affetti da malattie di accumulo di glicogeno (glicogenosi), galattosemia, disordini del metabolismo del fruttosio, sono stati valutati tramite ecografia l'ecogenicita' epatica e le dimensioni ecografiche di fegato, reni e milza. Sono stati determinati alcuni parametri ematici (ALT, AST, colesterolo totale, trigliceridi). Risultati: Il fegato e' risultato ingrandito in 21/22 pazienti (95,4%) con malattie da accumolo di glicogeno, in entrambi i soggetti con

  7. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  8. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin–cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)–cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. - Highlights: • Diabetic rats are more susceptible to cadmium nephrotoxicity. • Cadmium plays as a cumulative

  9. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin–cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan, E-mail: npashokkumar1@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)–cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. - Highlights: • Diabetic rats are more susceptible to cadmium nephrotoxicity. • Cadmium plays as a cumulative

  10. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gasperl, Anna; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of bot...

  11. Status of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after biliopancreatic diversion surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Ershova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined 70 patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 before and within 5 years after BPD: these patients showed a significant improvement in the status of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism within 3 months after surgery. This improvement has remained stable along with the reduced body weight during the whole observation period of up to 5 years.

  12. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    -fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels......, compared with when the carbohydrate diet is consumed throughout training....

  13. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  14. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  15. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  16. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in radiation sickness and its repair under the effect of therapeutic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of taurin (200mg/kg) in combination with insulin (0.2 IU/kg) on the repair of hormonal activity and of carbohydrate metabolism in an experimentally released radiation sickness was examined. White rats of both sexes weighting 180-200 g were irradiated with a gamma-unit GUM-Co-50 with 700 rad, that corresponds to LDsub(70/30). The preparations were simultaneously administered intraperitoneally every other day altogether 8 times from the 5th day after irradiation. Survival rate in the groups of treated animals was by about 27% higher than in the control. With the administration of therapeutic preparations a repair of the insulin-like plasma activity to the normal levels and a considerable inhibition of liver phosphorylase activity could be observed. Different from insulin action alone a combined use of insulin and taurin led to decrease in blood level of 11-oxycorticosteroids the metabolism of which being essentially impaired by irradiation to the normal value. The restoration of correlation between hormonal activity of adrenal cortex and of the insular apparatus favoured glycogen reproduction in the liver and the decrease in blood-sugar level. Experiments with intact animals as well as in vitro experiments reveal that taurin acts insulin-like

  17. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D; Svensson, Birte; Smith, Alison M; Field, Robert A

    2016-02-15

    Starch is a major energy store in plants. It provides most of the calories in the human diet and, as a bulk commodity, it is used across broad industry sectors. Starch synthesis and degradation are not fully understood, owing to challenging biochemistry at the liquid/solid interface and relatively limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se. PMID:26862201

  18. The Effects of Space Flight on Some Liver Enzymes Concerned with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the levels of glycogen and of individual fatty acids were measured in livers of rats ex- posed to prolonged space flight (18.5 days) aboard COSMOS 986 Biosatellite. When flight stationary, (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) rats were compared at recovery (R(sub 0)), decrceases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha glycerphosphate, acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, acconitase and Epsilon-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened since all activities, showing alterations at R(sub 0), returned to normal 25 days post-flight. Differences were also seen in levels of two liver constituents. When glycogen and total fatty acids of the two groups of flight animals were determined, differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed, the FS group at R(sub 0) contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did controls ad a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate were noted. These metabolic alterations appear to be unique to the weightless condition. Our data justify the conclusion that centrifugation during space flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism in germinating caryopses of Oryza sativa L. exposed to prolonged anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Anoxia tolerance can be evaluated not only in terms of growth or survival of plant organs during oxygen deprivation, but also in relation to carbohydrate utilization in the context of a well-modulated fermentative metabolism. Rice (Oryza spp.) is unique among cereals, in that it has the distinctive ability to germinate under complete anaerobiosis by using the starchy reserves in its seeds to fuel the anaerobic metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of germinating rice seedlings to survive a long-term oxygen deficiency [40 days after sowing (DAS)] and the effects on sugar metabolism, focusing on starch degradation as well as soluble sugars transport and storage under anoxia. No significant decline in vitality occurred until 30 DAS though no recovery was detected following longer anoxic treatments. Growth arrest was observed following anoxic treatments longer that 20 DAS, in concomitance with considerably lower ethanol production. Amylolytic activity in embryos and endosperms had similar responses to anoxia, reaching maximum content 30 days after the onset of stress, following which the levels declined for the remainder of the experiment. Under anoxia, average amylolytic activity was twofold higher in embryos than endosperms. Efficient starch degradation was observed in rice under anoxia at the onset of the treatment but it decreased over time and did not lead to a complete depletion. Our analysis of α-amylase activity did not support the hypothesis that starch degradation plays a critical role in explaining differences in vitality and coleoptile growth under prolonged oxygen deprivation. PMID:27289587

  20. Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum contamination on the carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Li, Hao

    2015-11-01

    During the industrial bioethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often stressed by bacterial contaminants, especially lactic acid bacteria. Generally, lactic acid bacteria contamination can inhibit S. cerevisiae cell growth through secreting lactic acid and competing with yeast cells for micronutrients and living space. However, whether are there still any other influences of lactic acid bacteria on yeast or not? In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was co-cultivated with S. cerevisiae S288c to mimic the L. plantarum contamination in industrial bioethanol fermentation. The contaminative L. plantarum-associated expression changes of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the influence of L. plantarum on carbon source utilization and energy related metabolism in yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. Contaminative L. plantarum influenced the expression of most of genes which are responsible for encoding key enzymes involved in glucose related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae. Specific for, contaminated L. plantarum inhibited EMP pathway but promoted TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP, glycerol synthesis pathway, and redox pathway in S. cerevisiae cells. In the presence of L. plantarum, the carbon flux in S. cerevisiae cells was redistributed from fermentation to respiratory and more reducing power was produced to deal with the excess NADH. Moreover, L. plantarum contamination might confer higher ethanol tolerance to yeast cells through promoting accumulation of glycerol. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between contaminative lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation. PMID:26279142

  1. Abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by Catharanthus roseus treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasineni, Karuna; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2013-09-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups C and C+CR) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (groups F and F+CR) were fed with high-fructose (66 %) diet. C. roseus leaf powder suspension in water (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CR and group F+CR. At the end of a 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. roseus treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F was significantly decreased with C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that C. roseus treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it. PMID:23334857

  2. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas; Cuzon; Gaxiola; Arena; Lemaire; Soyez; Van Wormhoudt A

    2000-06-28

    The effect of dietary carbohydrates (CBH) on glucose and glycogen, digestive enzymes, ammonia excretion and osmotic pressure and osmotic capacity of Litopenaeus stylirostris juveniles was studied. The increase of CBH, ranging between 1 and 33%, stimulates activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in the hepatopancreas. High levels of glucose in hemolymph and of glycogen in the hepatopancreas were reached at the highest level of dietary CBH; however, the kinetics of accumulation is different. Shrimps fed with low level of CBH needed 3 h to reached glucose peak, whereas only 1 h is necessary for high CBH levels. A saturation curve was observed in glycogen level and alpha-amylase activity with maximum values in shrimp-fed diets containing 21% CBH. This level could be used to be included as a maximum shrimp dietary CBH level. Pre-prandial glycogen levels were observed in shrimp fed a diet containing 1% CBH, indicating an important gluconeogenesis, which affected the protein metabolism. The present results show that a diet containing 10% CBH may not be enough to cover the CBH requirement, which could be satisfied by dietary protein content. The low osmotic capacity observed in shrimp fed on a diet containing 10% CBH coincided with a relatively low post-prandial nitrogen excretion which reflects a low concentration of amino acids circulating in hemolymph, which affected the osmotic pressure and the osmotic capacity. These results reflect the high plasticity of shrimp species to use protein to obtain metabolic energy from food and its limited capacity for processing dietary CBH. PMID:10841934

  3. Linked gene networks involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism and levels of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in wheat stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Rattey, Allan; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Kam, Jason W; van Herwaarden, Anthony F; Shorter, Ray; Xue, Gang Ping

    2011-12-01

    High levels of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) provide an important source of stored assimilate for grain filling in wheat. To better understand the interaction between carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with the WSC trait, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed using eight field-grown lines from the high and low phenotypic tails of a wheat population segregating for WSC and the Affymetrix wheat genome array. The 259 differentially expressed probe sets could be assigned to 26 functional category bins, as defined using MapMan software. There were major differences in the categories to which the differentially expressed probe sets were assigned; for example, probe sets upregulated in high relative to low WSC lines were assigned to category bins such as amino acid metabolism, protein degradation and transport and to be involved in starch synthesis-related processes (carbohydrate metabolism bin), whereas downregulated probe sets were assigned to cell wall-related bins, amino acid synthesis and stress and were involved in sucrose breakdown. Using the set of differentially expressed genes as input, chemical-protein network analyses demonstrated a linkage between starch and N metabolism via pyridoxal phosphate. Twelve C and N metabolism-related genes were selected for analysis of their expression response to varying N and water treatments in the field in the four high and four low WSC progeny lines; the two nitrogen/amino acid metabolism genes demonstrated a consistent negative association between their level of expression and level of WSC. Our results suggest that the assimilation of nitrogen into amino acids is an important factor that influences the levels of WSC in the stems of field-grown wheat. PMID:21789636

  4. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

  5. Postprandial de novo lipogenesis and metabolic changes induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat meal in lean and overweight men

    OpenAIRE

    I. Marques-Lopes; D. Ansorena; Astiasaran, I. (Iciar); L. Forga; J. A. Martinez

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjustments of carbohydrate intake and oxidation occur in both normal-weight and overweight individuals. Nevertheless, the contribution of carbohydrates to the accumulation of fat through either reduction of fat oxidation or stimulation of fat synthesis in obesity remains poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the postprandial metabolic changes and the fractional hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat...

  6. Alcoholic Stem Extract of Coscinium fenestratum Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Punitha, I. R.; Rajendran, K.; Arun Shirwaikar; Annie Shirwaikar

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholic extract of the stems of Coscinium fenestratum, a medicinal plant indigenous to India and Sri Lanka used in ayurveda and siddha medicine for treating diabetes, was studied for its carbohydrate metabolism effect and antioxidant status in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. fenestratum stem extract in graded doses caused a significant increase in enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione synthetase, pero...

  7. Correlation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Signatures Determined by Phenotype Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceapa, Corina; Lambert, Jolanda; van Limpt, Kees; Wels, Michiel; Smokvina, Tamara; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-08-15

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterial species commonly colonizing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and also frequently used in food products. While some strains have been studied extensively, physiological variability among isolates of the species found in healthy humans or their diet is largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of carbohydrate utilization capabilities of human isolates and food-derived strains of L. rhamnosus in relation to their niche of isolation and genotype. We investigated the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of 25 out of 65 L. rhamnosus strains from various niches, mainly human feces and fermented dairy products. Genetic fingerprinting of the strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) identified 11 distinct subgroups at 70% similarity and suggested niche enrichment within particular genetic clades. High-resolution carbohydrate utilization profiling (OmniLog) identified 14 carbon sources that could be used by all of the strains tested for growth, while the utilization of 58 carbon sources differed significantly between strains, enabling the stratification of L. rhamnosus strains into three metabolic clusters that partially correlate with the genotypic clades but appear uncorrelated with the strain's origin of isolation. Draft genome sequences of 8 strains were generated and employed in a gene-trait matching (GTM) analysis together with the publicly available genomes of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and HN001 for several carbohydrates that were distinct for the different metabolic clusters: l-rhamnose, cellobiose, l-sorbose, and α-methyl-d-glucoside. From the analysis, candidate genes were identified that correlate with l-sorbose and α-methyl-d-glucoside utilization, and the proposed function of these genes could be confirmed by heterologous expression in a strain lacking the genes. This study expands our insight into the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the species L. rhamnosus

  8. Risk factors of disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and some pleiotropic effects of antihypertensive therapy in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Padyganova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The any kind of hypertension developing during the pregnancy, associated with high cardiovascular risk in the future. At the pregnancy complicated by development by arterial hypertension, there are more expressed changes of a carbohydrate and lipide metabolism, than it is peculiar to normally proceeding pregnancy, were by important pathogenetic links of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular complications. Identification of new mechanisms of action of antihypertensive means associated with positive influences on exchange processes, is represented very demanded, considering pandemic nature of prevalence of metabolic violations in modern population.

  9. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Co-Ordinates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Cell Cycle in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Chen, Yuping; Carey, Lucas; Futcher, Bruce

    2016-05-19

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control cell division in eukaryotes by phosphorylating proteins involved in division. But successful proliferation requires co-ordination between division and cellular growth in mass. Previous proteomic studies suggested that metabolic proteins, as well as cell division proteins, could potentially be substrates of cyclin-dependent kinases. Here we focus on two metabolic enzymes of the yeast S. cerevisiae, neutral trehalase (Nth1) and glycogen phosphorylase (Gph1), and show that their activities are likely directly controlled by CDK activity, thus allowing co-ordinate regulation of carbohydrate metabolism with cell division processes. In this case, co-ordinate regulation may optimize the decision to undertake a final cell division as nutrients are being exhausted. Co-regulation of cell division processes and metabolic processes by CDK activity may be a general phenomenon important for co-ordinating the cell cycle with growth. PMID:27203179

  10. Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. Domesticated cotton makes these reserves available to developing seeds which impacts seed yield. The goals of these analyses were to identify genes and physiological pathways that establish cotton stems and roots as physiological sinks and investigate the role these pathways play in cotton development during seed set. Results Analysis of field-grown cotton plants indicated that starch levels peaked about the time of first anthesis and then declined similar to reports in greenhouse-grown cotton plants. Starch accumulated along the length of the stem and the shape and size of the starch grains from stems were easily distinguished from transient starch. Microarray analyses compared gene expression in tissues containing low levels of starch with tissues rapidly accumulating starch. Statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated increased expression among genes associated with starch synthesis, starch degradation, hexose metabolism, raffinose synthesis and trehalose synthesis. The anticipated changes in these sugars were largely confirmed by measuring soluble sugars in selected tissues. Conclusion In domesticated cotton starch stored prior to flowering was available to support seed production. Starch accumulation observed in young field-grown plants was not observed in greenhouse grown plants. A suite of genes associated with starch biosynthesis was identified. The pathway for starch utilization after flowering was associated with an increase in expression of a glucan water dikinase gene as has been implicated in utilization of transient starch. Changes in raffinose levels and levels of expression of genes controlling trehalose and raffinose biosynthesis were also observed in vegetative

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism teaching strategy for the Pharmacy course, applying active teaching methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uderlei Donizete Silveira Covizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional teaching method has been widely questioned on the development of skills and abilities in training healthcare professionals. In the traditional methodology the main transmitter of knowledge is the teacher while students assume passive spectator role. Some Brazilian institutions broke with this model, structuring the curriculum to student-centered learning. Some medical schools have adopted the Problem Based Learning (PBL, a methodology that presents problem questions, to be encountered by future physicians, for resolution in small tutorial groups. Our work proposes to apply an active teaching-learning methodology addressing carbohydrate metabolism during the discipline of biochemistry for under graduation students from pharmacy course. Thus, the academic content was presented through brief and objective talks. Later, learners were split into tutorial groups for the resolution of issues in context. During the activities, the teacher drove the discussion to the issues elucidation. At the end of the module learners evaluated the teaching methodology by means of an applied questionnaire and the developed content was evaluated by an usual individual test. The questionnaire analysis indicates that students believe they have actively participated in the teaching-learning process, being encouraged to discuss and understand the theme. The answers highlight closer ties between students and tutor. According to the professor, there is a greater student engagement with learning. It is concluded that an innovative methodology, where the primary responsibility for learning is centered in the student himself, besides to increase the interest in learning, facilitates learning by cases discussion in groups. The issues contextualization establishes a narrowing between theory and practice.

  12. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  13. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  14. Impact of motor transport emissions on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ornamental flower plants

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Bessonova; О. P. Pryimak

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of carbohydrate exchange in leaves of Salvia sрlendens and Tagetes patula under conditions of environmental pollution by gaseous emission and lead is described in the article. Species differences of glucose quantity under the influence of ingredients of vehicle emissions are presented. Changes in maintenance of non-structural forms of carbohydrates took place as a result of dependences of enzymes activity from pollutants.

  15. Impact of motor transport emissions on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ornamental flower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of carbohydrate exchange in leaves of Salvia sрlendens and Tagetes patula under conditions of environmental pollution by gaseous emission and lead is described in the article. Species differences of glucose quantity under the influence of ingredients of vehicle emissions are presented. Changes in maintenance of non-structural forms of carbohydrates took place as a result of dependences of enzymes activity from pollutants.

  16. The Influence of Carbohydrate Status and Low Temperature on the Respiratory Metabolism of Mitochondria from Etiolated Leaves of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Borovik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The separate and combined effect of sucrose (12%, 7 days and low temperature (2 °С, 7 days on the growth of plants, the content of carbohydrates in the leaves and oxidative activity of mitochondria isolated from them has been studied on the etiolated plants of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It has been shown that sucrose and low temperature cause inhibition of the growth and increasing of the carbohydrates content. Using the different oxidation substrates (malate, malate + rotenone, succinate, NADH and NADPH have been identified changes in the mitochondrial oxidative activity and the functioning of alternative oxidase and rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases. It has been determined that activity of the alternative oxidase and “external” rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the mitochondria of etiolated leaves depends on the carbohydrate status of the plant, regardless of the growth temperature.

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thomas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8 and p27(Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  18. Lectin histochemistry of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in representatives of different classes of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk R.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glycoproteins (including mucin of vertebrate’s intestine play an important role in its protection against chemical and mechanical damage and bacterial attacks. Their diversity was described by many authors, but understanding of their chemical structure remains far from complete. These data can be extended by methods of lectin histochemistry. Objective. To investigate the rearrangement of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in the context of vertebrate evolution. Methods. Distal and proximal segments of small and large intestines of humans (Homo sapiens, laboratory (Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus f. Domesticus, rock pigeon (Columba livia, smooth snake (Coronella austriaca, common frog (Rana temporaria, common carp (Cyprinus carpio that belong to different classes of vertebrates were taken for the experiment. Nine lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: wheat germ (WGA, potato (STA, elderberry bark (SNA, golden rain bark (LABA, locust bark (RPBA, roe carp (CCRA, Phaseolus vulgaris erytroagglutinin (PHA-E, peanut (PNA and jack fruit (AIA – were included into the panel. Results. Differences in lectin staining between small and large intestine were more pronounced in higher (human, rat than in lower (frog, carp vertebrates. Lectin receptors were more diverse in frog intestine in comparison with carp. Lectin interaction with mucin secretory granules of smooth snake revealed lack of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues and abundance of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine determinants. Conclusion. Intestines of all studied vertebrate species demonstrate high content of secretory mucins that exposed terminal acidic carbohydrates including sialic acid. The diversity and differences in the structure of glycans of the digestive tract of vertebrates is apparently determined by several factors – diet, environmental and living conditions, intestinal microbiota interactions etc. Citation: Antonyuk RV, Lutsyk AD. [Lectin histochemistry of intestinal

  19. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, Jeroen; Vergauwen, Rudy; Sévenier, Robert; Hakkert, Johanna C; van Laere, André; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Koops, Andries J; van der Meer, Ingrid M

    2012-10-15

    Inulin is a fructose-based polymer that is isolated from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) taproots. The degree of polymerization (DP) determines its application and hence the value of the crop. The DP is highly dependent on the field conditions and harvest time. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective to understand the regulation of inulin metabolism and the process that determines the chain length and inulin yield throughout the whole growing season. Metabolic aspects of inulin production and degradation in chicory were monitored in the field and under controlled conditions. The following characteristics were determined in taproots: concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose, the inulin mean polymer length (mDP), yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism. Inulin synthesis, catalyzed by sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100) (1-FFT), started at the onset of taproot development. Inulin yield as a function of time followed a sigmoid curve reaching a maximum in November. Inulin reached a maximum mDP of about 15 in September, than gradually decreased. Based on the changes observed in the pattern of inulin accumulation, we defined three different phases in the growing season and analyzed product formation, enzyme activity and gene expression in these defined periods. The results were validated by performing experiments under controlled conditions in climate rooms. Our results show that the decrease in 1-SST that starts in June is not regulated by day length and temperature. From mid-September onwards, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) decreased gradually although inulin yield still increased. The decrease in mDP combined with increased yield results from fructan exohydrolase activity, induced by low temperature, and the back transfer activity of 1-FFT. Overall, this study provides background information on how to improve

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism of Xylella fastidiosa: Detection of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and cloning and expression of the enolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facincani Agda Paula

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the functionality of the glycolytic pathways in the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. To this effect, the enzymes phosphoglucose isomerase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase of the glycolytic pathway, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were studied, followed by cloning and expression studies of the enolase gene and determination of its activity. These studies showed that X. fastidiosa does not use the glycolytic pathway to metabolize carbohydrates, which explains the increased duplication time of this phytopatogen. Recombinant enolase was expressed as inclusion bodies and solubilized with urea (most efficient extractor, Triton X-100, and TCA. Enolase extracted from X. fastidiosa and from chicken muscle and liver is irreversibly inactivated by urea. The purification of enolase was partial and resulted in a low yield. No enzymatic activity was detected for either recombinant and native enolases, aldolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that X. fastidiosa uses the Entner-Doudoroff pathway to produce pyruvate. Evidence is presented supporting the idea that the regulation of genes and the presence of isoforms with regulation patterns might make it difficult to understand the metabolism of carbohydrates in X. fastidiosa.

  1. Leaf Responses of Micropropagated Apple Plants to Water Stress: Changes in Endogenous Hormones and Their Influence on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian-hong; LI Shao-hua

    2007-01-01

    The changes in the concentrations of endogenous hormones and their influence on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of micropropagated Fuji apple plants were studied under water deficiency stress. The results showed that water stress induced a rapid increase in the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) and led to a decrease in concentrations of both zeatin and gibberellins (GAs). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) changed in an independent manner, which was not correlated with the different levels of water stress. With regard to the carbohydrates, the contents of sorbitol and sucrose increased, whereas the content of starch decreased. The increase in the concentration of ABA was significantly correlated with both the increase in the activity of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) and the decrease in the activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), indicating that ABA played a regulatory role in sorbitol metabolism. The concentration of ABA was positively correlated to the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) but negatively correlated to the activities of acid invertase (AI) and ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase (ADPGppase) in water-stressed plants, which indicated that ABA promoted sucrose synthesis and inhibited sucrose degradation and starch synthesis at the same time. Under conditions of water stress, the decrease in the level of zeatin was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of SDH and ADPGPPase. GAs concentration showed positive correlation with ADPGPPase activity. IAA showed no significant correlation with any of the enzymes tested in this study. The results of this study suggested that ABA might be one of the key factors regulating the distribution of carbohydrates under water stress. The metabolism of sorbitol and starch under conditions of water stress might be regulated by the combined action of many plant hormones.

  2. Effect of Low Dietary Zinc Intake and Experimental Diabetes on the Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KECHRID, Zine

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake and experimental diabetes (IDDM) on the zinc and carbohydrate metabolism, 8-week-old male wealing normal albino (Wistar) rats were fed diets containing either adequate (54mg/kg) or low zinc (1mg/kg) quantities for one week. Ten rats from each group (n=20) were then intraperitoneally injected with alloxan to induce diabetes. The rats were sacrificed after a further three weeks. Body weight gain and food intake were recorded regularly. On day...

  3. Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

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    T. V. Antonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze leptin and adiponectin serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with metabolic syndrome components, biochemical features and stage of hepatitis.Materials and methods: In 93 patients with chronic HCV in age 20-55 with a few symptomatic HCV-infection and minimal liver fibrosis stage serum leptin and adiponectin was measured. Associations between leptin, adiponectin and metabolic abnormalities, biochemical features, and hepatic fibrosis were determined.Results: Abdominal obesity was revealed at 40% patients, overweight – at 41%, insulin resistance – at 36,6% cases. The leptin and adiponectin levels were within normal limits range at most patients. Patients with minimal liver fibrosis had higher index of leptin by comparison to patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (r= – 0,402, р= 0,018. In patients with HCV genotype 3a the adiponectin level was below, than in HCV genotype 1b. Patients with abdominal obesity and overweight had higher leptin and lower adiponectin indexes by comparison to patients without these metabolic abnormalities. Direct cross-correlation between the leptin level and body mass index (r=0,358, p=0,001, waist circumference (r=0,292, p=0,01; negative cross-correlation between the adiponectin level and body mass index (r=- 0,435, р <0,021, waist circumference (r=- 0,386, р =0,001 were displayed.Conclusion: Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in HCVpatientis associated with abdominal obesity and overweight. The connection of leptin level and liver fibrosis stage was revealed. Difference of adiponectin level in HCV-patients with 3a and 1b genotypes of virus was found.

  4. Influence of nutrient supply on growth, carbohydrate, and nitrogen metabolic relations in Typha angustifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steibachová; Vojtíšková, L.; Tylová, E.; Soukup, A.; Novická, H.; Votrubová, O.; Lipavslá, H.; Čížková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, - (2006), s. 246-257. ISSN 0098-8472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Wetland plant * Nitrogen * Phosphorus * Storage carbohydrates * Starch * C/N balance * Eutrophic ation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.820, year: 2006

  5. Sugars, Stable Isotopes, and Spectrometry: New Methods for the Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural analysis of carbohydrates involves three parameters: composition, linkage, and conformation, and tends to rely on the various forms of two techniques; mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These techniques are enhanced and extended by the use of stable...

  6. Metabolic flux in carbohydrate biosynthesis. New methods using stable isotopes, mass spectrometry, and NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural analysis of carbohydrates involves three parameters: composition, linkage, and conformation, and tends to rely on the various forms of two techniques; mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These techniques are enhanced and extended by the use of stable...

  7. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  8. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1)...

  9. Effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio on carbohydrate metabolism and light energy dissipation mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Lu, Yu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient sources are essential elements for metabolism, and their availability must be tightly coordinated for the optimal growth and development in plants. Plants are able to sense and respond to different C/N conditions via specific partitioning of C and N sources and the regulation of a complex cellular metabolic activity. We studied how the interaction between C and N signaling could affect carbohydrate metabolism, soluble sugar levels, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and the ability to drive the excess energy in Arabidopsis seedlings under moderated and disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions. Invertase and sucrose synthase activities were markedly affected by C/N-nutrient status depending on the phosphorylation status, suggesting that these enzymes may necessarily be modulated by their direct phosphorylation or phosphorylation of proteins that form complex with them in response to C/N stress. In addition, the enzymatic activity of these enzymes was also correlated with the amount of sugars, which not only act as substrate but also as signaling compounds. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in plants under disrupted C/N condition suggested a reduction of electron transport rate at PSII level associated with a higher capacity for non-radiative energy dissipation in comparison with plants under moderated C/N condition. In conclusion, the tight coordination between C and N not only affects the carbohydrates metabolism and their concentration within plant tissues, but also the partitioning of the excitation energy at PSII level between radiative (electron transport) and non-radiative (heat) dissipation pathways. PMID:27108206

  10. Identification of behavioural and metabolic factors predicting adiposity sensitivity to both high fat and high carbohydrate diets in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PatrickChristianEven

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals exhibit a great variation in their body weight gain response to a high-fat diet. Identification of predictive factors would enable better directed intervention towards susceptible individuals to treat obesity, and uncover potential mechanisms for treatment targeting. We set out to identify predictive behavioural and metabolic factors in an outbred rat model. 12 rats were analysed in metabolic cages for a period of 5 days during both high carbohydrate diet (HCD, and transition to a high fat diet (HFD. After a recovery period, rats were given a HFD for 6 days to identify those resistant or sensitive to it according to body weight gain. Rats were dissected at the end of the study to analyse body composition. This showed that in rats fed a HCD during most of their life, small differences in final body weight hid large variations in adiposity, allowing separation of rats into a second classification of carbohydrate-sensitive or -resistant. Meal size and meal number were found to be good predictors of sensitivity to a HFD, intensity of motor activity and ingestion speed good predictors of sensitivity to a HCD. Rats that were sensitive to the HCD could be resistant to the HFD and vice versa. This contributes to the idea that to be “obesity prone” does not necessarily need a HFD, it can also happen under a HCD, and be a hidden adiposity change with stable body weight.

  11. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  12. Effect Of Oleanolic Acid Isolated From Garlic Leaves On Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes, In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meshram; S. S. Khamkar

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial hyperglycemia can be controlled by retarding the absorption of glucose through inhibition of the two main enzymes, α-amylase and glucoamylase. This action delays carbohydrate digestion causing reduction in the rate of glucose absorption and degradation of glycogen during starvation. Allium sativum (Garlic) is a medicinal plant used worldwide for flavoring as well as medicinal purpose. However, chemical examination and biological activity of compounds present in the leaves are le...

  13. Identification of the first insulin-like peptide in the disease vector Rhodnius prolixus: Involvement in metabolic homeostasis of lipids and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defferrari, Marina S; Orchard, Ian; Lange, Angela B

    2016-03-01

    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) are functional analogs of insulin and have been identified in many insect species. The insulin cell signaling pathway is a conserved regulator of metabolism, and in insects, as well as in other animals, can modulate physiological functions associated with the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. In the present study, we have identified the first ILP from the Rhodnius prolixus genome (termed Rhopr-ILP) and investigated its involvement in energy metabolism of unfed and recently fed fifth instars. We have cloned the cDNA sequence and analyzed the expression profile of the transcript, which is predominantly present in neurosecretory cells in the brain, similar to other insect ILPs. Using RNAi, we have reduced the expression of this peptide transcript by 90% and subsequently measured the carbohydrate and lipid levels in the hemolymph, fat body and leg muscles. Reduced levels of Rhopr-ILP transcript induced increased carbohydrate and lipid levels in the hemolymph and increased lipid content in the fat body, in unfed insects and recently fed insects. Also their fat bodies displayed enlarged lipid droplets within the cells. On the other hand, the carbohydrate content in the fat body and in the leg muscles of unfed insects were decreased when compared to control insects. Our results indicate that Rhopr-ILP is a modulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, probably through signaling the presence of available energy and nutrients in the hemolymph. PMID:26742603

  14. Deep insights into carbohydrate metabolism in the rumen of Mehsani buffalo at different diet treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi R. Parmar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants are known to harbour a vast and diverse microbial community that functions in utilizing the fibrous and starchy feedstuffs. The microbial fermentation of fibrous and starchy feed is carried out by different groups of microbiota, which function in synergistic mechanism. The exploration of the shift in carbohydrate utilizing microbial community with the change in diet will reveal the efficient role of that group of microbial community in particular carbohydrate utilization. The present study explains the shifts in microbial enzymes for carbohydrate utilization with the change in the feed proportions and its correlation with the microbial community abundance at that particular treatment. The sequencing data of the present study is submitted to NCBI SRA with experiment accession IDs (ERX162128, ERX162129, ERX162130, ERX162131, ERX162139, ERX162134, ERX162140, ERX162141, ERX197218, ERX197219, ERX197220, ERX197221, ERX162158, ERX162159, ERX162160, ERX162161, ERX162176, ERX162164, ERX162165, ERX162166, ERX162167, ERX162168, ERX162169, ERX162177.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase: an emerging drug target to regulate imbalances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism to treat cardio-metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; Pinkosky, Stephen L; Filippov, Sergey; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Cramer, Clay T; Newton, Roger S

    2012-12-01

    The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism at the cellular as well as whole-body level. It is activated by low energy status that triggers a switch from ATP-consuming anabolic pathways to ATP-producing catabolic pathways. AMPK is involved in a wide range of biological activities that normalizes lipid, glucose, and energy imbalances. These pathways are dysregulated in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), which represents a clustering of major cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and energy imbalances. Clearly, there is an unmet medical need to find a molecule to treat alarming number of patients with MetS. AMPK, with multifaceted activities in various tissues, has emerged as an attractive drug target to manage lipid and glucose abnormalities and maintain energy homeostasis. A number of AMPK activators have been tested in preclinical models, but many of them have yet to reach to the clinic. This review focuses on the structure-function and role of AMPK in lipid, carbohydrate, and energy metabolism. The mode of action of AMPK activators, mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities, and preclinical and clinical findings as well as future prospects of AMPK as a drug target in treating cardio-metabolic disease are discussed. PMID:22798688

  16. Azospirillum brasilense locus coding for phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose phosphotransferase system and global regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, S; Mukherjee, A.; Ghosh, S.

    1993-01-01

    Mutants of Azospirillum brasilense unable to grow on fructose include ones affected only on fructose (Fru-) and others impaired on many or all carbohydrates through interference with induction of their specific pathways (Car-). Both types of mutants could be complemented by a cosmid in broad-host-range vector pLAFR1 containing a 27.5-kb genomic insert, Car(-)-complementing activity depending on a 2.2-kb fragment, and Fru(-)-complementing activity depending on an overlapping 9.6-kb fragment.

