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Sample records for carbohydrate metabolism determined

  1. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespell, R B; Canale-Parola, E

    1970-07-01

    The pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in Spirochaeta stenostrepta, a free-living, strictly anaerobic spirochete, were studied. The organism fermented glucose to ethyl alcohol, acetate, lactate, CO(2), and H(2). Assays of enzymatic activities in cell extracts, and determinations of radioactivity distribution in products formed from (14)C-labeled glucose indicated that S. stenostrepta degraded glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The spirochete utilized a clostridial-type clastic reaction to metabolize pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, CO(2), and H(2), without production of formate. Acetyl-coenzyme A was converted to ethyl alcohol by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent acetaldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase catalyzed the formation of acetate from acetyl-coenzyme A. Hydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were detected in cell extracts. A rubredoxin was isolated from cell extracts of S. stenostrepta. Preparations of this rubredoxin stimulated acetyl phosphate formation from pyruvate by diethylaminoethyl cellulose-treated extracts of S. stenostrepta, an indication that rubredoxin may participate in pyruvate cleavage by this spirochete. Nutritional studies showed that S. stenostrepta fermented a variety of carbohydrates, but did not ferment amino acids or other organic acids. An unidentified growth factor present in yeast extract was required by the organism. Exogenous supplements of biotin, riboflavin, and vitamin B(12) were either stimulatory or required for growth. PMID:5423371

  3. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled (U- 14C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U-14C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U-14C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  5. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammer, Alexandra; Gasperl, Anna; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora;

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of physiological parameters is important to understand the link between plant phenotypes and their genetic bases, and therefore is needed as an important element in the analysis of model and crop plants. The activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism have been...... shown to be strongly associated with growth performance, crop yield, and quality, as well as stress responses. A simple, fast, and cost-effective method to determine activities for 13 key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism has been established, mainly based on coupled spectrophotometric kinetic...

  6. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  7. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  8. Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Stanford, Kristin I; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the preferred substrate for contracting skeletal muscles during high-intensity exercise and are also readily utilized during moderate intensity exercise. This use of carbohydrates during physical activity likely played an important role during the survival of early Homo sapiens, and genes and traits regulating physical activity, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy storage have undoubtedly been selected throughout evolution. In contrast to the life of early H. sapiens, modern lifestyles are predominantly sedentary. As a result, intake of excessive amounts of carbohydrates due to the easy and continuous accessibility to modern high-energy food and drinks has not only become unnecessary but also led to metabolic diseases in the face of physical inactivity. A resulting metabolic disease is type 2 diabetes, a complex endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of circulating glucose. This disease now affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has beneficial effects to help control impaired glucose homeostasis with metabolic disease, and is a well-established tool to prevent and combat type 2 diabetes. This chapter focuses on the effects of exercise on carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscle and systemic glucose homeostasis. We will also focus on the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is now well established that there are different proximal signaling pathways that mediate the effects of exercise and insulin on glucose uptake, and these distinct mechanisms are consistent with the ability of exercise to increase glucose uptake in the face of insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes. Ongoing research in this area is aimed at defining the precise mechanism by which exercise increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and the types of exercise necessary for these important health benefits.

  9. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  10. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  11. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Alexandra; Gasperl, Anna; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Heyneke, Elmien; Chu, Hyosub; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Albacete, Alfonso A; Stabentheiner, Edith; Franzaring, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of physiological parameters is important to understand the link between plant phenotypes and their genetic bases, and therefore is needed as an important element in the analysis of model and crop plants. The activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism have been shown to be strongly associated with growth performance, crop yield, and quality, as well as stress responses. A simple, fast, and cost-effective method to determine activities for 13 key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism has been established, mainly based on coupled spectrophotometric kinetic assays. The comparison of extraction buffers and requirement for dialysis of crude protein extracts resulted in a universal protein extraction protocol, suitable for the preparation of protein extracts from different organs of various species. Individual published kinetic activity assays were optimized and adapted for a semi-high-throughput 96-well assay format. These assays proved to be robust and are thus suitable for physiological phenotyping, enabling the characterization and diagnosis of the physiological state. The potential of the determination of distinct enzyme activity signatures as part of a physiological fingerprint was shown for various organs and tissues from three monocot and five dicot model and crop species, including two case studies with external stimuli. Differential and specific enzyme activity signatures are apparent during inflorescence development and upon in vitro cold treatment of young inflorescences in the monocot ryegrass, related to conditions for doubled haploid formation. Likewise, treatment of dicot spring oilseed rape with elevated CO2 concentration resulted in distinct patterns of enzyme activity responses in leaves.

  12. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  13. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  14. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Törrönen, Riitta; Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Pekkinen, Jenna; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2010-03-31

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  15. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  16. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  17. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming;

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  18. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  19. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. PMID:27184288

  20. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.

  1. Protein,carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950255 Effects of TPN and indomethacin on stressresponse and protein metabolism after surgery.QUANZhufu(全竹富),et al.General Hosp,Nanjing Com-mand,Nanjing,210002.Med J Chin PLA 1995;20(1):24-26.The study was planned to evaluate effects of TPNand indomethacin on stress response after trauma,andprotein metabolism in patients who had received totalgastrectomy for cardiac cancer of stomach.19 caseswere divided into control,TPN,and indomethacin

  2. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  3. A quick look at biochemistry : Carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty, Monireh

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, there are different metabolic pathways in cells that break down fuel molecules to transfer their energy into high energy compounds such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2), reduced flavin adenine dinucleot

  4. Derivatization Reaction of Carbohydrates with Urea as the Reagent and Fluorimetric Determination of Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG,Jing-He(杨景和); CAO,Xi-Hui(曹西慧); WANG,Min(王敏); WU,Xia(吴霞); SUN,Chang-Xia(孙长侠)

    2002-01-01

    It is found that in the presence of sulfuric acid carbohydrates condense with urea to afford the condensation products, which emit fluorescence. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensities of system are proportional to the concentrations of carbohydrates. Based on this linear relationship,quantitative determination of kinds of carbohydrates has been made. Among an the carbohydrates tested, the sensitivity of α-rhamnose is the highest and its limits of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-8 mol/L. So α-rhamnose can be selectively determed in the presence of other carbohydrates. A interaction mechanism is also discussed.

  5. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  6. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  7. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  8. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  9. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  10. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in late-onset Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforet, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt;

    2012-01-01

    forearm exercise testing, and peak work capacity was determined. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during cycle exercise was examined with a combination of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope methodology. Finally, the effects of an IV glucose infusion on heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion...... examined the metabolic response to exercise in patients with late-onset Pompe disease, in order to determine if a defect in energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of Pompe disease. We studied six adult patients with Pompe disease and 10 healthy subjects. The participants underwent ischemic......, and work capacity during exercise were determined. We found that peak oxidative capacity was reduced in the patients to 17.6 vs. 38.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) in healthy subjects (p = 0.002). There were no differences in the rate of appearance and rate of oxidation of palmitate, or total fat and carbohydrate...

  11. INFLUENCE OF CHITOSAN ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN EXERCISING MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 黄伟

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of chitosan on carbohydrate metabolism disorder in exercising mice. Methods The animal model of carbohydrate metabolism disorder was established through swimming trainings and the content of blood glucose, muscle glycogen and liver glycogen in mice were all surveyed. Results When quiet, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose of drug-taking group were much higher than those of control group(P<0.05). Compared with control group, the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of instant drug-taking group after exercises level to a higher degree (P<0.05). The renewing level of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose in drug-taking group after spending 24 hours on recovery was evidently higher than that of control-group (P<0.05). The exhaustive swimming time of drug-taking group was longer than that of exercise-control group by 33.99%. Conclusion Chitosan takes good effect on improving carbohydrate metabolism disorder resulting from exercises.

  12. Regulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by Selenium during diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Qiu, Qinqin; Zou, Caiyan; Dou, Lianjun; Liang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we have tried to unravel the role of Selenium supplementation in containing hyperglycemia by regulating enzymes activities involved in carbohydrate metabolism in liver of diabetic animals. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups: normal control, diabetic, Selenium treated control and Selenium treated diabetic group. Diabetes was induced in the animals by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally at a dose level of 150 mg/kg body weight. Selenium in the form of sodium selenite was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 1 PPM in drinking water, ad libitum for two time durations of 2 and 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and livers were excised for the analyses of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism as well as the levels of glycogen. In-vitro (14)C-d glucose uptake and its turnover were also assessed in liver slices of all the treatment groups using radiorespirometry. Selenium supplementation to the diabetic rats normalized the enzyme activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase as well as restored the glycogen levels to within the normal limits which were altered during diabetes. Interestingly, when Selenium was supplemented to diabetic rats, (14)C-d glucose uptake and its turnover showed a statistically significant increase in their values which however, were decreased in diabetic rats. In conclusion, Selenium mediates insulin-like role during diabetes by tending to normalize the altered activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes and also improves the glucose uptake and its metabolism by the liver. PMID:25779343

  13. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  14. Effect of Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate in Some Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available An acute dose of DFP equivalent to 50 per cent of the LD50 cause glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia in male albino rats. The hyperglycemic effect can atleast be partially suppressed by the administration of insulin. Under sub-acute dose equivalent to 5 per cent of the LD50, there is glycogenolysis but no change is blood glucose. The action of DFP on carbohydrate metabolism seems to be mediated through adrenal gland. DFP also increases the glycolytic rate, suppresses the LDH activity and is hepatotoxic.

  15. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar; Maricel Castellanos; María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 th...

  16. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  17. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  18. [Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and acute cardiovascular disorders in patients with early disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval', A V; Misnikova, I V; Barsukov, I A; Dzebisashvili, G T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular diseases, total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism revealed in the prospective study carried out in 2009 that included patients found to have disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism in 2006. We analysed the 3-year risk of development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, total and cardiovascular mortality. RR of DM2 was significantly increased in association with practically all early disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The most unfavourable combination is fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Within 3 years after its determination, 33.3% of the patients developed DM2 while RR of DM2 increased 11-fold. Newly diagnosed DM2 increased RR of total mortality by 2.3 times. Fasting glycemia during 3 years increased RR of cardiovascular mortality by 3.2 times. Results of the study suggest the necessity of not only timely diagnosis of fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance but also further monitoring and correction of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with this pathology as well as of the elaboration and implementation of a comprehensive program for the screening of disturbed carbohydrate metabolism in high-risk groups. PMID:23516850

  19. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  20. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Karl S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  1. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  2. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO. Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG, low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism after one year of using a gestodene containing monophasic oral contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yıldırım

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To prospectively evaluate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene on carbohydrate metabolism in ordinary Turkish women Material / Method: Carbohydrate metabolism was prospectively evaluated in 53 normal women prior to and during their use of monophasic oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene plus ethinyl estradiol for one year. The women had a two hour oral glucose tolerance test using 75 gram glucose load, measuring serum glucose and insulin level, performed at the beginning of the contraceptive therapy and after one year. Results: The results demonstrate no significant changes in either of carbohydrate metabolic indices between the two tests.  Conclusion: The progestin containing contraceptive pill can be safely used in consideration of the carbohydrate metabolism.

  4. Carbon catabolite repression and global control of the carbohydrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Luesink, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of fermented dairy products considerable scientific attention has been given to various steps of fermentation processes, including the L-lactate formation of lactic acid bacteria (de Vos, 1996). In particular, the carbohydrate metabolism of L. lactis has been the subject of extensive research and several genes encoding proteins involved in the central carbohydrate metabolism have been described (Llanos et al., 1992; Llanos et al., 1993; Cancilla et al., 1995...

  5. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is fine because they contain important vitamins and minerals. But your body rapidly digests the starch in white potatoes. This can raise your blood glucose level. Healthy carbohydrates include: Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products Dietary fiber Starches in whole- ...

  6. [Quality of carbohydrates in the diet and their effect on metabolic control of type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincheira, Daniela; Morgado, Romina; Alviña, Marcela; Vega, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the parameters of metabolic control and quality of carbohydrates (CHO) of the diet in individuals with type 2 diabetes, controlled with diet and/or Metformin. In 108 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years, glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) between 6% and 10%, without sulfonylureas or insulin theraphy; were examined through two separate surveys of 24-hour recall. The CHO intake, GI, GL of diet was analyzed. Values of HbA1c were collected from medical records. Data was tabulated in SPSS version 17 software. The Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the degree of association between variables, considering significant at p diet and HbA1c levels in the individuals. In conclusion the study showed that the quality of CHO, mainly GI, are strongly associated with metabolic control of DM 2.

  7. [Mathematical model for carbohydrate energy metabolism. Mechanism of the Pasteur effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khainrikh, R; Dynnik, V V; Sel'kov, E E

    1980-06-01

    The simple mathematical model based on the stoichiometric structure of carbohydrate metabolism and the only allosteric regulation presented, i. e. activation of phosphofructokinase by AMP, was used to study the mechanism of the Pasteur effect, e. g. interrelationship of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and H-transporting shuttles at varying rates of oxidative phosphorylation and ATPase load. It was shown that the mechanism of the Pasteur effect is based on the presence of two negative feed-back mechanisms in carbohydrate metabolism, namely by the level of ATP in glycolysis and by the level of mitochondrial NADH in the Krebs cycle and H-transporting shuttles. It was also shown that the value and sign of the Pasteur effect depend on the level of ATPase load. The role of this phenomenon in stabilization of ATP in the cell is discussed. The effects of changes in the allosteric properties of phosphofructokinase and low activity of H-transporting shuttles on the Pasteur effect was studied. It was shown that the low values of the pasteur effect in tumour tissues are mainly determined by an insufficient activity of oxidative phosphorylation.

  8. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  9. Orchestration of carbohydrate processing for crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2016-06-01

    The production of phosphoenolpyruvate as a substrate for nocturnal CO2 uptake represents a significant sink for carbohydrate in CAM plants which has to be balanced with the provisioning of carbohydrate for growth and maintenance. In starch-storing CAM species, diversification in chloroplast metabolite transporters, and the deployment of both phosphorolytic and hydrolytic routes of starch degradation accommodate a division of labour in directing C-skeletons towards nocturnal carboxylation or production of sucrose for growth. In soluble-sugar storing CAM plants, the vacuole plays a central role in managing carbon homeostasis. The molecular identities of various types of vacuolar sugar transporters have only been identified for C3 species within the last 10 years. The recent availability of CAM genomes enables the identification of putative orthologues of vacuolar sugar transporters which represent strategic targets for orchestrating the diel provisioning of substrate for nocturnal carboxylation and growth. PMID:27101569

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen. PMID:25353653

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen.

  12. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Laughlin, Maren R.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose ac...