  17. 水生龟鳖类糖代谢的研究进展%Research Advances in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Aquatic Turtles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 杨振才

    2013-01-01

    水生龟鳖类是一种以摄食动物性蛋白质饲料为主的爬行动物,对糖的利用能力不高.本文综述了水生龟鳖类对糖的利用能力、糖代谢模式及调控机制的研究现状,并结合哺乳动物和鱼类的糖代谢机制比较其中的联系与区别,提出水生龟鳖类糖代谢研究中存在的问题及今后的研究方向.%Aquatic turtles are a kind of reptile mainly ingesting the animal protein feed, and they have a low a-bility in utilization of carbohydrate. This review summarizes the recent advances about utilization ability of carbohydrate , carbohydrate metabolism model and regulation mechanism for aquatic turtles, and compares the relation and difference of mammals and fish with turtles in the carbohydrate metabolism mechanism in order to put forward the questions and directions of the carbohydrate metabolism study in aquatic turtles.

  18. Biochemical studies of effects of alcohol consumption on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed different levels of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol, ethanol and ethyl alcohol are synonymously used during the present dissertation. Alcohol probably was among the first psychoactive substances to be used by man (Winger et al., 1992). Ethanol is mainly oxidized to acetaldehyde in the liver (Ugarte and Peresa, 1978) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Alcohol is associated with many metabolic disorders inside the body (Thayer and Rubin, 1979; Forsander and Poso, 1988; Poso and Hirsimaki, 1991; Bernal, et al., 1992). The nutritional factors which received little attention have an important role in alcoholic metabolizing alterations. Morphologically and biochemically, an increase in hepatic lipid was demonstrated when ethanol was given either as a supplement or as an iso caloric substitute for carbohydrate together with an otherwise nutritionally adequate diet. Low-protein diets have been shown to diminish hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) levels in rats and to slow down the metabolism of ethanol considerably (Wilson et al., 1986). Hepatic steatosis was produced, even with a high-protein, vitamin-supplemented diet and was accompanied by major ultrastructural liver changes and by elevations of hepatic transaminases in blood (Lieber et al., 1963 and 1965 and Lane and Lieber, 1966). If dietary fat was reduced from 35 to 25% of total calories, hepatic triglyceride accumulation greatly decreased (Lieber and DeCarli, 970)

  19. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana and its alteration on gamma irradiation in relation to delay in ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripening, of climacteric class of fruits like banana, is accompanied with an upsurge in respiration, indicating a change in metabolism from hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt pathway to glycolytic pathway. The key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, namely, phosphofructokinase, is activated and this activation paralleled with the increase in respiration rate. The enhancement in the activity of enzymes of glycolytic and Kreb's cycle help the fruit to assimilate energy as ATP produced from the breakdown and oxidation of storage starch. The demand for energy supply is great for the different ripening processes. Gamma irradiation of the fruit at the preclimacteric stage delayed the onset of climacteric to about 7 to 8 days, thereby extending the ripening to 15-20 days. This delay was brought about by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate. There is a predominance of HMP pathway in irradiated banana. This along with the activation of phosphatases like FDPase and F-6-Pase restricted the entrance of sugar phosphate esters to Kreb's cycle for oxidation. The functioning of Kreb's cycle is also affected by the inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase. But activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway helped to maintain the levels of Kreb's cycle intermediates, like citrate and malate, although energy production is reduced. Finally the activation of gluconeogenic pathway helps in channelling the metabolites back to sugars. All these metabolic changes cause a considerable depletion in the production of ATP. (auth.)

  20. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1-14C glucose and 6-14C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14CO2 from 1-14C and 6-14C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1-14C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1-14C and 6-14C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6-14C glucose. (auth.)

  1. Alcoholic Stem Extract of Coscinium fenestratum Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Punitha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic extract of the stems of Coscinium fenestratum, a medicinal plant indigenous to India and Sri Lanka used in ayurveda and siddha medicine for treating diabetes, was studied for its carbohydrate metabolism effect and antioxidant status in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. fenestratum stem extract in graded doses caused a significant increase in enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione synthetase, peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase and in the nonenzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, ceruloplasmin and tocopherol. Effects of alcoholic extract on glycolytic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and hexokinase showed a significant increase in their levels, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the levels of gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase in treated diabetic rats. Serum creatinine and urea levels also declined significantly. This investigation demonstrates significant antidiabetic activity of C. fenestratum.

  2. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in culture media of Clostridium thermocellum by valve-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ji, Chengshuai; Cui, He; Zhu, Xinshu; Du, Juan; Gao, Jun

    2013-10-10

    An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, flow rate, concentration, and valve-switch timing were optimized. The method is time-saving, effective, and accurate for the simultaneous separation of amino acids and carbohydrates, with a mean correlation coefficient of >0.99 and repeatability of 0.5-4.6% for eight replicates. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in aseptic media and in extracellular culture media of three phenotypes of Clostridium thermocellum. PMID:24070489

  3. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  4. Polymorphism of CD36 gene, carbohydrate metabolism and plasma CD36 concentration in obese children. A preliminary study 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika E. Rać

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:CD36 may play an important role in removal of oxidized LDLs from plasma, protein glycation, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Some reports have pointed to decreased expression of macrophages in association with mutations of the CD36 gene in hyperglycemic and obese subjects. The aim of the study was to search for an association between CD36 gene polymorphism and carbohydrate metabolism disturbances or variability of plasma soluble CD36 concentrations in obese children.Material/Methods:The study included 60 children aged 10 to 15 years: 30 with (study group and 30 without (control group obesity. Each patient’s glycated hemoglobin, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, BMI, WHR and MAP were calculated, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed with glucose and insulin concentration measurements. Amplicons of exons 4–6 of CD36 were studied using DHPLC technique. The PCR products with alterations were bidirectionally sequenced. Plasma concentrations of human antigen CD36 was measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results:We found two intronic alterations: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798 and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892, one nonsynonymous substitution: G367A (Glu123Lys, rs183461468 in exon 5 and two synonymous transitions in exon 6: G573A (Pro191Pro, rs5956 and A591T (Thr197Thr, rs141680676. There were no significant differences in any biochemical or morphometric parameters between genotype groups.Discussion:The polymorphisms of the studied fragment of CD36 are not associated with carbohydrate metabolism disturbances or the variability of plasma soluble CD36 concentrations in obese children, but further research is necessary to assess their functional implications. 

  5. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus. PMID:26547672

  6. Carbohydrate oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction, a novel form of anaerobic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, J D; Councell, T; Ellis, D J; Lovley, D R

    1998-12-01

    An isolate, designated GC-29, that could incompletely oxidize glucose to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the electron acceptor was recovered from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. This metabolism yielded energy to support cell growth. Strain GC-29 is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative motile rod which, in addition to glucose, also used sucrose, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract, casamino acids or H2 as alternative electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. Stain GC-29 could reduce NO3(-), Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, malate, S2O3(2-), and colloidal S0 as well as the humics analog, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA sequence indicated that strain GC-29 belongs in the Shewanella genus in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The name Shewanella saccharophilia is proposed. Shewanella saccharophilia differs from previously described fermentative microorganisms that metabolize glucose with the reduction of Fe(III) because it transfers significantly more electron equivalents to Fe(III); acetate and carbon dioxide are the only products of glucose metabolism; energy is conserved from Fe(III) reduction; and glucose is not metabolized in the absence of Fe(III). The metabolism of organisms like S. saccharophilia may account for the fact that glucose is metabolized primarily to acetate and carbon dioxide in a variety of sediments in which Fe(III) reduction is the terminal electron accepting process. PMID:16887653

  7. [Determination of individual purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate-rich food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassek, E; Montag, A

    1987-05-01

    The following method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate rich food: The bases were liberated from nucleic acids, nucleotides or nucleosides by acid hydrolysis in a pressure digestion vessel. A complete liberation without losses of purine bases occurs upon hydrolysis for 15 min at 240 degrees C with trifluoroacetic and formic acids (1+1; V + V), pyrimidine bases need 45 min at 240 degrees C. The products arising from side reactions (such as hydroxymethylfurfural from hexoses and furfural from pentoses) could be removed from the hydrolysate by extraction with dichlormethane. The liberated bases could be separated upon stepwise elution by cation exchange chromatography. They were detected and determined by UV-measurements, continuously monitoring at lambda = 260 nm, and integrating electronically. The evaluation was carried out by a method with internal standard. PMID:3604458

  8. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source...

  9. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  10. [Effect of vibration, noise, physical exertion and unfavorable microclimate on carbohydrate metabolism in workers engaged into mining industry and machine building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapko, I V; Kir'iakov, V A; Antoshina, L I; Pavlovskaia, N A; Kondratovich, S V

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied influence of vibration, noise, physical overexertion and microclimate on carbohydrates metabolism and insulin resistance in metal mining industry workers. Findings are that vibration disease appeared to have maximal effect on insulin resistance test results and insulin level. The authors suggested biomarkers for early diagnosis of insulin resistance disorders in metal mining industry workers. PMID:25282800

  11. Teaching Arrangements of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Biochemistry Curriculum in Peking University Health Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Ni, Ju-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry occupies a unique place in the medical school curricula, but the teaching of biochemistry presents certain challenges. One of these challenges is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach…

  12. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  13. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhe eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilising invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesising fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesise that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne.

  14. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tian; Mills, Katherine T.; Yao, Lu; Demanelis, Kathryn; Eloustaz, Mohamed; Yancy, William S; Kelly, Tanika N.; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-carbohydrate diets (≤45% of energy from carbohydrates) versus low-fat diets (≤30% of energy from fat) on metabolic risk factors were compared in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-three trials from multiple countries with a total of 2,788 participants met the predetermined eligibility criteria (from January 1, 1966 to June 20, 2011) and were included in the analyses. Data abstraction was conducted in duplicate by independent investigators. Both low-carb...

  15. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol.

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, P T; Wernette-Hammond, M E; Kneer, N M; Lardy, H A

    1983-01-01

    In hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats, 2,5-anhydromannitol inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate and from substrates that enter the gluconeogenic pathway as triose phosphate. This fructose analog has no effect, however, on gluconeogenesis from xylitol, a substrate that enters the pathway primarily as fructose 6-phosphate. The sensitivity of gluconeogenesis to 2,5-anhydromannitol depends on the substrate metabolized; concentrations of 2,5-anhydromannitol required for 50% inhib...

  16. Metabolic profile of 4 h cycling in the field with varying amounts of carbohydrate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Gabriel, H H W; Auracher, M; Scharhag, J; Kindermann, W

    2003-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have demonstrated a performance-enhancing effect of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementations during endurance sessions of long duration. However, the transferability of these results to real training and competition circumstances has not been conclusively shown. Therefore, we tried to test the influence of graded CHO substitution on substrate utilization and selected physiological parameters under standardized but practically orientated field conditions. Fourteen endurance-trained male subjects [mean (SD): 25 (5) years, 72 (9) kg, .VO(2max) 67 (6) ml.min(-1).kg(-1), individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) 269 (30) W] after a stepwise increasing pre-test had to perform three 4-h endurance rides on their own bicycles with simultaneous spiroergometry: constant workload 70% IAT (monitoring by SRM-System). Before and during exercise, solutions without (0%), with 6% or 12% CHO were administered double-blindly and in randomized order (total volume: 50 ml.kg(-1)). After cessation of exercise, significant differences between 0% and both CHO concentrations were detected for blood glucose (GLU; 75 mg dl(-1) for 0% vs 101 mg dl(-1) for 6% vs 115 mg dl(-1) for 12%; PFree fatty acids (0.19 vs 0.16 vs 0.10 mmol l(-1)) and glycerol (0.41 vs 0.22 vs 0.12 mmol l(-1)) were significantly different between the endurance trials in a dose-dependent manner (both P<0.001). Lactate concentration ( P=0.42) and heart rate ( P=0.12) had no significant influence from CHO substitution. We conclude that CHO substitution during 4-h endurance training inhibits lipolysis in a dose-dependent manner and enhances aerobic glycolysis. This proves that earlier laboratory findings can be replicated under field conditions using modern portable equipment. PMID:12527974

  17. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  18. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  19. Influence of glycorazmulin on the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in alloxane diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyoda Fayzieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There was studied effect of glycorazmulin on the morphological structure of the liver and pancreatic gland under the conditions of alloxane diabetes. The study found that that glycorazmulin eliminates pathomorphological changes that occur in alloxane diabetes in the liver and pancreatic gland, and stimulates reparative processes in these organs. The effect of this preparation is mainly directed to stimulation of the regeneration of β-cells. The elimination of histostructural changes resulted in compensation of the damaged metabolic processes in diabetes mellitus. Besides, marked increase in C-peptide in the blood is the confirmation of the insulin secretion stimulation under the effect of this preparation.

  20. Prolonged postdiapause: influence on some indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowska, Kamila; Giejdasz, Karol; Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Zółtowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Bees of the genus Osmia are being used in crop pollination at an increasing rate. However, a short life expectancy of adult individuals limits the feasibility of their use. Cocoons of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), can be stored at 4° C in a postdiapause state, and adult bees can be used for pollination outside their natural flight period. The period of storage in this form has an unfavorable influence on the survival rate, life expectancy, and fertility of the bee. It was suggested that the negative results are connected with exhaustion of energy reserves. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the contents of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and the activities of some enzymes, and their degradation in red mason bees that emerged in spring according to their biological clock and in summer after elongated diapause. It was found that postdiapause artificially elongated by 3 months caused significant decreases in body weight, total sugar, glycogen, lipids, and protein content in O. rufa. Glucose level was highest in bees that emerged in the summer, which was coincident with increased activities of maltase and trehalase. The activities of sucrase and cellobiase were not changed, while amylase activity was considerably decreased. The activities of triacylglycerols lipase and C2, C4, C10 carboxylesterases were highest in bees that emerged in July. Low temperatures restrict O. rufa emergence, and during prolonged postdiapause, metabolic processes lead to significant reductions of structural and energetic compounds. PMID:24219557

  1. Yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatotoxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora function: A rat urine metabonomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Tao, Weiwei; Liu, Pei

    2016-07-15

    This research was designed to study metabonomic characteristics of the toxicity induced by yuanhuapine, a major bioactive diterpenoid in a well-known traditional Chinese medicine-Genkwa Flos. General observation, blood biochemistry and histopathological examination were used to reflect yuanhuapine-induced toxicity. Urine samples from rats in control and yuanhuapine treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Pattern recognition methods including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least-squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and computational system analysis were integrated to obtain comprehensive metabonomic profiling and pathways of the biological data sets. The results suggested that yuanhuapine could induce intestinal and liver damage. And 14 endogenous metabolites as biomarkers related to the amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora were significantly changed in the urine of yuanhuapine treated rats, which were firstly constructed the metabolomic feature profiling and metabolite interaction network of yuanhuapine-induced injury using pattern recognition methods and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approach. The present study showed that yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatic toxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora. PMID:26341729

  2. The role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including α-mannosidase, #betta#-N-acetylglucosaminidase, #betta#-galactosidase and α-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of 125I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA. (Author)

  3. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  4. Carbohydrate determinants in ferret conjunctiva are affected by infection with influenza H1N1 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril; Aasted, Bent; Vorum, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates often accomplish as cell-surface receptors for microorganisms and influenza virus preferentially binds to sialic acid through the viral haemagglutinin. The virus may attach not only to the epithelium in the airways, but also to the surface ocular epithelium.......Carbohydrates often accomplish as cell-surface receptors for microorganisms and influenza virus preferentially binds to sialic acid through the viral haemagglutinin. The virus may attach not only to the epithelium in the airways, but also to the surface ocular epithelium....

  5. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  6. Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.

  7. Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wiszniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and methods The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.

  8. Insulin and carbohydrate dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelato, Marie C

    2003-04-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may experience abnormal body composition changes as well as metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, increases in triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, ranging from insulin resistance with and without glucose intolerance to frank diabetes. Whether the body composition changes (i.e., increased visceral adiposity and fat wasting in the peripheral tissues) are linked to abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism is unclear. The use of HAART with and without therapy with protease inhibitors (PIs) is related to carbohydrate abnormalities and changes in body composition. Regimens that include PIs appear to have a higher incidence of insulin resistance (up to 90%) and diabetes mellitus (up to 40%). The etiology of these abnormalities is not well understood; what is known about insulin and carbohydrate dysregulation with HAART is discussed. PMID:12652377

  9. Continuous light increases growth, daily carbon gain, antioxidants, and alters carbohydrate metabolism in a cultivated and a wild tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad S; Kjaer, Katrine H; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated tomato species develop leaf injury while grown in continuous light (CL). Growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidative enzyme activities of a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Aromata') and a wild tomato species (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) were compared in this study aiming to analyze the species-specific differences and thermoperiod effects in responses to CL. The species were subjected to three photoperiodic treatments for 12 days in climate chambers: 16-h photoperiod with a light/dark temperature of 26/16°C (P16D10 or control); CL with a constant temperature of 23°C (P24D0); CL with a variable temperature of 26/16°C (P24D10). The results showed that both species grown in CL had higher dry matter production due to the continuous photosynthesis and a subsequent increase in carbon gain. In S. lycopersicum, the rate of photosynthesis and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II declined in CL with the development of leaf chlorosis, reduction in the leaf chlorophyll content and a higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. The normal diurnal patterns of starch and sugar were only present under control conditions. The results demonstrated that CL conditions mainly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of a cultivated species (S. lycopersicum), and to a less degree to the wild species (S. pimpinellifolium). The negative effects of the CL could be alleviated by diurnal temperature variations, but the physiological mechanisms behind these are less clear. The results also show that the genetic potential for reducing the negative effects of CL does exist in the tomato germplasm. PMID:26217371

  10. Continuous light increases growth, daily carbon gain, antioxidants and alters carbohydrate metabolism in a cultivated and a wild tomato species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sabibul Haque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated tomato species develop leaf injury while grown in continuous light (CL. Growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidative enzyme activities of a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Aromata’ and a wild tomato species (Solanum pimpinellifolium L. were compared in this study aiming to analyse the species-specific differences and thermoperiod effects in responses to CL. The species were subjected to three photoperiodic treatments for 12 days in climate chambers: 16-h photoperiod with a light/dark temperature of 26/16ºC (P16D10 or control; CL with a constant temperature of 23ºC (P24D0; CL with a variable temperature of 26/16ºC (P24D10. The results showed that both species grown in CL had higher dry matter production due to the continuous photosynthesis and a subsequent increase in carbon gain. In S. lycopersicum, the rate of photosynthesis and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II declined in CL with the development of leaf chlorosis, reduction in the leaf chlorophyll content and a higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. The normal diurnal patterns of starch and sugar were only present under control conditions. The results demonstrated that CL conditions mainly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of a cultivated species (S. lycopersicum, and to a less degree to the wild species (S. pimpinellifolium. The negative effects of the CL could be alleviated by diurnal temperature variations, but the physiological mechanisms behind these are less clear. The results also show that the genetic potential for reducing the negative effects of CL does exist in the tomato germplasm.

  11. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms of children with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weibin; Li, Shuxian; Shen, Qiong; Guo, Xiuxia; Rong, Huijuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms of Turner syndrome (TS). Metho d s: Total 45 patients with TS admitted between Jul. 2008 and Jun. 2011 were involved in this study. All patients received the clinical evaluation of body fat, plasma lipids, proteins and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after rhGH therapy. Results : Our results indicated a significant decrease of body fat (FAT%) from 23.56±4.21 to 18.71±2.23 but no obvious change on the level of fat mass (FM) (p>0.05) was observed after rhGH therapy. We also detected significant changes on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) from (1.65±0.58 mmol/L) to (2.20±0.65 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDH-C) from (2.55±0.55 mmol/L) to (2.10±0.54 mmol/L) after rhGH exposure. However, no statistical significance was detected on the level of plasma triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO). Interestingly, the levels of plasma retinol binding protein (RbP) (32.55±4.28mg/L), transferrin (TRF) (2.95±0.40 mg/L), serum albumin (PRE) (250.00±45.50 mg/L) and albumin (propagated) (33.58±4.25 mg/L) were significantly increased. When it goes to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) test, there were 10 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) cases among all patients before and after rhGH therapy. No significant change was observed on homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level during rhGH intervention. Conclusion : Abnormal lipid and protein metabolisms of the children with TS can be improved with rhGH therapy for 6 months. PMID:25097506

  12. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D. PMID:27388153

  13. Long-term consequences of small doses ionizing radiation effect on carbohydrate metabolism indices and their interrelation with incretory function on pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon inspection of 100 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences it was established that main pathogenic factors of the damaging effect of small dose ionizing radiation is its indirect action realized through the infringement of hormonal mechanisms of metabolism regulation. Carbohydrates metabolism disorders are considered from viewpoint of the hormonal status fluctuations in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences observed in the form of basal immunoreactive insulin level reduction and simultaneous increase of counter-insular hormones concentration in blood. Potential disorders in the glucose tolerance test have been observed in 32 % of the patients, decrease of immunoreactive insulin in 89 % and also increase of counter-insular hormones concentration in 52,8 %. Interrelation of revealed hormonal and metabolic changes with radiation factor in its long-term period was established. Marked changes are caused in the organism and stress effects of the radiation factor. By means of multifractal dispersion analysis it has been found that the contribution of the radiation factor in the propagation of the described changes constitutes 86,5 %. Sulphate-ion is shown to be able to taking incorporated long-living radionuclides from the organism along with the mitigation of their toxic effect. Application of the method of glucose tolerance test estimation by the generalized criterion allows to specify risk groups of the carbohydrates metabolism disorders propagation among the liquidators followed by the endocrinological observation, hormonal status control and application of preventive measures. (author)

  14. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress. PMID:25804808

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  16. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts. PMID:26760673

  17. Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. I. Chronic exposure to hypoxia affects the oxygen transport system and carbohydrate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlung Johannes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb, which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa, respectively. Results The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase, and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase. Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level. Conclusion Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism.

  18. Determination of pH, buffering capacity, total carbohydrates and sucrose in sugar-free and light processed fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dal Molin Netto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth erosion is the irreversible loss of dental hard tissues caused by acids and/or chelation without bacterial involvement.Many studies showed that there is an increase of tooth erosion in population and that it is related to the consumption of soft drinks,including processed fruit juices. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity (BC, total carbohydrates and sucrose in 15 sugar-free and light processed fruit juices.Material and methods: The pH was determined with a Mettler Toledo 320 pH meter.The BC was determined by titration, adding 0.1 N NaOH in 10 mL of each drink until reaching a pH level of 7.0. The total carbohydrates were determined using the phenol sulfuric method, while the sucrose was determined through the incubation of each sample with the invertase enzyme.Results: The average value of pH was 2.61 (±0.29.The processed fruit juices analyzed needed, in average, 6.2 mL (±1.9 of NaOH in order to increase the pH to 7.0. The total carbohydrates showed to be according to the values presented in the labels.The sucrose content verified in each drink was very low and varied from 0.60 to 0.93 g / 200 mL.Conclusion: This study showed that the 15 drinks analyzed had low pH and erosive potential, once most juices presented high BC.The sucrose presented in each drink was very low, suggesting that they are not cariogenic. Nevertheless, further studies that demonstrate the action of these juices in the dental surface are required.

  19. Effects of sub-chronic exposure to SO{sub 2} on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovati, M.R. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Manzoni, C. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Daldossi, M. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Spolti, S. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Sirtori, C.R. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. While toxicological reports on SO{sub 2} have extensively dealt with the pulmonary system, essentially no data are available on the effects of chronic exposure to this pollutant on intermediary metabolism, although some biochemical changes in lipid metabolism have been detected. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the effects of sub-chronic exposure to SO{sub 2} on concentrations of serum lipids/lipoproteins and on glucose metabolism, in animal models of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. A specially designed controlinert atmosphere chamber was used, where male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on either standard or cholesterol enriched (HC) diets, as well as streptozotocin diabetics, were exposed to SO{sub 2} at 5 and 10 ppm, 24 h per day for 14 days. In rats, both on a standard diet and on a HC regimen, SO{sub 2} exposure determined a significant dose-dependent increase in plasma triglycerides, up to +363% in the 10 ppm HC exposed animals. This same gas concentration significantly reduced HDL cholesterol levels. In contrast, exposure of diabetic animals to 10 ppm SO{sub 2} resulted in a fall (-41%) of plasma and liver triglycerides and in a concomitant increase (+62%) of plasma HDL cholesterol. This discrepancy could apparently be related to diverging effects of SO{sub 2} exposure on plasma insulin levels in the different animal groups. Kinetic analyses of triglyceride synthesis carried out in rats on a standard diet revealed, in exposed animals, a significant reduction in the secretory rate, in spite of the concomitant hypertriglyceridemia. These findings suggest that SO{sub 2} exposure can markedly modify major lipid and glycemic indices, also indicating a differential response in normo/hyperlipidemic versus diabetic animals. (orig.)

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic disorders in horses Metabolismo de carboidratos e disfunções metabólicas em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda M. Hoffman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Horses evolved consuming primarily fermentable forage carbohydrates, but forage diets have been traditionally supplemented with grain meals rich in starch and sugar in order to provide additional calories, protein and micronutrients. Starch and sugar are important for performance horses, but the consumption starch-rich meals may cause equine digestive and metabolic disorders. The critical capacity for preileal starch digestibility appears to be 0.35 to 0.4% but may be as little, depending on the source of starch. Small intestinal absorption of simple sugars is limited by the activity and expression of two classes of glucose carrier proteins, which are affected by chronic intake of hydrolyzable carbohydrate but may be sluggish to respond to abrupt changes in diet, further exacerbating the risk of overload. The most rapid fermentation occurs during starch overload or in the presence of fructans. Rapid fermentation perturbs the microbial and pH balance of the cecum and colon, favoring proliferation of Lactobacillus spp and acid production and increasing the risk of colic and laminitis. In addition to digestive disturbances, feeding grain concentrates rich in hydrolyzable carbohydrate may increase the risk of insulin resistance, which has been associated with obesity, laminitis and chronic founder, developmental orthopedic disease, and Cushing's disease in horses. This threshold concentration of starch intake may be a starting point for horse owners, feed manufacturers and veterinarians that may be claimed to be "low" enough to reduce risk in insulin resistant horses sensitive to grain-associated disorders.Equinos desenvolvem-se consumindo primordialmente os carboidratos fermentáveis das forragens, porém as dietas a base de forragens vem sendo suplementadas com dietas a base de grãos, ricas em amido e açúcar, visando fornecer adicionais calorias, proteínas e micronutrientes. Amido e açucares são importantes para os equinos atletas, porém o

  1. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ning; Nobel, P.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    After exposure to a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration of 750 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} air for about 3 months, glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO{sub 2} concentration of 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration increased the noncturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32% soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO{sub 2} accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO{sub 2} increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica, consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO{sub 2}. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

  2. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  3. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions.

  4. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Freedland ES

    2004-01-01

    Abstract There are likely many scenarios and pathways that can lead to metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews mechanisms by which the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may contribute to the metabolic syndrome, and explores the paradigm of a critical VAT threshold (CVATT). Exceeding the CVATT may result in a number of metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance to glucose uptake by cells. Metabolic profiles of patients with visceral obesity may substantially improve after onl...

  5. Metabolism of dinosaurs as determined from their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2015-09-01

    A model based on cellular properties is used to analyze the mass growth curves of 20 dinosaurs. This analysis yields the first measurement of the average cellular metabolism of dinosaurs. The organismal metabolism is also determined. The cellular metabolism of dinosaurs is found to decrease with mass at a slower rate than is observed in extant animals. The organismal metabolism increases with the mass of the dinosaur. These results come from both the Saurischia and Ornithischia branches of Dinosauria, suggesting that the observed metabolic features were common to all dinosaurs. The results from dinosaurs are compared to data from extant placental and marsupial mammals, a monotreme, and altricial and precocial birds, reptiles, and fish. Dinosaurs had cellular and organismal metabolisms in the range observed in extant mesotherms.

  6. Acarbose, lente carbohydrate, and prebiotics promote metabolic health and longevity by stimulating intestinal production of GLP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which slows carbohydrate digestion and blunts postprandial rises in plasma glucose, has long been used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance. Like metformin, acarbose tends to aid weight control, postpone onset of diabetes and decrease risk for cardiovascular events. Acarbose treatment can favourably affect blood pressure, serum lipids, platelet aggregation, progression of carotid intima-media thickness and postprandial endothelial dysfunction. In mice, lifetime acarbose feeding can increase median and maximal lifespan-an effect associated with increased plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). There is growing reason to suspect that an upregulation of fasting and postprandial production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-stemming from increased delivery of carbohydrate to L cells in the distal intestinal tract-is largely responsible for the versatile health protection conferred by acarbose. Indeed, GLP-1 exerts protective effects on vascular endothelium, the liver, the heart, pancreatic β cells, and the brain which can rationalise many of the benefits reported with acarbose. And GLP-1 may act on the liver to modulate its production of FGF21 and IGF-I, thereby promoting longevity. The benefits of acarbose are likely mimicked by diets featuring slowly-digested 'lente' carbohydrate, and by certain nutraceuticals which can slow carbohydrate absorption. Prebiotics that promote colonic generation of short-chain fatty acids represent an alternative strategy for boosting intestinal GLP-1 production. The health benefits of all these measures presumably would be potentiated by concurrent use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, which slow the proteolysis of GLP-1 in the blood. PMID:25685364

  7. Determination of carbohydrates by high performance anion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qingjiu; Luo, Xi; Xue, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Feng, Na

    2012-01-01

    A method of detecting carbohydrates (fucose, trehalose, mannitol, arabitol, mannose, glucose, galactose, fructose, and ribose) by high-performance anion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HAPEC-PAD) was established. The conditions are: CarboPac MA1 column, NaOH as the eluent, temperature 30°C, Au working electrode, Ag/AgCl reference electrode, and flow rate 0.4 mL/min. These nine analytes, which yielded high resolution by this method, could be detected in 40 minutes. Mushrooms were tested and good precision, stability, and reproducibility were achieved. This method is suitable for mushroom samples and could support research and development on sugar and sugar alcohol, which contains special effects. PMID:23510179

  8. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and 125I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000

  9. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and /sup 125/I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000.

  10. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... for the analysis. EXPOSURE: Macronutrient intake was quantified using a validated food frequency questionnaire administered in the 25th week of gestation. The P/C ratio and added sugar intake were examined in quintiles. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: GWG was based on self-reported weight in gestational...... trend <0.001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs <12%E from protein was 36 g/week lower (95% CI 20 to 53, p for trend <0.0001; ∼8% average reduction). A high P/C ratio was inversely...

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase and ATP-citrate lyase are two distinct molecular targets for ETC-1002, a novel small molecule regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkosky, Stephen L; Filippov, Sergey; Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Bradshaw, Cheryl D; Hurley, Timothy R; Cramer, Clay T; Spahr, Mark A; Brant, Ashley F; Houghton, Jacob L; Baker, Chris; Naples, Mark; Adeli, Khosrow; Newton, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    ETC-1002 (8-hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid) is a novel investigational drug being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and glucose-lowering properties of ETC-1002, characterized in preclinical disease models, are believed to be due to dual inhibition of sterol and fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. However, the molecular mechanism(s) mediating these activities remained undefined. Studies described here show that ETC-1002 free acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase β-independent and liver kinase β 1-dependent manner, without detectable changes in adenylate energy charge. Furthermore, ETC-1002 is shown to rapidly form a CoA thioester in liver, which directly inhibits ATP-citrate lyase. These distinct molecular mechanisms are complementary in their beneficial effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these mechanisms, ETC-1002 treatment reduced circulating proatherogenic lipoproteins, hepatic lipids, and body weight in a hamster model of hyperlipidemia, and it reduced body weight and improved glycemic control in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. ETC-1002 offers promise as a novel therapeutic approach to improve multiple risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and benefit patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:23118444

  12. The action of p-synephrine on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and respiration occurs via both Ca(2+)-mobilization and cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-03-01

    Citrus aurantium extracts, which contain large amounts of p-synephrine, are widely used for weight loss purposes and as appetite suppressants. In the liver, C. aurantium (bitter orange) extracts affect hemodynamics, carbohydrate metabolism, and oxygen uptake. The purpose of the present work was to quantify the action of p-synephrine and also to obtain indications about its mechanism of action, a task that would be difficult to accomplish with C. aurantium extracts due to their rather complex composition. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. p-Synephrine significantly stimulated glycogenolysis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and oxygen uptake. The compound also increased the portal perfusion pressure and the redox state of the cytosolic NAD(+)/NADH couple. A Ca(2+)-dependency for both the hemodynamic and the metabolic effects of p-synephrine was found. p-Synephrine stimulated both cAMP overflow and the initial Ca(2+) release from the cellular stores previously labeled with (45)Ca(2+). The metabolic and hemodynamic actions of p-synephrine were strongly inhibited by α-adrenergic antagonists and moderately affected by β-adrenergic antagonists. The results allow to conclude that p-synephrine presents important metabolic and hemodynamic effects in the liver. These effects can be considered as both catabolic (glycogenolysis) and anabolic (gluconeogenesis), they are mediated by both α- and β-adrenergic signaling, require the simultaneous participation of both Ca(2+) and cAMP, and could be contributing to the overall stimulation of metabolism that usually occurs during weight loss periods. PMID:24287564

  13. Carbohydrate metabolism during long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response study. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); Th. Stijnen (Theo); H-J. Aanstoot (Henk-Jan); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTo assess possible side-effects of GH treatment with supraphysiological doses on carbohydrate (CH) metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment, the results of oral glucose tolerance te

  14. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola; Shin, Injae

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol......In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray......-based technology has been widely employed for rapid analysis of the glycan binding properties of lectins and antibodies, the quantitative measurements of glycan-protein interactions, detection of cells and pathogens, identification of disease-related anti-glycan antibodies for diagnosis, and fast assessment of...