  13. Association of neural tube defects in children of mothers with MTHFR 677TT genotype and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Benitez, N M; Yanes-Sosa, F; Gonzalez-Meneses, A; Cerrillos, L; Acosta, D; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Neth, O; Gomez de Terreros, I; Ybot-González, P

    2014-03-26

    Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and animal models. However, the relationship between these two factors in the development of NTDs remains unclear. Data from mothers of children with spina bifida seen at the Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital Infantil Virgen del Rocío (case group) were compared to mothers of healthy children with no NTD (control group) who were randomly selected from patients seen at the outpatient ward in the same hospital. There were 25 individuals in the case group and 41 in the control group. Analysis of genotypes for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT polymorphism in women with or without risk factors for abnormal carbohydrate metabolism revealed that mothers who were homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism were more likely to have offspring with spina bifida and high levels of homocysteine, compared to the control group. The increased incidence of NTDs in mothers homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism stresses the need for careful metabolic screening in pregnant women, and, if necessary, determination of the MTHFR 677CT genotype in those mothers at risk of developing abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  14. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.;

    2006-01-01

    with pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism......During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline...... at 3 h 23 min ± 11 min). Femoral arterial and venous blood, blood flow measurements, and muscle samples were obtained hourly during exercise and recovery (3 h). Carbohydrate oxidation peaked at 30 min of exercise and subsequently decreased for the remainder of the exercise bout (P

  16. Role of gut microbiota in the control of energy and carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review: To describe the recent developments and insights gained in the role played by the colonic microbiota in energy and carbohydrate metabolism related to obesity in humans. Recent findings: Previous findings that the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes is important in energy harvest

  17. Carbon catabolite repression and global control of the carbohydrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of fermented dairy products considerable scientific attention has been given to various steps of fermentation processes, including the L-lactate formation of lactic acid bacteria (de Vos, 1996). In particular, the carbohydrate metabolism of L. lactis has been the s

  18. Quantification of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in conscious mice using serial blood and urine spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, TH; Boer, TS; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Reijngoud, DJ

    2003-01-01

    In vivo studies of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in (genetically modified) conscious mice are hampered by limitations of blood and urine sample sizes. We developed and validated methods to quantify stable isotope dilution and incorporation in small blood and urine samples spotted onto filter paper

  19. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O;

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  20. Exogenous Classic Phytohormones Have Limited Regulatory Effects on Fructan and Primary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperl, Anna; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs) and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs). The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA), are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX), ethylene (ET), gibberellic acid (GA), or kinetin (KIN). The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA, and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and sucrose pool

  1. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  2. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

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    Keiko Handa

    Full Text Available We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22, a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37 diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37 diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1. Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  3. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Keiko; Inukai, Kouichi; Onuma, Hirohisa; Kudo, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tsugawa, Kazue; Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Kawakami, Hayato; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22), a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37) diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37) diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  4. A central role of abscisic acid in stress-regulated carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Stefan Kempa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and development. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. However, apart from the well established role of ABA in regulating gene expression programmes, little is known about its function in plant stress metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an integrative multiparallel approach of metabolome and transcriptome analyses, we studied the dynamic response of the model glyophyte Arabidopsis thaliana to ABA and high salt conditions. Our work shows that salt stress induces complex re-adjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and that ABA triggers the initial steps of carbon mobilisation. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings open new perspectives on how high salinity and ABA impact on central carbohydrate metabolism and highlight the power of iterative combinatorial approaches of non-targeted and hypothesis-driven experiments in stress biology.

  5. Effects of Salt Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Jing; Pan, Daodong; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Cheng, Kemeng

    2016-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented foods, especially cheese products. In this study, we observed the salt tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 after exposure to different concentrations of NaCl in MRS medium. Quantitative proteomic profiles using two-dimensional electrophoresis identified 384 proteins, of which 26 were upregulated and 31 downregulated. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry was then used to identify 11 proteins, of which three were linked to carbohydrate metabolism. The downregulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthase in carbohydrate metabolism revealed a bacterial regulation mechanism to save energy in order to survive during the salt tolerance. Other proteins were found involved in transcription-translation processes, fatty acid biosynthesis, and the primary metabolic process. PMID:27342422

  6. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid as a spray to Na CI-treated corn (Zea mays L,) significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots as measured after seven days of treatment. Spraying of salicylic acid caused significant increases in the activity of both ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) enzyme and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, salicylic acid treatment induced high values of soluble carbohydrate fractions in salt stressed plants as compared with salicylic acid treated samples. These data suggest that salicylic acid might improve the growth pattern of NaCl-treated maize plants via increasing the rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

  7. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Jurak, E.; Kohler, A; Baker, A.; Battaglia, E; Bruijn, de, M.E.; Burton, K.S.; Challen, M.P.; Cuotinho, P.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Gruben, B.S.; Makela, M.R.; Martin, F.; Nadal, M; Brink, van den, A Arno

    2013-01-01

    Background - Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present. Results - In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were i...

  8. Role of Leu-enkephalin in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoloev, G.K.

    1987-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possible role of Leuenkephalin (LE) is the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Experiments were carried out on 166 mole albino rats weighing 180-220 g. Opioid peptides, namely LE, D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-Arg/sup 6/-enkephalin, and d-Ala/sup 2/-D-Leu/sup 5/-D-Arg/sup 6/-enkephalin were injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 500 ..mu..g/kg, naloxone, a blocker of opiate receptors, was injected in a dose of 100 ..mu..g/kg, and the pharmacopoeial preparations Parathyroidin in a dose of 10 U/kg and adrenalin hydrochloride in a dose of 500 ..mu..g/kg. Animals of the control group were given injections of 0.2 ml of physiological saline. The rats were decapitated under superficial ether anesthesia 1 h after injection of the drugs. Insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Radioactivity was counted on a gamma-spectrometer. The glycogen concentration in the samples was determined spectrophotometrically and the cAMP concentration by radioimmunoassay. Radioactivity was counted on a Mark III scintillation counter.

  9. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: the role of carbohydrates and lipids

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    Lilián E Canavoso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  10. Effects of Salt Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Desert Soil Alga Microcoleus vaginatus Gom.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhou Chen; Dun-Hai Li; Li-Rong Song; Chun-Xiang Hu; Gao-Hong Wang; Yong-Ding Liu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of salt stress on carbohydrate metabolism in Microcoleus vaginatus Gom., a cyanobacterium isolated from desert algal crusts, were investigated in the present study. Extracellular total carbohydrates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) in the culture medium produced by M. vaginatus increased significantly during the growth phase and reached a maximum during the stationary phase. The production of extracellular carbohydrates also significantly increased under higher salt concentrations, which was attributed to an increase in low molecular weight carbohydrates. In the presence of NaCl, the production of cellular total carbohydrates decreased and photosynthetic activity was impaired, whereas cellular reducing sugars,water-soluble sugars and sucrose content and sucrose phosphate synthase activity increased, reaching a maximum in the presence of 200 mmol/L NaCl. These parameters were restored to original levels when the algae were transferred to a non-saline medium. Sodium and K+ concentrations of stressed cells decreased significantly and H+-ATPase activity increased after the addition of exogenous sucrose or EPS. The results suggest that EPS and sucrose are synthesized to maintain the cellular osmotic equilibrium between the intra- and extracellular environment, thus protecting algal cells from osmotic damage, which was attributed to the selective exclusion of cellular Na+ and K+ by H+-ATPase.

  11. Effects of Different Carbohydrate Sources on Fructan Metabolism in Plants of Chrysolaena obovata Grown in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio eTrevisan; Vanessa Fatima eOliveira; Maria Angela Machado Carvalho; Marília Gaspar Gaspar

    2015-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata (Less.) Dematt., previously named Vernonia herbacea, is an Asteraceae native to the Cerrado which accumulates about 80% of the rhizophore dry mass as inulin-type fructans. Considering its high inulin production and the wide application of fructans, a protocol for C. obovata in vitro culture was recently established. Carbohydrates are essential for in vitro growth and development of plants and can also act as signaling molecules involved in cellular adjustments and metabol...

  12. INFLUENCE OF LIFETIME EXPOSURE OF SUBLETHAL DOSES OF CADMIUM TO SELECTED PARAMETERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    František Ništiar; Iveta Cimboláková; Eva Lovásová; Jaroslava Nováková; Agnesa Lukačínová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of exposure to low doses of cadmium dissolved in drinking water (at a concentration 200 times higher than the maximum permissible dose) on selected parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in 20 Wistar rats. Animals were divided into two groups – control and experimental groups exposed to low doses of cadmium chloride in concentration 20 μM of drinking water. We studied the biochemical parameters, as glucose, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin...

  13. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 through July 2012. The variables analyzed were age, sex, blood pressure, waist circumference, tobacco use, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A and B, TC/HDL ratio and apo B/apo AI ratio. Results: women older than 45 years had a higher prevalence of elevated waist circumference (60.0 %, hypertension (46.7 % and type 2 diabetes mellitus (54.3 % with hypertriglyceridemia (43.3 %, low HDLc levels (36.7 % and were 2.8 times more likely to develop elevated waist circumference; 66.7 % of the diabetic patients had low HDLc levels, 33.3 % developed hypertriglyceridemia and 66.7 % had a high total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. Conclusions: an association between age older than 45 years, female sex, obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus was observed. There was a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels in obese and diabetic patients. Increased risk of low HDL cholesterol and high total cholesterol / HDL cholesterol ratio were also found.

  14. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.;

    2016-01-01

    limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate...... the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se....

  15. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in t

  16. Fueling the caries process: carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation by Streptococcus mutans

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    Zachary D. Moye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the oral cavity and host behaviors has mandated that the oral microbiota evolve mechanisms for coping with environmental fluctuations, especially changes in the type and availability of carbohydrates. In the case of human dental caries, the presence of excess carbohydrates is often responsible for altering the local environment to be more favorable for species associated with the initiation and progression of disease, including Streptococcus mutans. Some of the earliest endeavors to understand how cariogenic species respond to environmental perturbations were carried out using chemostat cultivation, which provides fine control over culture conditions and bacterial behaviors. The development of genome-scale methodologies has allowed for the combination of sophisticated cultivation technologies with genome-level analysis to more thoroughly probe how bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stimuli. Recent investigations in S. mutans and other closely related streptococci have begun to reveal that carbohydrate metabolism can drastically impact pathogenic potential and highlight the important influence that nutrient acquisition has on the success of pathogens; inside and outside of the oral cavity. Collectively, research into pathogenic streptococci, which have evolved in close association with the human host, has begun to unveil the essential nature of careful orchestration of carbohydrate acquisition and catabolism to allow the organisms to persist and, when conditions allow, initiate or worsen disease.

  17. Grafting Helps Improve Photosynthesis and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Leaves of Muskmelon

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    Yi-Fei Liu, Hong-Yan Qi, Chun-Ming Bai, Ming-Fang Qi, Chuan-Qiang Xu, Jing-Hong Hao, Yan Li, Tian-Lai Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality for muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. is their sweetness which is closely related to the soluble sugars content. Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs in plants and thus the source of sugar accumulation in fruits since sugars are translocated from leaves to fruits. The effects of grafting muskmelon on two different inter-specific (Cucurbita maxima×C. moschata rootstocks was investigated with respect to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Grafting Zhongmi1 muskmelon on RibenStrong (GR or Shengzhen1 (GS rootstocks increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+b content and the leaf area in middle and late developmental stages of the plant compared to the ungrafted Zhongmi1 check (CK. Grafting enhanced the net photosynthesis rate, the stomatal conductance, concentration of intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate. Grafting influenced carbohydrates contents by changing carbohydrate metabolic enzymes activities which was observed as an increase in acid invertase and neutral invertase activity in the functional leaves during the early and middle developmental stages compared to CK. Grafting improved sucrose phosphate synthase and stachyose synthase activities in middle and late developmental stages, thus translocation of sugars (such as sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in GR and GS leaves were significantly enhanced. However, compared with CK, translocation of more sugars in grafted plants did not exert feedback inhibition on photosynthesis. Our results indicate that grafting muskmelon on inter-specific rootstocks enhances photosynthesis and translocation of sugars in muskmelon leaves.

  18. In vivo sup 1 sup 3 C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, J

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance sup 1 sup 3 C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in th...

  19. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  20. Serum neutral amino acid concentrations in cirrhotic patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutral amino acid levels in cirrhotic patients with abnormal oral glucose tolerance test patterns were not different from those of subjects without impaired carbohydrate metabolism. However, the characteristic features of serum aminograms in the patients, that is, increased levels of tyrosine, decreased levels of valine and leucine and the diminished ratio of branched chain amino acids to phenylalanine and tyrosine levels, were less pronounced in those treated with insulin. This finding is clinically important for evaluating the serum aminogram of cirrhotic patients under insulin therapy.

  1. beta-adrenergic effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the unweighted rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of unweighting on the response of the soleus-muscle carbohydrate metabolism to a beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) was investigated in rats that were subjected to three days of tail-cast suspension. It was found that isoproterenol promoted glycogen degradation in soleus from suspended rats to a higher degree than in weighted soleus from control rats, and had no effect in unweighted digitorum longus. However, isoproterenol did not have a greater inhibitory effect on the net uptake of tritium-labeled 2-deoxy-glucose by the unweighted soleus and that isoproterenol inhibited hexose phosphorylation less in the unweighted than in the control muscle.

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism and quality of life in patients after surgical treatment of insulinoma

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    Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. T study the quality of life and status of carbohydrate metabolism in patients after surgical treatment insulinoma. Methods: The study involved 20 patients divided in two groups: the first group with a catamnesis duration of up to five years; the second group with a catamnesis duration of more than five years. We studied anthropometric parameters and carbohydrate metabolism as well as psychological questioning of patients using SF-36 questionnaire, the data was considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results. severe combined postoperative complications were more frequent in the first group (63.6% vs. 22.2%, p=0.07, due to extend of the performed surgery. Adrenergic symptoms prior to the surgery were detected in 90.9% of cases in the first group and in 77.7% of cases in the second group. After treatment these numbers decreased to 36.4% and 11.1% respectively (p=0.039 and 0.026. Neuroglycopeniс symptoms before treatment were detected in 90.9% of cases in the first group and for all patients in the second, while after treatment persisted only in 45.5% and 33.3% of cases respectively (p=0.045 and 0.036. Carbohydrate metabolism have normalized for the majority of patients. Two patients (18.2% of the first group showed impaired glucose tolerance. Improved carbohydrate metabolism was associated with a decrease in body weight in both groups. Results of psychological questionnaires were comparable with the survey data obtained in general population in the Russian Federation. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of insulinomas is highly effective. Physical and psychological status of patients in most cases corresponds with those typical for this age-sex group of the population of the Russian Federation. Long-term treatment results do not depend on duration of the catamnesis. Complications that developed from surgical treatment have the main influence on the health of patients.

  3. Role and metabolism of free leucine in skeletal muscle in protein sparing action of dietary carbohydrate and fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding rats with either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal to the previously fasted rats caused significant decrease in urinary output of urea and total nitrogen. The content of free leucine in skeletal muscle decreased in the rats fed either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. Feeding of either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal stimulated incorporation of L-leucine-1-14C into protein fraction of skeletal muscle and reduced its oxidation to 14CO2. These results suggest that the metabolism of leucine is under nutritional regulation and that the decrease in content of free leucine in skeletal muscle might be caused by enhanced reutilization of leucine into protein by the feeding of a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. The role of free leucine in skeletal muscle as a regulator of protein turnover in the tissue are discussed in relation to the metabolism of this branched chain amino acid. (auth.)

  4. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  5. Effect of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis regulates the kidney carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyar Selvam Sellamuthu; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Balu Periamallipatti Muniappan; Murugesan Kandasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic effect of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis) on the activities of kidney carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in chemically induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in adult male rats, as a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by mangiferin and glibenclamide (positive control drug) for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities were analyzed in the kidney. Results: Diabetic control rats showed a significant increase in the level of fasting blood glucose and also increase the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in kidney on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values. Daily oral administration of mangiferin showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose when compared to diabetic control. The anti-hyperglycemic effect was obtained with the dose of 40 mg/kg b.wt. In addition, treatment of mangiferin shows alteration in kidney carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including gluconeogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-disphosphatase. These results were comparable with positive control drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study provide evidence of the anti-diabetic potential of mangiferin, mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate key metabolic enzyme activities.

  6. The Roles of Vitamin A in the Regulation of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese. This high prevalence of overweight/obesity negatively affects the health of the population, as obese individuals tend to develop several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Due to obesity’s impact on health, medical costs, and longevity, the rise in the number of obese people has become a public health concern. Both genetic and environmental/dietary factors play a role in the development of metabolic diseases. Intuitively, it seems to be obvious to link over-nutrition to the development of obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dietary nutrients not only provide energy derived from macronutrients, but also factors such as micronutrients with regulatory roles. How micronutrients, such as vitamin A (VA; retinol, regulate macronutrient homeostasis is still an ongoing research topic. As an essential micronutrient, VA plays a key role in the general health of an individual. This review summarizes recent research progress regarding VA’s role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Due to the large amount of information regarding VA functions, this review focusses on metabolism in metabolic active organs and tissues. Additionally, some perspectives for future studies will be provided.

  7. [Carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolism condition in the rat tissue under experimental rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Okhrimenko, S M

    2012-01-01

    Some effects of glycerol injection on indices of the condition of the thiol-disulfide system as well as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism in rats in vivo were studied. A decrease was revealed in levels of non-protein SH-groups in the liver, kidney and heart, as well as of protein SH-groups in the kidney and heart of rats following glycerol injection. That might be connected with SH-group oxidation under the excessive arrival of free haem into tissues under rhabdomyolysis. A decrease in glycogen and increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver were observed. Activation of nitrogenous metabolism following glycerol injection is indicated by the increase of aminotransferase activity in organs, and concentration of blood urea. High concentration of creatinine in the rat serum can reflect malfiltration in kidneys. PMID:22679761

  8. MuRF1-dependent regulation of systemic carbohydrate metabolism as revealed from transgenic mouse studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirner, Stephanie; Krohne, Christian; Schuster, Alexander; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Witt, Stephanie; Erber, Ralf; Sticht, Carsten; Gasch, Alexander; Labeit, Siegfried; Labeit, Dittmar

    2008-06-13

    Under various pathophysiological muscle-wasting conditions, such as diabetes and starvation, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle-specific RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1), are induced to target muscle proteins for degradation via ubiquitination. We have generated transgenic mouse lines over-expressing MuRF1 in a skeletal muscle-specific fashion (MuRF1-TG mice) in an attempt to identify the in vivo targets of MuRF1. MuRF1-TG lines were viable, had normal fertility and normal muscle weights at eight weeks of age. Comparison of quadriceps from MuRF1-TG and wild type mice did not reveal elevated multi-ubiquitination of myosin as observed in human patients with muscle wasting. Instead, MuRF1-TG mice expressed lower levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial key enzyme in charge of glycolysis, and of its regulator PDK2. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid interaction studies demonstrated the interaction of MuRF1 with PDH, PDK2, PDK4, PKM2 (all participating in glycolysis) and with phosphorylase beta (PYGM) and glycogenin (both regulating glycogen metabolism). Consistent with the idea that MuRF1 may regulate carbohydrate metabolism, MuRF1-TG mice had twofold elevated insulin blood levels and lower hepatic glycogen contents. To further examine MuRF1's role for systemic carbohydrate regulation, we performed glucose tolerance tests (GTT) in wild type and MuRF1-TG mice. During GTT, MuRF1-TG mice developed striking hyperinsulinaemia and hepatic glycogen stores, that were depleted at basal levels, became rapidly replenished. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MuRF1 expression in skeletal muscle re-directs glycogen synthesis to the liver and stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion, thereby providing a regulatory feedback loop that connects skeletal muscle metabolism with the liver and the pancreas during metabolic stress. PMID:18468620

  9. The effect of hexavalent chromium at different pH values on the carbohydrate metabolism of Tilapia sparrmanii (Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Wepener; J. H. J. van Vuuren; H.H. du Preez

    1992-01-01

    The effect of hexavalent chromium at different pH values on the carbohydrate metabolism of Tilapia sparrmanii was investigated. The indicator organisms were exposed to Cr(V1) for short and long-term exposures, after which the blood glucose levels and activities of pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined. It was found that short-term exposures of Cr(V1) at an acidic medium caused an increase in energy production and glucose concentrati...

  10. Nutritional and metabolic responses in common dentex (Dentex dentex) fed on different types and levels of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; Cardenete, Gabriel; Morales, Amalia E; Hidalgo, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the capacity of common dentex (Dentex dentex) to efficiently use dietary carbohydrates. So, the effects of different type and levels of carbohydrates on growth performance, feed utilization, fish composition, plasma metabolites and key metabolic pathways in liver and white muscle of common dentex are presented. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22 MJ kg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types, pregelatinized starch (PS), dextrin (Dx) and maltodextrin (Mx), and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates. Growth performance was not significantly influenced by treatments. The best feed utilization was observed in 18% Mx group. Higher hepatic lipid content was found in fish fed lower dietary carbohydrate levels. PS induced higher liver and white muscle hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities compared to the lower values observed for Mx. Malic enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver and white muscle were lower in Mx group. The influence of dietary carbohydrates source was more noticeable than those induced by the carbohydrate level, when glycolysis and lipogenesis pathways were considered. Common dentex is able to use properly dietary carbohydrates, although optimal dietary inclusion levels are below 24%. The greater protein-sparing effect was promoted by the less complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin) and the best feed utilization indices were obtained at intermediate levels of inclusion (18%).

  11. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  12. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  13. Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum contamination on the carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Li, Hao

    2015-11-01

    During the industrial bioethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often stressed by bacterial contaminants, especially lactic acid bacteria. Generally, lactic acid bacteria contamination can inhibit S. cerevisiae cell growth through secreting lactic acid and competing with yeast cells for micronutrients and living space. However, whether are there still any other influences of lactic acid bacteria on yeast or not? In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was co-cultivated with S. cerevisiae S288c to mimic the L. plantarum contamination in industrial bioethanol fermentation. The contaminative L. plantarum-associated expression changes of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the influence of L. plantarum on carbon source utilization and energy related metabolism in yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. Contaminative L. plantarum influenced the expression of most of genes which are responsible for encoding key enzymes involved in glucose related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae. Specific for, contaminated L. plantarum inhibited EMP pathway but promoted TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP, glycerol synthesis pathway, and redox pathway in S. cerevisiae cells. In the presence of L. plantarum, the carbon flux in S. cerevisiae cells was redistributed from fermentation to respiratory and more reducing power was produced to deal with the excess NADH. Moreover, L. plantarum contamination might confer higher ethanol tolerance to yeast cells through promoting accumulation of glycerol. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between contaminative lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

  14. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle.

  15. Abdominal ultrasonography in inheredited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism; Ecografia dell'addome nelle malattie ereditarie del metabolismo dei carboidrati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzato, Carlo; Curti, Alessandra; Cornalba, Gianpaolo [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Milano (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche; Radaelli, Giovanni [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Milano (Italy). Unita' Operativa di Statistica Medica; Fiori, Laura; Rossi, Samantha; Riva, Enrica [Milano Univ., Ospedale San Paolo, Mialno (Italy). Dipartimento di Pediatria

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of abdominal sonography in inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods: Thirty patients (age range, 4 months to 27 years) with glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, disorders of fructose metabolism were studied with sonography. Echogenicity of the liver, sonographic dimensions of liver, kidneys and spleen were evaluated. Plasma blood parameters (ALT, AST, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were determined. Results: Liver was enlarged in 21/22 patients (95.4%) with glycogen storage diseases, in both subjects with disorders of fructose metabolism, and in 2/6 patients (33.3%) with galactosemia. Hepatic echogenicity was increased in 20/22 patients (90.9%) with glycogen storage diseases, and in the subject with hereditary fructose intolerance. Patients with galactosemia did not show increased liver echogenicity. Both kidney were enlarged in 8/17 patients (47.0%) with glycogen storage disease type I. Subjects with increased hepatic echogenicity exhibited higher plasma concentrations of any blood parameter than the others with normal echogenicity (p<0.05). Conclusions: Sonography can be useful in identification of inherited diseases of carbohydrate metabolism even if further examinations are necessary for an ultimate diagnosis. [Italian] Scopo: Determinare l'utilita' dell'ecografia addominale nelle malattie ereditarie del metabolismo dei carboidrati. Materiale e metodi: Di 30 pazienti (eta' compresa tra 4 mesi e 27 anni), affetti da malattie di accumulo di glicogeno (glicogenosi), galattosemia, disordini del metabolismo del fruttosio, sono stati valutati tramite ecografia l'ecogenicita' epatica e le dimensioni ecografiche di fegato, reni e milza. Sono stati determinati alcuni parametri ematici (ALT, AST, colesterolo totale, trigliceridi). Risultati: Il fegato e' risultato ingrandito in 21/22 pazienti (95,4%) con malattie da accumolo di glicogeno, in entrambi i soggetti con

  16. A mini review of dolphin carbohydrate metabolism and suggestions for future research using exhaled air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam eRidgway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health.

  17. Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhaus, A; Chantelau, E

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27 +/- 9 years; diabetes duration 13 +/- 8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22 +/- 5 months; means +/- SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two 6-week periods on self-selected refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets respectively. As a result, energy intake differed between the experimental diets (2372 +/- 669 kcal/day on unrefined diet vs 2757 +/- 654 kcal/day on refined diet, p = 0.04), as did the fibre intake (18 +/- 5 g/day with the refined carbohydrate diet vs 35 +/- 13 g/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, p = 0.02). The composition of nutrients was approximately 40% carbohydrate, 45% fat, and 13% protein with both diets. Body weight, HbA1c, daily mean blood glucose (7.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) and serum lipids remained virtually unchanged during the entire study. Insulin requirement varied between 40.1 +/- 7.9 U/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, and 42.5 +/- 10.1 U/day with the refined carbohydrate diet (NS). Thus, neither the refined nor the unrefined carbohydrate diet affected insulin requirement and metabolic control in these near-normoglycaemic, normolipaemic, non-obese, insulin-pump-treated Type 1 diabetic patients.

  18. Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by dietary carbohydrate levels and lipid sources in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Firmino-Diógenes, Alexandre; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was down-regulated by carbohydrate intake, whereas, unexpectedly, glucose 6-phosphatase was up-regulated. Lipogenic enzyme activities (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, fatty acid synthase) and ∆6 fatty acyl desaturase (FADS2) transcripts were increased in liver of fish fed CH+ diets, supporting an enhanced potential for lipogenesis and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Despite the lower hepatic cholesterol content in CH+ groups, no influence on the expression of genes related to cholesterol efflux (ATP-binding cassette G5) and biosynthesis (lanosterol 14 α-demethylase, cytochrome P450 51 cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51A1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) was recorded at the hepatic level. At the intestinal level, however, induction of CYP51A1 transcripts by carbohydrate intake was recorded. Dietary VO led to decreased plasma phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations but not on the transcripts of proteins involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) and cholesterol metabolism at intestinal and hepatic levels. Hepatic and muscular fatty acid profiles reflected that of diets, despite the up-regulation of FADS2 transcripts. Overall, this study demonstrated that dietary carbohydrates mainly affected carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis and LC-PUFA biosynthesis, whereas effects of dietary lipid source were mostly related with tissue fatty acid composition

  19. Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Mau Goh

    Full Text Available Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.

  20. Effect of Combined Norethisterone Enantate 50mg Monthly InjectableContraceptive on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹利; 沈康元; 孟远翔; 卢风英; 蒋海瑛; 杨华; 张美云; 陈爱君

    1994-01-01

    The effect on carbohydrate metabolism of using the combined injectable contraceptive Norethisteron enantate 50mg/ Estradiot valerate 5mg (NET-EN/ EV ) for 12 months was studied in 22 healthy women, other 20 healthy women were recruited as the blank controL Fasting plasma glucose, OGTT and plasma insulin response to glucose were measured in the follicular phase and luteal phase of pre-treatment cycle, in the luteal phase of the 3rd, 6th and 12th month during the treatment period, and in the post-treatment cycle. In the treatment group, no difference was observed in fasting glucose concentrations as compared with those of baseline values and with the control group.while the glucose concentrations of 2h after glucose load in the 3rd month reduced significantly as compared with those of baseline ( P< 0.01). The AUC of glucose indicated a significant decrease in the 3rd and 6th months (P< 0.05 and P< 0.01,respectively). Because all glucose concentrations in OGTT were within the normal range and the similar changes occurred in the control group, the reduction seems to be of little pathological significance. Plasma insulin levels of both fasting and 2h after glucose load,were significantly decreased in the 12th treatment month (P< 0.01 and P< 0.001,respeetively) and post-treatment cycle ( P< 0.01 and P< 0.001, respectively). The AUC of insulin showed a significant reduction, but similar changes were found in the control group. It is concluded that there is no significant effect on carbohydrate metabolism following the treatment of NET-EN 50mg/ EV 5rag for one year.

  1. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin–cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)–cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. - Highlights: • Diabetic rats are more susceptible to cadmium nephrotoxicity. • Cadmium plays as a cumulative

  2. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin-cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ-Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ-Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats.

  3. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin–cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan, E-mail: npashokkumar1@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)–cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. - Highlights: • Diabetic rats are more susceptible to cadmium nephrotoxicity. • Cadmium plays as a cumulative

  4. Status of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after biliopancreatic diversion surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Ershova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined 70 patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 before and within 5 years after BPD: these patients showed a significant improvement in the status of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism within 3 months after surgery. This improvement has remained stable along with the reduced body weight during the whole observation period of up to 5 years.