  15. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful informa...

  16. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  17. Biodiversity, ecological determinants, and metabolic exploitation of sourdough microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Vrancken, G; Ravyts, F; Rimaux, T; Weckx, S

    2009-10-01

    Sourdough is a microbial ecosystem of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in a matrix of mainly cereal flour and water. Culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiological analysis together with metabolite target analyses of different sourdoughs enabled to understand this complex fermentation process. It is difficult to link the species diversity of the sourdough microbiota with the (geographical) type of sourdough and the flour used, although the type and quality of the latter is the main source of autochthonous LAB in spontaneous sourdough fermentations and plays a key role in establishing stable microbial consortia within a short time. Carbohydrate fermentation targeted towards maltose catabolism, the use of external alternative electron acceptors, amino acid transamination reactions, and/or the arginine deiminase pathway are metabolic activities that favour energy production, cofactor (re)cycling, and/or tolerance towards acid stress, and hence contribute to the competitiveness and dominance of certain species of LAB found in sourdoughs. Also, microbial interactions play an important role. The availability of genome sequences for several LAB species that are of importance in sourdough as well as technological advances in the fields of functional genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics enable new approaches to study sourdough fermentations beyond the single species level and will allow an integral analysis of the metabolic activities and interactions taking place in sourdough. Finally, the implementation of selected starter cultures in sourdough technology is of pivotal importance for the industrial production of sourdoughs to be used as flavour carrier, texture-improving, or health-promoting dough ingredient. PMID:19747599

  18. Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to a glycosylated food allergen (peanuts) due to interference with cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Vizcaino, L; Díaz-Peromingo, J A;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: N-glycans in plant and invertebrate glycoproteins can induce extensive IgE cross-reactivity therefore limiting the specificity of in vitro allergy tests. IgE sensitization to N-glycans (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, CCDs) may be increased in heavy drinkers, who therefore...

  19. Various Terpenoids Derived from Herbal and Dietary Plants Function as PPAR Modulators and Regulate Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Goto; Nobuyuki Takahashi; Shizuka Hirai; Teruo Kawada

    2010-01-01

    Several herbal plants improve medical conditions. Such plants contain many bioactive phytochemicals. Terpenoids (also called “isoprenoids”) constitute one of the largest families of natural products accounting for more than 40,000 individual compounds of both primary and secondary metabolisms. In particular, terpenoids are contained in many herbal plants, and several terpenoids have been shown to be available for pharmaceutical applications, for example, artemisinin and taxol as malaria and c...

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Binding Constants for Multiple Carbohydrate Hosts in Complex Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Beeren, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We describe a simple method for the simultaneous determination of association constants for a guest binding to seven different hosts in a mixture of more than 20 different oligosaccharides. If the binding parameters are known for one component in the mixture, a single NMR titration suffices to...

  1. Inactivation of nitrate reductase alters metabolic branching of carbohydrate fermentation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao; Kumaraswamy, G Kenchappa; Zhang, Shuyi; Gates, Colin; Ananyev, Gennady M; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-05-01

    To produce cellular energy, cyanobacteria reduce nitrate as the preferred pathway over proton reduction (H2 evolution) by catabolizing glycogen under dark anaerobic conditions. This competition lowers H2 production by consuming a large fraction of the reducing equivalents (NADPH and NADH). To eliminate this competition, we constructed a knockout mutant of nitrate reductase, encoded by narB, in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. As expected, ΔnarB was able to take up intracellular nitrate but was unable to reduce it to nitrite or ammonia, and was unable to grow photoautotrophically on nitrate. During photoautotrophic growth on urea, ΔnarB significantly redirects biomass accumulation into glycogen at the expense of protein accumulation. During subsequent dark fermentation, metabolite concentrations--both the adenylate cellular energy charge (∼ATP) and the redox poise (NAD(P)H/NAD(P))--were independent of nitrate availability in ΔnarB, in contrast to the wild type (WT) control. The ΔnarB strain diverted more reducing equivalents from glycogen catabolism into reduced products, mainly H2 and d-lactate, by 6-fold (2.8% yield) and 2-fold (82.3% yield), respectively, than WT. Continuous removal of H2 from the fermentation medium (milking) further boosted net H2 production by 7-fold in ΔnarB, at the expense of less excreted lactate, resulting in a 49-fold combined increase in the net H2 evolution rate during 2 days of fermentation compared to the WT. The absence of nitrate reductase eliminated the inductive effect of nitrate addition on rerouting carbohydrate catabolism from glycolysis to the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway, indicating that intracellular redox poise and not nitrate itself acts as the control switch for carbon flux branching between pathways. PMID:26479976

  2. Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-04-20

    Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

  3. Production of methane from kallar grass grown on saline sodic lands: metabolism of carbohydrates, methylated amines and methane precursors during digestion of kallar grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of kallar grass on saline sodic land was carried out in batch culture at laboratory scale with enriched culture from biogas plant. Analysis were made to determine biogas volume, gas composition and distribution of volatile fatty acids. The fermentation of kallar grass treated with 2% NaOH showed an increase in digestibility from 20-50% and the conversion efficiency approached 80-95% of theoretical yield which was fold higher than the one obtained from untreated substrates. The contents of methane in bio gas was markedly low during the first day of digestion but increased from 75 to 91% at the end of 20 days retention time. Low pH values (6.2) showed the accumulation of acetic butyric and propionic acids. Addition of carbohydrates, methylated amines and other methane precursors were found to stimulate methanogensis at low concentration (0.1%) carbohydrates, (1mM) methylated amines and methane precursors as compared to their higher concentrations. The phase contrast and fluorescence microscopic examinations showed the diverse microbial population of digestor contents. (author)

  4. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and arginine on hatchability, body weight, energy metabolism and perinatal growth in duck embryos and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangara, M; Chen, W; Xu, J; Huang, F R; Peng, J

    2010-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and arginine into the duck amnion may improve the glycogen store and perinatal growth. At 23 d of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 1·2 ml of sodium chloride (NaCl), sucrose + maltose (CHO), arginine (Arg) or sucrose + maltose + arginine (CHO + Arg), with controls not injected. Body weight, liver and muscle glycogen levels, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity were determined at 25 d of incubation, at hatch, and at 3 and 7 d posthatch. 2. At hatch and 7 d of age, the body weights were greater in the in ovo-feeding treatments than the controls. Arg and CHO + Arg significantly enhanced liver glycogen level at hatch compared with controls. CHO and CHO + Arg significantly increased muscle glycogen level at 25 d of incubation over controls. CHO and Arg decreased glucose-6-phosphatase at 25 d of incubation, whereas NaCl and CHO + Arg increased glucose-6-phosphatase at hatch relative to controls. 3. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and arginine at 23 d of incubation may improve glycogen reserves, which may, in turn, provide the energy needed for perinatal growth. PMID:21058062

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase and ATP-citrate lyase are two distinct molecular targets for ETC-1002, a novel small molecule regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkosky, Stephen L.; Filippov, Sergey; Srivastava, Rai Ajit K.; Hanselman, Jeffrey C.; Bradshaw, Cheryl D.; Hurley, Timothy R.; Cramer, Clay T.; Spahr, Mark A.; Brant, Ashley F.; Houghton, Jacob L.; Baker, Chris; Naples, Mark; Adeli, Khosrow; Newton, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    ETC-1002 (8-hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid) is a novel investigational drug being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and glucose-lowering properties of ETC-1002, characterized in preclinical disease models, are believed to be due to dual inhibition of sterol and fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. However, the molecular mechanism(s) mediating these activities remained undefined. Studies described here show that ETC-1002 free acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase β-independent and liver kinase β 1-dependent manner, without detectable changes in adenylate energy charge. Furthermore, ETC-1002 is shown to rapidly form a CoA thioester in liver, which directly inhibits ATP-citrate lyase. These distinct molecular mechanisms are complementary in their beneficial effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with these mechanisms, ETC-1002 treatment reduced circulating proatherogenic lipoproteins, hepatic lipids, and body weight in a hamster model of hyperlipidemia, and it reduced body weight and improved glycemic control in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. ETC-1002 offers promise as a novel therapeutic approach to improve multiple risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and benefit patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:23118444

  6. Quantitative determination of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Gloria; Zuriarrain, Juan; Zuriarrain, Andoni; Berregi, Iñaki

    2016-04-01

    A method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy has been developed to quantify simultaneously thirteen analytes in honeys without previous separation or pre-concentration steps. The method has been successfully applied to determine carboxylic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic and succinic acids), amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine), carbohydrates (α- and β-glucose and fructose), ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in eucalyptus, heather, lavender, orange blossom, thyme and rosemary honeys. Quantification was performed by using the area of the signal of each analyte in the honey spectra, together with external standards. The regression analysis of the signal area against concentration plots, used for the calibration of each analyte, indicates a good linearity over the concentration ranges found in honeys, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.985 for the thirteen quantified analytes. The recovery studies give values over the 93.7-105.4% range with relative standard deviations lower than 7.4%. Good precision, with relative standard deviations over the range of 0.78-5.21% is obtained. PMID:26593586

  7. Application of a new capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of carbohydrates in forensic, pharmaceutical, and beverage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2012-09-15

    A new capillary electrophoresis method dedicated to the analysis of neutral underivatized carbohydrates was recently developed by our group. It involved a background electrolyte composed of 98 mM NaOH and 120 mM NaCl, and direct UV detection via the formation of an absorbing intermediate in the detection window by photooxidation. This article focuses on the validation of this method for the determination of fructose, glucose, lactose, and sucrose in forensic, pharmaceutical, and beverage samples. Intermediate precisions were about 2.3% for normalized corrected peak areas and 1.8% for normalized migration times using naphthalenesulfonate as internal standard. Limits of detection varying from 5 μM for sucrose and lactose to 7 μM for glucose and 10 μM for fructose were obtained. Potential matrix effects were statistically studied for soil, cloth, plastic, cotton, red wine, and with simulated iron, calcium, and sucrose-based matrices, containing various inorganic anions and cations, sometimes at high levels. No significant matrix effect was observed. Finally, analyses of real post-explosion residues, smoke device, cough syrup, red wine, and apple juice were successfully performed. PMID:22967542

  8. Structure of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2081 at 2.05 Å resolution: the first structural representative of a new protein family that may play a role in carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of BT2081 from B. thetaiotaomicron reveals a two-domain protein with a putative carbohydrate-binding site in the C-terminal domain. BT2081 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (GenBank accession code NP-810994.1) is a member of a novel protein family consisting of over 160 members, most of which are found in the different classes of Bacteroidetes. Genome-context analysis lends support to the involvement of this family in carbohydrate metabolism, which plays a key role in B. thetaiotaomicron as a predominant bacterial symbiont in the human distal gut microbiome. The crystal structure of BT2081 at 2.05 Å resolution represents the first structure from this new protein family. BT2081 consists of an N-terminal domain, which adopts a β-sandwich immunoglobulin-like fold, and a larger C-terminal domain with a β-sandwich jelly-roll fold. Structural analyses reveal that both domains are similar to those found in various carbohydrate-active enzymes. The C-terminal β-jelly-roll domain contains a potential carbohydrate-binding site that is highly conserved among BT2081 homologs and is situated in the same location as the carbohydrate-binding sites that are found in structurally similar glycoside hydrolases (GHs). However, in BT2081 this site is partially occluded by surrounding loops, which results in a deep solvent-accessible pocket rather than a shallower solvent-exposed cleft

  9. ACTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING METHODOLOGY TO APPROACH CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM: An interdisciplinary strategy that involved the Moodle tool in the development of Problem Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.P. Borges

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Highlight the relevance of topics studied for professional practice and associate approaches provided by different areas of knowledge are pointed as essential aspects for significant learning. Contextualize the study of metabolic pathways, linking the clinical use and expanding the vision with the approach of cellular and molecular biology discipline was the motivation for the development of the strategy described and evaluated here. In this work, starting from the concept of active methodology of teaching and learning was developed a methodological strategy to approach the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This strategy included: questioning the content through the clinical case study on diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, individual and collective study in the external space the classroom with the help of Moodle tool, classroom discussion accompanied by the teacher, preparation of seminar, evaluation of the content through individual written test and evaluation of the method. Analysis of student involvement with method indicates an average frequency of 98% in the practical class of Biochemistry discipline, effective participation in the preparation of seminars, an increase of 2 points in average of individual written evaluation. As for the fact that the cases were studied in two curricular components, the answers show that 92% of students feel more compression. Only 6% of students think  unnecessary to interdisciplinary approach. As for the different steps of the method, the answers show that 99% of students consider how relevant the initial self-study and discussions in class. However, only 50% of students appreciated the use of Moodle tool. Thus, student responses indicated the perception of the effectiveness of the method for their ability to: stimulate interest in learning, stimulate the search for answers through research and the building of learning.

  10. Effect of a vitamin D3-based nutritional supplement ('Videchol') on carbohydrate metabolism of rats following chronic low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we evaluated the effects of the administration of a vitamin D3 preparation 'Videchol' to chronically irradiated rats (1 cGy day-1) by the assessment of the activities of several glycolytic enzymes: lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (EC 1.1.1.28), pyruvate kinase (PK) (EC 2.7.1.40) and hexokinase (HK) (EC 2.7.1.1), in populations of erythroid and myeloid bone marrow cells. Videchol treatment of irradiated rats led to the normalisation of HK and LDH activity at cumulative doses of around 30 cGy in granulocyte-monocyte cells and to normalisation of LDH and PK activities in erythroid cells starting at 20 cGy in comparison with irradiated rats who did not receive Videchol. The reaction kinetic parameters of LDH in erythrocytes changed according to the redistribution pattern of the isozymes throughout the different stages of the experiment. The administration of Videchol to irradiated rats led to a rearrangement of the LDH isozymes ratio characterised by kinetic properties more comparable to those of the controls. Thus, vitamin D3 appears to induce a normalisation of carbohydrate metabolism in rats chronically irradiated with low dose-rate ionising radiation. (author)

  11. Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W J; Hughes, V A

    1985-05-01

    Antecedent diet can greatly influence both substrate utilization during exercise and exercise performance itself. A number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that short-term (three to seven days) adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet results in greatly reduced liver and muscle glycogen stores. While carbohydrate utilization after such a diet is reduced, the limited glycogen stores can severely limit endurance exercise performance. High carbohydrate diets on the other hand expand carbohydrate stores which can limit performance. However, long-term adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet can greatly alter muscle and whole body energy metabolism to drastically limit the oxidation of limited carbohydrate stores with no adverse effect on performance. Glycogen loading techniques can result in supercompensation of muscle stores. Exercise induced depletion of muscle glycogen is the most important single factor in this phenomenon. Following the exercise a low carbohydrate diet for two to three days after which a high carbohydrate diet is eaten seemingly has the same effect on increasing muscle glycogen stores as simply eating a high carbohydrate diet. The form of the dietary carbohydrate during glycogen loading should be high in complex carbohydrates; however, the type of dietary starch that effects the greatest rate of resynthesis has not been investigated. Rapid resynthesis of glycogen following exercise is at least in part due to increased insulin sensitivity. The enhanced glucose transport caused by the increased sensitivity provides substrate for glycogen synthase. How rapidly this enhanced sensitivity returns to pre-exercise levels in humans is uncertain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3993621

  12. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes or non-nutritive sweeteners. They can be used to sweeten food and drinks for less calories and carbohydrate when they replace sugar. Sugar and Desserts With diabetes, it's important to ...

  13. Healthy carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional foods include dietary fiber consisting of health-promoting carbohydrates. We have produced novel prebiotics from orange peel and observed that they extend the shelf life of probiotic bacteria in synbiotics. Some pectic-oligosaccharides and xyloglucan-oligosaccharides also have anti-adhesi...

  14. The use of /sup 13/C-glucose and NMR to study cerebral carbohydrate metabolism in vivo in the rat and the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some preliminary work in the development of a method for the determination of the cerebral intermediary glucose metabolism in humans in vivo. The procedure makes use of specifically labeled [/sup 13/C]glucose and NMR and incorporates some of the theoretical considerations, equations and algorithms of a method the authors proposed in a recent publication for the determination of cerebral metabolism in humans in vivo using specifically labeled /sup 11/C-glucose and positron emission transverse tomography (PETT). Both the method for PETT and NMR make use of the enrichment of carbon atoms of glutamate in the brain with the label from intravenously administered isotopic glucose. Previously, the authors proposed a scheme for human cerebral metabolism of glucose in vivo which included in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) a small metabolically active pool of glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate and succinic semialdehyde. The small pool of glutamate in the TCA cycle was considered to be in slow equilibrium with a large metabolically inactive glutamate pool in the brain

  15. Construction of 12 EST libraries and characterization of a 12,226 EST dataset for chicory (Cichorium intybus) root, leaves and nodules in the context of carbohydrate metabolism investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Boutry Marc; Watillon Bernard; Purnelle Bénédicte; Muys Céline; Mingeot Dominique; Dauchot Nicolas; Van Cutsem Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a member of the Asteraceae family that accumulates fructan of the inulin type in its root. Inulin is a low calories sweetener, a texture agent and a health promoting ingredient due to its prebiotic properties. Average inulin chain length is a critical parameter that is genotype and temperature dependent. In the context of the study of carbohydrate metabolism and to get insight into the transcriptome of chicory root and to visua...

  16. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  17. Determination of simple carbohydrates in citrus juices by using capillary electrophoresis with indirect detection and high performance liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, J.; Chmelík, Josef

    96(S), - (2002), s. S150-S152. ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting of Chemistry & Life /2./. Brno, 10.09.2002-11.09.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : carbohydrates * citrus juice * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2002

  18. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C.R.; Garofalo, M.A.; Roselino, J.E.; Kettelhut, I.C.; Migliorini, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of (14C)glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of (14C)glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of (14C)glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls.

  19. PANCREATIC AND EXTRA-PANCREATIC EFFECTS OF INCRETINS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR STUDYING ENTEROINSULIN HORMONAL SYSTEM DURING GESTATIONAL DISORDER OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an ideal medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, that would be able to provide not only high quality and constant monitoring of glycemia without increasing body weight, with no risk of hypoglycemia, with no negative impact on the heart, kidneys, liver, but could also ensure the preservation of the secretory function of β-cells, makes scientists continue to search for new opportunities to influence the occurrence and progression of T2D.Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP-1 together promote β-cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β-cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP-1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP-1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP-1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and their insulinotropic effects on β-cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects.Enteroinsulin hormones' role in the development of gestational disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood.In a review article we analyze the publications that summarize what is known about the pancreatic and extra-pancreatic GIP and GLP-1-effects compared with healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. The aspects of gestational diabetes pathophysiology and the perspectives for studying enteroinsulin hormonal system during pregnancy are also discussed in the article.

  20. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of [14C]glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls

  1. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  2. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T.; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A.; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily L-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of L-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass andmuscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohyd...

  3. Determination of carbohydrates in tobacco by pressurized liquid extraction combined with a novel ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Hu, Deyu; Lei, Bo; Zhao, Huina; Pan, Wenjie; Song, Baoan

    2015-07-01

    A novel derivatization-ultrasonic assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 main carbohydrates in tobacco has been developed. The combined method involves pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), derivatization, and UA-DLLME, followed by the analysis of the main carbohydrates with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). First, the PLE conditions were optimized using a univariate approach. Then, the derivatization methods were properly compared and optimized. The aldononitrile acetate method combined with the O-methoxyoxime-trimethylsilyl method was used for derivatization. Finally, the critical variables affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency were searched using fractional factorial design (FFD) and further optimized using Doehlert design (DD) of the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 44 μL for CHCl3, 2.3 mL for H2O, 11% w/v for NaCl, 5 min for the extraction time and 5 min for the centrifugation time. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit of the method (LODs) and linear correlation coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.06-0.90 μg mL(-1) and 0.9987-0.9999. The proposed method was successfully employed to analyze three flue-cured tobacco cultivars, among which the main carbohydrate concentrations were found to be very different. PMID:26043096

  4. Construction of 12 EST libraries and characterization of a 12,226 EST dataset for chicory (Cichorium intybus root, leaves and nodules in the context of carbohydrate metabolism investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutry Marc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a member of the Asteraceae family that accumulates fructan of the inulin type in its root. Inulin is a low calories sweetener, a texture agent and a health promoting ingredient due to its prebiotic properties. Average inulin chain length is a critical parameter that is genotype and temperature dependent. In the context of the study of carbohydrate metabolism and to get insight into the transcriptome of chicory root and to visualize temporal changes of gene expression during the growing season, we obtained and characterized 10 cDNA libraries from chicory roots regularly sampled in field during a growing season. A leaf and a nodule libraries were also obtained for comparison. Results Approximately 1,000 Expressed Sequence Tags (EST were obtained from each of twelve cDNA libraries resulting in a 12,226 EST dataset. Clustering of these ESTs returned 1,922 contigs and 4,869 singlets for a total of 6,791 putative unigenes. All ESTs were compared to public sequence databases and functionally classified. Data were specifically searched for sequences related to carbohydrate metabolism. Season wide evolution of functional classes was evaluated by comparing libraries at the level of functional categories and unigenes distribution. Conclusion This chicory EST dataset provides a season wide outlook of the genes expressed in the root and to a minor extent in leaves and nodules. The dataset contains more than 200 sequences related to carbohydrate metabolism and 3,500 new ESTs when compared to other recently released chicory EST datasets, probably because of the season wide coverage of the root samples. We believe that these sequences will contribute to accelerate research and breeding of the industrial chicory as well as of closely related species.

  5. Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Genetically Diabetic (C57BL/Ksj Db+/Db+) and Non-Diabetic Original Strain (C57BL/Ksj) Mice

    OpenAIRE

    KECHRID, Zine; Bouzerna, Noureddine

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake on zinc and carbohydrate metabolism in type II diabetes. Male, 4–5-week-old, genetically diabetic (C57B/LKsJdb+/db+) and nondiabetic original strain (C57BL/KsJ) mice were fed a diet containing 1 mg of Zn/kg (low zinc groups) or 54 mg of Zn/kg (control groups) for 27 days. Food intake and body weight gain were recorded regularly. On day 28, after an overnight fast, the animals were sacrificed and blood glucose, serum in...

  6. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  7. Progress on carbohydrate metabolism regulating antioxidant capacity of postharvest Chinese bayberry fruit%糖代谢调控杨梅果实采后抗氧化活性机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施丽愉; 陈伟; 苏新国; 杨震峰

    2013-01-01

    There are accumulated data indicating that the natural antioxidant compounds from Chinese bayberry fruits have biological properties which can enhance human health. Since antioxidant capacity is be-coming an important quality parameter for postharvest fruit, it is focusing on maintaining and improvement of antioxidant activity in fruit during postharvest storage. Carbohydrate metabolism is one of the most important physiological activities of postharvest fruit, and is also closely related to the biosynthesis and metabolism of anthocyanin and phenolic. This paper introduced the antioxidant properties of postharvest Chinese bayberry fruit, and focused on the research progress of carbohydrate metabolism regulating antioxidant capacity in post-harvest Chinese bayberry fruit. Moreover, this paper also indicated the future research highlights to the specific mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism in the biosynthesis and metabolism of anthocyanin and phenolic in bayberry fruit.%杨梅果实中天然抗氧化物质对人类健康的作用日益受到人们的重视,抗氧化活性的大小已成为衡量果实采后品质的一个重要指标,维持和提高果实采后抗氧化能力已成为果实采后贮运保鲜研究中的热点。糖代谢是果实采后主要的生理活动之一,与果实采后花色苷和酚类物质的代谢存在密切的联系。本文简要介绍了杨梅果实的抗氧化特性,重点综述了糖代谢调控果实采后抗氧化活性机制的研究进展,提出了糖代谢调控杨梅果实采后花色苷和酚类物质合成代谢机制的研究展望。

  8. Influence of high carbohydrate versus high fat diet in ozone induced pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic impairment in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution has been recently linked to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been postulated that dietary risk factors might exacerbate air pollution-induced metabolic impairment. We have recently reported that ozone exposure induces acute systemic ...

  9. Effect of Different Rice-Crab Coculture Modes on Soil Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ying; LIU Ming-da; YANG Dan; ZHANG Wei; AN Hui; WANG Yao-jing; XIE Hong-tu; ZHANG Xu-dong

    2014-01-01

    Traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security. Rice-crab coculture (RC) is an important eco-agricultural process in rice production in northern China. Recognizing the soil fertility in RC may help develop novel sustainable agriculture. Soil carbohydrates are important factors in determining soil fertility in different culture modes. In this study, soil carbohydrates were analyzed under three different culture modes including rice monoculture (RM), conventional rice-crab coculture (CRC) and organic rice-crab coculture (ORC). Results showed that the contents of soil organic carbon and carbohydrates were signiifcantly higher in the ORC than those in RM. The increasing effect was greater with increased organic manure. Similar tendency was found in CRC, but the overall effect was less pronounced compared with ORC. Carbohydrates were more sensitive to RC mode and manure amendment than soil organic carbon. Compare to RM, the (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio decreased in all the RC modes, indicating a relative enrichment in plant-derived carbohydrates due to the input of crab feed and manure. While the increasing (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio in ORC modes with increased organic manure suggested that crab activity and metabolism induced microbially derived carbohydrates accumulation. The lower GluN/MurA ratio in ORC indicated an enhancement of bacteria contribution to SOM turnover in a short term. The ifndings reveal that the ORC mode could improve the quantity and composition of soil carbohydrates, effectively, to ensure a sustainable use of paddy soil.

  10. Indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels in G1 and G2 cells of the carbohydrate-starved root meristems in Vicia faba var. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Polit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the 34kDa kinase (p34 encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key regulator of both the onset of DNA synthesis (G1 to S phase transition and the onset of mitosis (G1 to M phase transition. Using mouse anti-human PSTAIRE and FITClabelled goat antibodies, indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels was performed in meristematic cells from the control (intact and excised, carbohydrate-starved main roots of Vicia faba var. minor. No evident differences in the intensity of fluorescence was found either between the G1 and G2 cells or between the control cells and the cells arrested at both Principal Control Points by carbohydrate starvation. It seems thus, that the cell cycle block induced in meristematic cells of V. faba var. minor is not correlated with the absolute level of the key cell cycle enzyme responsible for phosphory-lution of cellular proteins, but primarily with the altered activity of p34cdc2.

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Regulation of glucose and fat metabolism in the liver by Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) and impact of dietary influence

    OpenAIRE

    Elkatry, Haiam Omar Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Deregulationen in der Leberlipidsynthese sind häufig mit Adipositas und Diabetes Typ 2 verbunden und daher ist ein detailliertes Verständnis der beteiligten, regulierenden Stoffwechselwege sehr wichtig, um künftig potentielle therapeutische Targets zu identifizieren. Die Leber ist der wichtigste Ort für den Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel (Glykolyse und Glykogen-Synthese) sowie Triglycerid-Synthese (Lipogenese). Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) wurden in die Regulation durch ...

  12. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    OpenAIRE

    Qianhe eLiu; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Hong eXue; Susanne eRasmussen

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve c...

  13. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve c...

  14. Size structure, not metabolic scaling rules, determines fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    that even though small species have a higher productivity than large species their resilience towards fishing is lower than expected from metabolic scaling rules. Further, we show that the fishing mortality leading to maximum yield per recruit is an ill-suited reference point. The theory can be used to...... empirical relations is lacking. Here, we combine life-history invariants, metabolic scaling and size-spectrum theory to develop a general size- and trait-based theory for demography and recruitment of exploited fish stocks. Important concepts are physiological or metabolic scaled mortalities and flux of...... that larger species have a higher egg production per recruit than small species. This means that density dependence is stronger for large than for small species and has the consequence that fisheries reference points that incorporate recruitment do not obey metabolic scaling rules. This result implies...

  15. Experimentally determined temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 °C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half of its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase the rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rates and thus both the rate of primary production and respiration will increase. However, these predictions do not consider the specific metabolic balance of the communities. We tested, experimentally, the response of Arctic plankton communities to seawater temperature spanning from 1 °C to 10 °C. Two types of communities were tested, open-ocean Arctic communities from water collected in the Barents Sea and Atlantic influenced fjord communities from water collected in the Svalbard fjord system. Metabolic rates did indeed increase as suggested by metabolic theory, however these results suggest an experimental temperature threshold of 5 °C, beyond which the metabolism of plankton communities shifts from autotrophic to heterotrophic. This threshold is also validated by field measurements across a range of temperatures which suggested a temperature 5.4 °C beyond which Arctic plankton communities switch to heterotrophy. Barents Sea communities showed a much clearer threshold response to temperature manipulations than fjord communities.

  16. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. PMID:27001278

  17. Body composition, dietary carbohydrates and fatty acids determine post-fertilisation development of bovine oocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, S J; Powell, K; Rooke, J A; Webb, R; Sinclair, K D

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed the interactive effects of carbohydrate type (fibre vs starch) and fatty acid (FA) supplementation (0% vs 6% calcium soaps of palm oil FA) on the post-fertilisation development of oocytes recovered from low and moderate body condition score (BCS) heifers. A secondary objective was to compare the FA composition of plasma to that of granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from these animals, and to relate these findings to the developmental potential of oocytes. Plasma, GCs and COCs were recovered from 32 heifers on day 5 of a synchronised oestrous cycle for FA analyses. Oocytes were also recovered on days 10 and 15 of the same cycle after short-term ovarian stimulation (FSH + GnRH), and matured, fertilised and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro. High levels of dietary starch increased (P < 0.01) plasma insulin but, together with dietary FA, reduced (P < 0.05) blastocyst yields in low, but not in moderate, BCS heifers. Diet-induced alterations to the FA content of plasma were less apparent in GCs and COCs. In summary, although dietary lipids increased the FA content of COCs, the selective uptake of saturated FAs at the expense of mainly polyunsaturated FAs within the follicular compartment ensured that the FA composition of COCs was largely unaffected by diet. However, the concentration of saturated FAs within COCs was inherently high, and so further increases in FA content may have impaired post-fertilisation development. The data establish a robust nutritional framework for more detailed studies into the mechanistic effects of dietary composition on the post-fertilisation developmental potential of oocytes. PMID:16452718

  18. The determination of standard metabolic rate in fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot, Denis; Steffensen, John Fleng; Farrell, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    This review and data analysis outline how fish biologists should most reliably estimate the minimal amount of oxygen needed by a fish to support its aerobic metabolic rate (termed standard metabolic rate; SMR). By reviewing key literature, it explains the theory, terminology and challenges......%), mean of the lowest normal distribution (MLND) and quantiles that assign from 10 to 30% of the data below SMR (q0·1 , q0·15 , q0·2 , q0·25 and q0·3 ). The eight methods yielded significantly different SMR estimates, as expected. While the differences were small when the variability was low amongst the...

  19. Experimentally determined temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, C. M.; J. M. Arrieta; R. Vaquer-Sunyer; Coello-Camba, A.; P. Wassmann; Agustí, S.

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half of its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase the rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rat...

  20. Defects in leaf carbohydrate metabolism compromise acclimation to high light and lead to a high chlorophyll fluorescence phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied the impact of carbohydrate-starvation on the acclimation response to high light using Arabidopsis thaliana double mutants strongly impaired in the day- and night path of photoassimilate export from the chloroplast. A complete knock-out mutant of the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT; tpt-2 mutant was crossed to mutants defective in (i starch biosynthesis (adg1-1, pgm1 and pgi1-1; knock-outs of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, plastidial phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase or (ii starch mobilization (sex1-3, knock-out of glucan water dikinase as well as in (iii maltose export from the chloroplast (mex1-2. Results All double mutants were viable and indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under low light conditions, but - except for sex1-3/tpt-2 - developed a high chlorophyll fluorescence (HCF phenotype and growth retardation when grown in high light. Immunoblots of thylakoid proteins, Blue-Native gel electrophoresis and chlorophyll fluorescence emission analyses at 77 Kelvin with the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant revealed that HCF was linked to a specific decrease in plastome-encoded core proteins of both photosystems (with the exception of the PSII component cytochrome b559, whereas nuclear-encoded antennae (LHCs accumulated normally, but were predominantly not attached to their photosystems. Uncoupled antennae are the major cause for HCF of dark-adapted plants. Feeding of sucrose or glucose to high light-grown adg1-1/tpt-2 plants rescued the HCF- and growth phenotypes. Elevated sugar levels induce the expression of the glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator2 (GPT2, which in principle could compensate for the deficiency in the TPT. A triple mutant with an additional defect in GPT2 (adg1-1/tpt-2/gpt2-1 exhibited an identical rescue of the HCF- and growth phenotype in response to sugar feeding as the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant, indicating that this rescue is independent from the

  1. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized. PMID:18272925

  2. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    James Wilfred Navalta; Brian Keith McFarlin; Scott Lyons; Scott Wesley Arnett; Mark Anthony Schafer

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: E...