  5. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  6. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in radiation sickness and its repair under the effect of therapeutic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of taurin (200mg/kg) in combination with insulin (0.2 IU/kg) on the repair of hormonal activity and of carbohydrate metabolism in an experimentally released radiation sickness was examined. White rats of both sexes weighting 180-200 g were irradiated with a gamma-unit GUM-Co-50 with 700 rad, that corresponds to LDsub(70/30). The preparations were simultaneously administered intraperitoneally every other day altogether 8 times from the 5th day after irradiation. Survival rate in the groups of treated animals was by about 27% higher than in the control. With the administration of therapeutic preparations a repair of the insulin-like plasma activity to the normal levels and a considerable inhibition of liver phosphorylase activity could be observed. Different from insulin action alone a combined use of insulin and taurin led to decrease in blood level of 11-oxycorticosteroids the metabolism of which being essentially impaired by irradiation to the normal value. The restoration of correlation between hormonal activity of adrenal cortex and of the insular apparatus favoured glycogen reproduction in the liver and the decrease in blood-sugar level. Experiments with intact animals as well as in vitro experiments reveal that taurin acts insulin-like

  7. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  8. Carbohydrate metabolism in germinating caryopses of Oryza sativa L. exposed to prolonged anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Anoxia tolerance can be evaluated not only in terms of growth or survival of plant organs during oxygen deprivation, but also in relation to carbohydrate utilization in the context of a well-modulated fermentative metabolism. Rice (Oryza spp.) is unique among cereals, in that it has the distinctive ability to germinate under complete anaerobiosis by using the starchy reserves in its seeds to fuel the anaerobic metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of germinating rice seedlings to survive a long-term oxygen deficiency [40 days after sowing (DAS)] and the effects on sugar metabolism, focusing on starch degradation as well as soluble sugars transport and storage under anoxia. No significant decline in vitality occurred until 30 DAS though no recovery was detected following longer anoxic treatments. Growth arrest was observed following anoxic treatments longer that 20 DAS, in concomitance with considerably lower ethanol production. Amylolytic activity in embryos and endosperms had similar responses to anoxia, reaching maximum content 30 days after the onset of stress, following which the levels declined for the remainder of the experiment. Under anoxia, average amylolytic activity was twofold higher in embryos than endosperms. Efficient starch degradation was observed in rice under anoxia at the onset of the treatment but it decreased over time and did not lead to a complete depletion. Our analysis of α-amylase activity did not support the hypothesis that starch degradation plays a critical role in explaining differences in vitality and coleoptile growth under prolonged oxygen deprivation. PMID:27289587

  9. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A;

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high......-fat (Fat-CHO; 62% fat, 21% carbohydrate) and 6 a high-carbohydrate diet (CHO; 20% fat, 65% carbohydrate) for 7 wk, and thereafter both groups consumed the carbohydrate diet for an eighth week. Training was performed throughout. After 8 wk, during 60 min of exercise (71 +/- 1% pretraining maximal oxygen...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  10. Regulation of Lactobacillus plantarum contamination on the carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Lin, Xiang-Hua; Li, Hao

    2015-11-01

    During the industrial bioethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are often stressed by bacterial contaminants, especially lactic acid bacteria. Generally, lactic acid bacteria contamination can inhibit S. cerevisiae cell growth through secreting lactic acid and competing with yeast cells for micronutrients and living space. However, whether are there still any other influences of lactic acid bacteria on yeast or not? In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was co-cultivated with S. cerevisiae S288c to mimic the L. plantarum contamination in industrial bioethanol fermentation. The contaminative L. plantarum-associated expression changes of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae cells were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the influence of L. plantarum on carbon source utilization and energy related metabolism in yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. Contaminative L. plantarum influenced the expression of most of genes which are responsible for encoding key enzymes involved in glucose related metabolisms in S. cerevisiae. Specific for, contaminated L. plantarum inhibited EMP pathway but promoted TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle, HMP, glycerol synthesis pathway, and redox pathway in S. cerevisiae cells. In the presence of L. plantarum, the carbon flux in S. cerevisiae cells was redistributed from fermentation to respiratory and more reducing power was produced to deal with the excess NADH. Moreover, L. plantarum contamination might confer higher ethanol tolerance to yeast cells through promoting accumulation of glycerol. These results also highlighted our knowledge about relationship between contaminative lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisiae during bioethanol fermentation. PMID:26279142

  11. Abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by Catharanthus roseus treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasineni, Karuna; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2013-09-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups C and C+CR) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (groups F and F+CR) were fed with high-fructose (66 %) diet. C. roseus leaf powder suspension in water (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CR and group F+CR. At the end of a 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. roseus treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F was significantly decreased with C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that C. roseus treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it. PMID:23334857

  12. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus stylirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas; Cuzon; Gaxiola; Arena; Lemaire; Soyez; Van Wormhoudt A

    2000-06-28

    The effect of dietary carbohydrates (CBH) on glucose and glycogen, digestive enzymes, ammonia excretion and osmotic pressure and osmotic capacity of Litopenaeus stylirostris juveniles was studied. The increase of CBH, ranging between 1 and 33%, stimulates activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in the hepatopancreas. High levels of glucose in hemolymph and of glycogen in the hepatopancreas were reached at the highest level of dietary CBH; however, the kinetics of accumulation is different. Shrimps fed with low level of CBH needed 3 h to reached glucose peak, whereas only 1 h is necessary for high CBH levels. A saturation curve was observed in glycogen level and alpha-amylase activity with maximum values in shrimp-fed diets containing 21% CBH. This level could be used to be included as a maximum shrimp dietary CBH level. Pre-prandial glycogen levels were observed in shrimp fed a diet containing 1% CBH, indicating an important gluconeogenesis, which affected the protein metabolism. The present results show that a diet containing 10% CBH may not be enough to cover the CBH requirement, which could be satisfied by dietary protein content. The low osmotic capacity observed in shrimp fed on a diet containing 10% CBH coincided with a relatively low post-prandial nitrogen excretion which reflects a low concentration of amino acids circulating in hemolymph, which affected the osmotic pressure and the osmotic capacity. These results reflect the high plasticity of shrimp species to use protein to obtain metabolic energy from food and its limited capacity for processing dietary CBH. PMID:10841934

  13. INFLUENCE OF LIFETIME EXPOSURE OF SUBLETHAL DOSES OF CADMIUM TO SELECTED PARAMETERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ništiar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of exposure to low doses of cadmium dissolved in drinking water (at a concentration 200 times higher than the maximum permissible dose on selected parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in 20 Wistar rats. Animals were divided into two groups – control and experimental groups exposed to low doses of cadmium chloride in concentration 20 μM of drinking water. We studied the biochemical parameters, as glucose, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase and amylase in blood of rats. Glucose, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin and amylase levels increased, lactate dehydrogenase was no changed of rats exposed to cadmium. Good indicators of chronic intoxication by cadmium are elevated levels of glucose, hemoglobin and mainly glycated hemoglobin in blood. The evaluation results should be taken into account not only the data at the end of the experiment but for the entire duration of trials (i.e., more time steps, which results largely make objective.doi:10.5219/231

  14. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area. PMID:18537692

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism changes in Prunus persica gummosis infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gao, L; Wang, Y T; Zhu, W; Ye, J L; Li, G H

    2014-05-01

    Peach gummosis represents a significant global disease of stone fruit trees and a major disease in the south peach production area of the Yangtze River of China. In this study, the carbohydrate composition of peach shoots during infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was examined. The expression of genes related to metabolic enzymes was also investigated. Control wounded and noninoculated tissue, lesion tissue, and wounded and inoculated surrounding lesion tissue of peach shoots were analyzed. Soluble sugars, glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose significantly increased in inoculated tissues of peach shoots compared with control tissues at different times after inoculation. Accumulation of polysaccharides was also observed by section observation and periodic acid Schiff's reagent staining during infection. Analysis using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the abundance of key transcripts on the synthesis pathway of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-D-glucuronate, UDP-D-galactose, and UDP-D-arabinose increased but the synthesis of L-galactose and guanosine diphosphate-L-galactose were inhibited. After inoculation, the transcript levels of sugar transport-related genes (namely, SUT, SOT, GMT, and UGT) was induced. These changes in sugar content and gene expression were directly associated with peach gum polysaccharide formation and may be responsible for the symptoms of peach gummosis. PMID:24283537

  16. Postprandial de novo lipogenesis and metabolic changes induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat meal in lean and overweight men

    OpenAIRE

    I. Marques-Lopes; D. Ansorena; Astiasaran, I. (Iciar); L. Forga; J. A. Martinez

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjustments of carbohydrate intake and oxidation occur in both normal-weight and overweight individuals. Nevertheless, the contribution of carbohydrates to the accumulation of fat through either reduction of fat oxidation or stimulation of fat synthesis in obesity remains poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the postprandial metabolic changes and the fractional hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) induced by a high-carbohydrate, low-fat...

  17. Genetic determinants for metabolic abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients often use psychotropic drugs. Apart from frequent problems regarding lack of efficacy, use of these drugs also often results in (severe) adverse effects. The use of (atypical) antipsychotic drugs in particular can give rise to weight gain and metabolic deregulation regarding glu

  18. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in transcript levels of genes related with carbohydrate biosynthesis and catabolism in response to temperature. For that, we measured transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch catabolism, and gluconeogenesis in R. communis leaves, roots, and seeds grown at 20 °C and 35 °C. Transcript levels of genes involved in starch catabolism were higher in leaves grown at 20 °C than at 35 °C, but up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis seems to compensate for this and, therefore, are the likely explanation for higher levels of starch in leaves grown at 20 °C. Higher levels of soluble carbohydrates in leaves grown at 20 °C may be caused by a coordinated increase in transcript level of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. In roots, transcript levels of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis seem to be enhanced at elevated temperatures. Higher levels of starch in seeds germinated at low temperatures is associated with higher transcript levels of genes involved in starch biosynthesis. Similarly, higher transcript levels of RcPEPCK and RcFBPase are most likely causal for fructose and glucose accumulation in seeds germinated at 20 °C. This study provides important insights in the understanding of the plasticity of R. communis in response to temperature that may apply to other species as well.

  19. Alcoholic Stem Extract of Coscinium fenestratum Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Punitha, I. R.; Rajendran, K.; Arun Shirwaikar; Annie Shirwaikar

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholic extract of the stems of Coscinium fenestratum, a medicinal plant indigenous to India and Sri Lanka used in ayurveda and siddha medicine for treating diabetes, was studied for its carbohydrate metabolism effect and antioxidant status in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. fenestratum stem extract in graded doses caused a significant increase in enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione synthetase, pero...

  20. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  1. Musa Paradisiaca flower extract improves carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmuga Sundaram.C; Subramanian.S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Musa Paradisiaca, commonly known as plantains have been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. In the absence of an ideal drug to alleviate the primary and secondary complications of diabetes mellitus, search for novel drugs without side effects, preferably from plant origin continues. Recently, we have reported the presence of biologically active phytochemicals as well as the hypoglycemic activity of Musa paradisiaca tepals extract in STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of tepals, an integrated part of Musa paradisiaca flowers on carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of experimental diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with ethanolic extract of tepals at a concentration of 200mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days. The levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were estimated. The activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism such as glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in hepatic tissues were assayed. The levels of glycogen in hepatic tissues were also estimated. Results: Oral administration ofMusa paradisiaca tepals extract significantly improved the altered levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin and modulated the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. The glycogen content in hepatic tissues was significantly increased in diabetic rats treated with tepals extract. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate that the tepals extract plays pivotal role to maintain normoglycemia in diabetes by modulating the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes.

  2. Effect of Waterlogging on Carbohydrate Metabolism and the Quality of Fiber in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Jie; Chen, Yinglong; Wang, Youhua; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Transient waterlogging occurs frequently in the Yangtze River and adversely affects cotton fiber quality. However, the carbohydrate metabolic mechanism that affects fiber quality after waterlogging remains undescribed. Here, the effects of five waterlogging levels (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days) were assessed during flowering and boll formation to characterize the carbohydrates, enzymes and genes that affect the fiber quality of cotton after waterlogging. The cellulose and sucrose contents of cotton fibers were significantly decreased after waterlogging for 6 (WL6), 9 (WL9), and 12 d (WL12), although these properties were unaffected after 3 (WL3) and 6 days at the fruiting branch 14-15 (FB14-15). Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) was the most sensitive to waterlogging among the enzymes tested. SPS activity was decreased by waterlogging at FB6-7, whereas it was significantly enhanced under WL3-6 at FB10-15. Waterlogging down-regulated the expression of fiber invertase at 10 days post anthesis (DPA), whereas that of expansin, β-1,4-glucanase and endoxyloglucan transferase (XET) was up-regulated with increasing waterlogging time. Increased mRNA levels and activities of fiber SuSy at each fruiting branch indicated that SuSy was the main enzyme responsible for sucrose degradation because it was markedly induced by waterlogging and was active even when waterlogging was discontinued. We therefore concluded that the reduction in fiber sucrose and down-regulation of invertase at 10 DPA led to a markedly shorter fiber length under conditions WL6-12. Significantly decreased fiber strength at FB6-11 for WL6-12 was the result of the inhibition of cellulose synthesis and the up-regulation of expansin, β-1,4-glucanase and XET, whereas fiber strength increased under WL3-6 at FB14-15 due to the increased cellulose content of the fibers. Most of the indictors tested revealed that WL6 resulted in the best compensatory performance, whereas exposure to waterlogged conditions for more than 6

  3. Risk factors of disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and some pleiotropic effects of antihypertensive therapy in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Padyganova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The any kind of hypertension developing during the pregnancy, associated with high cardiovascular risk in the future. At the pregnancy complicated by development by arterial hypertension, there are more expressed changes of a carbohydrate and lipide metabolism, than it is peculiar to normally proceeding pregnancy, were by important pathogenetic links of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular complications. Identification of new mechanisms of action of antihypertensive means associated with positive influences on exchange processes, is represented very demanded, considering pandemic nature of prevalence of metabolic violations in modern population.

  4. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    information about the relative contribution of different nutrients to the total heat production (HE; Tauson et al. 1997). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of different provision of protein and carbohydrate on the energy metabolism and substrate oxidation of mink kits between 6 and 12 weeks......The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  5. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Eric S

    2004-11-01

    There are likely many scenarios and pathways that can lead to metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews mechanisms by which the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may contribute to the metabolic syndrome, and explores the paradigm of a critical VAT threshold (CVATT). Exceeding the CVATT may result in a number of metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance to glucose uptake by cells. Metabolic profiles of patients with visceral obesity may substantially improve after only modest weight loss. This could reflect a significant reduction in the amount of VAT relative to peripheral or subcutaneous fat depots, thereby maintaining VAT below the CVATT. The CVATT may be unique for each individual. This may help explain the phenomena of apparently lean individuals with metabolic syndrome, the so-called metabolically normal weight (MONW), as well as the obese with normal metabolic profiles, i.e., metabolically normal obese (MNO), and those who are "fit and fat." The concept of CVATT may have implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, which may include controlling dietary carbohydrates. The identification of the CVATT is admittedly difficult and its anatomical boundaries are not well-defined. Thus, the CVATT will continue to be a work in progress. PMID:15530168

  6. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freedland ES

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are likely many scenarios and pathways that can lead to metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews mechanisms by which the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT may contribute to the metabolic syndrome, and explores the paradigm of a critical VAT threshold (CVATT. Exceeding the CVATT may result in a number of metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance to glucose uptake by cells. Metabolic profiles of patients with visceral obesity may substantially improve after only modest weight loss. This could reflect a significant reduction in the amount of VAT relative to peripheral or subcutaneous fat depots, thereby maintaining VAT below the CVATT. The CVATT may be unique for each individual. This may help explain the phenomena of apparently lean individuals with metabolic syndrome, the so-called metabolically normal weight (MONW, as well as the obese with normal metabolic profiles, i.e., metabolically normal obese (MNO, and those who are "fit and fat." The concept of CVATT may have implications for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, which may include controlling dietary carbohydrates. The identification of the CVATT is admittedly difficult and its anatomical boundaries are not well-defined. Thus, the CVATT will continue to be a work in progress.