  3. Determination of key enzymes for threonine synthesis through in vitro metabolic pathway analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanfei; Meng, Qinglong; Ma, Hongwu; Liu, Yongfei; Cao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei; Jiang, Wenxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    Background The overexpression of key enzymes in a metabolic pathway is a frequently used genetic engineering strategy for strain improvement. Metabolic control analysis has been proposed to quantitatively determine key enzymes. However, the lack of quality data often makes it difficult to correctly identify key enzymes through control analysis. Here, we proposed a method combining in vitro metabolic pathway analysis and proteomics measurement to find the key enzymes in threonine synthesis pat...

  4. iTRAQ Protein Profile Differential Analysis of Dormant and Germinated Grassbur Twin Seeds Reveals that Ribosomal Synthesis and Carbohydrate Metabolism Promote Germination Possibly Through the PI3K Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhu, Yue; Fu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Rui-Hai; Zhang, Yan-Lei; Song, Zhen; Xia, Gui-Xian; Wu, Jia-He

    2016-06-01

    Grassbur is a destructive and invasive weed in pastures, and its burs can cause gastric damage to animals. The strong adaptability and reproductive potential of grassbur are partly due to a unique germination mechanism whereby twin seeds develop in a single bur: one seed germinates, but the other remains dormant. To investigate the molecular mechanism of seed germination in twin seeds, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to perform a dynamic proteomic analysis of germination and dormancy. A total of 1,984 proteins were identified, 161 of which were considered to be differentially accumulated. The differentially accumulated proteins comprised 102 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated proteins. These proteins were grouped into seven functional categories, ribosomal proteins being the predominant group. The authenticity and accuracy of the results were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR). A dynamic proteomic analysis revealed that ribosome synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism affect seed germination possibly through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. As the PI3K pathway is generally activated by insulin, analyses of seeds treated with exogenous insulin by qPCR, ELISA and iTRAQ confirmed that the PI3K pathway can be activated, which suppresses dormancy and promotes germination in twin grassbur seeds. Together, these results show that the PI3K pathway may play roles in stimulating seed germination in grassbur by modulating ribosomal synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:27296714

  5. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  6. Interaction of Some Commercial Teas with Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Linked with Type-2 Diabetes: A Dietary Intervention in the Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate “ABTS” scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property, and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS* scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities.

  7. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  8. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  9. Metabolic stability and determination of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes' contribution to the metabolism of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie-Claude; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Medetomidine is a potent and selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist. The activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptor mediates a variety of effects including sedation, analgesia, relief of anxiety, vasoconstriction and bradycardia. However, our main interest is the sedative effects of medetomidine when used as a premedicant prior surgery in companion animals, especially in dogs. Recently, data suggested that following intravenous infusion at six dosing regiments non-linear pharmacokinetics was observed. Major causes of non-linear pharmacokinetics are the elimination of the drug not following a simple first-order kinetics and/or the elimination half-life changing due to saturation of an enzyme system. The goal of this study was to establish the metabolic stability and determine the metabolic pathway of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes. Consequently, Michaelis-Menten parameters (V(max), K(m)), T(1/2) and CL(i) were determined. The incubations were performed in a microcentrifuge tube and containing various concentrations of medetomidine (10-5000 nM), 1 mg/mL of microsomal proteins suspended in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Microsomal suspensions were preincubated with NADPH (1 mM) for 5 min at 37 degrees C prior to fortification with medetomidine. Samples were taken at various time points for kinetic information and the initial velocity (v(i)) was determined after 10 min incubation. The reaction was stopped by the addition of an internal standard solution (100 ng/mL of dextrometorphan in acetone). Medetomidine concentrations were determined using a selective and sensitive HPLC-ESI/MS/MS method. Using non-linear regression, we determined a K(m) value of 577 nM, indicating relatively low threshold enzyme saturation consistent with previous in vivo observation. The metabolic stability was determined at a concentration of 100 nm (dog liver microsomes, also consistent with previous in vivo data. Moreover, results suggest that principally medetomidine is metabolized by the

  10. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P;

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... overweight males were included in a randomized, controlled study (training: n = 10; control: n = 7). Arterial and internal jugular venous catheterization was used to determine concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate across the brain and the oxygen-carbohydrate index [molar uptake of oxygen...... training attenuates the cerebral metabolic response to submaximal exercise, as reflected in a lower carbohydrate uptake and maintained cerebral oxygenation....

  11. Structural determination of the carbohydrate chains from arthropod and mollusc hemocyanin by means of 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis carbohydrate structures of hemocyanins of arthropods and molluscs are studied. Hemocyanins are high-molecular-mass, copper-containing oxygen-transport proteins. The function of these carbohydrate chains are yet still unknown. It is not probable that they play a role in the oxygen-binding processes. They are rather thought to have a function in the build-up of the hemocyanin molecules. 286 refs.; 30 figs.; 25 tabs

  12. Transformation with TT8 and HB12 RNAi Constructs in Model Forage (Medicago sativa, Alfalfa) Affects Carbohydrate Structure and Metabolic Characteristics in Ruminant Livestock Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Yonggen; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Lignin, a phenylpropanoid polymer present in secondary cell walls, has a negative impact on feed digestibility. TT8 and HB12 genes were shown to have low expression levels in low-lignin tissues of alfalfa, but to date, there has been no study on the effect of down-regulation of these two genes in alfalfa on nutrient chemical profiles and availability in ruminant livestock systems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of transformation of alfalfa with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs on carbohydrate (CHO) structure and CHO nutritive value in ruminant livestock systems. The results showed that transformation with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs reduced rumen, rapidly degraded CHO fractions (RDCA4, P = 0.06; RDCB1, P neutral detergent fiber (NDF) at 30 h of incubation (ivNDF30) compared to the control (P alfalfa with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs induced molecular structure changes. Different CHO functional groups had different sensitivities and different responses to the transformation. The CHO molecular structure changes induced by the transformation were associated with predicted CHO availability. Compared with HB12 RNAi, transformation with TT8 RNAi could improve forage quality by increasing the availability of both NDF and DM. Further study is needed on the relationship between the transformation-induced structure changes at a molecular level and nutrient utilization in ruminant livestock systems when lignification is much higher. PMID:26492548

  13. Remission of screen-detected metabolic syndrome and its determinants: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46 and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91, blood pressure (OR 0.98 and fasting glucose (OR 0.60. Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.

  14. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  15. ACTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING METHODOLOGY TO APPROACH CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM: An interdisciplinary strategy that involved the Moodle tool in the development of Problem Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    J. M.P. Borges; R. El Bacha; Costa, M. F.; Freire, E

    2015-01-01

    Highlight the relevance of topics studied for professional practice and associate approaches provided by different areas of knowledge are pointed as essential aspects for significant learning. Contextualize the study of metabolic pathways, linking the clinical use and expanding the vision with the approach of cellular and molecular biology discipline was the motivation for the development of the strategy described and evaluated here. In this work, starting from the concept of active methodolo...

  16. WHAT CAN WE EXPECT USING ACE INHIBITOR RAMIPRIL IN PERSONS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND EARLY DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? LESSONS OF DREAM TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. Mamedov; M. B. Stroeva

    2016-01-01

    Primary prevention of diabetes in persons with high cardiovascular risk is an actual problem. Results of DREAM trial are discussed. Influence of ACE inhibitor, ramipril, on risk of diabetes onset in patients with pre-diabetes and low cardiovascular risk is focused. Metabolic effects of other groups of antihypertensive drugs and their ability to prevent diabetes onset are compared. Ramipril three years therapy resulted in normalization in glucose level but did not have effect on frequency of d...

  17. Effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide on the carbohydrate metabolism of the Indian Major Carp Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen N. Dube

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were designed to study in-vivo effects of sodium cyanide on biochemical endpoints in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (0.106 and 0.064mg/L for a period of 15 days. Levels of glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and the enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, phosphorylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (AcP were assessed in different tissues (liver, muscle and gills. Result indicated a steady decrease in glycogen, pyruvate, SDH, ALP and AcP activity with a concomitant increase in the lactate, phosphorylase, LDH and G6PD activity in all selected tissues. The alterations in all the above biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 time and dose dependent. In all the above parameters, liver pointing out the intensity of cyanide intoxication compare to muscle and gills. Study revealed change in the metabolic energy by means of altered metabolic profile of the fish. Further, these observations indicated that even sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide might not be fully devoid of deleterious influence on metabolism in L. rohita.

  18. Perinatal epigenetic determinants of cognitive and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Daniel S; Tint, Diana; Niculescu, Mihai D

    2012-12-01

    Multiple cues from the environment of our indirect and immediate ancestors, which often persist throughout the prenatal period and adulthood, are shaping our phenotypes through either direct, parent-to-child influences, or transgenerational inheritance. These effects are due to gene-environment interactions, which are intended to be a predictive tool and a mechanism of quick adaptation to the environment, as compared with genetic variations that are inherited over many generations. In certain circumstances the influences induced by the gene-environment interactions can have deleterious effects upon the health status, in the context of a radical change in the environment that does not fit with the predicted conditions, via epigenetic alterations. Conversely the best fit to the expected environment might have a delayed aging process and a longer life span. This review will touch upon the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHAD) concept, while discussing recent advances in the understanding of metabolic and cognitive disruptions, with a focus on epigenetic factors, their transgenerational effects, and the consequences they might have upon the onset of chronic disease and premature exitus. PMID:23251850

  19. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight. PMID:24198266

  20. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring. PMID:27182176

  1. Climate and resource determinants of fundamental and realized metabolic niches of hibernating chipmunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry-Cuerrier, M; Munro, D; Thomas, D W; Humphries, M M

    2008-12-01

    Torpor is a reversible reduction in endotherm body temperature and metabolic rate. Because torpid endotherms can attain lower body temperatures in colder environments, minimum torpor metabolism generally increases with rising air temperature whereas euthermic metabolism generally declines with rising air temperature. As a result, the fundamental metabolic niche of endotherms that express torpor should be driven by climate and should be broadest in colder environments. On the other hand, if torpor serves primarily as an energy conservation strategy and its expression is influenced by energy availability, then the realized metabolic niche should be defined by resources. To evaluate the influence of resource and climate on torpor use and metabolism of hibernating mammals, we monitored the torpor expression of free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) over two winters of varying resource abundance. In the low-food year, soil temperature constrained maximum torpor expression but was too invariant across small spatial scales to explain individual variation in torpor expression. In the high-food year, torpor was drastically reduced, and local density of seed-producing trees predicted fine-scale spatial variation in torpor expression. Thus, the fundamental metabolic niche of hibernating chipmunks in cold environments is broad and constrained by climate, whereas the realized metabolic niche is highly variable among individuals and years and is determined primarily by local resource abundance. PMID:19137938

  2. Mass-Specific Metabolic Rate and Sperm Competition Determine Sperm Size in Marsupial Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tourmente, Maximiliano; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Two complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain variation in sperm size. The first proposes that post-copulatory sexual selection favors an increase in sperm size because it enhances sperm swimming speed, which is an important determinant of fertilization success in competitive contexts. The second hypothesis proposes that mass-specific metabolic rate acts as a constraint, because large animals with low mass-specific metabolic rates will not be able to process resources at the rate...

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Health in Subjects with Obesity in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic health in subjects with obesity in the Chinese population and to identify the determinants related to metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Methods: 5013 subjects were recruited from seven provincial capitals in China. The obesity and metabolic status were classified based on body mass index (BMI and the number of abnormalities in common components of metabolic syndrome. Results: 27.9% of individuals with obesity were metabolically healthy. The prevalence of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO phenotype was significantly decreased with age in women (p trend < 0.001, but not significantly in men (p trend = 0.349. Central obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93–8.59, longer sedentary time (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.27–3.06, and with a family history of obesity related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.26–2.71 were significantly associated with having metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Higher levels of physical activity and more fruit/vegetable intake had decreased ORs of 0.67 (95%CI = 0.45–0.98 and 0.44 (95%CI = 0.28–0.70, respectively. Conclusion: 27.9% of obese participants are in metabolic health. Central obesity, physical activity, sedentary time, fruits/vegetables intake and family history of diseases are the determinants associated with metabolic status in obesity.

  4. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  5. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  6. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes. PMID:10719574

  7. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities

  8. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  9. Determination of carbohydrates in juices by capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Žídková, Jitka; Přibyla, Lubomír; Chmelík, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2004), s. 487-493. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis with indirect detection * juice s * major carbohydrate profile Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  10. Effect of carbohydrate restriction and high carbohydrates diets on men with chemical diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J W

    1977-03-01

    The influence of low carbohydrate (CHO) diets, starvation, and high CHO diets on glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and plasma insulin response of men with chemical diabetes was studied. The GTT and insulin responses of these seven lean diabetic men were unchanged when the carbohydrate content of the diet was reduced from 44 to 20% of calories. After a 48-hr fast a significant deterioration of the GTT was observed in these diabetic men but the percentage change was identical to that reported previously for normal men. Thus these studies indicate that changes in glucose mtes are quite similar to those reported previously for normal men. The fasting plasma glucose values of seven lean and four obese men with chemical diabetes were significantly lower after one week on a 75% CHO diet than values on a 44% CHO diet. The 75% CHO diet also was accompanied by slight improvements in the oral and intravenous GTT and by slightly lower plasma insulin responses. The improvement in glucose metabolism on high CHO diets appears to results from increased insulin sensitivity. Serum triglyceride values were approximately 55% higher on the 75% CHO diet than values on the 44% CHO diet for the 11 men but these differences were not statistically significant. These studies support previous observations and suggest that high CHO diets may be beneficial in the management of certain diabetic patients. However, further studies are required to determine the long-term effects of high CHO diets containing natural foods on the glucose and lipid metabolism of diabetic patients. PMID:842491

  11. Genetic and metabolic determinants of methotrexate-induced mucositis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, M. A. H.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; te Winkel, M. L.; Tissing, W.; de Rooij, J. D. E.; Gutierrez-Camino, A.; Garcia-Orad, A.; den Boer, E.; Pieters, R.; Pluijm, S. M. F.; de Jonge, R.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective and toxic chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this prospective study, we aimed to identify metabolic and genetic determinants of MTX toxicity. One hundred and thirty-four Dutch pediatric ALL patients were treat

  12. Relation of bud dormancy to carbohydrate metabolism in Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok.%休眠期欧李碳水化合物代谢与休眠关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀珍; 陈苏丹; 李天忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned on the relation of bud dormancy to carbohydrate metabolism, The annual shoots from underground stem was used as the experimental materials. The components of carbohydrates and the enzymes activities were measured in phloem and bud of dormant Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok. The results indicated that soluble sugar content was higher than starch in phloem and bud in dormancy period. The highest ratio of soluble sugar and starch reached to 4.77. Most sugar was sucrose and then fructose, sorbitol and glucose. A few amount of fructose in bud were detected in natural dormancy stage. But its content increased rapidly in enhanced dormancy stage and in germination period,reaching to 2.05% in germination period. The changes in enzyme activities in phloem and bud were in line with that of soluble sugar. The activity of SPS was higher than that of other enzymes, but quickly decreased in natural dormancy stage,and reached to minimum at the end of the natural dormancy. The reduction in bud and phloem was 94. 18% and 84.78% respectively. The activity of p-amylase was higher that of a-amylase. Based on the integrated analyses above,the main accumulated carbohydrate in dormant Chinese dwarf cherry was soluble sugar. The relief of natural dormancy was obviously linked with the change of sucrose and reduction of the SPS activity. Change in the fructose contents was related to the dormancy and germination of bud.%为探讨休眠期欧李碳水化合物代谢与休眠的关系,以休眠期欧李1年生基生枝为试材,采用气相色谱等方法,分析了韧皮部、芽中碳水化合物含量及其相关酶活性变化。结果表明:休眠阶段欧李韧皮部和芽中可溶性糖含量均高于淀粉,二者比值最高可达4.77,其中含量最高的为蔗糖,其次是果糖、山梨醇和葡萄糖;自然休眠期芽中检查不到果糖含量,但在被迫休眠期和芽萌动期迅速增加,至芽萌动期质量分数达2.05%;休眠期韧皮部和芽中

  13. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion subsequent to carbohydrate supercompensation on endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Robertson, R J; Denys, B G; DaSilva, S G; Visich, P; Suminski, R R; Utter, A C; Goss, F L; Metz, K F

    1995-12-01

    This investigation determined whether carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise enhanced endurance performance when the exercise was preceded by carbohydrate supercompensation. Seven male trained cyclists performed two trials at an initial power output corresponding to 71 +/- 1% of their peak oxygen consumption. During the trials, subjects ingested either a 6% glucose/sucrose (C) solution or an equal volume of artificially flavored and sweetened placebo (P) every 20 min throughout exercise. Both C and P were preceded by a 6-day carbohydrate supercompensation procedure in which subjects undertook a depletion-taper exercise sequence in conjunction with a moderate- and high-carbohydrate diet regimen. Statistical analysis of time to exhaustion, plasma glucose concentration, carbohydrate oxidation rate, fat oxidation rate, and plasma glycerol concentration indicated that in spite of a carbohydrate supercompensation procedure administered prior to exercise, carbohydrate ingestion during exercise can exert an additional ergogenic effect by preventing a decline in blood glucose levels and maintaining carbohydrate oxidation during the later stages of moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:8605519

  14. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  15. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, D.

    2009-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

  16. Comparison of Carbohydrate Metabolism after Anthesis in the Leaves of Two Tomato Types%两种不同类型番茄叶片中碳水化合物代谢的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利; 崔娜; 范海延; 苗青; 曲波; 李天来

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of tomato Solanum chmielewskii and Micro-Tom were used to studcy the dynamic changes of carbohydrate in their leaves at different growth stages and define the carbohydrate metabolism after anthesis, providing a referance for the study of sugar metabolism of Micro-Tom and the utilization of wild tomato resources. The main results showed that the contents of fructose and glucose in the leaves of Micro -Tom were significantly 247% and 290% higher than those of Solanum chmielewskii at 25 days after anthesis and the sucrose contents in the leaves of Micro-Tom were 111%, 96% and 169% higher than those of Solanum chmielewskii at 25 days, 35 days and 45 days after anthesis, respectively; the content of starch in the leaves of Solanum chmielewskii was 142% higher than that of Micro-Tom. Activities of invertases including acid invertase and neutral invertase in Micro-Tom were 348% and 138% higher than those in Solanum chmielewskii at 25 days after anthesis; sucrose synthase in Micro-Tom was always higher than that in Solanum chmielewskii at the same stage, however, sucrose phosphate synthase in Solanum chmielewskii was always higher during the whole development of fruits.%选用野生型番茄克梅留斯基(Solanum chmielewskii)和普通栽培型番茄Micro-Tom(Solanum lycopersicum)为试验材料,比较两种不同类型番茄花后不同生长阶段叶片中碳水化合物代谢的动态变化,明确其在开花后叶片碳水化合物代谢的规律,为以Micro-Tom为试材的糖代谢研究及野生型番茄资源的利用服务.结果表明:在番茄开花后25d,叶片中果糖、葡萄糖含量Micro-Tom明显高于克梅留斯基,分别高出247%和290%;花后25,35d,45d Micro-Tom叶片中蔗糖含量高于克梅留斯基,分别高出111%、96%和169%;而克梅留斯基在花后15d,叶片中淀粉含量明显高于Micro-Tom,为142%.转化酶(酸性转化酶和中性转化酶)活性在花后25d Micro-Tom叶片明显高

  17. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. PMID:22917167

  18. Effect of low temperature on phytohormones and carbohydrates metabolism in Ber-muda grass%低温胁迫对狗牙根激素和碳水化合物代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 娄燕宏; 杨知建; 向佐湘; 徐庆国; 胡龙兴

    2016-01-01

    以杂交狗牙根品种天堂419,天堂328,老鹰草,运动百慕大和普通狗牙根品种保定狗牙根为试验材料,分析了人工模拟昼夜温度为适温(30℃/25℃)、亚适温(18℃/10℃)、冷害(8℃/4℃)和冻害(4℃/-4℃)等4种梯度降温冷驯化条件下,低温胁迫对狗牙根叶片细胞膜稳定性、叶绿素含量、内源激素(ABA、IAA,GA3和 tZR)以及可溶性糖、淀粉、果聚糖、总非结构性糖等碳水化合物代谢的影响。结果表明:随着温度的降低,狗牙根叶片的电导率显著升高,叶绿素含量下降,内源激素 ABA 含量升高,而 IAA,GA3和 tZR 含量均下降;碳水化合物中可溶性糖、果糖和总非结构性糖含量在5个品种中均呈不同程度的升高,但不同品种在冷驯化过程中不同温度处理下其变化差异较大,如天堂328、老鹰草和运动百慕大的淀粉含量下降;天堂419的淀粉含量变化不大,而保定狗牙根的淀粉含量则呈上升趋势。综合分析各生理指标的变化,5个狗牙根品种的抗寒能力强弱为:保定狗牙根最弱,而天堂419,老鹰草、天堂328和运动百慕大耐寒能力依次较强。低温胁迫下积累或维持较高的内源激素 ABA、GA3、IAA、tZR和碳水化合物可溶性糖和果聚糖可能是耐寒性较强的主要原因,这些代谢物的积累或维持有助于狗牙根细胞内渗透平衡和细胞膜稳定性的维持,延缓叶片的枯黄衰老和诱导抗性相关基因或蛋白的表达从而提高了狗牙根品种的抗寒能力。%To investigate the effects of modulated cold acclimation on the leaf membrane stability,chlorophyll content,endogenous hormones (ABA,IAA,GA3 ,tZR),and carbohydrate (soluble sugars,starch,fructan, total nonstructural carbohydrates)metabolism,five Bermuda grass cultivars,Tifway,Tifgreen,Tifsport, Tifeagle and Baoding were selected and treated under a range of temperatures

  19. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Zhao; Hong Yan; Ruihai Yang; Qiang Li; Shaonong Dang; Yuying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Edu...

  1. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  2. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during Giardia encystment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Jarroll, E.L.; Macechko, P.T.; Steimle, P.A.; Bulik, D.; Karr, C.D.; Keulen, Harry van; Paget, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis trophozoites encyst when they are exposed to bile. During encystment, events related to the inducible synthesis of a novel N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer, occur. Within the first 6 h of encystment, mRNA for glucosamine 6-P isomerase (GPI), the first inducible enzy

  3. Defective carbohydrate metabolism in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Deepali

    2015-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad crónica del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en el que episodios repetidos de inflamación (bortes), dan lugar a inflamación que conduce a la interrupción de la vaina de mielina por daños producidos en la misma. Junto a este fenómeno de inflación focal, existe una inflamación difusa en el SNC, que unida a la anterior, dará lugar a que aparezca un proceso de neurodegeneración, que será el responsable último de la afectación axonal y neuronal difusa qu...

  4. Protein,carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010295 Relation of serum leptin and adiponectin to cardiovascular risk factors in older adults:a Guangzhou biobank cohort study-CVD. BAO Bei(鲍蓓),et al. Guangzhou No 12 Hosp,Guangzhou 510620.Chin J Epidemiol 2010;31(2):121-125. Objective To study the serum leptin and adiponectin levels among relatively healthy older people and their association with

  5. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Harvey Anderson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake.

  6. Vida útil e metabolismo de carboidratos em raízes de mandioquinha-salsa sob refrigeração e filme de PVC Shelf life and carbohydrate metabolism of arracacha roots stored under refrigeration and PVC film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Antonio Ribeiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e do uso do filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC sobre a perda de matéria fresca e água, incidência de danos causados por frio e metabolismo pós-colheita dos carboidratos, em raízes tuberosas de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. O filme de PVC reduziu a perda de matéria fresca e manteve o teor de água das raízes, durante o armazenamento por 60 dias a 5 e 10ºC. Os danos causados por frio foram inibidos nas raízes embaladas em filme de PCV, em ambas as temperaturas de armazenamento. As baixas temperaturas induziram o acúmulo de açúcares solúveis e a degradação de amido e, para as raízes armazenadas sem PVC, o aumento do conteúdo dos açúcares solúveis foi transiente e a taxa de degradação de amido foi superior à das raízes armazenadas com PVC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the storage temperature and stretch polyvinylchloride (PVC film on the loss of fresh weight and water, on the development of chilling injury symptoms, and on the postharvest metabolism of carbohydrates, in arracacha tuber roots (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. The PVC film reduced the fresh weight loss and kept water content in the roots during 60-day storage period at 5 and 10ºC. PVC film in both storage temperatures inhibited the development of external and internal chilling injury symptoms. The low temperatures induced the increase of soluble sugar content and decrease of starch concentration, where the increase in soluble sugar was transient in roots stored without PVC film, and the rate of starch degradation was higher compared to the roots stored with PVC.

  7. Effect of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Citrus sinensis%柑橘黄龙病菌侵染对甜橙叶片糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 苏华楠; 黄爱军; 周彦; 李中安; 刘金香; 周常勇

    2015-01-01

    具有显著相关性(P<0.05)。蔗糖分解相关基因中,蔗糖合成酶基因 SuSy 在感病不同时期的表达差异不大,变化幅度小;细胞壁酸性转化酶基因 CSCWI 在不同时期均上调表达,最高上调约7.4倍,且表达量一直维持在较高水平;与 CSCWI 相比,液泡酸性转化酶基因 CUAI1的表达水平较低。淀粉合成相关酶 ADP-葡萄糖焦磷酸化酶基因最高上调3倍左右;淀粉分解相关基因 BAM3、MEX1和 DPE2在不同时期有所下调,达到显著性差异水平(P<0.05)。【结论】柑橘黄龙病感染甜橙后,对植株叶片中光合产物的形成与运转产生影响,扰乱宿主糖代谢平衡,与宿主淀粉积累及后期症状的产生有密切关系。%[Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) infection on carbohydrate metabolism in Citrus sinensis, elucidate the relationship between HLB infection and starch accumulation, and provide a theoretical basis for HLB pathogenesis. [Method]C. sinensis were used as the experimental materials, plants were inoculated by grafting three bark pieces onto the rootstock portion of each plant. For infected plants, bark pieces were derived from trees infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which were confirmed positive for Ca. L. asiaticus by PCR. For non-infected plants, bark pieces were obtained from healthy trees. Three plants in good growth state were chosen for successive test, mature leaves were collected every month until October. DNA and RNA were extracted, the content of soluble sugar and starch were measured immediately, the other leaf tissue was snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃ for testing carbohydrate metabolism related key enzyme activities. At the same time, the expression levels were compared using real-time quantitative PCR analysis.[Result]The content of soluble sugar and starch tended to increase with time extended, and their peak value were respectively

  8. Interplay of metabolism and transport in determining oral drug absorption and gut wall metabolism: a simulation assessment using the "Advanced Dissolution, Absorption, Metabolism (ADAM)" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, A S; Neuhoff, S; Jamei, M; Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2010-11-01

    systematic variation of drug characteristics, in accordance with the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) within one of the most physiological models of oral drug absorption currently available, respectively ADAM. Variables studied included the intrinsic clearance (CLint) and the Michaelis-Menten Constant (Km) for CYP3A4 and P-gp (C(Lint-CYP3A4) and K(m-CYP3A4), CL(int-P-gp) and K(m-P-gp)). The impact of CYP3A4 and P-gp intracellular topography were not investigated since a well-stirred enterocyte is assumed within ADAM. An increased CLint-CYP3A4 resulted in a reduced F(G) whereas an increase in C(Lint-P-gp) resulted in a reduced F(a), but interestingly decreased F(G) too. The reduction in FG was limited to certain conditions and was modest. Non-linear relationships between various parameters determining the permeability (e.g. P(app), C(Lint-P-gp,) and K(m-P-gp)) and gut wall metabolism (e.g. C(Lint-CYP3A4,) K(m-CYP3A4)) resulted in disproportionate changes in F(G) compared to the magnitude of singular effects. The results suggest that P-gp efflux decreases enterocytic drug concentration for drugs given at reasonably high dose which possess adequate passive permeability (high P(app)), by de-saturating CYP3A4 in the gut resulting in a lower F(G). However, these findings were observed only in a very limited area of the parameters space matching very few therapeutic drugs (a group with very high metabolism, high turn-over by efflux transporters and low F(a)). The systematic approach in this study enabled us to recognise the combination of parameters values where the potential interplay between metabolising enzymes and efflux transporters is expected to be highest, using a realistic range of parameter values taken from an intensive literature search. PMID:21189140

  9. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  10. Application of insulin RIA in determining deviations of glycide metabolism in women on steroid contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oral glucose tolerance test was performed, RIA was done, immunoreactive insulin was determined after peroral glucose load using the double antibody method, and routine clinical and laboratory examinations were carried out in 27 women on long-term peroral contraception and in 10 controls. In the women using contraceptives, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion disorders were relatively frequent. The incidence depended on the genetic burden; their dependence on smoking and the duration of contraception was not shown. In view of the fact that glycide metabolism disorders represent a significant risk factor for the development of ischemic heart disease, considerable caution is recommended in prescribing contraception in women with glycide metabolism irregularities or with diabetes in the family history. It is also recommended that during long-term contraception, the condition of the insular mechanism should be monitored. (author)

  11. Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demars B. O.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP − ER has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015, GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake

  12. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in Paenibacillus macerans: metabolic pathways and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Murarka, Abhishek; Campbell, Paul; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-09-01

    Paenibacillus macerans is one of the species with the broadest metabolic capabilities in the genus Paenibacillus, able to ferment hexoses, deoxyhexoses, pentoses, cellulose, and hemicellulose. However, little is known about glycerol metabolism in this organism, and some studies have reported that glycerol is not fermented. Despite these reports, we found that several P. macerans strains are capable of anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. One of these strains, P. macerans N234A, grew fermentatively on glycerol at a maximum specific growth rate of 0.40 h(-1) and was chosen for further characterization. The use of [U-13C]glycerol and further analysis of extracellular metabolites and proteinogenic amino acids via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allowed identification of ethanol, formate, acetate, succinate, and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as fermentation products and demonstrated that glycerol is incorporated into cellular components. A medium formulation with low concentrations of potassium and phosphate, cultivation at acidic pH, and the use of a CO2-enriched atmosphere stimulated glycerol fermentation and are proposed to be environmental determinants of this process. The pathways involved in glycerol utilization and synthesis of fermentation products were identified using NMR spectroscopy in combination with enzyme assays. Based on these studies, the synthesis of ethanol and 1,2-PDO is proposed to be a metabolic determinant of glycerol fermentation in P. macerans N234A. Conversion of glycerol to ethanol fulfills energy requirements by generating one molecule of ATP per molecule of ethanol synthesized. Conversion of glycerol to 1,2-PDO results in the consumption of reducing equivalents, thus facilitating redox balance. Given the availability, low price, and high degree of reduction of glycerol, the high metabolic rates exhibited by P. macerans N234A are of paramount importance for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:19617389

  13. Differential usage of storage carbohydrates in the CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' during acclimation to drought and recovery from dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M; Londers, Elsje; Verdoodt, Veerle; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P

    2009-02-01

    CAM requires a substantial investment of resources into storage carbohydrates to account for nocturnal CO(2) uptake, thereby restricting carbohydrate partitioning to other metabolic activities, including dark respiration, growth and acclimation to abiotic stress. Flexible modulation of carbon flow to the different competing sinks under changing environmental conditions is considered a key determinant for the growth, productivity and ecological success of the CAM pathway. The aim of the present study was to examine how shifts in carbohydrate partitioning could assure maintenance of photosynthetic integrity and a positive carbon balance under conditions of increasing water deprivation in CAM species. Measurements of gas exchange, leaf water relations, malate, starch and soluble sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose) contents were made in leaves of the CAM bromeliad Aechmea 'Maya' over a 6-month period of drought and subsequently over a 2-month period of recovery from drought. Results indicated that short-term influences of water stress were minimized by elevating the level of respiratory recycling, and carbohydrate pools were maintained at the expense of export for growth while providing a comparable nocturnal carbon gain to that in well-watered control plants. Longer term drought resulted in a disproportionate depletion of key carbohydrate reserves. Sucrose, which was of minor importance for providing substrate for the dark reactions under well-watered conditions, became the major source of carbohydrate for nocturnal carboxylation as drought progressed. Flexibility in terms of the major carbohydrate source used to sustain dark CO(2) uptake is therefore considered a crucial factor in meeting the carbon and energy demands under limiting environmental conditions. Recovery from CAM-idling was found to be dependent on the restoration of the starch pool, which was used predominantly for provision of substrate for nocturnal carboxylation, while net carbon export was limited

  14. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  15. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  16. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  17. Determining the control circuitry of redox metabolism at the genome-scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Federowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining how facultative anaerobic organisms sense and direct cellular responses to electron acceptor availability has been a subject of intense study. However, even in the model organism Escherichia coli, established mechanisms only explain a small fraction of the hundreds of genes that are regulated during electron acceptor shifts. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs, ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome-scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes by ArcA and extensive activation of chemiosmotic genes by Fnr. We further corroborated this regulatory scheme by showing a 0.71 r(2 (p<1e-6 correlation between changes in metabolic flux and changes in regulatory activity across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Finally, we are able to relate the proposed model to a wealth of previously generated data by contextualizing the existing transcriptional regulatory network.