  7. Effect of discontinuation of long-term growth hormone treatment on carbohydrate metabolism and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.K. van Pareren (Yvonne); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); Th. Stijnen (Theo); T.C.J. Sas (Theo); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractGH treatment increases insulin levels in girls with Turner syndrome (TS), who are already predisposed to develop diabetes mellitus and other risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated carbohydrate metabolism and

  8. Carbohydrate metabolism teaching strategy for the Pharmacy course, applying active teaching methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uderlei Donizete Silveira Covizzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional teaching method has been widely questioned on the development of skills and abilities in training healthcare professionals. In the traditional methodology the main transmitter of knowledge is the teacher while students assume passive spectator role. Some Brazilian institutions broke with this model, structuring the curriculum to student-centered learning. Some medical schools have adopted the Problem Based Learning (PBL, a methodology that presents problem questions, to be encountered by future physicians, for resolution in small tutorial groups. Our work proposes to apply an active teaching-learning methodology addressing carbohydrate metabolism during the discipline of biochemistry for under graduation students from pharmacy course. Thus, the academic content was presented through brief and objective talks. Later, learners were split into tutorial groups for the resolution of issues in context. During the activities, the teacher drove the discussion to the issues elucidation. At the end of the module learners evaluated the teaching methodology by means of an applied questionnaire and the developed content was evaluated by an usual individual test. The questionnaire analysis indicates that students believe they have actively participated in the teaching-learning process, being encouraged to discuss and understand the theme. The answers highlight closer ties between students and tutor. According to the professor, there is a greater student engagement with learning. It is concluded that an innovative methodology, where the primary responsibility for learning is centered in the student himself, besides to increase the interest in learning, facilitates learning by cases discussion in groups. The issues contextualization establishes a narrowing between theory and practice.

  9. Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. Domesticated cotton makes these reserves available to developing seeds which impacts seed yield. The goals of these analyses were to identify genes and physiological pathways that establish cotton stems and roots as physiological sinks and investigate the role these pathways play in cotton development during seed set. Results Analysis of field-grown cotton plants indicated that starch levels peaked about the time of first anthesis and then declined similar to reports in greenhouse-grown cotton plants. Starch accumulated along the length of the stem and the shape and size of the starch grains from stems were easily distinguished from transient starch. Microarray analyses compared gene expression in tissues containing low levels of starch with tissues rapidly accumulating starch. Statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated increased expression among genes associated with starch synthesis, starch degradation, hexose metabolism, raffinose synthesis and trehalose synthesis. The anticipated changes in these sugars were largely confirmed by measuring soluble sugars in selected tissues. Conclusion In domesticated cotton starch stored prior to flowering was available to support seed production. Starch accumulation observed in young field-grown plants was not observed in greenhouse grown plants. A suite of genes associated with starch biosynthesis was identified. The pathway for starch utilization after flowering was associated with an increase in expression of a glucan water dikinase gene as has been implicated in utilization of transient starch. Changes in raffinose levels and levels of expression of genes controlling trehalose and raffinose biosynthesis were also observed in vegetative

  10. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ) bean seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes ..cap alpha..-amylase, ..beta..-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight.

  11. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  12. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  13. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  14. Impact of motor transport emissions on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ornamental flower plants

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Bessonova; О. P. Pryimak

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of carbohydrate exchange in leaves of Salvia sрlendens and Tagetes patula under conditions of environmental pollution by gaseous emission and lead is described in the article. Species differences of glucose quantity under the influence of ingredients of vehicle emissions are presented. Changes in maintenance of non-structural forms of carbohydrates took place as a result of dependences of enzymes activity from pollutants.

  15. Impact of motor transport emissions on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ornamental flower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of carbohydrate exchange in leaves of Salvia sрlendens and Tagetes patula under conditions of environmental pollution by gaseous emission and lead is described in the article. Species differences of glucose quantity under the influence of ingredients of vehicle emissions are presented. Changes in maintenance of non-structural forms of carbohydrates took place as a result of dependences of enzymes activity from pollutants.

  16. Lectin histochemistry of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in representatives of different classes of vertebrates

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    Antonyuk R.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glycoproteins (including mucin of vertebrate’s intestine play an important role in its protection against chemical and mechanical damage and bacterial attacks. Their diversity was described by many authors, but understanding of their chemical structure remains far from complete. These data can be extended by methods of lectin histochemistry. Objective. To investigate the rearrangement of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in the context of vertebrate evolution. Methods. Distal and proximal segments of small and large intestines of humans (Homo sapiens, laboratory (Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus f. Domesticus, rock pigeon (Columba livia, smooth snake (Coronella austriaca, common frog (Rana temporaria, common carp (Cyprinus carpio that belong to different classes of vertebrates were taken for the experiment. Nine lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: wheat germ (WGA, potato (STA, elderberry bark (SNA, golden rain bark (LABA, locust bark (RPBA, roe carp (CCRA, Phaseolus vulgaris erytroagglutinin (PHA-E, peanut (PNA and jack fruit (AIA – were included into the panel. Results. Differences in lectin staining between small and large intestine were more pronounced in higher (human, rat than in lower (frog, carp vertebrates. Lectin receptors were more diverse in frog intestine in comparison with carp. Lectin interaction with mucin secretory granules of smooth snake revealed lack of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues and abundance of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine determinants. Conclusion. Intestines of all studied vertebrate species demonstrate high content of secretory mucins that exposed terminal acidic carbohydrates including sialic acid. The diversity and differences in the structure of glycans of the digestive tract of vertebrates is apparently determined by several factors – diet, environmental and living conditions, intestinal microbiota interactions etc. Citation: Antonyuk RV, Lutsyk AD. [Lectin histochemistry of intestinal

  17. The Influence of Carbohydrate Status and Low Temperature on the Respiratory Metabolism of Mitochondria from Etiolated Leaves of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Borovik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The separate and combined effect of sucrose (12%, 7 days and low temperature (2 °С, 7 days on the growth of plants, the content of carbohydrates in the leaves and oxidative activity of mitochondria isolated from them has been studied on the etiolated plants of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It has been shown that sucrose and low temperature cause inhibition of the growth and increasing of the carbohydrates content. Using the different oxidation substrates (malate, malate + rotenone, succinate, NADH and NADPH have been identified changes in the mitochondrial oxidative activity and the functioning of alternative oxidase and rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases. It has been determined that activity of the alternative oxidase and “external” rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the mitochondria of etiolated leaves depends on the carbohydrate status of the plant, regardless of the growth temperature.

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thomas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8 and p27(Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  19. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, Jeroen; Vergauwen, Rudy; Sévenier, Robert; Hakkert, Johanna C; van Laere, André; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Koops, Andries J; van der Meer, Ingrid M

    2012-10-15

    Inulin is a fructose-based polymer that is isolated from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) taproots. The degree of polymerization (DP) determines its application and hence the value of the crop. The DP is highly dependent on the field conditions and harvest time. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective to understand the regulation of inulin metabolism and the process that determines the chain length and inulin yield throughout the whole growing season. Metabolic aspects of inulin production and degradation in chicory were monitored in the field and under controlled conditions. The following characteristics were determined in taproots: concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose, the inulin mean polymer length (mDP), yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism. Inulin synthesis, catalyzed by sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100) (1-FFT), started at the onset of taproot development. Inulin yield as a function of time followed a sigmoid curve reaching a maximum in November. Inulin reached a maximum mDP of about 15 in September, than gradually decreased. Based on the changes observed in the pattern of inulin accumulation, we defined three different phases in the growing season and analyzed product formation, enzyme activity and gene expression in these defined periods. The results were validated by performing experiments under controlled conditions in climate rooms. Our results show that the decrease in 1-SST that starts in June is not regulated by day length and temperature. From mid-September onwards, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) decreased gradually although inulin yield still increased. The decrease in mDP combined with increased yield results from fructan exohydrolase activity, induced by low temperature, and the back transfer activity of 1-FFT. Overall, this study provides background information on how to improve

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism of Xylella fastidiosa: Detection of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and cloning and expression of the enolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facincani Agda Paula

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the functionality of the glycolytic pathways in the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. To this effect, the enzymes phosphoglucose isomerase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase of the glycolytic pathway, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were studied, followed by cloning and expression studies of the enolase gene and determination of its activity. These studies showed that X. fastidiosa does not use the glycolytic pathway to metabolize carbohydrates, which explains the increased duplication time of this phytopatogen. Recombinant enolase was expressed as inclusion bodies and solubilized with urea (most efficient extractor, Triton X-100, and TCA. Enolase extracted from X. fastidiosa and from chicken muscle and liver is irreversibly inactivated by urea. The purification of enolase was partial and resulted in a low yield. No enzymatic activity was detected for either recombinant and native enolases, aldolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that X. fastidiosa uses the Entner-Doudoroff pathway to produce pyruvate. Evidence is presented supporting the idea that the regulation of genes and the presence of isoforms with regulation patterns might make it difficult to understand the metabolism of carbohydrates in X. fastidiosa.

  1. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  2. Leaf Responses of Micropropagated Apple Plants to Water Stress: Changes in Endogenous Hormones and Their Influence on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian-hong; LI Shao-hua

    2007-01-01

    The changes in the concentrations of endogenous hormones and their influence on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of micropropagated Fuji apple plants were studied under water deficiency stress. The results showed that water stress induced a rapid increase in the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) and led to a decrease in concentrations of both zeatin and gibberellins (GAs). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) changed in an independent manner, which was not correlated with the different levels of water stress. With regard to the carbohydrates, the contents of sorbitol and sucrose increased, whereas the content of starch decreased. The increase in the concentration of ABA was significantly correlated with both the increase in the activity of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) and the decrease in the activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), indicating that ABA played a regulatory role in sorbitol metabolism. The concentration of ABA was positively correlated to the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) but negatively correlated to the activities of acid invertase (AI) and ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase (ADPGppase) in water-stressed plants, which indicated that ABA promoted sucrose synthesis and inhibited sucrose degradation and starch synthesis at the same time. Under conditions of water stress, the decrease in the level of zeatin was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of SDH and ADPGPPase. GAs concentration showed positive correlation with ADPGPPase activity. IAA showed no significant correlation with any of the enzymes tested in this study. The results of this study suggested that ABA might be one of the key factors regulating the distribution of carbohydrates under water stress. The metabolism of sorbitol and starch under conditions of water stress might be regulated by the combined action of many plant hormones.

  3. Metabolic responses to dietary protein/carbohydrate ratios in zebra sea bream (Diplodus cervinus, Lowe, 1838) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Filipe; Peres, Helena; Castro, Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Oliva-Teles, Aires; Enes, Paula

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of diets with different protein to carbohydrate ratios (P:C) on the omnivorous zebra sea bream (Diplodus cervinus) juveniles growth performance, feed efficiency, N excretion and metabolic response of intermediary metabolism enzymes. Four isoenergetic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain increasing protein levels (25, 35, 45 and 55%) at the expense of carbohydrates (43, 32, 21 and 9%): diets P25C43, P35C32, P45C21 and P55C9. Growth performance, feed efficiency (FE), N intake [(g kg(-1) average body weight (ABW) day(-1))], N retention (g kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) and energy retention (kJ kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) increased with the increase of P:C ratio. The best growth performance and FE were achieved with diet P45C21. Ammonia excretion (mg NH4–N kg(-1) ABW day(-1)) increased as dietary protein level increased. Alanine aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities increased with the increase of dietary P:C ratio. The opposite was observed for malic enzyme activity. Aspartate aminotransferase, hexokinase, glucokinase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and fatty acid synthetase activities were unaffected by dietary treatments. Response of key amino acid catabolic enzymes and N excretion levels to dietary P:C ratio supports the metabolic adaptability of this species to dietary protein inclusion levels. Overall, zebra sea bream seems capable of better utilize dietary protein rather than dietary carbohydrates as energy source which may be an obstacle for using more economically diets and thus for reducing environmental N loads in semi-intensive aquaculture of this species. PMID:26480835

  4. Effect of Low Dietary Zinc Intake and Experimental Diabetes on the Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KECHRID, Zine

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake and experimental diabetes (IDDM) on the zinc and carbohydrate metabolism, 8-week-old male wealing normal albino (Wistar) rats were fed diets containing either adequate (54mg/kg) or low zinc (1mg/kg) quantities for one week. Ten rats from each group (n=20) were then intraperitoneally injected with alloxan to induce diabetes. The rats were sacrificed after a further three weeks. Body weight gain and food intake were recorded regularly. On day...

  5. Effects of carbohydrate dose and frequency on metabolism, gastrointestinal discomfort, and cross-country skiing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B; Betts, J A; McGawley, K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated carbohydrate ingestion of varied doses and frequencies during a simulated cross-country skiing time trial. Ten men and three women (age: 30 ± 7 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 59.6 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) completed four, 30-km classic technique roller skiing time trials on a treadmill. A 1:1 maltodextrin-fructose carbohydrate solution was provided at high (2.4 g/min; HC) and moderate (1.2 g/min; MC) ingestion rates, each at high (six feeds; HF) and low (two feeds; LF) frequencies. In the LF trials, blood glucose was elevated following carbohydrate ingestion (at 4 and 19 km) but was reduced at 14 and 29 km compared with HF strategies (P ≤ 0.05). Gastrointestinal discomfort was higher in HC-LF compared with all other trials (P ≤ 0.05). Whole-body lipid oxidation was lower and carbohydrate oxidation was higher in LF compared with HF trials (P ≤ 0.05). While performance time was not significantly different between trials (140:11 ± 15:31, 140:43 ± 17:40, 139:12 ± 15:32 and 140:33 ± 17:46 min:s in HC-HF, HC-LF, MC-HF, and MC-LF, respectively; P > 0.05), it was improved with trial order (P  0.05). Altering carbohydrate dose or frequency does not affect cross-country ski performance. However, low-frequency carbohydrate ingestion resulted in poorer maintenance of euglycemia, reduced lipid oxidation, and increased gastrointestinal discomfort.