  18. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Ignacio Hormaza, José; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A CZE method with two different MS detection conditions (MRM and Full Scan) was developed to determine qualitative and quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana). LODs in MRM approach were found between 20.1 and 203.0 ppb for abscisic acid and perseitol, respectively, whilst in Full Scan, varied within the range 0.22–1.90 ppm for the same metabolites. The RSDs for reproducibility test did not exceed 11.45%. The two MS approaches were used to quantify 10 metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, a carbohydrate, an organic acid, a vitamin and a phytohormone) in 18 samples of avocado at different ripening states, and the achieved results were compared. Perseitol, quinic, chlorogenic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as epicatechin and catechin decreased during the ripening process, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids showed the opposite trend. Moreover, some other unknown compounds whose concentration changed largely during ripening were also studied by MS/MS and QTOF MS to get a tentative identification. PMID:24228266

  19. Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-06-16

    Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (≥0.8 OD600 nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

  20. Dietary effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, and longevity are modulated by skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Keipert, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Klaus, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how diet and energy metabolism interact in determination of lifespan under ad libitum feeding. From 12 weeks of age until death, male and female wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) mice with increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling (HSA-mUCP1 mice) were fed one of three different semisynthetic diets differing in macronutrient ratio: control (high-carbohydrate/low-fat-HCLF) and two high-fat diets: high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF), and low-carbohydrate/high-fat (...

  1. Perfil metabólico de Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Aeglidae, Anomura submetida a dietas ricas em carboidratos ou proteínas Metabolic profile of Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Anomura submitted to carbohydrate-rich or high-protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Della P. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidratos e uma dieta rica em proteínas sobre o metabolismo de Aegla platensis, um caranguejo anomuro de água doce. Os animais foram coletados no Arroio do Mineiro, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, em agosto/2002 e janeiro/2003, e foram alimentados durante 15 dias com carne bovina crua e arroz branco, em aquários aerados. O fotoperíodo foi controlado: 12 horas claro - 12 horas escuro. Glicose, proteínas, lipídios e triglicerídios foram dosados na hemolinfa; glicogênio e lipídios foram dosados no hepatopâncreas, brânquias e músculo. Em Aegla platensis, mantida em condições de laboratório, em todos os tecidos estudados pode ser observado que o aporte regular de alimento, bem como o tipo de dieta administrada determinaram um perfil diferenciado de resposta metabólica entre os sexos e o período de realização dos experimentos (inverno e verão.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a carbohydrate-rich and a high-protein diets on metabolism of Aegla platensis, a freshwater anomuram crab. The animals were collected in Mineiro Creek, Taquara city, Rio Grande do Sul, at august/2002 and january/2003, and were feed during 15 days with crude bovine meat and white rice, in an aerated aquarium. The photoperiod was controlled: 12 hours day - 12 hours night. Glucose, proteins, lipids and triglycerides were dosed in haemolymph; glycogen and lipids were dosed in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle tissues. In Aegla platensis, maintained in laboratory conditions, in all studied tissues can be seen that the regular food intake, as well as the kind of administered diet determinated a differential profile of metabolic response between sexes and the period of the experiments performance (winter and summer.

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K;

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  3. Global microarray analysis of carbohydrate use in alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajian Song

    Full Text Available The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources.

  4. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  5. Determination of the modes of action and synergies of xylanases by analysis of xylooligosaccharide profiles over time using fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Tian, Li; Liu, Shijia; Wu, Xiuyun; Li, Fuli; Wang, Lushan

    2016-07-01

    The structure of xylan, which has a 1,4-linked β-xylose backbone with various substituents, is much more heterogeneous and complex than that of cellulose. Because of this, complete degradation of xylan needs a large number of enzymes that includes GH10, GH11, and GH3 family xylanases together with auxiliary enzymes. Fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is able to accurately differentiate unsubstituted and substituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in the heterogeneous products generated by different xylanases and allows changes in concentrations of specific XOS to be analyzed quantitatively. Based on a quantitative analysis of XOS profiles over time using FACE, we have demonstrated that GH10 and GH11 family xylanases immediately degrade xylan into sizeable XOS, which are converted into smaller XOS in a much lower speed. The shortest substituted XOS produced by hydrolysis of the substituted xylan backbone by GH10 and GH11 family xylanases were MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 and MeGlcA(2) Xyl4 , respectively. The unsubstituted xylan backbone was degraded into xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose by both GH10 and GH11 family xylanases; the product profiles are not family-specific but, instead, depend on different subsite binding affinities in the active sites of individual enzymes. Synergystic action between xylanases and β-xylosidase degraded MeGlcA(2) Xyl4 into xylose and MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 but further degradation of MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 required additional enzymes. Synergy between xylanases and β-xylosidase was also found to significantly accelerate the conversion of XOS into xylose. PMID:27060349

  6. Litter size variation in hypothalamic gene expression determines adult metabolic phenotype in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early postnatal environments may have long-term and potentially irreversible consequences on hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. Litter size is an important life history trait and negatively correlated with milk intake in small mammals, and thus has been regarded as a naturally varying feature of the early developmental environment. Here we investigated the long-term effects of litter size on metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA expression involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, using the offspring reared from large (10-12 and small (3-4 litter sizes, of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii, a rodent species from Inner Mongolia grassland in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hypothalamic leptin signaling and neuropeptides were measured by Real-Time PCR. We showed that offspring reared from small litters were heavier at weaning and also in adulthood than offspring from large litters, accompanied by increased food intake during development. There were no significant differences in serum leptin levels or leptin receptor (OB-Rb mRNA in the hypothalamus at weaning or in adulthood, however, hypothalamic suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 mRNA in adulthood increased in small litters compared to that in large litters. As a result, the agouti-related peptide (AgRP mRNA increased in the offspring from small litters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support our hypothesis that natural litter size has a permanent effect on offspring metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, and suggest central leptin resistance and the resultant increase in AgRP expression may be a fundamental mechanism underlying hyperphagia and the increased risk of overweight in pups of small litters. Thus, we conclude that litter size may be an important and central determinant of metabolic fitness in adulthood.

  7. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J;

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...... involvement of skeletal muscle was examined in lean, healthy subjects by measuring the response in forearm oxygen consumption to an oral glucose load. The study demonstrates an early component of skeletal muscle thermogenesis coinciding with the local glucose uptake, followed by a late facultative...... thermogenesis. The arterial epinephrine concentration increased to a maximum of 200% above base-line values 4 h after glucose. This value greatly exceeds the physiological threshold for the thermogenic action of epinephrine. In forearm venous blood the corresponding increase in epinephrine was only...

  8. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  9. Organizing multivalency in carbohydrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Despras, Guillaume; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2016-06-01

    The interactions of cell surface carbohydrates as well as of soluble glycoconjugates with their receptor proteins rule fundamental processes in cell biology. One of the supramolecular principles underlying and regulating carbohydrate recognition is multivalency. Many multivalent glycoconjugates have therefore been synthesized to study multivalency effects operative in glycobiology. This review is focused on smaller multivalent structures such as glycoclusters emphasizing carbohydrate-centered and heteromultivalent glycoconjugates. We are discussing primary, secondary and tertiary structural aspects including approaches to organize multivalency. PMID:27146554

  10. A computer program for the algebraic determination of control coefficients in Metabolic Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Fell, D A

    1993-06-01

    A computer program (MetaCon) is described for the evaluation of flux control, concentration control and branch-point distribution control coefficients of a metabolic pathway. Requiring only the reaction scheme as input, the program produces algebraic expressions for the control coefficients in terms of elasticity coefficients, metabolite concentrations and pathway fluxes. Any of these variables can be substituted by numeric or simple algebraic expressions; the expressions will then be automatically rearranged in terms of the remaining unknown variables. When all variables have been substituted, numeric values will be obtained for the control coefficients. The program is a computerized implementation of the matrix method for the determination of control coefficients. The features of MetaCon are compared with those of other programs available to workers in Metabolic Control Analysis. Potential benefits of, and methods of using, MetaCon are discussed. The mathematical background and validity of the matrix method rules are discussed, and the algorithm used by MetaCon is described. The matrix method is shown to be a specific case of a previously described general formalism for calculating control coefficients. PMID:8503870

  11. Determination of damages of photosynthetic metabolism caused by herbicides using a delayed fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da; Zhou, Xiaoming; Li, Qiang

    2007-11-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant can be affected by herbicide, resulting in the decrease in photosynthetic capacity. The photosystem II (PSII) in plants is considered to be the primary site where light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) is produced. In this study, a simple analytical model of DF has been developed to diagnose the damages of photosynthesis caused by herbicides based on the charge recombination theory. Using a home-made portable DF detection system, we have studied the effects of two different kinds of herbicides on decay kinetics of DF in soybean (Glycine max (L.), Jinghuang No. 3). Current investigations have demonstrated that the analytic equation of DF decay dynamics we proposed here can accurately determine the extent of damage of herbicides to photosynthetic metabolism and truly reflect the mechanism and site about which herbicides inhibit photosynthetic electron transport chain. Therefore, the decay kinetics of DF with proper calibration may provide a promisingly new and practical means for pharmacological analysis of herbicides and damage-diagnosis of photosynthetic metabolism. The DF technique could be potentially useful for detecting the effects of herbicide on plant performance in vivo and screening new generation of promising herbicides with low toxicity and superhigh efficiency.

  12. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...

  13. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jinhua; Li, Ming; Xu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. Methods 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult ...

  14. Metabolic studies on K and Ca by determining their concentration in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features, results and conclusions of element analyses of hair are briefly outlined. Isotope excited X RF analysis was used for the determination of Ca in the hair of individuals belonging to different groups as well as of K and Ca in the hair of the beard of two persons. On the basis of the frequency distribution of Ca concentrations in different groups it is supposed that the hair Ca level might be used for the preventive treatment of diseases connected with Ca metabolism disorder. The influence of stress could be verified by a high K level during increased mental burden and a low K level during a peaceful way of life. (author)

  15. Carbohydrate loading in the preoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L T; Miller, M G A

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition support is an evolving field, and modern clinical nutrition practice should actively incorporate strategies to enhance various clinical outcomes. In surgical patients, clinical benefits can be maximised by nutritional support protocols that minimise and manage the perioperative fasting period. This approach, which includes the perioperative provision of clear carbohydrate-containing fluids, has been shown to be safe, is evidence based, and is supported by many professional societies. Such a strategy has been shown to aid the anaesthetic process and maintain an optimal metabolic state, including improved insulin sensitivity and blunted muscle catabolic activity. Some important consequences of this improved metabolic control include shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. A proactive multidisciplinary team approach is essential to use this nutrition support strategy with success across a hospital's surgical service. PMID:26294840

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of diet foods. These foods may contain extra sugar as a substitute for fat calories. Try to include your child or teen as you evaluate and select healthy carbohydrate-containing foods. With ... blood sugar. By taking a smart approach to balancing carbohydrates, ...

  17. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically...... process could prove to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of...... production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...

  18. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  19. Determination of optimal glucose concentration for microcalorimetric metabolic evaluation of equine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Belico de Vasconcelos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The heat conduction microcalorimeter can be used to evaluate the metabolic rates of the sperm cell. Two ejaculates of four stallions were cooled to +5ºC and checked for sperm motility (bright field microscopy, viability (eosin 3%, functional membrane integrity (hyposmotic swelling test, and heat production (microcalorimetry. Glucose and sperm cell concentrations were determined in order to measure the heat outputs resulting from sperm metabolism. Sperm viability, membrane integrity and sperm motility did not differ among the different glucose concentrations tested. Nevertheless, the highest heat output detected by the microcalorimeter was obtained with 6 mM glucose and 10(8 spermatozoa/mL. Since conduction microcalorimetry offered additional information on equine sperm metabolism, it could be used as a method to study equine semen preservation.O microcalorímetro de condução pode ser usado para avaliar as taxas metabólicas do espermatozóide eqüino. Dois ejaculados de quatro garanhões foram avaliados quanto à motilidade progressiva pela microscopia, viabilidade espermática (eosina 3%, integridade funcional da membrana (teste hiposmótico e produção de calor (microcalorimetria. Concentrações ótimas de glicose e de células espermáticas foram determinadas, para mensurar o calor liberado resultante do metabolismo espermático em relação à capacidade de detecção do calor pelo microcalorímetro. Não foi observada diferença da motilidade, viabilidade e integridade funcional de membrana espermática quando adicionada glicose nas três concentrações estudadas. No entanto a avaliação por microcalorimetria ressaltou um maior fluxo de calor a uma concentração de 6 mM de glicose e uma concentração espermática de 10(8 espermatozóides/mL. Portanto, a técnica de microcalorimetria oferece informações adicionais sobre o metabolismo tornando-se uma ferramenta importante no estudo do processo de preservação do sêmen eqüino.

  20. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  1. Pharmacokinetic and metabolism determinants of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin activity in treatment of colorectal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoni, Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Silvestris, Nicola; Maiello, Evaristo; Vacca, Angelo; Marech, Ilaria; Numico, Gianmauro; Paradiso, Angelo; Lorusso, Vito; Azzariti, Amalia

    2011-12-01

    Fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin continued to be the mainstay of therapeutic regimens in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). For this reason, pharmacokinetic and metabolism of these drugs were analyzed and the identification of accurate and validated predictive, prognostic and toxicity markers became necessary to develop an effective therapy adapted to the patient's molecular profile, while minimizing life-threatening toxicities. In this review, we discuss literature data, defining predictive and prognostic markers actually identified in the treatment of CRC. We analyzed predictive markers of fluoropyrimidines effectiveness, principally for 5-Fluorouracil (5- FU) and also for oral fluoropyrimidines, as thymidylate Synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase), microsatellite instability. DPD represent the more studied 5-FU toxicity marker, followed by TS and OPRT. Oxaliplatin effectiveness is principally regulated by nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, including excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XDP). The major oxaliplatin toxicity marker is represented by glutathione S-transferase (GST). All these results are based principally on retrospective studies. The future challenge became to validate molecular markers and their association with clinical outcomes in prospective trials, refining technologic platforms and bioinformatics to accommodate the complexity of the multifaceted molecular map that may determine outcome, and determining CRC patients most likely to benefit from therapeutic interventions tailored specifically for them. PMID:21787270

  2. [Metabolic therapy for heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Ferdinando; Alberti, Luca; Lauretta, Ludovica; Puccetti, Patrizia; Silipigni, Carmen; Margonato, Alberto; Fragasso, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure may promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation, and determining an increased utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation have been shown to be increased in patients with heart failure. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. A direct approach to manipulate cardiac energy metabolism consists in modifying substrate utilization by the failing heart. To date, the most effective metabolic treatments include several pharmacological agents that directly inhibit fatty acid oxidation. The results of current research are supporting the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and toward glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. Trimetazidine is the most studied drug in this context. Several small studies have evidenced the usefulness of such additional therapeutic tools for heart failure. More specifically, recent meta-analyses and a multicenter retrospective study have shown that additional use of trimetazidine in patients with heart failure, along with symptoms and cardiac function improvement, also provides a significant protective effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to cardiac causes. Nevertheless, the exact role of metabolic therapy in heart failure is yet to be established, and a large multicenter randomized trial is necessary. PMID:25072544

  3. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  4. THE RESPONSE OF PLANT CARBOHYDRATES TO ELEVATED CO2: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT FROM FACE STUDIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS,A.; AINSWORTH,E.A.; BERNACCHI,C.J.; GIBON,Y.; STITT,M.; LONG,S.P.

    2004-08-29

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) is expected to rise from a current level of 372 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} to about 550 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} by the middle of the century (Prentice 2001). Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and universal changes observed in the leaves of C{sub 3} plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] (Drake et al 1997). Carbohydrates are the product of photosynthetic cells and the substrate for sink metabolism. However, carbohydrates are not just substrates, changes in the composition and pool size of foliar carbohydrates have the potential to communicate source-sink balance and a role for carbohydrates in the regulation of the expression of many plant genes is well established (Koch 1996). Importantly, carbohydrate feedback is thought to be the mechanism through which long-term exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] leads to a reduction in carboxylation capacity (Rogers et a1 199S, Long et al 2004). Foliar sugar content has recently been linked to an increased susceptibility of soybeans to insect herbivory (Hamilton et al submitted). In addition increases in the C:N ratio of leaf litter of plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] has been implicated in negative feedbacks on ecosystem productivity (Oechel et al 1994). Understanding of the response of foliar carbohydrates will form an important part of our ability to understand and predict the effects of rising [CO{sub 2}] on plants and ecosystems. As Free-Air CO{sub 2} enrichment technology was emerging, understanding of the link between carbohydrates and plant responses to rising [CO{sub 2}] was increasing. However, there were concerns that the hypotheses generated using model system or from studies on mostly juvenile plants grown for relatively short periods of time in controlled environments may not translate to the field. Of particular concern was the effect of a limited rooting volume. Arp (1991) argued that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2

  5. Carbohydrate polymers as constituents of exopolymer substances in seawater, their complexing properties towards copper ions, surface and catalytic activity determined by electrochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Marta; Strmečki, Slađana

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate to which extent polysaccharides (PS) contribute to the complexing capacity for copper ion (LT), to determine their property of surface activity and evaluate their capability to cause the catalytic hydrogen evolution wave (peak "H") due to their adsorption and the catalytic groups in their structure. Complexing capacities and apparent stability constants (Kapp) were measured electrochemically for model polysaccharides (PS): carrageenans (κ-, ι- and λ-), chondroitin sulfate, dextran, dextran sulfate, Na-alginate and humic material. Cu-complexing capacities were determined for Na-alginate (logKapp=8.32) and chondroitin sulphate (logKapp=8.14). PS adsorb on different surfaces due to their amphyphylic properties and on that way they could increase the interaction of copper ions with these surfaces by forming the surface complexes with Cu ions. PMID:26453850

  6. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip;

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth...

  7. Effects of Indigestible Carbohydrates and GI of Cereal Products on Glucose Metabolism, Satiety and Cognitive Function in Healthy Subjects; Emphasising mechanisms for glycaemic regulation at the acute, second and third meal

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a cluster of dysfunctions that identifies subjects at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased markedly over the last two decades. Central to this syndrome is insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia, but also other manifestations, e.g. central obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure, imbalance in lipoproteins and pro-thrombotic factors, or sub-clinical inflammation, are invo...

  8. Determination of cerebral metabolic patterns in dementia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Kety-Schmidt method whole brain measurements of blood flow and metabolism were first applied to normal aged and demented patients. Chronically demented patients were consistently found to have marked reductions in cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization when dementia was severe, and lesser reductions when it was mild. Others found that cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization were decreased in parallel in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple infarct dementia (MID). The intraarterial /sup 133/Xe method has been used to determine abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow that correlate with cognitive deficits in patients with organic dementia, mostly Alzheimer's cases. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the /sup 18/F fluorodeoxyglycose (FDG) method have been applied to small numbers of demented patients with advanced AD. In general, decreases were found in global cerebral glucose utilization, but especially in temporal and parietal cortex. Others, using PET and the /sup 15/O/sub 2/ steady-state method, found a coupled decline in global cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization that was correlated with increasing severity of dementia in both AD and MID, but there was no increase in oxygen extraction ratio, and therefore no evidence to support the existence of a chronic ischemic brain process. In this chapter, the author reviews some of the recent findings at UCLA using PET and the method in the study of normal aging and dementing disorders

  9. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  10. Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Leone; Potgieter, Johannes Cornelis; Steyn, Hendrik Stefanus; J. Prinsloo; De Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholest...

  11. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k......Da and HES 450 kDa) and dextran (DEX 500 kDa). Particle size and molecular weight distribution were determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The biodistribution was investigated non-invasively in nude mice using multispectral optical imaging. The most promising polymer conjugate was...

  12. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  13. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  14. Determination of the Relation between Metabolic Syndrome and Anger in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-09-01

    Material and Methods: The study included 78 obese women presenting to the diet outpatient clinic of Kahramanmaras Onikisubat Public Health Center between 1 June and 30 August 2014. Results: The mean age of the participants was 38.1+/-11.1 years (min=18, max=62. Forty-two participants (53.8% were diagnosed as metabolic syndrome, but 36 (46.2% did not fulfill the criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Forty-six participants (59.0% had obesity, 16 (20.5% had severe obesity and 16 (20.5% had morbid obesity. The participants diagnosed as metabolic syndrome had 21.1+/-5.4 and those without metabolic syndrome had 22.7+/-6.4 for the subscale of continuous anger. The participants with metabolic syndrome got significantly higher scores for continuous anger (p=0.011. The participants with metabolic syndrome and those without metabolic syndrome had similar scores for the subscale anger-in (p=0.058 and the subscale anger control (p=0.196. The participants with metabolic syndrome got significantly lower scores for the subscale anger-out (p=0.004. Conclusion: The study revealed that obese women diagnosed as metabolic syndrome had lower scores for Continuous Anger-Anger Manner Scale. Offering social and psychological support for people treated for obesity is important for mental health of these people. Follow-up of the patients offered treatment for obesity by a team including a psychiatrist can increase these patients' compliance with their diet and help to prevent comorbid psychopathologies. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 525-533

  15. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye (Secale cereale) lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, E; Rapacz, M; Dziurka, M; Kolasińska, I

    2016-07-01

    In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost. These could include flooding from melting snow and/or rain, coincident with fungal diseases. Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye (Secale cereale) plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding. These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones. Thus increase in resistant line was connected with a decrease in the energy dissipation rate in PSII/increased photosynthetic activity (energy flux for electron transport), a lower rate of starch degradation and higher rates of sucrose metabolism in leaves. The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses. These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch

  16. Luffa acutangula agglutinin: Primary structure determination and identification of a tryptophan residue involved in its carbohydrate-binding activity using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gnanesh; Mishra, Padmanabh; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2015-12-01

    A lectin from phloem exudates of Luffa acutangula (ridge gourd) was purified on chitin affinity chromatography and characterized for its amino acid sequence and to study the role of tryptophan in its activity. The purified lectin was subjected to various proteolytic digestions, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometer. The peptide precursor ions were fragmented by collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation experiments, and a manual interpretation of MS/MS was performed to deduce amino acid sequence. This gave rise to almost complete sequence coverage of the lectin which showed high-sequence similarity with deduced sequences of phloem lectins present in the database. Chemical modification of lysine, tyrosine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid residues did not inhibit the hemagglutinating activity. However, the modification of tryptophan residues using N-bromosuccinimide showed the loss of hemagglutinating activity. Additionally, the mapping of tryptophan residues was performed to determine the extent and number of residues modified, which revealed that six residues per molecule were oxidized suggesting their accessibility. The retention of the lectin activity was seen when the modifications were performed in the presence of chitooligosaccharides due to protection of a tryptophan residue (W102) in the protein. These studies taken together have led to the identification of a particular tryptophan residue (W102) in the activity of the lectin. PMID:26597132

  17. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  18. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  19. Does Inflammation Determine Whether Obesity Is Metabolically Healthy or Unhealthy? The Aging Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar Alam; Tze Pin Ng; Anis Larbi

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) converts into metabolically unhea...

  20. Genetic Determinants of Metabolism and Benign Prostate Enlargement: Associations with Prostate Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Ayush; Edwards, Todd L.; Motley, Saundra S.; Byerly, Susan H.; Fowke, Jay H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate enlargement leading to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity. The genetic basis of this association is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with metabolic disorders are also associated with prostate volume (PV). Participants included 876 men referred for prostate biopsy and found to be prostate cancer free. PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound. Samp...

  1. Increased dietary carbohydrate and endurance during single-leg cycling using a limb with normal muscle glycogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, A E; Williams, C

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased availability of blood-borne glucose would improve endurance after carbohydrate loading. A single-leg exercise model was employed, taking advantage of the fact that supercompensation of muscle glycogen occurs only in a previously exercised limb. Endurance time to exhaustion at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was determined for 11 males and three females who were then allocated to a control group or a high-carbohydrate (CHO) group. For 3 days following Test 1 the control group maintained a prescribed normal diet whilst the CHO group increased the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrate (62.1 +/- 4.3% cf. 43.9 +/- 2.0%, P less than 0.01). The endurance test was then repeated using the leg that was inactive during Test 1. Endurance time was increased on Test 2 (123.7 +/- 43.2 min cf. 98.5 +/- 21.9 min, P less than 0.05 one-tailed test) for the CHO group but not for the control group (101.8 +/- 21.7 min cf. 107.5 +/- 9.1 min, NS). There was no indication of enhanced carbohydrate metabolism during Test 2 for the CHO group but mean heart rate was lower during Test 2 than during Test 1 (145 +/- 14 beat min-1 cf. 152 +/- 12 beat min-1, P less than 0.05). These results suggest that the prior consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet improves endurance during high-intensity cycling with a limb with normal muscle glycogen concentration. PMID:2681820

  2. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  3. Methodical investigations on the metabolism-oriented determination of the lysine requirement of broiler chickens. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was designed to narrow the estimated range for lysine requirement of broiler chickens determined by isotopic techniques. In addition the influence of a long-term feed withdrawal prior to 14C-lysine-injection on the lysine catabolism was investigated. 120 male broiler chickens 7 to 21 days posthatching received a diet based on wheat and wheat gluten. Lysine content was varied from 8.3 to 16.0 g/kg dry mater (DM) (3.2 to 6.3 g/16 g N) at 8 levels by supplementing the basal diet with L-lysine-HCl. After the feeding period animals of each group were labelled with 14C-L-lysine by intravenous injection 5.5 and 15.5 hours after feed withdrawal, respectively. During the following 4 hours the excretion of 14CO2 and CO2 was measured. Highest body weight gain was observed in the group with 13.8 g lysine/kg DM. In case of 14CO2 excretion measurements starting 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal an increase of 14CO2 excretion was observed if the lysine content of the diet exceeded 11.6 g/kg DM. This estimated range for lysine requirement (11.6 to 12.7 g/kg DM with 26% crude protein in the DM) was lower compared with the lysine requirement estimated by the growth curve (12.7 to 13.8 g/kg DM). This discrepancy could be explained by the fact that the results of the metabolism-oriented determination of lysine requirement represent the requirement at the actual age, while the feeding experiment reflects a mean lysine requirement of the previous period of 14 days. If the animals were labelled with 14C-lysine 15.5 hours after feed withdrawal no clear response in 14CO2 excretion and specific radioactivity of CO2 on the dietary lysine content was observed. (author)

  4. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  5. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  6. Does Inflammation Determine Whether Obesity Is Metabolically Healthy or Unhealthy? The Aging Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO converts into metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO. What causes this transition to occur and what is the role of obesity-related mediators of inflammation during this transition is discussed in this paper.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  8. Obesity, metabolism, and hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and hypertension is complex and poorly understood. A developing body of information suggests that metabolic factors related to the obese state are importantly involved. The pertinent observations include: (1) Diet influences sympathetic nervous system activity. Fasting suppresses, while carbohydrate and fat feeding stimulate, sympathetic activity. (2) Dietary-induced changes in sympathetic activity contribute to the changes in metabolic rate that accompany cha...

  9. Type 2 diabetes, cognitive function and dementia: vascular and metabolic determinants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Kessels, R.P.C.; Kappelle, L.J.; Hann, E.H. de; Biessels, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic disease with a rising global prevalence. It is associated with slowly progressive end-organ damage in the eyes and kidneys, but also in the brain. The latter complication is often referred to as "diabetic encephalopathy" and is characterized by mild to moderate

  10. Mitochondrial genome variation as a pathogenic determinant of the metabolic syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Hyakukoku, M.; Houštěk, Josef; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mothejzíková-Dudová, Kristýna; Pecina, Petr; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zdeněk; Vojtíšková, Alena; Mráček, Tomáš; Kazdová, Ludmila; Oliyarnyk, O.; Wang, J.; Ho, Ch.; Qi, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Kurtz, T.

    Bioenergetická skupina ČSBMB, 2006. s. 11-11. [Česko-Slovenská konference Bioenergetika 2006 /19./. 13.10.2006-16.10.2006, Karlov] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065 Keywords : metabolic syndrom * mitochondrial DNA * type 2 diabetes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Calabrò; Aulus C. Carciofi; Nadia Musco; Raffaella Tudisco; Gomes, Marcia O. S.; Monica I. Cutrignelli

    2013-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  12. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, AD; Carbone, MS; Keenan, TF; Czimczik, CI; Hollinger, DY; Murakami, P; Schaberg, PG; Xu, X.

    2013-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars in a subset of trees using the radiocarbon ((14) C) bomb spike. With these data, we then tested different carbon (C) allocatio...

  13. Accumulation of Carbohydrate and Regulation of 14-3-3 Protein on Sucrose Phosphate Synthase (SPS) Activity in Two Tomato Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; CUI Na; ZHAO Xiao-cui; FAN Hai-yan; LI Tian-lai

    2014-01-01

    To explore the differences of carbohydrate metabolism in two tomato species and discuss the possible regulation of 14-3-3 proteins on the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, we determined the contents of soluble sugar and starch through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of sugar-metabolizing enzymes were assayed in desalted extract, and the relative expression levels of related genes in sugar metabolism were determined though real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that glucose and fructose were mainly accumulated during the maturation of the fruit because of the high acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) in Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, while inSolanum chmielewskii fruit, SPS which went along with the change of sucrose content led to the rapid sucrose increase during the fruit ripening. TFT1 and TFT10, belonging to 14-3-3 protein in tomato, were likely to down-regulated SPS activity during young and intumescence period.

  14. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Arjen M Punt; Wim Arts; Mirjam A Kabel; Harry Gruppen

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed a...

  15. Selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines - determination of cellular uptake, distribution and identification of metabolites by LC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Selenium is an essential element and has shown cancer protective properties. The mechanism behind this cancer preventive effect has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study is to identify the metabolic conversions of selenium compounds carried out by the cancer cell and generates a credible hypothesis explaining the cancer preventive effect. Liver cancer cells were incubated for 24 hours with Se-methylselenocysteine or selenomethionine. The medium was removed and the cells lysed in 50 % methanol. Total selenium content was determined for the three samples, medium, supernatant and pellet fraction. Separation of the metabolites was accomplished by HPLC-ICPMS. (author)

  16. Very low-carbohydrate diets in the management of diabetes revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Grant Martin; Henderson, George; Thornley, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Humans can derive energy from carbohydrate, fat, or protein. The metabolism of carbohydrate requires by far the highest secretion of insulin. The central pathology of diabetes is the inability to maintain euglycaemia because of a deficiency in either the action or secretion of insulin. That is, because of either insulin resistance often accompanied by hyperinsulinaemia, or insulin deficiency caused by pancreatic beta cell failure. In individuals dependent on insulin and other hypoglycaemic medication, the difficulty of matching higher intakes of carbohydrates with the higher doses of medication required to maintain euglycaemia increases the risk of adverse events, including potentially fatal hypoglycaemic episodes. Thus, mechanistically it has always made sense to restrict carbohydrate (defined as sugar and starch, but not soluble and insoluble fibre) in the diets of people with diabetes. Randomised clinical trials have confirmed that this action based on first principles is effective. The continued recommendation of higher-carbohydrate, fat-restricted diets has been criticised by some scientists, practitioners and patients. Such protocols when compared with very low-carbohydrate diets provide inferior glycaemic control, and their introduction and subsequent increase in carbohydrate allowances has never been based on strong evidence. The trend towards highercarbohydrate diets for people with diabetes may have played a part in the modern characterisation of type 2 diabetes as a chronic condition with a progressive requirement for multiple medications. Here we will introduce some of the evidence for very low-carbohydrate diets in diabetes management and discuss some of the common objections to their use. PMID:27356254

  17. Effect of salidroside on carbohydrate metabolism and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats under negative psychological stress induced by experimental navigation and intensive exercise%红景天苷对负性心理应激下高强度运动大鼠糖代谢及炎症因子水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽; 王扬天; 王群; 孙玲君; 王坚; 李洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of salidroside on the carbohydrate metabolism and the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats under negative psychological stress induced by experimental navigation and intensive exercise. Methods A total of 30 6-week Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly and equally allocated into 3 groups, quiescent control group (group A), training control group (group B) and salidroside treatment group (group C). Rats from group A received no stimulation, and administered a 7-day intragastrical injection of normal saline. Rats from group B underwent a 10-day run training with increasing load on treadmill and received 7-day intragastrical administration of normal saline. Group C were subjected to the same procedure of run training as group B, and received 7-day intragastrical administration of 0.4g/kg salidroside. Then, all the rats underwent experimental navigation and intensive exercise. Blood samples were immediately obtained for detection of blood glucose and the levels of inflammatory response-related cytokines, high sensitive-C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α), interleukin 6(IL-6), and endothelin 1 (ET-1) by ELISA. Results As compared with group A, the levels of blood glucose, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, ET-1 was significantly increased in group B (P<0.05), while, the levels of blood glucose was significantly increased (P<0.05), and those of hs-CRP, IL-6, and ET-1 were significantly decreased in group C (P<0.05). The levels of hs-CRP, TNF-a, IL-6, ET-1 in group C were also significantly decreased than in group B (P<0.05). The level of blood glucose in group C showed a decreasing tendency. Conclusion Negative psychological stress and intensive exercise lead to disorders of glucose metabolism and increase the production of inflammatory cytokines in rats. Salidroside therapy reduces the levels of blood glucose and inflammatory cytokines in rats under stress, and thus improve glucose metabolism and

  18. Application of compartmental metabolic models for determination of retention and excretion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an intake of radioactive material, its behaviour in the human body can be described by mathematical models, where organs, tissues or regions of the body are treated as a chain of linked compartments. The mathematical approach for such metabolic models is usually done through a system of differential equations of first order with constant coefficients. The solutions of this system of equations associates the radionuclide intake, with the fraction excreted or retained in the organ of interest. A computer program - called INCORP and for running in PC compatible microcomputers - was developed in order to find the solutions of such system of equations, using an analytical method based on expansion of series of exponential matrices. The metabolic model presented in the ICRP-30 publication was simulated using the INCORP program, in order to find the respective retention and excretion curves for selected radionuclides. (author)

  19. Influence of Single-bout Resistance Training and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation on Urine Androgen Metabolism of Male Boxers and Bodybuilders%急性抗阻运动及不同比例糖和蛋白营养干预对男子力量项目运动员尿雄激素代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文安; 王启荣; 方子龙; 邵晶; 陈成亮; 周钰杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察急性抗阻运动及不同比例糖和蛋白营养干预对男子力量项目运动员尿雄激素变化的影响.方法:18名男子力量项目(拳击、健美)运动员,分为糖加高蛋白补充组(HP组,糖和蛋白比例为3∶1)、糖加低蛋白补充组(LP组,糖和蛋白补充比例为6∶1)及纯糖补充对照组(C组),所有受试者进行相同的抗阻运动,先进行4组70%1RM深蹲动作,每组8次,组间休息60 s,第4组完成后休息90 s;随后完成4组50%1RM深蹲动作,第1、2组重复8次,后两组重复至不能完成动作为止,组间休息60 s,第4组完成后休息150 s;接下来完成4组70% 1RM卧推动作,组间休息60 s,第4组完成后休息90 s;最后完成4组50% 1RM卧推动作,第1、2组重复8次,后两组重复至不能完成动作为止,组间休息60 s.采用气相质谱色谱仪(GC-MS)测定运动前、运动后即刻及次日晨尿雄激素.结果:急性运动后即刻各组尿本胆烷醇酮及雄酮比运动前显著升高(P<0.05),组间无差异.运动后次日晨,HP组和LP组尿5α-雄烷二醇和5β-雄烷二醇比运动前显著升高(P<0.05),组间比较HP组5α-雄烷二醇和5β-雄烷二醇显著高于LP、C组(P<0.05).结论:急性抗阻运动及糖和蛋白营养干预能加速男子力量项目运动员性腺雄激素和肾上腺雄激素转化和代谢,促进睾酮向双氢睾酮转化,有利于脂肪分解和糖酵解,促进机体运动后疲劳恢复.%Objective To investigate the effects of carbohydrate-protein supplementations with different ratios on the body recovery process after acute resistance training and urine androgen metabolism of male boxers and bodybuilders. Methods Eighteen male boxers and bodybuilders were supplied with high-protein and low-carbohydrate (group HP, carbohydrate:protein = 3:1) ,low-protein and high-carbohydrate (group LP,carbohydraterprotein = 6:1) and carbohydrate only (group C). All subjects completed 4 sets of 8-repetition squats at 70% of

  20. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  1. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. ...

  2. Microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection for the determination of analytes in the dopamine metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Rachel A; Reid, Erin A; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    A method for the separation and detection of analytes in the dopamine metabolic pathway was developed using microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. The microchip consisted of a 5 cm PDMS separation channel in a simple-t configuration. Analytes in the dopamine metabolic pathway were separated using a background electrolyte composed of 15 mM phosphate at pH 7.4, 15 mM SDS, and 2.5 mM boric acid. Two different microchip substrates using different electrode materials were compared for the analysis: a PDMS/PDMS device with a carbon fiber electrode and a PDMS/glass hybrid device with a pyrolyzed photoresist film carbon electrode. While the PDMS/PDMS device generated high separation efficiencies and good resolution, more reproducible migration times were obtained with the PDMS/glass hybrid device, making it a better choice for biological applications. Lastly, the optimized method was used to monitor l-DOPA metabolism in a rat brain slice. PMID:25958983

  3. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  4. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Deliang Guo; Arnab Chakravarti; Williams, Terence M.; Peng Ru

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a...

  6. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code “NT”); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code “HB12”); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code “TT8”). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also

  7. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  8. Fluorous-based carbohydrate quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Guosong

    2015-03-20

    Fluorous chemistry has brought many applications from catalysis to separation science, from supramolecular materials to analytical chemistry. However, fluorous-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has not been reported so far. In the current paper, fluorous interaction has been firstly utilized in QCM, and carbohydrate-protein interaction and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction have been detected afterward. PMID:25541017

  9. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  10. Nutrition and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albornoz López, Raúl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The exact etiology is unclear, although it is known thatthere is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, dietary habits play an important role in the treatment and prevention of this condition. General classic recommendations include control of obesity, increased physical activity, decreased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, reduced intake of simple sugars and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. It has been studied the influence of diets low in carbohydrates, diets rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber intake, the Mediterranean diet and the glycemic index in relation to metabolic syndrome.Other nutrients recently studied are the micronutrients (magnesium and calcium, soy and other phytochemicals. Evidence suggests that a healthy diet like the Mediterranean protects against metabolic syndrome,caracterized for a low content in saturated and trans fat, high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, balanced intake of carbohydrates and high in fiber, fruits and vegetables. There is more controversy about the type of diet of choice for the control ofmetabolic syndrome (low-carbohydrate diets or lowfat, needing more studies on the role of soy and other phytochemicals.

  11. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  12. Genetic Determinants of Metabolism and Benign Prostate Enlargement: Associations with Prostate Volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Giri

    Full Text Available Prostate enlargement leading to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity. The genetic basis of this association is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously associated with metabolic disorders are also associated with prostate volume (PV. Participants included 876 men referred for prostate biopsy and found to be prostate cancer free. PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound. Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate SNPs (additive coding in relation to natural-log transformed (log PV. We compared SNP-PV results from biopsy-negative men to 442 men with low-grade prostate cancer with similar levels of obesity and PV. Beta-coefficients from the discovery and replication samples were then aggregated with fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. SNP rs11736129 (near the pseudo-gene LOC100131429 was significantly associated with log-PV (beta: 0.16, p-value 1.16x10(-8 after adjusting for multiple testing. Other noteworthy SNPs that were nominally associated (p-value < 1x10(-4 with log-PV included rs9583484 (intronic SNP in COL4A2, rs10146527 (intronic SNP in NRXN3, rs9909466 (SNP near RPL32P31, and rs2241606 (synonymous SNP in SLC12A7. We found several SNPs in metabolic loci associated with PV. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and elucidate the mechanism between these genetic loci, PV, and clinical BPH.

  13. Determining the Control Circuitry of Redox Metabolism at the Genome-Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federowicz, Stephen; Kim, Donghyuk; Ebrahim, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    regulated during electron acceptor shifts. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs), ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic......, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome...

  14. Tbx15 controls skeletal muscle fibre-type determination and muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kevin Y.; Manvendra K. Singh; Ussar, Siegfried; Wetzel, Petra; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Kispert, Andreas; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is composed of both slow-twitch oxidative myofibers and fast-twitch glycolytic myofibers that differentially impact muscle metabolism, function and eventually whole-body physiology. Here we show that the mesodermal transcription factor T-box 15 (Tbx15) is highly and specifically expressed in glycolytic myofibers. Ablation of Tbx15 in vivo leads to a decrease in muscle size due to a decrease in the number of glycolytic fibres, associated with a small increase in the number of o...

  15. Determining the association between retinopathy and metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus visiting Mayo Hospital, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Diabetic retinopathy is common sequel of diabetes. Objective: To determine the frequency of retinopathy in patients of type 2 diabetes metabolic syndrome. Study Design; Descriptive study. This study was conducted in diabetic clinic of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January 17, 2007 to July 16,2007. Methods; Three hundred and sixty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for this study and divided into two groups. (Diabetes and with metabolic syndrome) Demographic data of each patient including age, sex, height and weight were collected. Each patient was interviewed about the duration, treatment and complications of diabetes. Data were analyzed by SPSS. P value was calculated by Chi Square test. Results; In group I, the mean height was 1.60 +- 0.08 meters, mean weight was 68.82 +- 7.36 kilograms and mean BMI was 26.38 +- 1.10 kg/m2 and In group II, the mean height was 1.56 +- 0.12 meters, mean weight was 81.58 +- 9.85 kilograms and mean BMI was 33.80 +- 3.61 kg/m/sup 2/. In group I micro aneurysms, dot hemorrhages, blot hemorrhages and hard exudates were found in 12.22% patients. In group II, micro aneurysms, dot hemorrhages, blot hemorrhages and hard exudates were found in 25% patients (p 0.0028). In group I, there were 10.56% patients in which cotton wool spots were found and in group II there were 11.67% patients in which cotton wool spots were found (p 0.0358). In group I, there were 2.78% patients in which new blood vessel formation were found and in group II there were 4.44% patients in which new blood vessel formation was found (p 0.625). Conclusion; It is concluded from this study that frequency of retinopathy is high in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients without metabolic syndrome. (author)

  16. Absorption and Metabolism Characteristics of Triptolide as Determined by a Sensitive and Reliable LC-MS/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Gong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to determine the concentration of triptolide in rat plasma, microsomes, and cell incubation media. The absolute oral bioavailability of triptolide is 63.9% at a dose of 1 mg·kg−1. In vitro, the bidirectional transport of triptolide across Caco-2 cells was studied. A markedly higher transport of triptolide across Caco-2 cells was observed in the basolateral-to-apical direction and was abrogated in the presence of the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. The result indicated that P-gp might be involved in the absorption of triptolide in intestinal. The metabolic stability was also investigated using human liver microsome incubation systems in vitro. In HLMs, incubations with an initial triptolide concentration of 1 μM resulted in an 82.4% loss of substrate over 60 min, and the t1/2 was 38 min, which indicated that triptolide was easily metabolized in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, the absolute oral bioavailability of triptolide in plasma, transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes were systematically investigated by using a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method.

  17. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic 11C-Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinlin; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhong, Min; Walker, Natalie N.; He, Jiang; Berr, Stuart S.; Keller, Susanna R.; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring FA metabolism with partial volume (PV) and spill-over (SP) corrections using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Methods Twenty-minute dynamic 11C-palmitate PET scans of four 18–20 week old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus 120 PET scanner. A model corrected blood input function (MCIF), by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1−k5) are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial FA oxidation (MFAO), myocardial FA esterification (MFAE), myocardial FA utilization (MFAU) and myocardial FA uptake (MFAUp). Results The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03±43.83 nmoles/min/g. This compares well with the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmoles/g/min and 400 nmoles/min/g. Conclusions FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model were validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo. PMID:26462138

  18. Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations (20, 40, 60 ppm, on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm of silicon was prepared by MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon application significantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study we concluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial for carbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata plants.

  19. Compartmentalised cerebral metabolism of [1,6-13C]glucose determined by in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M.N. Duarte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metabolism is compartmentalised between neurons and glia. Although glial glycolysis is thought to largely sustain the energetic requirements of neurotransmission while oxidative metabolism takes place mainly in neurons, this hypothesis is matter of debate. The compartmentalization of cerebral metabolic fluxes can be determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy upon infusion of 13C-enriched compounds, especially glucose. Rats under light α-chloralose anaesthesia were infused with [1,6-13C]glucose and 13C enrichment in the brain metabolites was measured by 13C NMR spectroscopy with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at 14.1 T. This allowed determining 13C enrichment curves of amino acid carbons with high reproducibility and to reliably estimate cerebral metabolic fluxes (mean error of 8%. We further found that TCA cycle intermediates are not required for flux determination in mathematical models of brain metabolism. Neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle rate (VTCA and neurotransmission rate (VNT were 0.45±0.01 and 0.11±0.01 µmol/g/min, respectively. Glial VTCA was found to be for 38±3% of total cerebral oxidative metabolism, accounting for more than half of neuronal oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, glial anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation rate (VPC was 0.069±0.004 µmol/g/min, i.e. 25±1% of the glial TCA cycle rate. These results support a role of glial cells as active partners of neurons during synaptic transmission beyond glycolytic metabolism.

  20. Metabolism of kinetin and benzyladenine in soybean callus: Determination by radioimmunoassay and radioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, P.J.; Forsyth, C.; Staden, J. van

    1986-01-01

    Previous investigations indicated the potential for the use of antisera produced against dihydroribosylzeatin for the quantification of kinetic (K) and benzyladenine (BA). Assays were developed for these synthetic cytokinins and their respective ribosides. Assay measuring range for K and BA was 0.12-46.5 pmol and 0.22-44.4 pmol, respectively. Similar measuring ranges were obtained for both K and BA riboside (0.07-28 pmol). The assays were applied to a study of the metabolism of K and BA in soybean callus cultures. Extract purification was achieved with ion exchange chromatography, and the bases and ribosides separated using thin layer chromatography. The results were in good agreement with those obtained using the more conventional methods of Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC, and indicated rapid metabolism of both K and BA during the 48 h experimental period. No metabolites apart from BA riboside were detected by RIA. HPLC however indicated the presence of other metabolites, and these are reported in a concurrent paper.

  1. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  2. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Sugai; M.S.R. Figueiredo; R.V. Antônio; P.M Oliveira; V.A Cardoso; Ricardo, J.; Merino, E; Figueiredo, L. F.; D.N. Heidrich

    2004-01-01

    Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approach...

  3. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether...... mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  4. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  5. Effect of Low ph on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. ph affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri), representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low ph, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low ph ocean.

  6. Effect of Low pH on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. O. Thornton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. pH affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri, representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low pH, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low pH ocean.

  7. Transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabilites during decomposition in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Paul, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon-14-labelled acetate was added to a heavy clay soil of pH 7.6 to study the transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites during decomposition. The acetate was totally metabolized after 6 days of incubation at 25°C when 70% of the labelled carbon had been...... evolved as CO2. Maximum incorporation of trace-C into the various organic fractions was observed after 4 days when 19% of residual, labelled carbon in the soil was located in carbohydrates, 29 % in amino acids and 21 % in the insoluble residue of the soil. The curves showing the amounts of labelled carbon...... days of incubation, 2.2% of the labelled carbon originally added to the soil was located in carbohydrate metabolites, 7% in amino acid metabolites and 5% in the insoluble residue. The carbon in these fractions accounted for 77% of the total, residual, labelled carbon in the soil; 12% in carbohydrates...

  8. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wilfred Navalta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: Endurance trained male and female (N = 10 athletes were randomly assigned to one of two groups based on either a correct or incorrect cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake. In the incorrect group, the subjects were informed that they were receiving the carbohydrate beverage but actually received the placebo beverage. Participants completed a 60-min ride on a cycle ergometer at 80% VO2peak under carbohydrate and placebo supplemented conditions. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after exercise and were used to determine the plasma glucose concentration, lymphocyte count, and extent of lymphocyte apoptosis. Cognitive awareness, either correct or incorrect, did not have an effect on any of the measured variables. RESULTS: Carbohydrate supplementation during exercise did not have an effect on lymphocyte count or apoptotic index. Independent of drink type, exercise resulted in significant lymphocytosis and lymphocyte apoptosis (apoptotic index at rest = 6.3 ± 3% and apoptotic index following exercise = 11.6 ± 3%, P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Neither carbohydrate nor placebo supplementation altered the typical lymphocyte apoptotic response following exercise. While carbohydrate supplementation generally has an immune-boosting effect during exercise, it appears that this influence does not extend to the mechanisms that govern exercise-induced lymphocyte cell death.

  9. Glucose metabolism determines resistance of cancer cells to bioenergetic crisis after cytochrome-c release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huber, Heinrich J

    2011-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs activate caspases via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Activation of this pathway triggers a concomitant bioenergetic crisis caused by the release of cytochrome-c (cyt-c). Cancer cells are able to evade these processes by altering metabolic and caspase activation pathways. In this study, we provide the first integrated system study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and apoptosis signalling and examine the role of mitochondrial cyt-c release in these events. In accordance with single-cell experiments, our model showed that loss of cyt-c decreased mitochondrial respiration by 95% and depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨ(m) from -142 to -88 mV, with active caspase-3 potentiating this decrease. ATP synthase was reversed under such conditions, consuming ATP and stabilising ΔΨ(m). However, the direction and level of ATP synthase activity showed significant heterogeneity in individual cancer cells, which the model explained by variations in (i) accessible cyt-c after release and (ii) the cell\\'s glycolytic capacity. Our results provide a quantitative and mechanistic explanation for the protective role of enhanced glucose utilisation for cancer cells to avert the otherwise lethal bioenergetic crisis associated with apoptosis initiation.

  10. Genetic determinism of inulin metabolism in industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) : an association mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raulier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a fructose polymer extracted from the root of industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The quality of the root extract is determined by the polymerization degree of inulin molecules and the free fructose concentration. Low autumnal temperatures trigger an inulin degradation phase which decreases the quality of the root extract. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to understand the genetic determinism of the synthesis and the cold induced degradation of inulin. To do so, we...

  11. Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes of Spongospora subterranea Using 454 Pyrosequencing / Análisis de Genes del Metabolismo de Carbohidratos de Spongospora subterranea Utilizando Pirosecuenciación 454

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Spongospora subterranea, the causal agent of Potato powdery scab, is an important soil-borne obligate protozoan commonly found in Andean soils. This is a serious problem that causes cosmetic damage on the skin of tubers and induces root gall formation, diminishing the yield and commercial value of the potato. Genetic studies on S. subterranea are difficult due to its obligate parasitism, which explains the lack of available knowledge on its basic biology. S. subterranea is a member of the Plasmodiophorida order, a protist taxa that includes other important plant pathogens such as Plasmodiophora brassicae and Spongospora nasturtii. Little is known about the genomes of Plasmodiophorida; however, with the use of Next-GenerationSequencing technologies combined with appropriate bioinformatic techniques, it is possible to obtain genomic sequences from obligate pathogens such as S. subterranea. To gain a better understanding of the biology of this pathogen and Plasmodiophorida in general, DNA sequences from a cystosori-enriched sample of S. subterranea were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing technology. As a first step in understanding the nutritional requirements ofS. subterranea as well as its infective and resistance structures, we present a bioinformatic analysis of 24 contigs related to genes involved in the glycolysis, starch, celullose and chitin metabolism. Intron structure and codon usage is also discussed. The genes analyzed in this study are a good source of information for studies aimed at characterizing these enzymes in vitro, as well as the generation of new methods for the molecular detection of S. subterranea in either soils or infected plants. / Resumen. Spongospora subterranea, el agente causal de la sarna polvosa de la papa, es un protozoo y patógeno obligado presente en los suelos andinos. Esta enfermedad es un serio problema para el cultivo de papa, al causar lesiones cosméticas en la piel de los

  12. Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Brandon W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins compared to a commercial product (sport chews. Methods Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO2max treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT. Heart rate (HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA, glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures with a Fisher’s post hoc analysis to determine significant differences. Results VO2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L-1 during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively, and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively. Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6

  13. Characterization of carbohydrate-protein matrices for nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2011-05-01

    Amorphous carbohydrates may show glass transition and crystallization as a result of thermal or water plasticization. Proteins often affect the state transitions of carbohydrates in carbohydrate-protein systems. Water sorption behavior and effects of water on glass transition and crystallization in freeze-dried lactose, trehalose, lactose-casein (3: 1), lactose-soy protein isolate (3:1), trehalose-casein (3:1), and trehalose-soy protein isolate (3:1) systems were studied. Water sorption was determined gravimetrically as a function of time, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) models were fitted to the experimental data. Glass transition temperature (T(g)) and instant crystallization temperature (T(ic)) in anhydrous and water plasticized systems were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to model water content dependence of the T(g) values. The critical water content and water activity (a(w)) at 24 °C were calculated and crystallization of lactose and trehalose in the systems was followed at and above 0.54 a(w). Carbohydrate-protein systems showed higher amounts of sorbed water and less rapid sugar crystallization than pure sugars. A greater sugar crystallization delay was found in carbohydrate-casein systems than in carbohydrate-soy protein isolate systems. The T(g) and T(ic) values decreased with increasing water content and a(w). However, higher T(ic) values for lactose-protein systems were found than for lactose at the same a(w). Trehalose showed lower T(ic) value than lactose at 0.44 a(w) but no instant crystallization was measured below 0.44 a(w). State diagrams for each system are useful in selecting processing parameters and storage conditions in nutrient delivery applications. PMID:22417357

  14. Dietary protein and carbohydrate affect feeding behavior and metabolic regulation in hummingbirds (Melanotrochilus fuscus Las proteínas y carbohidratos dietarios afectan la conducta de alimentación y la regulación metabólica en picaflores (Melanotrochilus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA P. ZANOTTO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to link hummingbird feeding behavior with metabolic regulation and in addition to assess whether dietary composition would affect entrance into torpor. Hummingbirds were fed a combination of diets with contrasting amounts of protein and carbohydrate. The diets were composed of the following: 2.4 % protein (P - 12 % sucrose (S and 0.8 % protein (P - 36 % sucrose (S. The main findings showed that periods of feeding on each of the diets could be distinguished as separate bouts or feeding events. Hummingbirds presented to high protein-low carbohydrate diets (2.4P-12S ingested a larger volume of diet, fed for longer (both around 1.7x and increased the interval between feedings compared with hummingbirds fed diets 0.8P-36S. Physiological regulation between feeding events, on the other hand, was achieved through an increase in metabolic rate for low protein-high sugar diets (0.8P-36S. This response could probably be related to high sucrose assimilation rates through the digestive system of hummingbirds, a process already known to be very efficient in these birds. Additionally, there was a steeper decrease in oxygen consumption for hummingbirds fed diets 2.4P-12S during fasting and a suggestion of a higher torpor incidence in birds fed these dietsEl objetivo de este trabajo fue unir la conducta de alimentación de picaflores con su regulación metabólica y además determinar como la composición dietaria podría afectar la entrada en sopor. Los picaflores fueron alimentados con una combinación de dietas con cantidades contrastantes de proteínas y carbohidratos. La composición dietaria fue: 2,4 % proteína (P - 12 % sacarosa (S y 0.8 % proteína (P - 36 % (sacarosa (S. Se observó que para cada dieta, los períodos de alimentación se pueden distinguir como eventos separados de alimentación. Cuando se enfrentan a dietas de alta proteína-bajo carbohidratos (2,4P-12S, los picaflores ingieren grandes volúmenes de

  15. GM2-ganglioside metabolism in hexosaminidase A deficiency states: determination in situ using labeled GM2 added to fibroblast cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the relationship between hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity and GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis in atypical clinical situations of HEX A deficiency, we have developed a simple method to assess GM2-ganglioside metabolism in cultured fibroblasts utilizing GM2 labeled with tritium in the sphingosine portion of the molecule. The radioactive lipid is added to the media of cultured skin fibroblasts, and after 10 days the cells are thoroughly washed, then harvested, and their lipid composition analyzed by HPLC. The degree of hydrolysis of the ingested GM2 is determined by comparing the amount of radioactive counts recovered in undegraded substrate with total cellular radioactivity. A deficiency in GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis was demonstrated in seven HEX A-deficient adults with neurological signs and in two healthy-appearing adolescents with older affected siblings. In each case, an analysis of endogenous monosialoganglioside composition revealed an increase in GM2-ganglioside, confirming the presence of a block in the metabolism of GM2. No defect in GM2-catabolism was found in four other healthy individuals with HEX A deficiency. This method of assay is especially helpful in the evaluation of atypical cases of HEX A deficiency for the definitive diagnosis of GM2-gangliosidosis

  16. Maternal malnutrition and offspring sex determine juvenile obesity and metabolic disorders in a swine model of leptin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Barbero

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine, in a swine model of leptin resistance, the effects of type and timing of maternal malnutrition on growth patterns, adiposity and metabolic features of the progeny when exposed to an obesogenic diet during their juvenile development and possible concomitant effects of the offspring sex. Thus, four groups were considered. A CONTROL group involved pigs born from sows fed with a diet fulfilling their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy. The treated groups involved the progeny of females fed with the same diet but fulfilling either 160% or 50% of pregnancy requirements during the entire gestation (OVERFED and UNDERFED, respectively or 100% of requirements until Day 35 of pregnancy and 50% of such amount from Day 36 onwards (LATE-UNDERFED. OVERFED and UNDERFED offspring were more prone to higher corpulence and fat deposition from early postnatal stages, during breast-feeding; adiposity increased significantly when exposed to obesogenic diets, especially in females. The effects of sex were even more remarkable in LATE-UNDERFED offspring, which had similar corpulence to CONTROL piglets; however, females showed a clear predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the three groups of pigs with maternal malnutrition showed evidences of metabolic syndrome and, in the case of individuals born from OVERFED sows, even of insulin resistance and the prodrome of type-2 diabetes. These findings support the main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases in ethnics with leptin resistance.

  17. Characterization of human metabolism and disposition of levo-tetrahydropalmatine: Qualitative and quantitative determination of oxidative and conjugated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weibin; Shen, Guolin; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Ran, Xiaorong; Zhu, Mingshe; Li, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is a tetrahydroprotoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid and has been used as an analgesic agent in China for over 50 years. Recent studies revealed that l-THP was effective in the treatment of drug addiction. However, the plasma metabolic profile, mass balance and clearance pathways of l-THP in human remain unknown. In the present study, an analytical strategy was developed for qualitative and quantitative investigation of metabolism and disposition of l-THP in human. Detection and structural characterization of l-THP metabolites were performed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Selected major metabolites in plasma, urine and feces determined by liquid chromatography with UV detection were further quantified using a triple quadruple mass spectrometry and reference standards. A total of 20 metabolites were identified, most of which were formed via demethylation, mono-hydroxylation, and glucuronidation and sulfonation of desmethyl metabolites. Five major metabolites accounted for over 10% of the parent drug concentration in plasma. Major urinary and fecal metabolites and the parent drug that were monitored for 72h accounted for 46.3% of the dose, while only 0.16% of the dose was the unchanged drug. Multiple demethylations followed by glucuronide and sulfate conjugations and renal excretion were the major drug clearance pathways of l-THP in human. PMID:27343900

  18. MR-determined metabolic phenotype of breast cancer in prediction of lymphatic spread, grade, and hormone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathen, Tone F; Jensen, Line R; Sitter, Beathe; Fjösne, Hans E; Halgunset, Jostein; Axelson, David E; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Lundgren, Steinar

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of metabolic phenotype, described by high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS), as a tool for prediction of histological grade, hormone status, and axillary lymphatic spread in breast cancer patients. Biopsies from breast cancer (n = 91) and adjacent non-involved tissue (n = 48) were excised from patients (n = 77) during surgery. HR MAS MR spectra of intact samples were acquired. Multivariate models relating spectral data to histological grade, lymphatic spread, and hormone status were designed. The multivariate methods applied were variable reduction by principal component analysis (PCA) or partial least-squares regression-uninformative variable elimination (PLS-UVE), and modelling by PLS, probabilistic neural network (PNN), or cascade correlation neural network. In the end, model verification by prediction of blind samples (n = 12) was performed. Validation of PNN training resulted in sensitivity and specificity ranging from 83 to 100% for all predictions. Verification of models by blind sample testing showed that hormone status was well predicted by both PNN and PLS (11 of 12 correct), lymphatic spread was best predicted by PLS (8 of 12), whereas PLS-UVE PNN was the best approach for predicting grade (9 of 12 correct). MR-determined metabolic phenotype may have a future role as a supplement for clinical decision-making-concerning adjuvant treatment and the adaptation to more individualised treatment protocols. PMID:17061040

  19. Methodical investigations on the determination of metabolic lysine requirements in broiler chickens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the estimation of lysine requirement 128 male broiler chickens were used at an age of 7 to 21 days posthatching. They received a lysine-deficient diet composed of wheat and wheat gluten. To this basal diet L-lysine-HCL was supplemented successively resulting in 8 lysine levels ranging from 5.8 to 23.3 g lysine per kg dry matter (DM) (2.2 to 8.7 g lysine per 16 g N). At the end of the two-week feeding period of the experimental diets 14C-lysine was injected intravenously 1.5 and 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal. During the following 4 hours the exretion of CO2 and 14CO2 was measured. The highest daily gain of 21.5 g was observed in animals fed 13.3 g lysine-kg DM. Lysine concentrations exceeding 18.3 g/kg DM depressed body weight gain. The CO2 excretion was not influenced by lysine intake. 14CO2 excretion was low with diets low in lysine content and increased 3 to 4 times with diets meeting the lysine requirement. Based on measurements 1.5 to 5.5 hours after feed withdrawal the saturation value for lysine was reached at 13.3 g/kg DM. This value was lowered (10.8 g/kg DM), however, if the estimation was carried out 5.5 to 9.5 hours after feed withdrawal. These results suggest a higher metabolic lysine requirement during the earlier period after feed intake. Both, reduced weight gain and non linearity in 14CO2 excretion in diets exceeding a lysine content of 18.3 g/kg DM indicate a limited capacity of the organism to degrade excessive lysine. According to the results a lysine requirement betwen 10.8 and 13.3 g/kg DM (27% CP and 660 EFU/sub hen//kg DM) was estimated for broiler chickens 3 weeks posthatching. (author)

  20. Different adipose tissue development in mice pair fed fish oil and different carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarlsby, Ragnhild Helene

    2011-01-01

    Obesity causes several health problems, including insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, disrupted energy metabolism and low-grade inflammation. Being obese increases the risk of getting metabolic syndrome. A high intake of certain carbohydrates is known to cause rapid rise in blood glucose, which increases insulin secretion and over time causes insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. A high consumption of sucrose and glucose is considered harmful beyond being a source of energ...

  1. Patterns of nutrient utilization. Implications for nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrients react within both the rumen and the ruminant body, and the patterns of availability of different nutrients greatly influence their net utilization. In the rumen, microbial capture of N substrates, especially ammonia, depends on the degree of synchronization between rates of production of N substrates and of ATP to drive microbial protein synthesis. The form of dietary carbohydrate and of dietary N and the frequency of feeding can all affect the efficiency of microbial growth and digestion. The pattern of supply of nutrients to the body will also influence nutrient utilization. Disparities between diurnal patterns of supply of volatile fatty acids from the rumen and amino acids from the intestines will result in changes in balance of metabolic pathways. The balance between supply of glucogenic and lipogenic nutrients will influence efficiency of fattening. A major factor determining the pattern of utilization/metabolism of amino acids is the metabolic demand for protein synthesis, which varies with physiological state. (author)

  2. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between coloni...

  3. Autophagy is an important metabolic pathway to determine leukemia cell survival following suppression of the glycolytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Moemi; Aoki, Shigeki; Hirao, Takuya; Morita, Michie; Ito, Kousei

    2016-05-20

    Most cancer cells predominantly produce energy by glycolysis, even in the presence of adequate oxygen. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis is a promising cancer treatment target. Recently, it has been recognized that to conduct thorough treatment of cancer, comprehensive understanding of cancer metabolism is essential, not only focusing on glycolysis. Here, we investigated the supporting mechanism of autophagy, which is a catabolic process that recycles intracellular components, for energy supply in the glycolysis-inhibited condition. Autophagy is thought to be highly activated in cancers and to promote their growth or progression by adapting to the harsh surrounding microenvironment. We found that cancer cells positively promoted autophagy to overcome the energy shortage from glycolysis by maintaining mitochondrial activity for ATP production essential for survival. Conclusively, autophagy plays a role in determining whether cancer cells live or die, and autophagic ability in cancer cells is a promising target for therapy. PMID:27107693

  4. Structure of a streptococcal adhesion carbohydrate receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions between complementary protein and carbohydrate structures on different genera of human oral bacteria have been implicated in the formation of dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Streptococcus sanguis H1 that is specific for the adhesion on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 has been isolated from the streptococcal cell wall, purified, and structurally characterized. The hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was purified by reverse-phase, amino-bonded silica, and gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography. Earlier studies established that the repeating unit was a hexasaccharide composed of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose in the ration of 2:3:1, respectively. In the present study, determination of absolute configuration by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl (+)-2-butyl glycosides revealed that the rhamnose residues were of the L configuration while the hexoses were all D. 252Californium plasma desorption mass spectrometry of the native, the acetylated and the reduced and acetylated hexasaccharide determined that the molecular mass of the native hexasaccharide was 959, and that the 2 rhamnose residues were linked to each other at the nonreducing terminus of the linear molecule. Methylation analysis revealed the positions of the glycosidic linkages in the hexasaccharide and showed that a galactose residue was present at the reducing end. The structural characterization of the hexasaccharide was completed by one and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for each glycosyl residue were established by two-dimensional (1H,1H) correlation spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, and (13C,1H) correlation experiments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages were inferred from the chemical shifts and coupling constants of the anomeric 1H and 13C resonances

  5. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.; Ahl, Louise Isager; Salmean, A.A.; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also importa...... plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.......Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...