  6. Low and high dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy affect materno-fetal glucose metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C; Görs, Solvig; Lang, Iris S; Hammon, Harald M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Weitzel, Joachim M; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    Inadequate dietary protein during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation. Whether this is related to altered maternal and fetal glucose metabolism was examined in pregnant sows comparing a high-protein:low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 30% protein, 39% carbohydrates) with a moderately low-protein:high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 6.5% protein, 68% carbohydrates) and the isoenergetic standard diet (ST; 12.1% protein, 60% carbohydrates). During late pregnancy, maternal and umbilical glucose metabolism and fetal hepatic mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. During an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the LP-HC-fed sows had lower insulin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC), and higher glucose:insulin ratios than the ST- and the HP-LC-fed sows (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance were higher in the LP-HC sows compared with ST sows (P < 0.05). Glucagon concentrations during postabsorptive conditions and IVGTT, and glucose AUC during IVGTT, were higher in the HP-LC group compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). (13)C glucose oxidation was lower in the HP-LC sows than in the ST and LP-HC sows (P < 0.05). The HP-LC fetuses were lighter and had a higher brain:liver ratio than the ST group (P < 0.05). The umbilical arterial inositol concentration was greater in the HP-LC group (P < 0.05) and overall small fetuses (230-572 g) had higher values than medium and heavy fetuses (≥573 g) (P < 0.05). Placental lactate release was lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P < 0.05). Fetal glucose extraction tended to be lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P = 0.07). In the HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses, hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) was higher than in the ST fetuses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the HP-LC and LP-HC sows adapted by reducing glucose turnover and oxidation and having higher glucose utilization, respectively. The HP-LC and LP

  7. Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Disorders

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    T. V. Antonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze leptin and adiponectin serum levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with metabolic syndrome components, biochemical features and stage of hepatitis.Materials and methods: In 93 patients with chronic HCV in age 20-55 with a few symptomatic HCV-infection and minimal liver fibrosis stage serum leptin and adiponectin was measured. Associations between leptin, adiponectin and metabolic abnormalities, biochemical features, and hepatic fibrosis were determined.Results: Abdominal obesity was revealed at 40% patients, overweight – at 41%, insulin resistance – at 36,6% cases. The leptin and adiponectin levels were within normal limits range at most patients. Patients with minimal liver fibrosis had higher index of leptin by comparison to patients with moderate and severe fibrosis (r= – 0,402, р= 0,018. In patients with HCV genotype 3a the adiponectin level was below, than in HCV genotype 1b. Patients with abdominal obesity and overweight had higher leptin and lower adiponectin indexes by comparison to patients without these metabolic abnormalities. Direct cross-correlation between the leptin level and body mass index (r=0,358, p=0,001, waist circumference (r=0,292, p=0,01; negative cross-correlation between the adiponectin level and body mass index (r=- 0,435, р <0,021, waist circumference (r=- 0,386, р =0,001 were displayed.Conclusion: Leptin and adiponectin blood levels in HCVpatientis associated with abdominal obesity and overweight. The connection of leptin level and liver fibrosis stage was revealed. Difference of adiponectin level in HCV-patients with 3a and 1b genotypes of virus was found.

  8. Sugars, Stable Isotopes, and Spectrometry: New Methods for the Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural analysis of carbohydrates involves three parameters: composition, linkage, and conformation, and tends to rely on the various forms of two techniques; mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These techniques are enhanced and extended by the use of stable...

  9. Metabolic flux in carbohydrate biosynthesis. New methods using stable isotopes, mass spectrometry, and NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural analysis of carbohydrates involves three parameters: composition, linkage, and conformation, and tends to rely on the various forms of two techniques; mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These techniques are enhanced and extended by the use of stable...

  10. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  11. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.

  12. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1)...

  13. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in phosphoglucomutase type 1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni;

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoglucomutase type 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare metabolic myopathy in which symptoms are provoked by exercise.......Phosphoglucomutase type 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare metabolic myopathy in which symptoms are provoked by exercise....

  14. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ping JIANG; Fei CHENG; Yan-hong ZHOU; Xiao-jian XIA; Wei-hua MAO; Kai SHI; Zhi-xiang CHEN; Jing-quan YU

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops;however,the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood.Here,we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO2 assimilation,hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation,and leaf area in cucumber.H2O2 treatment induced increases in CO2 assimilation whilst inhibition of the H2O2 accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO2 assimilation.Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H2O2-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (ΦPSⅡ) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp).EBR and H2O2 both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO2 response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities.Moreover,EBR and H2O2 increased contents of total soluble sugar,sucrose,hexose,and starch,followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase,sucrose synthase,and invertase.Interestingly,expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H2O2.However,the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H2O2 generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment.All of these results indicate that H2O2 functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants.Our study confirms that H2O2 mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H2O2 regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.

  15. Effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio on carbohydrate metabolism and light energy dissipation mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Lu, Yu; Yamaguchi, Junji; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) nutrient sources are essential elements for metabolism, and their availability must be tightly coordinated for the optimal growth and development in plants. Plants are able to sense and respond to different C/N conditions via specific partitioning of C and N sources and the regulation of a complex cellular metabolic activity. We studied how the interaction between C and N signaling could affect carbohydrate metabolism, soluble sugar levels, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and the ability to drive the excess energy in Arabidopsis seedlings under moderated and disrupted C/N-nutrient conditions. Invertase and sucrose synthase activities were markedly affected by C/N-nutrient status depending on the phosphorylation status, suggesting that these enzymes may necessarily be modulated by their direct phosphorylation or phosphorylation of proteins that form complex with them in response to C/N stress. In addition, the enzymatic activity of these enzymes was also correlated with the amount of sugars, which not only act as substrate but also as signaling compounds. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in plants under disrupted C/N condition suggested a reduction of electron transport rate at PSII level associated with a higher capacity for non-radiative energy dissipation in comparison with plants under moderated C/N condition. In conclusion, the tight coordination between C and N not only affects the carbohydrates metabolism and their concentration within plant tissues, but also the partitioning of the excitation energy at PSII level between radiative (electron transport) and non-radiative (heat) dissipation pathways. PMID:27108206

  16. . Effect of the venous outflow ways from pancreatic transplant on carbohydrate metabolism after autotransplantation of pancreas in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskanyan S.E..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims: to compare the state of carbohydrate metabolism in animals after pancreatectomy with autotransplantation of the pancreatic segment and with organization of the venous outflow in the inferior vena or portal vein. Material and methods. Proximal resection of the pancreas (group 1, pancreatectomy with autologous transplantation of the pancreas and with reconstruction of the venous outflow from the transplant into the inferior vena cava (group 2 and pancreatectomy with autologous transplantation of the pancreas and with reconstruction of the venous outflow from the transplant into the portal vein (group 3 were performed in 45 animals in the experiment. Examining the status of carbohydrate metabolism was performed by intravenous test for glucose tolerance. Results. Primary higher increase in glucose concentrations as compared to the values obtained at the intact animals and its slower decrease have been observed in animals after pancreatectomy with autotransplantation of the segment of the pancreas on iliac vessels (group 2, as well as on the mesenteric vessels (group 3. Higher blood glucose compared to animals subjected proximal pancreatectomy after 40 minutes after administration of glucose was detected in animals undergoing autotransplantation of the pancreas on iliac vessels (group 2 and in animals after autotransplantation of the pancreas on mesenteric vessels (group 3— 11.82 (11,39-12,26 mmol/l and 10.65 (10,03-11,32 mmol/l, respectively. The glucose concentration in the blood plasma was lower in the animals of groups 2 and 3 below in comparison with the animals in group 1 to 120 minutes of the experiment. Significant differences in plasma glucose concentration between animals of groups 2 and 3 were not found. Conclusion. Significant effects of the ways of organization of the venous outflow from pancreatic transplant on the concentration of the glucose in the blood plasma by the carbohydrate load after pancreatectomy with

  17. Investigation of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Transport in Castor Bean Seedlings by Cyclic JCross Polarization Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, M.; Köckenberger, W.; Kimmich, R.; Chandrakumar, N.; Bowtell, R.

    1998-05-01

    NMR experiments using13C-labeled compounds offer the possibility of noninvasive monitoring of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in living plants, but are usually hampered by the low sensitivity of the13C nucleus. The problem of low sensitivity can be overcome by using the cyclicJcross polarization (CYCLCROP) technique, which allows the indirect detection of13C nuclei coupled to1H nuclei with the high NMR sensitivity of protons. We report here on methods for imaging and spectroscopy based on the CYCLCROP technique, and their use in the firstin vivoNMR study of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in castor bean seedlings (Ricinus communis L.). Comprehensive acquisition strategies for the various NMR methods are given, including the procedure for setting up the experiments. In addition, a full analysis of the effect of relaxation on the signals generated from smallJ-coupled spin systems by the CYCLCROP sequence is given, and the high sensitivity of the sequence is demonstrated. In thein vivostudy of six-day-old castor bean seedlings, we were able to measure the uptake of labeled hexoses, supplied in solution to the cotyledons, and their conversion to sucrose, as well as the transport of this sucrose in the vascular bundles. Images of the actual distribution of labeled sucrose in the hypocotyl of the seedling have also been obtained. The resulting data show some evidence for a preferential incorporation of labeled fructose in the process of sucrose synthesis, which decreases with the time of incubation.

  18. The effects of handling and anesthetic agents on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism in northern elephant seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D Champagne

    Full Text Available Free-ranging animals often cope with fluctuating environmental conditions such as weather, food availability, predation risk, the requirements of breeding, and the influence of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, researchers are increasingly measuring stress markers, especially glucocorticoids, to understand stress, disturbance, and population health. Studying free-ranging animals, however, comes with numerous difficulties posed by environmental conditions and the particular characteristics of study species. Performing measurements under either physical restraint or chemical sedation may affect the physiological variable under investigation and lead to values that may not reflect the standard functional state of the animal. This study measured the stress response resulting from different handling conditions in northern elephant seals and any ensuing influences on carbohydrate metabolism. Endogenous glucose production (EGP was measured using [6-(3H]glucose and plasma cortisol concentration was measured from blood samples drawn during three-hour measurement intervals. These measurements were conducted in weanlings and yearlings with and without the use of chemical sedatives--under chemical sedation, physical restraint, or unrestrained. We compared these findings with measurements in adult seals sedated in the field. The method of handling had a significant influence on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism. Physically restrained weanlings and yearlings transported to the lab had increased concentrations of circulating cortisol (F(11, 46 = 25.2, p<0.01 and epinephrine (F(3, 12 = 5.8, p = 0.01. Physical restraint led to increased EGP (t = 3.1, p = 0.04 and elevated plasma glucose levels (t = 8.2, p<0.01. Animals chemically sedated in the field typically did not exhibit a cortisol stress response. The combination of anesthetic agents (Telazol, ketamine, and diazepam used in this study appeared to alleviate a

  19. Effect Of Oleanolic Acid Isolated From Garlic Leaves On Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes, In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meshram; S. S. Khamkar

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial hyperglycemia can be controlled by retarding the absorption of glucose through inhibition of the two main enzymes, α-amylase and glucoamylase. This action delays carbohydrate digestion causing reduction in the rate of glucose absorption and degradation of glycogen during starvation. Allium sativum (Garlic) is a medicinal plant used worldwide for flavoring as well as medicinal purpose. However, chemical examination and biological activity of compounds present in the leaves are le...

  20. Deep insights into carbohydrate metabolism in the rumen of Mehsani buffalo at different diet treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi R. Parmar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants are known to harbour a vast and diverse microbial community that functions in utilizing the fibrous and starchy feedstuffs. The microbial fermentation of fibrous and starchy feed is carried out by different groups of microbiota, which function in synergistic mechanism. The exploration of the shift in carbohydrate utilizing microbial community with the change in diet will reveal the efficient role of that group of microbial community in particular carbohydrate utilization. The present study explains the shifts in microbial enzymes for carbohydrate utilization with the change in the feed proportions and its correlation with the microbial community abundance at that particular treatment. The sequencing data of the present study is submitted to NCBI SRA with experiment accession IDs (ERX162128, ERX162129, ERX162130, ERX162131, ERX162139, ERX162134, ERX162140, ERX162141, ERX197218, ERX197219, ERX197220, ERX197221, ERX162158, ERX162159, ERX162160, ERX162161, ERX162176, ERX162164, ERX162165, ERX162166, ERX162167, ERX162168, ERX162169, ERX162177.

  1. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY.

  2. Hormonal imbalance and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism associated with chronic feeding of high sucrose low magnesium diet in weanling male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenakshi; Mehra, Pranav; Bansal, Devi Dayal

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to determine chronic effect of high sucrose low magnesium (HSLM) diet in weanling rats on plasma thyroid profile, catecholamines and activities of key hepatic glycolytic, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Compared to control diet fed group, significantly elevated levels of plasma triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and activity of hepatic glycolytic (hexokinase and glucokinase), and gluconeogenic (glucose-6-phosphatase) enzymes were observed in high sucrose and low magnesium fed groups. However, HSLM diet had an additive effect on all these three parameters. The study thus, assumes significance as it shows that hormonal imbalance and disorders in carbohydrate metabolism at an early stage of development can be due to dietary modification or due to deficiency of key element magnesium.

  3. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock.

  4. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock. PMID:25579659

  5. Determination of cellular carbohydrates in peanut fungal pathogens and baker's yeast by capillary electrophoresis and electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Melouk, H A; Chenault, K; El Rassi, Z

    2001-11-01

    In this work, the quantitation of cellular carbohydrates, namely chitin and glucan, in peanut fungal pathogens and baker's yeast was carried out by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The chitin and glucan of the fungi were hydrolyzed by the enzymes chitinase and glucanase, respectively, to their corresponding sugar monomers N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucose (Glc). These two monosaccharides were then tagged with 6-aminoquinoline (6-AQ) to allow their separation and detection in CE and CEC. The 6-AQ derivatives of GlcNAc and Glc formed the basis for the determination by CE and CEC of chitin and glucan in peanut fungi and baker's yeast. Several parameters affecting the separation of the 6-AQ derivatives of GlcNAc and Glc, including the separation voltage and the composition of the running electrolyte, were investigated. Under the optimized separation conditions, the contents of cellular carbohydrates including N-acetylglucosamine, chitin, glucose, and glucan in some fungi, such as Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii, and baker's yeast, were successfully determined. The method described here allowed the assessment of genetic differences in Sclerotium rolfsii isolates from various locations. PMID:11714314

  6. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  7. Role of ghrelin and leptin in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Part II. Leptin 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Otto-Buczkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is produced by mature adipocytes. Its amount correlates positively with the mass of the adipose tissue. Leptin plays a crucial role in maintaining body weight and glucose homeostasis. It is transported through the blood-brain barrier to the central nervous system, where it activates the autonomic nervous system, causing the feeling of satiety and inhibiting appetite. It also acts through central and peripheral pathways, including the regulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic  cells. Leptin may also directly affect the metabolism and function of peripheral tissues. It has been found to play a role in peripheral insulin resistance by attenuating insulin action, and perhaps also insulin signaling, in various insulin-responsive cell types.Recent data provide convincing evidence that leptin has a beneficial influence on glucose homeostasis. Studies suggest that leptin could be used as an adjunct of insulin therapy in insulin-deficient diabetes, thereby providing an insight into the therapeutic implications of leptin as an anti-diabetic agent. Extensive research will be needed to determine long-term safety and efficacy of such a therapy. 

  8. Effects of Teucrium polium spp. capitatum flavonoids on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefkov, Gjoshe; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Miova, Biljana;

    2011-01-01

    Context: The main objective of the study was to investigate the biochemical mechanism of the antidiabetic activities of the dry extracts of Teucrium polium L. ssp. capitatum (L.) Arcangeli (Lamiaceae), from Republic of Macedonia, traditionally used to treat diabetes. Materials and methods: Aerial...... parts of the plant were extracted in alcohol and freeze- or spray-dried, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and examined for insulinotropic effect in INS-1E cells in vitro. Their effect on blood glucose, lipids and carbohydrate-related enzymes was tested in normo...

  9. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in culture media of Clostridium thermocellum by valve-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ji, Chengshuai; Cui, He; Zhu, Xinshu; Du, Juan; Gao, Jun

    2013-10-10

    An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, flow rate, concentration, and valve-switch timing were optimized. The method is time-saving, effective, and accurate for the simultaneous separation of amino acids and carbohydrates, with a mean correlation coefficient of >0.99 and repeatability of 0.5-4.6% for eight replicates. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in aseptic media and in extracellular culture media of three phenotypes of Clostridium thermocellum.

  10. [Determination of individual purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate-rich food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassek, E; Montag, A

    1987-05-01

    The following method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of purine and pyrimidine bases in carbohydrate rich food: The bases were liberated from nucleic acids, nucleotides or nucleosides by acid hydrolysis in a pressure digestion vessel. A complete liberation without losses of purine bases occurs upon hydrolysis for 15 min at 240 degrees C with trifluoroacetic and formic acids (1+1; V + V), pyrimidine bases need 45 min at 240 degrees C. The products arising from side reactions (such as hydroxymethylfurfural from hexoses and furfural from pentoses) could be removed from the hydrolysate by extraction with dichlormethane. The liberated bases could be separated upon stepwise elution by cation exchange chromatography. They were detected and determined by UV-measurements, continuously monitoring at lambda = 260 nm, and integrating electronically. The evaluation was carried out by a method with internal standard. PMID:3604458

  11. 水生龟鳖类糖代谢的研究进展%Research Advances in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Aquatic Turtles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 杨振才

    2013-01-01

    水生龟鳖类是一种以摄食动物性蛋白质饲料为主的爬行动物,对糖的利用能力不高.本文综述了水生龟鳖类对糖的利用能力、糖代谢模式及调控机制的研究现状,并结合哺乳动物和鱼类的糖代谢机制比较其中的联系与区别,提出水生龟鳖类糖代谢研究中存在的问题及今后的研究方向.%Aquatic turtles are a kind of reptile mainly ingesting the animal protein feed, and they have a low a-bility in utilization of carbohydrate. This review summarizes the recent advances about utilization ability of carbohydrate , carbohydrate metabolism model and regulation mechanism for aquatic turtles, and compares the relation and difference of mammals and fish with turtles in the carbohydrate metabolism mechanism in order to put forward the questions and directions of the carbohydrate metabolism study in aquatic turtles.

  12. Melatonin regulates carbohydrate metabolism and defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Xu, Lingfei; Su, Tao; Jiang, Yang; Hu, Lingyu; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin has been reported to promote plant growth and development. Our experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana showed that exogenous applications of this molecule mediated invertase inhibitor (C/VIF)-regulated invertase activity and enhanced sucrose metabolism. Hexoses were accumulated in response to elevated activities by cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI). Analyses of sugar metabolism-related genes revealed differential expression during plant development that was modulated by melatonin. In particular, C/VIF1 and C/VIF2 were strongly down-regulated by exogenous feeding. We also found the elevated CWI activity in melatonin-treated Arabidopsis improved the factors (cellulose, xylose, and galactose) for cell wall reinforcement and callose deposition during Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection, therefore, partially induced the pathogen resistance. However, CWI did not involve in salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defense pathway. Taken together, this study reveals that melatonin plays an important role in invertase-related carbohydrate metabolism, plant growth, and pathogen defense. PMID:25958775

  13. Effects of clomazone herbicide on hematological and some parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Márcia; Menezes, Charlene; Glusczak, Lissandra; Dos Santos Miron, Denise; Lazzari, Rafael; Duarte, Marta F; Morsch, Vera Maria; Pippi, Amy Lee; Vieira, Vânia Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    The effects of clomazone (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) according to nominal concentrations used in paddy rice fields (0.4-0.7 mg/L) on protein and carbohydrate metabolism and haematological parameters were evaluated in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h of exposure with a recovery period of 96 and 192 h. Liver glycogen increased significantly (Pclomazone concentrations (Pclomazone exposure (22-67%), but reduced in the liver (PClomazone concentrations used in this study appear safe to fish, Rhamdia quelen, because overall parameters can be recovered after 96 and 192 h in clean water. ALT and AST activity may be an early biomarker of clomazone toxicity.

  14. Attenuation of Helicteres isora L. bark extracts on streptozotocin-induced alterations in glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Sharmila Banu, G; Murugesan, A G

    2009-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of Helicteres isora L. on four important enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (glucokinase [GK], hexokinase [HK] phosphofructokinase [PFK] and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase [FBP]) along with glycogen content of insulin-dependent (skeletal muscle and liver) and insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) in streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg)-induced model of diabetes for 30 days. Administration of bark extracts (100, 200 mg/kg) for 30 days led to decrease in plasma glucose levels by approximately 9.60% and 22.04% and 19.18% and 33.93% on 15th and 30th day, respectively, of the experiment. Liver and two-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight significantly increased in diabetics (P bark extract of H. isora partially corrected this alteration. The efficacy of the bark extract was comparable with Tolbutamide, a well-known hypoglycemic drug.

  15. Alcoholic Stem Extract of Coscinium fenestratum Regulates Carbohydrate Metabolism and Improves Antioxidant Status in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Punitha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic extract of the stems of Coscinium fenestratum, a medicinal plant indigenous to India and Sri Lanka used in ayurveda and siddha medicine for treating diabetes, was studied for its carbohydrate metabolism effect and antioxidant status in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. fenestratum stem extract in graded doses caused a significant increase in enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione synthetase, peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase and in the nonenzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, ceruloplasmin and tocopherol. Effects of alcoholic extract on glycolytic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and hexokinase showed a significant increase in their levels, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the levels of gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase in treated diabetic rats. Serum creatinine and urea levels also declined significantly. This investigation demonstrates significant antidiabetic activity of C. fenestratum.

  16. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    the impact of slightly elevated temperatures (+0.76 8C in the air, +1.35 8C in the soil) during the non-growing season (October–April) on freezing tolerance, carbohydrate metabolism, dormancy release, spring phenology and reproductive output in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars to understand how......, corroborating the hypothesis that a decline in winter chill may decrease reproductive effort in blackcurrant. Elevated winter temperatures tended to decrease stem freezing tolerance during cold acclimation and deacclimation, but it did not increase the risk of freeze-induced damage mid-winter. Plants...... decreased sucrose levels account for any changes in freezing tolerance. Our results demonstrate that even a slight increase in winter temperature may alter phenological traits in blackcurrant, but to various extents depending on genotypespecific differences in chilling requirement....

  17. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  18. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus. PMID:26547672

  19. Carbohydrate oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction, a novel form of anaerobic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, J D; Councell, T; Ellis, D J; Lovley, D R

    1998-12-01

    An isolate, designated GC-29, that could incompletely oxidize glucose to acetate and carbon dioxide with Fe(III) serving as the electron acceptor was recovered from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. This metabolism yielded energy to support cell growth. Strain GC-29 is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative motile rod which, in addition to glucose, also used sucrose, lactate, pyruvate, yeast extract, casamino acids or H2 as alternative electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. Stain GC-29 could reduce NO3(-), Mn(IV), U(VI), fumarate, malate, S2O3(2-), and colloidal S0 as well as the humics analog, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate. Analysis of the almost complete 16S rRNA sequence indicated that strain GC-29 belongs in the Shewanella genus in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The name Shewanella saccharophilia is proposed. Shewanella saccharophilia differs from previously described fermentative microorganisms that metabolize glucose with the reduction of Fe(III) because it transfers significantly more electron equivalents to Fe(III); acetate and carbon dioxide are the only products of glucose metabolism; energy is conserved from Fe(III) reduction; and glucose is not metabolized in the absence of Fe(III). The metabolism of organisms like S. saccharophilia may account for the fact that glucose is metabolized primarily to acetate and carbon dioxide in a variety of sediments in which Fe(III) reduction is the terminal electron accepting process. PMID:16887653

  20. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source...

  1. Additional Heparin Preadministration Improves Cardiac Glucose Metabolism Suppression over Low-Carbohydrate Diet Alone in ¹⁸F-FDG PET Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Asbjørn M; Verberne, Hein J; Budde, Ricardo P J; Lam, Marnix G E H

    2016-01-01

    Adequate suppression of cardiac glucose metabolism increases the interpretability and diagnostic reliability of (18)F-FDG PET studies performed to detect cardiac inflammation and infection. There are no standardized guidelines, though prolonged fasting (>6 h), carbohydrate-restricted diets, fatty me

  2. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Influence of Waterlogging on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Ragi and Rice Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni, S. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different durations of waterlogging (4, 8 and 12 days stress on carbohydrate status and activities of some related enzymes in ragi and rice roots was studied. In both ragi and rice roots there was decrease in starch and total sugar content in response to waterlogging conditions. Activity of α amylase was decrease in ragi roots while opposite trend was noticed in case of rice roots. The activity of pyruvate kinase was markedly increased due to 4, 8 and 12 days waterlogging in ragi roots while such increase was noticed in rice roots due to 12 days stress. Treatment of waterlogging caused enhancement in the activity of alkaline inorganic pyrophosphatase in the roots of both ragi and rice.

  4. Teaching Arrangements of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Biochemistry Curriculum in Peking University Health Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Ni, Ju-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry occupies a unique place in the medical school curricula, but the teaching of biochemistry presents certain challenges. One of these challenges is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach…

  5. The Metabolic Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Incorporation into a Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozelski, Wendy; Arpaia, Nicholas; Priore, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenges in teaching biochemistry is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach in an engaging manner. We have found it useful to take advantage of prevailing interest in popular yet…

  6. Potato tuber expression of Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 increase triacylglycerol and membrane lipids while affecting central carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvander, Per; Ischebeck, Till; Turesson, Helle; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Feussner, Ivo; Carlsson, Anders S; Andersson, Mariette

    2016-09-01

    Tuber and root crops virtually exclusively accumulate storage products in the form of carbohydrates. An exception is yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in which tubers have the capacity to store starch and triacylglycerols (TAG) in roughly equal amounts. This suggests that a tuber crop can efficiently handle accumulation of energy dense oil. From a nutritional as well as economic aspect, it would be of interest to utilize the high yield capacity of tuber or root crops for oil accumulation similar to yellow nutsedge. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which in seed embryos induce fatty acid synthesis, has been shown to be a major factor for oil accumulation. WRINKLED1 was expressed in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers to explore whether this factor could impact tuber metabolism. This study shows that a WRINKLED1 transcription factor could induce triacylglycerol accumulation in tubers of transformed potato plants grown in field (up to 12 nmol TAG/mg dry weight, 1% of dry weight) together with a large increase in polar membrane lipids. The changes in metabolism further affected starch accumulation and composition concomitant with massive increases in sugar content. PMID:26914183

  7. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

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    Qianhe eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve carbohydrates requires a substantial change in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we tested the hypothesis that gibberellins (GA are at the core of the processes regulating the expression of these genes. Thus, we examined the transcript profiles of genes involved in carbohydrate and GA metabolic pathways across a time course regrowth experiment. Our results show that following defoliation, the immediate reduction of carbohydrate concentrations in growing tissues is associated with a concomitant increase in the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate mobilising invertases, and was also associated with a strong decrease in the expression of fructan synthesising fructosyltransferase genes. We also show that the decrease in fructan levels is preceded by increased expression of the GA activating gene GA3-oxidase and decreased expression of the GA inactivating gene GA2-oxidase in sheaths. GA3-oxidase expression was negatively, while GA2-oxidase positively linked to sucrose concentrations. This study provides indicative evidence that gibberellins might play a role in L. perenne regrowth following defoliation and we hypothesise that there is a link between gibberellin regulation and sugar metabolism in L. perenne.

  8. [Responses of non-structural carbohydrate metabolism of cucumber seedlings to drought stress and doubled CO2 concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-hong; Liu, Bin-bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Xue-na; Ai, Xi-zhen; Li, Qing-ming

    2015-01-01

    The effects of doubled CO2 concentration on non-structural carbohydrate metabolism of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. 'Jinyou No.1') seedlings under drought stress were investigated. Split plot design was deployed, with two levels of CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 concentration, 380 µmol . mol-1, and doubled CO2 concentration, 760±20 µmol . mol-1) in the main plots, and three levels of water treatments (control, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress) simulated by PEG 6000 in the split-plots. The results showed that non-structural carbohydrates of cucumber leaves, including glucose, fructose, sucrose, and stachyose, increased with the doubling of CO2 concentration, which resulted in the decreased osmotic potential, improving the drought stress in cucumber seedlings. During the drought stress, sucrose synthase, soluble acid invertase and al- kaline invertase started with an increase, and followed with a decline in the leaves. In the root system, however, soluble acid invertase and alkaline invertase increased gradually throughout the whole process, whereas sucrose phosphate synthase firstly increased and then decreased. The treatment of doubled CO2 enhanced the activity of sucrose synthase, but decreased the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase. The synergistic action of the two enzymes and invertase accelerated the decomposition of sucrose and inhibited the synthesis of sucrose, leading to the accumulation of hexose, which lowered the cellular osmotic potential and enhanced the water uptake capacity. In conclusion, doubled CO2 concentration could alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress and improve the drought tolerance of cucumber seedlings. Such mitigating effect on cucumber was more significant under severe drought stress. PMID:25985653

  9. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol.

    OpenAIRE

    Riquelme, P T; Wernette-Hammond, M E; Kneer, N M; Lardy, H A

    1983-01-01

    In hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats, 2,5-anhydromannitol inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate and from substrates that enter the gluconeogenic pathway as triose phosphate. This fructose analog has no effect, however, on gluconeogenesis from xylitol, a substrate that enters the pathway primarily as fructose 6-phosphate. The sensitivity of gluconeogenesis to 2,5-anhydromannitol depends on the substrate metabolized; concentrations of 2,5-anhydromannitol required for 50% inhib...

  10. Transcript profiling of Paoenia ostii during artificial chilling induced dormancy release identifies activation of GA pathway and carbohydrate metabolism.

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    Shupeng Gai

    Full Text Available Endo-dormant flower buds must pass through a period of chilling to reinitiate growth and subsequent flowering, which is a major obstacle to the forcing culture of tree peony in winter. Customized cDNA microarray (8×15 K element was used to investigate gene expression profiling in tree peony 'Feng Dan Bai' buds during 24 d chilling treatment at 0-4°C. According to the morphological changes after the whole plants were transferred to green house, endo-dormancy was released after 18 d chilling treatment, and prolonged chilling treatment increased bud break rate. Pearson correlation hierarchical clustering of sample groups was highly consistent with the dormancy transitions revealed by morphological changes. Totally 3,174 significantly differentially-expressed genes (P<0.05 were observed through endo-dormancy release process, of which the number of up-regulated (1,611 and that of down-regulated (1,563 was almost the same. Functional annotation of differentially-expressed genes revealed that cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, regulation of biological process and development process were well-represented. Hierarchical clustering indicated that activation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis, Citrate cycle and Pentose phosphate pathway, energy metabolism and cell growth. Based on the results of GO analysis, totally 51 probes presented in the microarray were associated with GA response and GA signaling pathway, and 22 of them were differently expressed. The expression profiles also revealed that the genes of GA biosynthesis, signaling and response involved in endo-dormancy release. We hypothesized that activation of GA pathway played a central role in the regulation of dormancy release in tree peony.