  6. Glycosyltransferase engineering for carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John B; Chen, Xi

    2016-02-01

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are powerful tools for the synthesis of complex and biologically-important carbohydrates. Wild-type GTs may not have all the properties and functions that are desired for large-scale production of carbohydrates that exist in nature and those with non-natural modifications. With the increasing availability of crystal structures of GTs, especially those in the presence of donor and acceptor analogues, crystal structure-guided rational design has been quite successful in obtaining mutants with desired functionalities. With current limited understanding of the structure-activity relationship of GTs, directed evolution continues to be a useful approach for generating additional mutants with functionality that can be screened for in a high-throughput format. Mutating the amino acid residues constituting or close to the substrate-binding sites of GTs by structure-guided directed evolution (SGDE) further explores the biotechnological potential of GTs that can only be realized through enzyme engineering. This mini-review discusses the progress made towards GT engineering and the lessons learned for future engineering efforts and assay development. PMID:26862198

  7. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    URITA, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Susumu; Akimoto, Tatsuo; Kato, Hiroto; HARA, Noriko; Honda, Yoshiko; Nagai, Yoko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Shimada, Nagato; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Miki, Kazumasa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

  8. Effects of nitrogen source and water availability on stem carbohydrates and cellulosic bioethanol traits of alfalfa plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fiasconaro, M. Laura; Gogorcena Aoiz, Yolanda; Muñoz, Fernando; Andueza, Donato; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Antolín Bellver, M. Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic association of legumes with rhizobia frequently results in higher photosynthesis and soluble carbohydrates in comparison with nitrate-fed plants, which might improve its potential for biomass conversion into bioethanol. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrogen source and water availability on stem characteristics and on relationships between carbohydrates, phenolic metabolism activity and cell wall composition in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón...

  9. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback

  10. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  11. Metabolic Factors in Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Hargreaves

    2006-01-01

    Increased non-oxidative and oxidative ATP production via metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of force and power production during exercise. However, substrate depletion and accumulation of metabolic byproducts are potential causes of fatigue. Reduced PCr availability can limit power production during sprint exercise, whereas carbohydrate depletion is a major limitation to endurance performance. During sprint exercise increased Pi and H+ may contribute to fatigue, and during prolonged strenuous exercise, the accumulation of NH3, reactive oxygen species, and heat can limit performance. Appropriate training programs and nutritional interventions are potential strategies to enhance fatigue resistance and exercise performance.

  12. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  13. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  14. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  15. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    D.N. Heidrich; M.S.R.B. Figueiredo; R.V. Antonio,; da Costa, J. G.; P.B. Arantes; Figueiredo, L. F.; J.K. Sugai

    2005-01-01

    Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  map...

  16. Effect of Cyolane on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyolane was orally administrated daily for 1-5 weeks (1 mg/kg body weight), induced a marked increase in liver glycogen content reaching its highest values after 1,2,3 and 15 weeks. In kidney and brain the glycogen contents showed a significant increase after 10, 12 and 15 weeks of intoxication. Serum glucose content was increased after 2, 3 and 8 weeks. It has been found that Cyolane caused a fluctuation in liver, kidney and brain total lipid through the first 8 weeks, thereafter it exhibited a significant increase after 10, 12 and 15 weeks. Serum total lipid exhibited a highly significant increase after 2-12 weeks, reaching its maximum value (288.66%) after 15 weeks. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Laurids Sørensen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in F. avenaceum. Seven monosaccharides (arabinose, xylose, fructose, sorbose, galactose, mannose, glucose, five disaccharides (cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose and three polysaccharides (dextrin, inulin and xylan were used as substrates. Three F. avenaceum strains were used in the experiments. These were all able to grow and produce aurofusarin on the tested carbon sources. Moniliformin and enniatins were produced on all carbon types, except on lactose, which suggest a common conserved regulation mechanism. Differences in the strains was observed for production of fusarin C, 2-AOD-3-ol, chlamydosporol and antibiotic Y, which suggests that carbon source plays a role in the regulation of their biosynthesis.

  18. Influence of Carbohydrates on Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium avenaceum

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Laurids Sørensen; Henriette Giese

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium avenaceum is a widespread pathogen of important crops in the temperate climate zones that can produce many bioactive secondary metabolites, including moniliformin, fusarin C, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), chlamydosporol, aurofusarin and enniatins. Here, we examine the production of these secondary metabolites in response to cultivation on different carbon sources in order to gain insight into the regulation and production of secondary metabolites in...

  19. Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato

    OpenAIRE

    Appeldoorn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon, followed by the induction, initiation and growth of the tuber. Tuber initiation is characterized by swelling of the stolon tip. The formation of tubers is accompanied by a large accumulation of starch and of a sp...

  20. Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon, followed by the

  1. Diversity of carbohydrate metabolism in species of A spergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Hainaut, Matthieu; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Lyhne, Ellen Kirstine; Kogle, Martin Engelhard; Kuo, Alan; Riley, Robert; de Vries, R.P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and its close relatives in Aspergillus section Nigri are of broad interest to the scientific community including applied, medical and basic research. The fungi are prolific producers of native and heterologous proteins, organic acids (in particular citrate......), and secondary metabolites (including bioactives and toxins such as ochratoxin A).Because of these abilities they represent a substantial economic interests in bioenergy applications. In a project collaboration with the US Joint Genome Institute and JBEI we are sequencing 300 different species of...

  2. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    accounting for up to 90% of the total mass. The glycan contains mostly galactose and arabinose, but glucoronic acid and other less-abundant sugars like rhamnose, xylose and fucose are also found. Although AGPs are important for normal plant growth and are found throughout the plant in virtually all organs...

  3. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H.P.M. Jutte (Nicolet)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractIn mammals the testis, the site of male germ cell development, can be divided morphologically in two cellular compartments, viz. the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial tiSsue between the tubules. The seminiferous tubules contain developing germ cells and Sertoli cells and are surr

  4. Carbohydrate intolerance and kidney stones in children in the Goldfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D N; Spencer, J L; Jeffries-Stokes, C A

    2003-07-01

    Renal stones have been reported as a common finding in Australian Aboriginal children. The stones are predominantly urate in composition. We report on five children with nephrolithiasis from the Goldfields region of Western Australia. All were diagnosed when under 5 years of age, the majority being under 3 years. All five children also had lactose intolerance, and we postulate that carbohydrate malabsorption, together with the ensuing chronic diarrhoea and intraluminal breakdown of sugars by enteric bacteria may result in a situation of chronic metabolic acidosis. Chronic metabolic acidosis can lead to protein catabolism, increased urate excretion and the formation of renal stones. Carbohydrate intolerance may be an aetiological factor in the development of renal stones and possibly chronic renal disease, particularly in Aboriginal Australians. Renal disease represents one of the most significant factors affecting the health of Australian Aboriginal people. The incidence of end stage renal failure in this population exceeds that of non-Aboriginals by a factor of 13:1, and this disproportionate figure is increasing. It is likely that chronic renal damage is multifactorial; however, it is probable that at least some aetiological factors have their onset during childhood. PMID:12887672

  5. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliang Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  6. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  7. Towards complete hydrolysis of soy flour carbohydrates by enzyme mixtures for protein enrichment: A modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-05-01

    Soy protein is a well-known nutritional supplement in proteinaceous food and animal feed. However, soybeans contain complex carbohydrate. Selective carbohydrate removal by enzymes could increase the protein content and remove the indigestibility of soy products for inclusion in animal feed. Complete hydrolysis of soy flour carbohydrates is challenging due to the presence of proteins and different types of non-structural polysaccharides. This study is designed to guide complex enzyme mixture required for hydrolysis of all types of soy flour carbohydrates. Enzyme broths from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus aculeatus and Trichoderma reesei fermentations were evaluated in this study for soy carbohydrate hydrolysis. The resultant hydrolysate was measured for solubilized carbohydrate by both total carbohydrate and reducing sugar analyses. Conversion data attained after 48h hydrolysis were first fitted with models to determine the maximum fractions of carbohydrate hydrolyzable by each enzyme group, i.e., cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and α-galactosidase. Kinetic models were then developed to describe the increasing conversions over time under different enzyme activities and process conditions. The models showed high fidelity in predicting soy carbohydrate hydrolysis over broad ranges of soy flour loading (5-25%) and enzyme activities: per g soy flour, cellulase, 0.04-30 FPU; xylanase, 3.5-618U; pectinase, 0.03-120U; and α-galactosidase, 0.01-60U. The models are valuable in guiding the development and production of optimal enzyme mixtures toward hydrolysis of all types of carbohydrates present in soy flour and in optimizing the design and operation of hydrolysis reactor and process. PMID:26992789

  8. Sepsis as a modulator of adaptation to low and high carbohydrate and low and high fat intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R R

    1999-04-01

    Catabolism of lean body mass (particularly muscle) occurs in sepsis and other forms of critical illness despite apparently adequate nutritional support. The determination of the optimal balance of carbohydrate and fat intake in this circumstance should be based on the resulting effect on the maintenance of lean body mass, and the nature and extent of any side effects. The general stress response involves a disruption in normal glucoregulation, in that hepatic glucose production is accelerated and the normal blood glucose lowering action of insulin is diminished. Nonetheless, the capacity to oxidize glucose once inside the cells is not impaired. Lipolysis, or the breakdown of peripheral triglycerides to free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol, is accelerated in critical illness, to a greater extent than fat oxidation. Provision of exogenous fat maintains fat stores, but has minimal effect on the direct oxidation of plasma FFA. From the results of oxidation studies, it seems that about 5 mg kg x min of glucose can be readily oxidized, and the balance of energy will be supplied by the oxidation of fat, either endogenous or exogenous. However, an additional consideration in determining the optimal caloric substrate is that insulin is a potent anabolic hormone and stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Consequently, provision of exogenous insulin enhances retention of muscle. This procedure dictates that almost all non-protein calories be provided as carbohydrate to avoid hypoglycemia. Preliminary studies suggest this may be the optimal approach in critically ill patients. Glucose and fatty acids are the major energy substrates in the body. The oxidative metabolism of these substrates provides the ATP needed for physiological function, including protein synthesis. Over the past 20 y, development of new techniques in nutritional support have made it possible to provide large amounts of carbohydrate and fat to critically-ill patients, along with protein or amino acids. However

  9. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF DEHYDROGENASES KREBS CYCLE ACTIVITY AT MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS GROWN ON MEDIA WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As ubiquitous organisms, fungi grow on a large number of organic substrate, alive or dead, confronting therefore with a wide variety of carbohydrates and various physical factors, and their versatility to adapt and be able to use a large number of these compounds could provide them the chance to survive. Given that, these fungi have a rich enzyme equipment that allows them to operate on different metabolic pathways, this study aims to monitor the dynamics activity of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhl. Honey species parasitic on various species of plum trees. To this end, the fungus was cultivated in vitro on media enriched with different carbohydrates and the isocitrate dehydrogenase, �-cetoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the fungus mycelium was followed, at 7, respectively, 14 days after the inoculation of the culture medium and determined using the spectrophotometric Sîsoev and Krasna method (Cojocaru, D.C., 2009. Data revealed obvious differences depending on the type of carbohydrate introduced into the medium and the age of the culture mycelia.

  10. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  11. Glucose metabolism during fasting is altered in experimental porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, María; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Benito, Marina; Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Vinaixa, María; Sampedro, Ana; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Elena; Pozo, Miguel A; Peñuelas, Iván; Corrales, Fernando J; Barajas, Miguel; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria, AIP) is characterized by neurovisceral attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endogenous or environmental factors including fasting. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of hepatic heme synthesis have been described, glucose homeostasis during fasting is poorly understood in porphyria. Our study aimed to analyse glucose homeostasis and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during fasting in PBGD-deficient mice. To determine the contribution of hepatic PBGD deficiency to carbohydrate metabolism, AIP mice injected with a PBGD-liver gene delivery vector were included. After a 14 h fasting period, serum and liver metabolomics analyses showed that wild-type mice stimulated hepatic glycogen degradation to maintain glucose homeostasis while AIP livers activated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis due to their inability to use stored glycogen. The serum of fasted AIP mice showed increased concentrations of insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Specific over-expression of the PBGD protein in the liver tended to normalize circulating insulin and glucagon levels, stimulated hepatic glycogen catabolism and blocked ketone body production. Reduced glucose uptake was observed in the primary somatosensorial brain cortex of fasted AIP mice, which could be reversed by PBGD-liver gene delivery. In conclusion, AIP mice showed a different response to fasting as measured by altered carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and modified glucose consumption in the brain cortex. Glucose homeostasis in fasted AIP mice was efficiently normalized after restoration of PBGD gene expression in the liver. PMID:26908609

  12. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates decrement in performance in overtrained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Oliveira, Caio Victor; Barbosa, Carlos Vinícius; Massa, Nayara Moreira; Pereira, Reabias de Andrade; Félix, Gustavo da Silva; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate ingestion at the end of a single exercise is recognized as delaying fatigue and accelerating recovery, but whether chronic ingestion can prevent overtraining during periods of intense training has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether carbohydrate supplementation minimizes overtraining in Wistar rats. The animals underwent 11 weeks of training (running) on a treadmill, and the last 3 weeks were designed to induce overtraining. One group was supplemented with carbohydrates (EX-CHO) (n = 13), 1 group had no supplementation (EX) (n = 10), and a third group remained inactive (C) (n = 9). Performance tests were given before training (Pr1) and at the 8th (Pr2) and 11th (Pr3) training week. Food intake, body weight, testosterone, cortisol, malondialdehyde, creatine kinase, and activities of the PI3-K, Akt-1, mTOR, and GSK-3 enzymes were measured. In the EX group, there was a significant 32.6% performance decrease at Pr3 when compared with Pr2. In addition, at protocol completion, the EX-CHO group had a greater gastrocnemius weight than did the C group (p = 0.02), which the EX group did not. Training caused anorexia, decreased testosterone (p = 0.001), and increased malondialdehyde (p = 0.009) in both exercise groups compared with the C group, with no influence of carbohydrate supplementation on these variables (p > 0.05). Compared with in the C group, the activity of Akt-1 was higher in the EX-CHO group but not in the EX group (p = 0.013). Carbohydrate supplementation promoted an attenuation in the performance decrement and maintained gastrocnemius muscle mass in animals that had undergone overtraining protocols, which was accompanied by increased activity of the Akt-1 molecular indicator. PMID:26701118

  13. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  14. Metabolismo de carboidratos durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. Cv. Solo: influência da radiação gama Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. P. A. GOMEZ

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A irradiação de alimentos é um tratamento pós-colheita bastante promissor, capaz de atuar tanto na desinfestação como no aumento da vida útil de frutos. O mamão é um fruto com curta vida pós-colheita, levando de 6 a 12 dias para atingir a senescência. Além disto, a infestação por larvas de mosca diminui sensivelmente o seu potencial de exportação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ação de uma dose de 0,5 kGy de irradiação gama, normalmente utilizada para desinfestação e aumento de vida útil dos frutos, sobre o comportamento dos carboidratos solúveis durante o amadurecimento do mamão (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo, e sobre as enzimas relacionadas ao metabolismo da sacarose: sacarose sintase (SS, sacarose-fosfato sintase (SPS e invertases ácida e neutra. Os resultados demonstraram que a irradiação não exerce efeito sobre o teor de glicose e frutose, ou sobre a respiração e atividade da SS. Entretanto, a composição dos açúcares solúveis totais e da sacarose, e a atividade da SPS e das invertases foram afetados.Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits desinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstred that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity.

  15. Carbohydrate to protein ratio in food and cognitive performance in the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karina; Colombani, Paolo C; Langhans, Wolfgang; Wenk, Caspar

    2002-03-01

    The effect of different carbohydrate to protein ratios in food on cognitive functions and the relation between postprandial metabolic and cognitive changes were studied in 15 healthy male students. Subjects were tested in three sessions, separated by 1 week, for short-term changes in mood states, objective cognitive functions, blood parameters, and indirect calorimetry using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced cross-over design. Measurements were made after an overnight fast before and hourly during 3.5 h after test meal ingestion. The isoenergetic (1670 kJ) test meals consisted of three carbohydrate to protein ratios, i.e. a carbohydrate-rich (CHO[4:1]), balanced (BAL[1:1]), and protein-rich (PRO[1:4]) meal, respectively. Overall accuracy in short-term memory was best after the PRO[1:4] meal concomitant to the least variation in glucose metabolism and glucagon to insulin ratio (GIR). Related to changes in glucose metabolism and/or in the ratios of large neutral amino acids (LNAA), respectively, attention and decision times were transiently improved within the first hour after the CHO[4:1] meal, whereas after the first hour the BAL[1:1] and PRO[1:4] meal resulted in improved performance. Overall reaction times of a central task were fastest after the BAL[1:1] meal concomitant to the highest overall tyrosine (Tyr) to LNAA ratio. Our findings suggest that the carbohydrate to protein ratio in food specifically influences higher cognitive functions in the morning. Except for a transient positive effect of rising blood glucose after a carbohydrate-rich meal, a protein-rich or balanced meal seems to result in better overall cognitive performance presumably because of less variation in glucose metabolism and/or higher modulation in LNAA ratios indicated by the overall GIR. PMID:11897269

  16. Clinical significant of combined determination of serum CEA and carbohydrate antigen tumor markers in 85 patients with lung adenocarcinoma%肺腺癌患者血清CEA和糖链抗原肿瘤标记物联合测定的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈粉秧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significant of combined determination of serum CEA and car-bohydrate antigen (CA125, CA199, CA153) tumor markers in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Methods The serum CEA and carbohydrate antigen (CA125, CA199 and CA153) levels were determined with chemilumescence immunoassay in 85 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 35 patients with lung squanous carcinoma, 42 patients with small cell lung cancer and 49 patients with benign lung disease. Results In 162 patients with lung cancer, the ser-um CEA and carbohydrate antigen levels were significantly higher in 85 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 35 pa-tients with lung squanous carcinoma and 42 patients with small cell lung cancer than those in 49 patients with benign lung disease (P<0. 001) and the level of 85 patients with lung adenocarcinoma was the highest. So did the serum carbohydrate antigen levels. The sensitivity (95. 29%) and accuracy (83. 76%) in the four tumor markers combined determination were significantly higher than those in single item ( P all<0. 01 ) , and the specificity was 75. 23%. Conclusion The combined detection of serum CEA and carbohydrate antigen levels is helpful for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma, with higher sensitivity and accuracy.%目的:为了探讨85例肺腺癌患者血清CEA和糖链抗原肿瘤标记物水平联合测定的临床意义。方法化学发光免疫分析测定85例肺腺癌、35例肺鳞癌、42例小细胞肺癌和49例良性肺部疾病血清CEA和糖链抗原(CA125、CA199和CA153)水平,并进行了比较性研究。结果162例肺癌患者中,85例肺腺癌、35例肺鳞癌、42例小细胞肺癌患者血清CEA水平较之49例良性肺部疾病明显增高( P<0.001、P<0.01和P<0.001),以肺腺癌增高最为明显。血清糖链抗原(CA125、CA199和 CA153)水平亦然,也以肺腺癌血清CA125、CA199和CA153水平增高最为显著。四项肿瘤标记物的联合测定对85例肺腺癌的敏感性为95.29

  17. Light quality modulates metabolic synchronization over the diel phases of crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M; Taybi, Tahar; Frans, Mario; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P

    2014-07-01

    Temporal compartmentation of carboxylation processes is a defining feature of crassulacean acid metabolism and involves circadian control of key metabolic and transport steps that regulate the supply and demand for carbon over a 24h cycle. Recent insights on the molecular workings of the circadian clock and its connection with environmental inputs raise new questions on the importance of light quality and, by analogy, certain photoreceptors for synchronizing the metabolic components of CAM. The present work tested the hypothesis that optimal coupling of stomatal conductance, net CO2 uptake, and the reciprocal turnover of carbohydrates and organic acids over the diel CAM cycle requires both blue and red light input signals. Contrasting monochromatic wavelengths of blue, green, and red light (i.e. 475, 530, 630nm) with low fluence rates (10 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were administered for 16 hours each diel cycle for a total treatment time of 48 hours to the obligate CAM bromeliad, Aechmea 'Maya'. Of the light treatments imposed, low-fluence blue light was a key determinant in regulating stomatal responses, organic acid mobilization from the vacuole, and daytime decarboxylation. However, the reciprocal relationship between starch and organic acid turnover that is typical for CAM was uncoupled under low-fluence blue light. Under low-fluence red or green light, the diel turnover of storage carbohydrates was orchestrated in line with the requirements of CAM, but a consistent delay in acid consumption at dawn compared with plants under white or low-fluence blue light was noted. Consistent with the acknowledged influences of both red and blue light as input signals for the circadian clock, the data stress the importance of both red and blue-light signalling pathways for synchronizing the metabolic and physiological components of CAM over the day/night cycle. PMID:24803500

  18. The carbon assimilation network in Escherichia coli is densely connected and largely sign-determined by directions of metabolic fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Baldazzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks consist of direct interactions but also include indirect interactions mediated by metabolites and signaling molecules. We describe how these indirect interactions can be derived from a model of the underlying biochemical reaction network, using weak time-scale assumptions in combination with sensitivity criteria from metabolic control analysis. We apply this approach to a model of the carbon assimilation network in Escherichia coli. Our results show that the derived gene regulatory network is densely connected, contrary to what is usually assumed. Moreover, the network is largely sign-determined, meaning that the signs of the indirect interactions are fixed by the flux directions of biochemical reactions, independently of specific parameter values and rate laws. An inversion of the fluxes following a change in growth conditions may affect the signs of the indirect interactions though. This leads to a feedback structure that is at the same time robust to changes in the kinetic properties of enzymes and that has the flexibility to accommodate radical changes in the environment.

  19. Complex carbohydrates in the dietary management of patients with glycogenosis caused by glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, G P; Ververs, M T; Belderok, B; Van Rijn, M; Berger, R; Fernandes, J

    1988-07-01

    Carbohydrates with digestion characteristics between those of lente uncooked starches and rapidly digestible oligosaccharides were administered in a dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight to five patients with glycogenosis from glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. Postprandial duration of normoglycemia and concentrations of blood insulin and lactate were determined. Uncooked barley groats in water, or incorporated in a meal turned out to behave as lente carbohydrates. Uncooked couscous in water, couscous incorporated in a meal, and partially cooked macaroni given as a meal behaved as semilente carbohydrates as compared with uncooked cornstarch and glucose. The in vitro determination of the digestibility index along with the in vivo tolerance test enables us to choose and incorporate semilente carbohydrates in the day-time treatment of patients. PMID:3291600

  20. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  1. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10−7 and 2.0 × 10−8 mol L−1 Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10−6, 1.1 × 10−5 and 1.1 × 10−3 mol L−1 N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production

  2. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae maintained in the laboratory Variações sazonais do efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidrato e rica em proteínas no metabolismo intermediário de Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae mantidos em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana K. Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet (HC and a high-protein diet (HP on the metabolism of the crayfish Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869, collected in different seasons and maintained in the laboratory for 15 days. Crayfish were collected monthly from January 2002 to January 2004 at São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil, in Guarapirá stream. In the laboratory, the animals were kept submerged in aquariums under controlled conditions. They were fed ad libitum, for 15 days with either a HC or HP diet. At the end of this period, haemolymph samples were collected, as were hepatopancreas, gills, and abdominal muscle that were removed for determination of glycogen, free glucose, lipids, and triglycerides. The haemolymph samples were used for determination of glucose, proteins, lipids, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in biochemical composition in crayfish maintained on HC or HP diets. Independent of the diets offered to the animals and the controlled conditions for 15 days, the indications of seasonality were unchanged. The observed changes seemed to be related to the reproductive period. Moreover, the HC diet increased all energy reserves in adult parastacids, which may aid in reproduction.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dieta rica em carboidratos (HC e da dieta rica em proteínas (HP sobre o metabolismo do Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869 coletados em diferentes estações e mantidos durante 15 dias em laboratório. Os lagostins foram coletados mensalmente de Janeiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2004 em São Francisco de Paula, Sul do Brasil, no riacho Guarapirá. No laboratório, os animais foram mantidos submersos em aquários sob condições controladas. Eles foram alimentados ad libitum por 15 dias com a dieta HC ou HP. Após o final do período, as amostras de hemolinfa foram coletadas, assim como o hepatopâncreas, as

  3. Carbohydrates - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 5

    OpenAIRE

    Bolder, U; Ebener, C.; Hauner, H.; Jauch, KW; Kreymann, G.; Ockenga, J.; Traeger, K.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-01-01

    The main role of carbohydrates in the human body is to provide energy. Carbohydrates should always be infused with PN (parenteral nutrition) in combination with amino acids and lipid emulsions to improve nitrogen balance. Glucose should be provided as a standard carbohydrate for PN, whereas the use of xylite is not generally recommended. Fructose solutions should not be used for PN. Approximately 60% of non-protein energy should be supplied as glucose with an intake of 3.0-3.5 g/kg body weigh...

  4. Molecular simulations of carbohydrate-protein complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Sameh Mansour Abbas

    2013-01-01

    I. Generation and validation of a free-energy model for carbohydrate binding. Carbohy-drates play a key role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes and, hence, represent a rich source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Being able to predict binding mode and binding affinity is an essential, yet lacking, aspect of the stru-cture-based design of carbohydrate-based ligands. To this end, we assembled a diverse data set of 316 carbohydrate–protein crystal structu...

  5. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  6. Accumulation of Reserve Carbohydrate by Rumen Protozoa and Bacteria in Competition for Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Bethany L.; Diese, Leanne E.; Firkins, Jeffrey L.; Hackmann, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydr...

  7. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  8. 20℃下急性缺氧胁迫对红耳龟糖类代谢和抗氧化防御系统的影响%EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOXIA STRESS ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE AT 20 IN THE ℃ TURTLE TRACHEMYS SCRIPTS ELEGANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶双; 黄来旺; 崔琳; 王梦霞; 黄晶晶; 冯照军

    2011-01-01

    淡水红耳龟Trachemys scripts elegans 是研究耐缺氧的模式动物之一,其对缺氧胁迫具有较完善的应激机制.该文研究了20℃下急性缺氧胁迫对红耳龟的糖类代谢和抗氧化防御系统的影响,以探讨红耳龟对急性缺氧胁迫的适应.采用生物化学方法对不同组织中的乳酸、糖原、血糖、Na+-K+-ATP 酶、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和丙二醛(MDA)进行测定.结果显示,随着缺氧时间的延长,肝脏和骨骼肌糖原逐渐被消耗,肝脏、心肌和骨骼肌乳酸含量逐渐升高,血乳酸和血糖含量急速上升,ATP 酶活性有所下降;SOD 和CAT 活性先升高后回落,MDA 含量也相应地变化.结果提示,龟在20℃急性缺氧环境中,糖类以无氧呼吸方式快速分解,抗氧化防御系统及时启动清除氧自由基.%The survival strategy of animals in environment stress is one of ecology hot projects for scholars to study nowadays, the problem that biochemical physiology responses of animals to hypoxia environment is focused by scholars for long-term. As a famous model, the freshwater red-eared turtle, Trachemys scripts elegans, is one of the hypoxia-tolerant animals for studying in biology and medicine field, especially at lower temperature, and it has more excellent mechanisms to adapt hypoxia stress. Effects of acute hypoxia stress on carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant defense of red-eared turtle was studied at 20 °C, and the adaptation of the turtle to acute hypoxia stress was discussed in this paper. Within the thermostat at 20°C, the red-eared turtles were randomly divided into four test groups (at 3, 6, 12 and 24h respectively of hypoxia in the containers with oxygen-poor water) and one control group (at Oh). We took out five turtles respectively on time, the blood was collected from its heart, then the liver, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were cut, and tissue homogenate solution was prepared as normal method. The lactate

  9. Carbohydrate Catabolism in Azospirillum amazonense

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Drets, G.; Fabiano, E.; Cardona, A

    1985-01-01

    The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum amazonense grew on the various disaccharides, hexoses, and pentoses tested in this study but not on polyols and on some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. An active transport system was detected for sucrose and glucose but not for mannitol and 2-ketoglutarate. Six A. amazonense strains were examined for 16 carbon-metabolizing enzymes, and the results indicate that these strains employ the Entner-Doudoroff pathway to catabolize sucrose, fructose, and glucos...

  10. Metabolic Syndrome – Epidemiological Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Gierach, Marcin; Junik, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The main components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are abdominal obesity, hypertension, lipid disorders such as aterogenic dyslipidemia and carbohydrates disorders such as impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus type 2 The first definition of MetS was described by Reaven in 1988 and was named as syndrome X. In the United States of America, the metabolic syndrome affects about 25 % of US adults. In Poland, data based on NATPOL PLUS study, according to NCEP-ATP III criteria, metabolic s...

  11. Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors: Pattern Recognition and Involvement of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Porgador

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs, expressed by natural killer (NK cells, trigger NK lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells on interaction with cell-surface ligands of these target cells. We have determined that viral hemagglutinins expressed on the surface of virus-infected cells are involved in the recognition by the NCRs, NKp44 and NKp46. Recognition of tumor cells by the NCRs NKp30 and NKp46 involves heparan sulfate epitopes expressed on the tumor cell membrane. Our studies provide new evidence for the identity of the ligands for NCRs and indicate that a broader definition should be applied to pathological patterns recognized by innate immune receptors. Since nonmicrobial endogenous carbohydrate structures contribute significantly to this recognition, there is an imperative need to develop appropriate tools for the facile sequencing of carbohydrate moieties.

  12. Identification and estimation ot carbohydrates using radioisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-dilution methods have been developed to identify and estimate the small amount of products formed when carbohydrates are irradiated in aqueous solution with Co60 gamma-radiation. Conventional analytical methods proved inadequate. After irradiation of C14-sugar solutions, the autoradiographs prepared after paper chromatography indicated extensive degradation. Using a reverse isotope-dilution procedure involving the addition of known carriers, and conversion of the fragments into crystalline derivatives, various constituents were quantitatively determined. It is possible to distinguish between d- and Z-isomers, and estimate each isomer independently. The method is applicable to other analytical problems in carbohydrate chemistry. A new method for scanning and recording the radioactivity along paper-chromatogram strips, which involves an inexpensive modification to conventional counting equipment, is described. (author)

  13. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Urita; Motonobu Sugimoto; Kazumasa Miki; Susumu Ishihara; Tatsuo Akimoto; Hiroto Kato; Noriko Hara; Yoshiko Honda; Yoko Nagai; Kazushige Nakanishi; Nagato Shimada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.METHODS: A standard 75-g OGTT was performed in 82 diabetic patients. The patients received 75 g of anhydrous glucose in 225 mL of water after an overnight fasting and breath samples were collected at baseline and up to 120 min afler ingestion. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations were measured. Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before ingestion and at 30, 60, g0, 120 min post-ingestion.RESULTS: When carbohydrate malabsorption was defined as subjects with an increase of at least 10 ppm (parts per million) in hydrogen or methane excretion within a 2-h period, 28 (34%) had carbohydrate malabsorption. According to the result of increased breath test, 21 (75%) patients were classified as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and 7 (25%) as glucose malabsorption. Patients with carbohydrate malabsorption were older and had poor glycemic control as compared with those without carbohydrate malabsorption. The HOMA value, the sum of serum insulin during the test and the Ainsulin/Aglucose ratio were greater in patients with carbohydrate malabsorption.CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance may be overestimated by using these markers if the patient has carbohydrate malabsorption, or that carbohydrate malabsorption may be present prior to the development of insulin resistance.Hence carbohydrate malabsorption should be taken into account for estimating insulin resistance and β-cell function.

  14. Metabolic flux determination using carbon 13 NMR. Application to normal and tumoral cells from central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 13 NMR constitutes a potent tool to study cellular metabolism by the use of 13C enriched substrates. Analyzes of 13C NMR spectra recorded from acidic cell extracts lead to the evaluation of specific enrichment of various metabolites. On the other hand, the measure of homonuclear 13C-13C spin coupling gives information on the different isotopomers for a given molecule. Mathematical models were different isotopomers for a given molecule. Mathematical models were developed to interpret the NMR data in terms of metabolic fluxes through the metabolic network of interest. Various models established in our laboratory are presented. These models were applied to metabolic studies of cultured central nervous system cells as rat cerebellar astrocytes and granule cells, and the C6 glioma cell line. (authors). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in nonstationary metabolic flux analysis: The case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHeise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014. Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labelling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from nonstationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  16. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  17. Determination of the proteins and carbohydrates fractions and estimative of the energy value of forages and by-products in Brazilian Northeast Determinação das frações proteicas e de carboidratos e estimativa do valor energético de forrageiras e subprodutos da agroindústria produzidos no Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilson Lousada Regadas Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize the carbohydrates and proteins fractions and to estimate the energetic value of native and adapted forages and agro industry by-products produced in Brazilian Northeast. To obtain the carbohydrates fractions, according with CNCPS system, were calculated the total carbohydrates, its fractions B2, C and the soluble neutral detergent components. For the determination of nitrogenous fractions, were analyzed the non-protein nitrogenous compounds, soluble and insoluble nitrogen in borate-phosphate buffer, protein nitrogen insoluble in neutral detergent and acid detergent. To the estimative of TDN, were used the equations proposed by NRC (2001. The by-products analyzed carbohydrates fractions varied from 19.35 to 58.52%; 9.95 to 61.44% and 15.35 to 70.06, for A+B1, B2 and C, respectively. In the forages, the fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C of nitrogenous compounds presented variation from 9.84 to 42.33%; 1.58 to 11.47%; 48.63 to 80.10%; 0.70 to 6.13% and 0.43 to 2.86%, respectively. The estimated TDN of the forages varied from 48.30 to 65.42%, while for the by-products varied from 31.41 to 128.9%. The fractionation of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates are simple methodologies and should be common practices in laboratories of feed evaluation.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características agronômicas e químico-bromatológica de diferentes cultivares de milho para ensilagem. Foram avaliados doze cultivares de milho em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com três blocos, 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três linhas de seis metros de comprimento e espaçamento de 0,8 m entre linhas. O ciclo das plantas, do plantio à colheita, variou de 105 a 114 dias. A altura média diferiu entre os cultivares (P 0,05 entre os cultivares para número de espigas por planta (0,9 a 1,1, teores de matéria seca (33,2 a 38,2 %, de extrato etéreo (1,9 a

  18. Partial characterization of the carbohydrates of the eggs (oncospheres) of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P W; Durka, G M

    1995-02-01

    The carbohydrate constituents of whole eggs and fractions derived from the eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta were partly characterized. Whole eggs contained 9.6 ng of carbohydrate (phenol-sulphuric acid-positive material) per egg, and 3.6 ng of glucose. Analysis of hydrolysed eggs by HPLC demonstrated the presence of glucose, galactose, glycerol, N-acetylgalactosamine, and 2-deoxyribose. Isolated egg shells and the KOH-stable, ethanol-precipitable fraction (putative glycogen) of eggs contained 26 and 76%, respectively, of the total carbohydrate associated with eggs. Glucose and galactose were present in both of these samples, but only glucose was present in the KOH-stable, ethanol-precipitable fraction isolated from chemically deshelled eggs; thus, the source of the galactose in the KOH-stable, ethanol-precipitable fraction isolated from whole eggs was the egg-shells. These data confirm earlier reports that the shells contain carbohydrate; the data demonstrate further that only two monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) are present in the shells, and that they are present as high molecular weight polymers. The ethanol-soluble fraction of eggs contained 2.5% of the total carbohydrate in eggs, and glucose accounted for < 1% of the ethanol-soluble carbohydrate. Analysis of the ethanol-soluble fraction by HPLC demonstrated that the predominant monosaccharides were glycerol and mannose, with smaller quantities of 2-deoxyribose and 2-deoxyglucose. The absence of a 'free pool' of glucose in eggs, and the presence of large amounts of glycerol and mannose, suggest that the pathways of intermediary carbohydrate metabolism in eggs might be very different from those in adult tapeworms. PMID:7885741

  19. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-iodovinyl-branched carbohydrates as potential brain imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioiodinated carbohydrates such as 2-deoxy-2-iodo-D-glucose and 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose undergo facile chemical or in vivo deiodination which precludes their use as radiotracers of glucose metabolism in tissues. To overcome the problems resulting from in vivo deiodination, we explored the concept of stabilizing radioiodide on a model carbohydrate, (E)-C-3-iodovinyl-D-allose (10) as an iodovinyl moiety. This agent did not exhibit brain specificity but showed low in vivo deiodination which demonstrated for the first time that radioiodide can be stabilized on a carbohydrate. The goal of this study was to develop a deoxy-branched carbohydrate with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyliodide with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-iodovinyl-branched carbohydrates as potential brain imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiodinated carbohydrates such as 2-deoxy-2-iodo-D-glucose and 3-deoxy-3-iodo-D-glucose undergo facile chemical or in vivo deiodination which precludes their use as radiotracers of glucose metabolism in tissues. To overcome the problems resulting from in vivo deiodination, we explored the concept of stabilizing radioiodide on a model carbohydrate, (E)-C-3-iodovinyl-D-allose (10) as an iodovinyl moiety. This agent did not exhibit brain specificity but showed low in vivo deiodination which demonstrated for the first time that radioiodide can be stabilized on a carbohydrate. The goal of this study was to develop a deoxy-branched carbohydrate with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyliodide with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Muscle metabolic remodelling in response to endurance exercise in salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Morash

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity of skeletal muscle is relevant to swimming performance and metabolism in fishes, especially those that undergo extreme locomotory feats, such as seasonal migration. However, the influence of endurance exercise and the molecular mechanisms coordinating this remodelling are not well understood. The present study examines muscle metabolic remodelling associated with endurance exercise in fed rainbow trout as compared to migrating salmon. Trout were swum for 4 weeks at 1.5BL/s, a speed similar to that of migrating salmon and red and white muscles were sampled after each week. We quantified changes in key enzymes in aerobic and carbohydrate metabolism (citrate synthase (CS, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD, hexokinase (HK and changes in mRNA expression of major regulators of metabolic phenotype (AMPK, PPARs and lipid (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, CPT I, protein (aspartate aminotransferase, AST and carbohydrate (HK oxidation pathways. After one week of swimming substantial increases were seen in AMPK and PPARα mRNA expression and of their downstream target genes, CPTI and HK in red muscle. However, significant changes in CS and HK activity occurred only after 4 weeks. In contrast, there were few changes in mRNA expression and enzyme activities in white muscle over the 4-weeks. Red muscle results mimic those found in migrating salmon suggesting a strong influence of exercise on red muscle phenotype. In white muscle, only changes in AMPK and PPAR expression were similar to that seen with migrating salmon. However, in contrast to exercise alone, in natural migration HK decreased while AST increased suggesting that white muscle plays a role in supplying fuel and intermediates possibly through tissue breakdown during prolonged fasting. Dissecting individual and potentially synergistic effects of multiple stressors will enable us to determine major drivers of the metabolic phenotype and their impacts on whole animal

  2. Carbohydrate content of acid alpha-glucosidase (gamma-amylase) from human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen'ky, D M; Mikhajlov, V I; Rosenfeld, E L

    1979-05-01

    The presence of carbohydrates in homogeneous preparations of human liver acid alpha-glucosidase has been established and the carbohydrate content of the enzyme determined. The enzyme was purified with the specific purpose of removing all low-molecular-weight carbohydrates. It was specifically adsorbed on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, eluted with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and gave a positive reaction with the phenol-sulphuric acid reagent. These facts taken together provide evidence that the enzyme studied is a glycoprotein. The analysis of the carbohydrate content of human liver acid alpha-glucosidase showed that there were 8.3 glucosamine, 13.2 mannose and possibly 3--4 glucose residues per molecule of the enzyme with a molecular weight of 98,000. PMID:376187

  3. Morphological Specifications of the Bird Schistosome Cercariae and Surface Carbohydrates as Receptors for Lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Moebedi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the morphological specifications of the bird schistosomes cercaria from Lymnaea gedrosiana and to detect the surface carbohydrates as receptors for host lectins in the host-parasite relationship systems such as avian schistosomiasis and human cercarial dermatitis. Methods: One hundred ninety two snails collected from Dezful areas in Khuzestan Province, in the south west of Iran, during 2005-2006 were examined for cercariae using shedding and crushing methods. In addition, surface carbohydrates on the cercariae were detected by lentil (Lens culinaris lectins. Results: From the total number of Lymnaea gedrosiana, which examined for bird schistosomes cercaria, 9(4% snails were found to be infected with furcocercus cercaria of the bird schistosomes (probably Gigantobilharzia sp.. Mannose monosaccharide CH2OH (CHOH4CHO as surface carbohydrate was also detected on the cercariae. Conclusion: Mannose carbohydrate on these cercariae may be used as receptor by lectins.

  4. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  5. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate (14CO2) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 400C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 180C. Photorespiration was not detected

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Brown, Katherine D; Thomas, Mark G; Copeland, Les

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT We propose that plant foods containing high quantities of starch were essential for the evolution of the human phenotype during the Pleistocene. Although previous studies have highlighted a stone tool-mediated shift from primarily plant-based to primarily meat-based diets as critical in the development of the brain and other human traits, we argue that digestible carbohydrates were also necessary to accommodate the increased metabolic demands of a growing brain. Furthermore, we acknowledge the adaptive role cooking played in improving the digestibility and palatability of key carbohydrates. We provide evidence that cooked starch, a source of preformed glucose, greatly increased energy availability to human tissues with high glucose demands, such as the brain, red blood cells, and the developing fetus. We also highlight the auxiliary role copy number variation in the salivary amylase genes may have played in increasing the importance of starch in human evolution following the origins of cooking. Salivary amylases are largely ineffective on raw crystalline starch, but cooking substantially increases both their energy-yielding potential and glycemia. Although uncertainties remain regarding the antiquity of cooking and the origins of salivary amylase gene copy number variation, the hypothesis we present makes a testable prediction that these events are correlated. PMID:26591850

  7. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions. PMID:24097333

  8. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  9. A functional glycoprotein competitive recognition and signal amplification strategy for carbohydrate-protein interaction profiling and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangzhong; Chen, Zhuhai; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2013-07-01

    A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and infections. In this work, a sensitive biosensor for carbohydrate-lectin profiling and in situ cell surface carbohydrate expression was designed by taking advantage of a functional glycoprotein of glucose oxidase acting as both a multivalent recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. Combining the gold nanoparticle catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence and nanocarrier for active biomolecules, the number of cell surface carbohydrate groups could be conveniently read out. The apparent dissociation constant between GOx@Au probes and Con A was detected to be 1.64 nM and was approximately 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of mannose and Con A, which would arise from the multivalent effect between the probe and Con A. Both glycoproteins and gold nanoparticles contribute to the high affinity between carbohydrates and lectin. The as-proposed biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the cytosensing of K562 cells with a detection limit of 18 cells, and the mannose moieties on a single K562 cell were determined to be 1.8 × 1010. The biosensor can also act as a useful tool for antibacterial drug screening and mechanism investigation. This strategy integrates the excellent biocompatibility and multivalent recognition of glycoproteins as well as the significant enzymatic catalysis and gold nanoparticle signal amplification, and avoids the cell pretreatment and labelling process. This would contribute to the glycomic analysis and the understanding of complex native glycan-related biological processes.A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and

  10. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle. PMID:26035740

  11. Efeitos do implante subdérmico de acetato de nomegestrol sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos, lipoproteínas séricas e função hepática The effects of nomegestrol acetate subdermal implant on carbohydrate metabolism, serum lipoproteins and on hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Barbosa

    1998-07-01

    implant. A significant decrease in total cholesterol (p<0.05 was observed in the third month and of HDL-C (p<0.01 in the sixth month. All lipoprotein alterations were inconsistent and values were within the normal range. Significant increases in fast glucose (p<0.05 and p<0.01 were observed in the third and sixth months, respectively. Significant SGOT decreases (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.05 were observed in months 6, 18 and 24, respectively, and of SGPT (p<0.05 in month 18. Significant bilirubin increase (p<0.05 was observed only in the third month of implant use. All these variations remained within the normal range. Conclusions: these results show that, within the normal range, fasting glucose variations do not correlate with alterations in insulin levels. The slight serum lipoprotein, SGTO, SGPT and insulin alterations were transient. No clinical effects could be observed regarding lipoproteins, carbohydrate metabolism, insulin levels and liver function among the users during the two years.

  12. Resultados clínicos e metabólicos da abreviação do jejum com carboidratos na revascularização cirúrgica do miocárdio Clinical and metabolic results of fasting abbreviation with carbohydrates in coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran Roder Feguri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Existe pouca informação sobre abreviação do jejum pré-operatório com oferta de líquidos ricos em carboidratos (CHO nas operações cardiovasculares. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar variáveis clínicas, segurança do método e efeitos no metabolismo de pacientes submetidos à abreviação do jejum na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRVM. MÉTODOS: Quarenta pacientes submetidos à CRVM foram randomizados para receberem 400 ml (6 horas antes e 200 mL (2 horas antes de maltodextrina a 12,5% (Grupo I, n=20 ou apenas água (Grupo II, n=20 antes da indução anestésica. Foram avaliadas diversas variáveis clínicas no perioperatório e também a resistência insulínica (RI pelo índice de Homa-IR e pela necessidade de insulina exógena; além da função excretora da célula beta pancreática pelo Homa-Beta e controle glicêmico por exames de glicemia capilar. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreram óbitos, broncoaspiração, mediastinite, infarto agudo do miocárdio ou acidente vascular encefálico perioperatórios. Fibrilação atrial ocorreu em dois pacientes de cada grupo e complicações infecciosas não diferiram entre os grupos (P=0,611. Pacientes do Grupo I apresentaram dois dias a menos de internação hospitalar (P=0,025 e um dia a menos na UTI (P0,05. Declínio da produção endógena de insulina ocorreu em ambos os grupos (PINTRODUCTION: Limited information is available about preoperative fasting abbreviation with administration of liquid enriched with carbohydrates (CHO in cardiovascular surgeries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical variables, security of the method and effects on the metabolism of patients undergoing fasting abbreviation in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing CABG were randomized to receive 400 ml (6 hours before and 200 ml (2 hours before of maltodextrin at 12.5% (Group I, n=20 or just water (Group II, n=20 before anesthetic induction. Perioperative clinical variables

  13. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    largest energy contributor. The 2 types of polysaccharides, however, have different fates and functions in the gastrointestinal tract and lead to different metabolites upon digestion. Pancreatic and mucosal enzymes in the small intestine break down the majority of starch, while NSP primarily are degraded...... by the microflora in the large intestine. Starch degradation leads to the release of glucose which is absorbed by an active absorption process that triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas, whereas the fermentation of NSP to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA: acetate, propionate and butyrate...... (digestible, metabolized and net energy); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality; second, the proportion of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation, and finally, type of starch (types A, B...

  14. Association of protein structure, protein and carbohydrate subfractions with bioenergy profiles and biodegradation functions in modeled forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of forage protein inherent structure, biological compounds, protein and carbohydrate subfractions, bioenergy profiles, and biodegradation features. In this study, common available alfalfa hay from two different sourced-origins (FSO vs. CSO) was used as a modeled forage for inherent structure profile, bioenergy, biodegradation and their association between their structure and bio-functions. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included: protein structure amide I group, amide II group and their ratios; protein subfractions (PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2, PC); carbohydrate fractions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, CB1, CB2, CC); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of protein (RDPA2, RDPB1, RDPB2, RDP; RUPA2 RUPB1, RUPB2, RUPC, RUP); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of carbohydrate (RDCA4, RDCB1, RDCB2, RDCB3, RDCHO; RUCA4, RUCB1; RUCB2; RUCB3 RUCC, RUCHO) and bioenergy profiles (tdNDF, tdFA, tdCP, tdNFC, TDN1×, DE3×, ME3×, NEL3×; NEm, NEg). The results show differences in protein and carbohydrate (CHO) subfractions in the moderately degradable true protein fraction (PB1: 502 vs. 420 g/kg CP, P=0.09), slowly degraded true protein fraction (PB2: 45 vs. 96 g/kg CP, P=0.02), moderately degradable CHO fraction (CB2: 283 vs. 223 g/kg CHO, P=0.06) and slowly degraded CHO fraction (CB3: 369 vs. 408 g/kg CHO) between the two sourced origins. As to biodegradable (RD) fractions of protein and CHO in rumen, there were differences in RD of PB1 (417 vs. 349 g/kg CP, P=0.09), RD of PB2 (29 vs. 62 g/kg CP, P=0.02), RD of CB2 (251 vs. 198 g/kg DM, P=0.06), RD of CB3 (236 vs. 261 g/kg CHO, P=0.08). As to bioenergy profile, there were differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN: 551 vs. 537 g/kg DM, P=0.06), and metabolic bioenergy (P=0.095). As to protein molecular structure, there were differences in protein structure 1st and 2nd amide groups (P0

  15. Association of protein structure, protein and carbohydrate subfractions with bioenergy profiles and biodegradation functions in modeled forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of forage protein inherent structure, biological compounds, protein and carbohydrate subfractions, bioenergy profiles, and biodegradation features. In this study, common available alfalfa hay from two different sourced-origins (FSO vs. CSO) was used as a modeled forage for inherent structure profile, bioenergy, biodegradation and their association between their structure and bio-functions. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included: protein structure amide I group, amide II group and their ratios; protein subfractions (PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2, PC); carbohydrate fractions (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, CB1, CB2, CC); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of protein (RDPA2, RDPB1, RDPB2, RDP; RUPA2 RUPB1, RUPB2, RUPC, RUP); biodegradable and undegradable fractions of carbohydrate (RDCA4, RDCB1, RDCB2, RDCB3, RDCHO; RUCA4, RUCB1; RUCB2; RUCB3 RUCC, RUCHO) and bioenergy profiles (tdNDF, tdFA, tdCP, tdNFC, TDN1 ×, DE3 ×, ME3 ×, NEL3 ×; NEm, NEg). The results show differences in protein and carbohydrate (CHO) subfractions in the moderately degradable true protein fraction (PB1: 502 vs. 420 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), slowly degraded true protein fraction (PB2: 45 vs. 96 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), moderately degradable CHO fraction (CB2: 283 vs. 223 g/kg CHO, P = 0.06) and slowly degraded CHO fraction (CB3: 369 vs. 408 g/kg CHO) between the two sourced origins. As to biodegradable (RD) fractions of protein and CHO in rumen, there were differences in RD of PB1 (417 vs. 349 g/kg CP, P = 0.09), RD of PB2 (29 vs. 62 g/kg CP, P = 0.02), RD of CB2 (251 vs. 198 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), RD of CB3 (236 vs. 261 g/kg CHO, P = 0.08). As to bioenergy profile, there were differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN: 551 vs. 537 g/kg DM, P = 0.06), and metabolic bioenergy (P = 0.095). As to protein molecular structure, there were differences in protein structure 1st

  16. Metabolic and vascular determinants of impaired cognitive performance and abnormalities on brain magnetic resonance imaging in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Manschot, S. M.; Biessels, G. J.; De Valk, H; Algra, A.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Grond, J.; Kappelle, L. J.; ,

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The determinants of cerebral complications of type 2 diabetes are unclear. The present study aimed to identify metabolic and vascular factors that are associated with impaired cognitive performance and abnormalities on brain MRI in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study included 122 patients and 56 controls. Neuropsychological test scores were divided into five cognitive domains and expressed as standardised z values. Brain MRI scans were rated for white matter lesio...

  17. Methodical aspects in the determination of parameters of N metabolization from 15N tracer experiments with pigs on the basis of models of N metabolism. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For final product method introduced here is based on the use of 15N-L-lysine as tracer amino acid for the determination of the protein synthesis and decomposition quotas of the total body with the flux of lysine. For this purpose it is necessary to complete the N flow and N compartments of the 3-pool model by the values of lysine content. The ascertained values of protein synthesis-8.4 g/d/kg-and protein decomposition- 6.9 g/d/kg-agree very well with those determined with 15N-glycine as tracer amino acid. (author)

  18. Should we use carbohydrate deficient transferrin as a marker for alcohol abusers?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir Kumar; Vasudevan, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is one of the conventional markers for chronic alcohol consumption, is used by researchers and clinicians. A number of enzymes are affected by ethanol intake. The induction or inhibition of sialyl transferase and plasma sialidase may be involved in the CDT level elevation. An alteration of protein transport during post-translational modification could be a primary mechanism in the impairment of protein metabolism associated with chronic alcohol abuse. ...

  19. The effect of dietary carbohydrates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frary, Johanna M; Bjerre, Kamilla P.; Glintborg, D;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Weight loss improves ovulation, testosterone levels and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but the optimal diet composition is disputed. A diet low in carbohydrates (LCD) may be superior to a standard diet in terms of improving fertility, endocrine/metabolic......, hyperandrogenemia, glucoseand insulin levels, insulin resistance and satiety hormones, whereas diet composition is of less importance. A LCD has an additional effect to caloric restriction in terms of weight loss. Conclusions are summarized as evidence-based recommendations....

  20. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000. PMID:25954862

  1. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP contents in elderly males with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) contents in elderly males with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Plasma ET-1 and CGRP contents were measured with RIA in 65 elderly males with hypertension and 65 elderly males with diabetes. The blood lipid and sugar contents were measured simultaneously. 35 controls entered this study. Results: The plasma ET-1 contents in elderly males with simple hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome were all significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05). Levels in hypertensives were significantly higher than those in diabetics (P<0.05). The plasma CGRP levels in the elderly males with hypertension and with metabolic syndrome were all significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05, P<0.05). The CGRP levels in these subjects were significantly negatively correlated with the ET-1 levels (r= -0.75, P<0.01; r=-0.53, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in elderly males with metabolic syndrome were clinically significant, especially in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (authors)

  2. In vitro methods for the determination of test chemicals metabolism utilizing fish liver subcellular fractions and hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this one-day short course is to train students on methods used to measure in vitro metabolism in fish and extrapolate this information to the intact animal. This talk is one of four presentations given by course instructors. The first part of this talk provides a...

  3. Mode of Bioenergetic Metabolism during B Cell Differentiation in the Intestine Determines the Distinct Requirement for Vitamin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kunisawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergetic metabolism varies during cell differentiation, but details of B cell metabolism remain unclear. Here, we show the metabolic changes during B cell differentiation in the intestine, where B cells differentiate into IgA+ plasma cells (PCs. Naive B cells in the Peyer’s patches (PPs and IgA+ PCs in the intestinal lamina propria (iLP both used the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, but only IgA+ PCs underwent glycolysis. These metabolic differences reflected their dependencies on vitamin B1, an essential cofactor for the TCA cycle. Indeed, the diminished activity of the TCA cycle after dietary vitamin B1 depletion decreased the number of naive B cells in PPs without affecting IgA+ PCs in the iLP. The maintenance of naive B cells by dietary vitamin B1 was required to induce—but not maintain—intestinal IgA responses against oral antigens. These findings reveal the diet-mediated maintenance of B cell immunometabolism in organized and diffuse intestinal tissues.

  4. Metabolism of clofibric acid in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) as determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, Stephan; Seiwert, Bettina; Haase, Nora; Küster, Eberhard; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish embryo (ZFE) is increasingly used in ecotoxicology research but detailed knowledge of its metabolic potential is still limited. This study focuses on the xenobiotic metabolism of ZFE at different life-stages using the pharmaceutical compound clofibric acid as study compound. Liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) is used to detect and to identify the transformation products (TPs). In screening experiments, a total of 18 TPs was detected and structure proposals were elaborated for 17 TPs, formed by phase I and phase II metabolism. Biotransformation of clofibric acid by the ZFE involves conjugation with sulfate or glucuronic acid, and, reported here for the first time, with carnitine, taurine, and aminomethanesulfonic acid. Further yet unknown cyclization products were identified using non-target screening that may represent a new detoxification pathway. Sulfate containing TPs occurred already after 3h of exposure (7hpf), and from 48h of exposure (52hpf) onwards, all TPs were detected. The detection of these TPs indicates the activity of phase I and phase II enzymes already at early life-stages. Additionally, the excretion of one TP into the exposure medium was observed. The results of this study outline the high metabolic potential of the ZFE with respect to the transformation of xenobiotics. Similarities but also differences to other test systems were observed. Biotransformation of test chemicals in toxicity testing with ZFE may therefore need further consideration. PMID:26945519

  5. Multiplicity of carbohydrate-binding sites in -prism fold lectins: occurrence and possible evolutionary implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Sharma; Divya Chandran; Desh D Singh; M Vijayan

    2007-09-01

    The -prism II fold lectins of known structure, all from monocots, invariably have three carbohydrate-binding sites in each subunit/domain. Until recently, -prism I fold lectins of known structure were all from dicots and they exhibited one carbohydrate-binding site per subunit/domain. However, the recently determined structure of the -prism fold I lectin from banana, a monocot, has two very similar carbohydrate-binding sites. This prompted a detailed analysis of all the sequences appropriate for two-lectin folds and which carry one or more relevant carbohydrate-binding motifs. The very recent observation of a -prism I fold lectin, griffithsin, with three binding sites in each domain further confirmed the need for such an analysis. The analysis demonstrates substantial diversity in the number of binding sites unrelated to the taxonomical position of the plant source. However, the number of binding sites and the symmetry within the sequence exhibit reasonable correlation. The distribution of the two families of -prism fold lectins among plants and the number of binding sites in them, appear to suggest that both of them arose through successive gene duplication, fusion and divergent evolution of the same primitive carbohydrate-binding motif involving a Greek key. Analysis with sequences in individual Greek keys as independent units lends further support to this conclusion. It would seem that the preponderance of three carbohydrate-binding sites per domain in monocot lectins, particularly those with the -prism II fold, is related to the role of plant lectins in defence.

  6. The FGGY carbohydrate kinase family: insights into the evolution of functional specificities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Function diversification in large protein families is a major mechanism driving expansion of cellular networks, providing organisms with new metabolic capabilities and thus adding to their evolutionary success. However, our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of functional diversity in such families is very limited, which, among many other reasons, is due to the lack of functionally well-characterized sets of proteins. Here, using the FGGY carbohydrate kinase family as an example, we built a confidently annotated reference set (CARS of proteins by propagating experimentally verified functional assignments to a limited number of homologous proteins that are supported by their genomic and functional contexts. Then, we analyzed, on both the phylogenetic and the molecular levels, the evolution of different functional specificities in this family. The results show that the different functions (substrate specificities encoded by FGGY kinases have emerged only once in the evolutionary history following an apparently simple divergent evolutionary model. At the same time, on the molecular level, one isofunctional group (L-ribulokinase, AraB evolved at least two independent solutions that employed distinct specificity-determining residues for the recognition of a same substrate (L-ribulose. Our analysis provides a detailed model of the evolution of the FGGY kinase family. It also shows that only combined molecular and phylogenetic approaches can help reconstruct a full picture of functional diversifications in such diverse families.

  7. Carbohydrate composition of serum low and high density lipoproteins of nonhuman primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargaonkar, P S; Radhakrishnamurthy, B; Srinivasan, S R; Berenson, G S

    1977-01-01

    1. Carbohydrate composition of serum low and high density lipoproteins obtained from 5 nonhuman primate species (chimpanzee, patas, baboon, rhesus, and spider) and humans was studied. 2. Individual lipoproteins were isolated from pooled sera of each species by ultracentrifugal flotation between the densities 1.019-1.063 for LDL-2; 1.063-1.12 for HDL-2; and 1.12-1.21 for HDL-3. After delipidation, sialic acid, fucose, glucosamine, mannose, galactose, and glucose were determined on apo LDL-2, apo HDL-2, and apo HDL-3. 3. Glucosamine, galactose, and mannose constituted a major component of the sugars in apo LDL-2, with similar relative proportions in all species. Sialic acid, fucose, and glucose formed a minor component, the proportions of which varied greatly among the species. 4. Unlike apo LDL-2, sialic acid, fucose, and glucosamine constituted the bulk of the sugars in apo HDL-2 and apo HDL-3. Mannose, galactose, and glucose were minor components, with galactose predominating. 5. Qualitative differences were observed in electrophoretic mobilities of apo HDL-2 and apo HDL-3 on polyacrylamide gel. One faster moving band was unique to chimpanzee. 6. Intraspecies differences in the content of sialic acid and fucose of apolipoproteins may be related to lipoprotein metabolism and species susceptibility (or resistance) to either spontaneous or diet-induced atherosclerosis. PMID:233783

  8. Chemical composition of fish and diets - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  9. Fish culture data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  10. Growth data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  11. Carbohydrate-Rich Foods in the Treatment of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome : Studies of the Importance of the Glycaemic Index and Dietary Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Järvi, Anette

    2001-01-01

    The glycaemic responses to various carbohydrate-rich foods are partly dependent on the rate at which the carbohydrate is digested and absorbed. The glycaemic index (GI) is a way of ranking foods according to their glycaemic response and is recommended as a useful tool in identifying starch-rich foods that give the most favourable glycaemic response. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether carbohydrate-rich foods with a low GI and a high content of dietary fibre (DF) could have ...

  12. Response of C57Bl/6 mice to a carbohydrate-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghjid Saihan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High fat feeding in rodents generally leads to obesity and insulin resistance whereas in humans this is only seen if dietary carbohydrate is also high, the result of the anabolic effect of poor regulation of glucose and insulin. A previous study of C57Bl/6 mice (Kennedy AR, et al.: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007 262 E1724-1739 appeared to show the kind of beneficial effects of calorie restriction that is seen in humans but that diet was unusually low in protein (5%. In the current study, we tested a zero-carbohydrate diet that had a higher protein content (20%. Mice on the zero-carbohydrate diet, despite similar caloric intake, consistently gained more weight than animals consuming standard chow, attaining a dramatic difference by week 16 (46.1 ± 1.38 g vs. 30.4 ± 1.00 g for the chow group. Consistent with the obese phenotype, experimental mice had fatty livers and hearts as well as large fat deposits in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, and showed impaired glucose clearance after intraperitoneal injection. In sum, the response of mice to a carbohydrate-free diet was greater weight gain and metabolic disruptions in distinction to the response in humans where low carbohydrate diets cause greater weight loss than isocaloric controls. The results suggest that rodent models of obesity may be most valuable in the understanding of how metabolic mechanisms can work in ways different from the effect in humans.

  13. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  14. Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates, Prebiotic Content, and Prebiotic Activity of Selected Food Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moongngarm; Trachoo, N.; N. Sirigungwan

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrate (LMWC), prebiotic, and prebiotic activity of thirteen food plants commonly consumed in Thailand. The prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS)) and LMWC content (glucose, maltose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose) were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Prebiotic activity of plant extracts (including LMWC and prebiotics) obtained from potential food plants was...

  15. Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel

    OpenAIRE

    Langlands, S J; Hopkins, M J; Coleman, N; Cummings, J H

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mucosa associated flora of the large intestine is important in determining mucosal function although what controls its composition is unknown. This study has determined the effect of the prebiotic carbohydrates oligofructose and inulin on the mucosal flora.

  16. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  17. Modeling of Carbohydrate Binding Modules Complexed to Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Beckham, G. T.; Bu, L.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Bomble, Y. J.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling results are presented for the interaction of two carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) with cellulose. The family 1 CBM from Trichoderma reesei's Cel7A cellulase was modeled using molecular dynamics to confirm that this protein selectively binds to the hydrophobic (100) surface of cellulose fibrils and to determine the energetics and mechanisms for locating this surface. Modeling was also conducted of binding of the family 4 CBM from the CbhA complex from Clostridium thermocellum. There is a cleft in this protein, which may accommodate a cellulose chain that is detached from crystalline cellulose. This possibility is explored using molecular dynamics.

  18. Determination of drug-like properties of a novel antileishmanial compound: In vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Susanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In drug discovery research, the compounds should not only to be potent and selective but also must possess acceptable pharmacokinetic properties such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME to increase success rate in clinical studies. Objective: Exploration of drug-like properties of 2-(2-methylquinolin-4-ylamino-N-phenyl acetamide, a potent antileishmanial compound by performing some in vitro ADME experiments along with validation of such studies. Materials and Methods: Experimental protocols were established and validated for stability (in PBS pH7.4, simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, solubility, permeability, distribution coefficient (Log D, plasma protein binding and metabolism by rat liver microsomes by using spectrophotometer or HPLC. Methods were considered valid if the results of the standard compounds matched with reported results or within acceptable range or with proper ranking (high-medium-low. Results: The compound was found to be stable (>95% remaining in all stability studies and aqueous solubility was 299.7 ± 6.42 μM. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA indicated its medium permeability (Log Pe = -5.53 ± 0.01. The distribution coefficients (Log D in octanol/PBS and cyclohexane/PBS systems were found to be 0.54 and -1.33, respectively. The plasma protein binding study by the equilibrium dialysis method was observed to be 78.82 ± 0.13% while metabolism by Phase-I enzymes for 1 hour at 37°C revealed that 36.07 ± 4.15% of the compound remained after metabolism. Conclusion: The methods were found to be very useful for day-to-day ADME studies. All the studies with the antileishmanial compound ascertained that the compound bears optimum pharmacokinetic properties to be used orally as a potential drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  19. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  20. Some physiological and genetic determinants of salt tolerance in sorghum (sorghum bicolor (l.) moench): biomass production and nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil salinization is the most important limiting factor in plant productivity all over the world. To fulfill the food, feed, fodder and industrial raw material demands of growing population, development of salt tolerant and high yielding crop genotypes are necessary. The genotypes having efficient N metabolism produce high biomass/plant productivity under saline conditions are tolerant one. This study was conducted to explore the salinity induced changes in nitrogen metabolism of sorghum. A sand culture experiment with four sorghum genotypes was conducted in NIAB wire-house under natural conditions in plastic pots containing 0, 10 dS m-1 NaCl salinity solutions along with 1/5 Hoaglands nutrient solution. Physiological parameters like dry biomasss of shoots and roots, leaf proteins, total nitrogen, total free amino acids, nitrate reductase activity, and NO/sub 3/ were reduced due to salinity in all sorghum genotypes. Salinity influence was more pronounced in Noor medium sensitive and FJ-115 sensitive. On the basis of results obtained for nitrogen metabolism, sorghum lines JS-2002 and Sandalbar can be categorized as tolerant, Noor medium sensitive and FJ-115 as sensitive one. (author)