  11. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  12. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  13. Effects of modulation of glycerol kinase expression on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in human muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Eulàlia; Lerín, Carlos; Newgard, Christopher B; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2002-01-25

    Glycerol is taken up by human muscle in vivo and incorporated into lipids, but little is known about regulation of glycerol metabolism in this tissue. In this study, we have analyzed the role of glycerol kinase (GlK) in the regulation of glycerol metabolism in primary cultured human muscle cells. Isolated human muscle cells exhibited lower GlK activity than fresh muscle explants, but the activity in cultured cells was increased by exposure to insulin. [U-(14)C]Glycerol was incorporated into cellular phospholipids and triacylglycerides (TAGs), but little or no increase in TAG content or lactate release was observed in response to changes in the medium glycerol concentration. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of the Escherichia coli GlK gene (AdCMV-GlK) into muscle cells caused a 30-fold increase in GlK activity, which was associated with a marked rise in the labeling of phospholipid or TAG from [U-(14)C]glycerol compared with controls. Moreover, GlK overexpression caused [U-(14)C]glycerol to be incorporated into glycogen, which was dependent on the activation of glycogen synthase. Co-incubation of AdCMV-GlK-treated muscle cells with glycerol and oleate resulted in a large accumulation of TAG and an increase in lactate production. We conclude that GlK is the limiting step in muscle cell glycerol metabolism. Glycerol 3-phosphate is readily used for TAG synthesis but can also be diverted to form glycolytic intermediates that are in turn converted to glycogen or lactate. Given the high levels of glycerol in muscle interstitial fluid, these finding suggest that changes in GlK activity in muscle can exert important influences on fuel deposition in this tissue. PMID:11714702

  14. Influence of glycorazmulin on the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in alloxane diabetes

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    Ziyoda Fayzieva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There was studied effect of glycorazmulin on the morphological structure of the liver and pancreatic gland under the conditions of alloxane diabetes. The study found that that glycorazmulin eliminates pathomorphological changes that occur in alloxane diabetes in the liver and pancreatic gland, and stimulates reparative processes in these organs. The effect of this preparation is mainly directed to stimulation of the regeneration of β-cells. The elimination of histostructural changes resulted in compensation of the damaged metabolic processes in diabetes mellitus. Besides, marked increase in C-peptide in the blood is the confirmation of the insulin secretion stimulation under the effect of this preparation.

  15. The role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including α-mannosidase, #betta#-N-acetylglucosaminidase, #betta#-galactosidase and α-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of 125I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA. (Author)

  16. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  17. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed.

  18. Prolonged postdiapause: influence on some indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowska, Kamila; Giejdasz, Karol; Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Zółtowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Bees of the genus Osmia are being used in crop pollination at an increasing rate. However, a short life expectancy of adult individuals limits the feasibility of their use. Cocoons of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), can be stored at 4° C in a postdiapause state, and adult bees can be used for pollination outside their natural flight period. The period of storage in this form has an unfavorable influence on the survival rate, life expectancy, and fertility of the bee. It was suggested that the negative results are connected with exhaustion of energy reserves. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the contents of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and the activities of some enzymes, and their degradation in red mason bees that emerged in spring according to their biological clock and in summer after elongated diapause. It was found that postdiapause artificially elongated by 3 months caused significant decreases in body weight, total sugar, glycogen, lipids, and protein content in O. rufa. Glucose level was highest in bees that emerged in the summer, which was coincident with increased activities of maltase and trehalase. The activities of sucrase and cellobiase were not changed, while amylase activity was considerably decreased. The activities of triacylglycerols lipase and C2, C4, C10 carboxylesterases were highest in bees that emerged in July. Low temperatures restrict O. rufa emergence, and during prolonged postdiapause, metabolic processes lead to significant reductions of structural and energetic compounds. PMID:24219557

  19. Yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatotoxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora function: A rat urine metabonomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Yefei; Tao, Weiwei; Liu, Pei

    2016-07-15

    This research was designed to study metabonomic characteristics of the toxicity induced by yuanhuapine, a major bioactive diterpenoid in a well-known traditional Chinese medicine-Genkwa Flos. General observation, blood biochemistry and histopathological examination were used to reflect yuanhuapine-induced toxicity. Urine samples from rats in control and yuanhuapine treated rats were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Pattern recognition methods including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), orthogonal partial least-squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and computational system analysis were integrated to obtain comprehensive metabonomic profiling and pathways of the biological data sets. The results suggested that yuanhuapine could induce intestinal and liver damage. And 14 endogenous metabolites as biomarkers related to the amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora were significantly changed in the urine of yuanhuapine treated rats, which were firstly constructed the metabolomic feature profiling and metabolite interaction network of yuanhuapine-induced injury using pattern recognition methods and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) approach. The present study showed that yuanhuapine-induced intestinal and hepatic toxicity were correlated with disturbance of amino acids metabolism, lipids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and gut microflora. PMID:26341729

  20. INFLUENCE OF NEUROTIC AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS ON FORMATION OF PREDICTORS OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Garganeyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors which influence the development and prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in 132 patients with neurotic and affective disorders are presented. The significance of predictors of IHD formation was evaluated with method of logistic regression. According to results of stepwise procedure the total score of prediction of IHD in male group was 93.7%. The influence of mental factors on disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which lead to persistent rise of level of blood glucose, lipid spectrum indices imbalance, promoting the progression of cardiovascular risk in IHD patients with anxiety, depressive, asthenic and other non-psychotic mental disorders, was ascertained.

  1. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa

  2. Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wiszniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and methods The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.

  3. Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.

  4. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... goal is not to limit carbohydrates in the diet completely, but to make ... with diabetes can better control their blood sugar if they ...

  5. The improvement of large High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particle levels, and presumably HDL metabolism, depend on effects of low-carbohydrate diet and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, C.; Crispino, P.; Gioia, S.; La Sala, N.; D'amico, L.; La Grotta, M.; Miro, O.; Colarusso, D.

    2016-01-01

    Depressed levels of atheroprotective large HDL particles are common in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increases in large HDL particles are favourably associated with reduced CVD event risk and coronary plaque burden. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets and weight loss for increasing blood levels of large HDL particles at 1 year. This study was performed by screening for body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome in 160 consecutive subjects referred to our out-patient Metabolic Unit in South Italy. We administered dietary advice to four small groups rather than individually. A single team comprised of a dietitian and physician administered diet-specific advice to each group. Large HDL particles at baseline and 1 year were measured using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Dietary intake was assessed via 3-day diet records. Although 1-year weight loss did not differ between diet groups (mean 4.4 %), increases in large HDL particles paralleled the degree of carbohydrate restriction across the four diets (p<0.001 for trend). Regression analysis indicated that magnitude of carbohydrate restriction (percentage of calories as carbohydrate at 1 year) and weight loss were each independent predictors of 1-year increases in large HDL concentration. Changes in HDL cholesterol concentration were modestly correlated with changes in large HDL particle concentration (r=0.47, p=.001). In conclusion, reduction of excess dietary carbohydrate and body weight improved large HDL levels. Comparison trials with cardiovascular outcomes are needed to more fully evaluate these findings. PMID:27103896

  6. Dietary glucose stimulus at larval stage modifies the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: An in vivo approach using (14)C-starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane; Engrola, Sofia

    2016-11-01

    The concept of nutritional programming was investigated in order to enhance the use of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead seabream juveniles. We assessed the long-term effects of high-glucose stimuli, exerted at the larval stage, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolic utilization and gene expression of seabream juveniles, challenged with a high-carbohydrate intake. During early development, a group of larvae (control, CTRL) were kept under a rich-protein-lipid feeding regime whereas another group (GLU) was subjected to high-glucose stimuli, delivered intermittently over time. At juvenile stage, triplicate groups (IBW: 2.5g) from each fish nutritional background were fed a high-protein (59.4%) low-carbohydrate (2.0%) diet before being subjected to a low-protein (43.0%) high-carbohydrate (33.0%) dietary challenge for 36-days. Fish from both treatments increased by 8-fold their initial body weight, but neither growth rate, feed intake, feed and protein efficiency, nutrient retention (except lipids) nor whole-body composition were affected (P˃0.05) by fish early nutritional history. Nutrient digestibility was also similar among both groups. The metabolic fate of (14)C-starch and (14)C-amino acids tracers was estimated; GLU juveniles showed higher absorption of starch-derived glucose in the gut, suggesting an enhanced digestion of carbohydrates, while amino acid use was not affected. Moreover, glucose was less used for de novo synthesis of hepatic proteins and muscle glycogen from GLU fish (Pjuveniles.

  7. Continuous light increases growth, daily carbon gain, antioxidants, and alters carbohydrate metabolism in a cultivated and a wild tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad S; Kjaer, Katrine H; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated tomato species develop leaf injury while grown in continuous light (CL). Growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidative enzyme activities of a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Aromata') and a wild tomato species (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) were compared in this study aiming to analyze the species-specific differences and thermoperiod effects in responses to CL. The species were subjected to three photoperiodic treatments for 12 days in climate chambers: 16-h photoperiod with a light/dark temperature of 26/16°C (P16D10 or control); CL with a constant temperature of 23°C (P24D0); CL with a variable temperature of 26/16°C (P24D10). The results showed that both species grown in CL had higher dry matter production due to the continuous photosynthesis and a subsequent increase in carbon gain. In S. lycopersicum, the rate of photosynthesis and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II declined in CL with the development of leaf chlorosis, reduction in the leaf chlorophyll content and a higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. The normal diurnal patterns of starch and sugar were only present under control conditions. The results demonstrated that CL conditions mainly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of a cultivated species (S. lycopersicum), and to a less degree to the wild species (S. pimpinellifolium). The negative effects of the CL could be alleviated by diurnal temperature variations, but the physiological mechanisms behind these are less clear. The results also show that the genetic potential for reducing the negative effects of CL does exist in the tomato germplasm. PMID:26217371

  8. Continuous light increases growth, daily carbon gain, antioxidants and alters carbohydrate metabolism in a cultivated and a wild tomato species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sabibul Haque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated tomato species develop leaf injury while grown in continuous light (CL. Growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidative enzyme activities of a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Aromata’ and a wild tomato species (Solanum pimpinellifolium L. were compared in this study aiming to analyse the species-specific differences and thermoperiod effects in responses to CL. The species were subjected to three photoperiodic treatments for 12 days in climate chambers: 16-h photoperiod with a light/dark temperature of 26/16ºC (P16D10 or control; CL with a constant temperature of 23ºC (P24D0; CL with a variable temperature of 26/16ºC (P24D10. The results showed that both species grown in CL had higher dry matter production due to the continuous photosynthesis and a subsequent increase in carbon gain. In S. lycopersicum, the rate of photosynthesis and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II declined in CL with the development of leaf chlorosis, reduction in the leaf chlorophyll content and a higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. The normal diurnal patterns of starch and sugar were only present under control conditions. The results demonstrated that CL conditions mainly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of a cultivated species (S. lycopersicum, and to a less degree to the wild species (S. pimpinellifolium. The negative effects of the CL could be alleviated by diurnal temperature variations, but the physiological mechanisms behind these are less clear. The results also show that the genetic potential for reducing the negative effects of CL does exist in the tomato germplasm.

  9. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms of children with Turner syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weibin; Li, Shuxian; Shen, Qiong; Guo, Xiuxia; Rong, Huijuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms of Turner syndrome (TS). Metho d s: Total 45 patients with TS admitted between Jul. 2008 and Jun. 2011 were involved in this study. All patients received the clinical evaluation of body fat, plasma lipids, proteins and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after rhGH therapy. Results : Our results indicated a significant decrease of body fat (FAT%) from 23.56±4.21 to 18.71±2.23 but no obvious change on the level of fat mass (FM) (p>0.05) was observed after rhGH therapy. We also detected significant changes on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) from (1.65±0.58 mmol/L) to (2.20±0.65 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDH-C) from (2.55±0.55 mmol/L) to (2.10±0.54 mmol/L) after rhGH exposure. However, no statistical significance was detected on the level of plasma triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO). Interestingly, the levels of plasma retinol binding protein (RbP) (32.55±4.28mg/L), transferrin (TRF) (2.95±0.40 mg/L), serum albumin (PRE) (250.00±45.50 mg/L) and albumin (propagated) (33.58±4.25 mg/L) were significantly increased. When it goes to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) test, there were 10 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) cases among all patients before and after rhGH therapy. No significant change was observed on homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level during rhGH intervention. Conclusion : Abnormal lipid and protein metabolisms of the children with TS can be improved with rhGH therapy for 6 months. PMID:25097506

  10. Role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitelman, A.K.; Berezin, V.A.; Kharitonenkov, I.G. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow)

    1981-01-01

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including ..cap alpha..-mannosidase, ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase, ..beta..-galactosidase and ..cap alpha..-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of /sup 125/I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA.

  11. Carbohydrate determinants in ferret conjunctiva are affected by infection with influenza H1N1 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril; Aasted, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates often accomplish as cell-surface receptors for microorganisms and influenza virus preferentially binds to sialic acid through the viral haemagglutinin. The virus may attach not only to the epithelium in the airways, but also to the surface ocular epithelium....

  12. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress. PMID:25804808

  13. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress.

  14. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D.

  15. Slow-release carbohydrates: growing evidence on metabolic responses and public health interest. Summary of the symposium held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Laville, Martine; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the necessity of considering differences in the digestibility of carbohydrates, and more specifically of starch, a symposium was held at the 12th European Nutrition Conference (FENS), which took place in Berlin from October 20 to 23, 2015. The purpose of this session was to present the consolidated knowledge and recent advances regarding the relationship between slow-release carbohydrates, metabolic responses, and public health issues. Three main topics were presented: 1) the definition of, sources of, and recognised interest in the glycaemic response to slowly digestible starch (SDS); 2) clinical evidence regarding the physiological effects of slow-release carbohydrates from cereal foods; and 3) interest in reducing the postprandial glycaemic response to help prevent metabolic diseases. Foods with the highest SDS content induce the lowest glycaemic responses, as the starch is protected from gelatinisation during processing. In humans, high-SDS food consumption induces slower glucose release, lower postprandial insulinaemia, and stimulation of gut hormones. Moreover, postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, given the plausible aetiologic mechanisms, we argue that postprandial glucose levels are relevant for health and disease and represent a meaningful target for intervention, for example, through dietary factors. This symposium was organised by Mondelez International R&D. PMID:27388153

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  17. Determination of pH, buffering capacity, total carbohydrates and sucrose in sugar-free and light processed fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dal Molin Netto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth erosion is the irreversible loss of dental hard tissues caused by acids and/or chelation without bacterial involvement.Many studies showed that there is an increase of tooth erosion in population and that it is related to the consumption of soft drinks,including processed fruit juices. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity (BC, total carbohydrates and sucrose in 15 sugar-free and light processed fruit juices.Material and methods: The pH was determined with a Mettler Toledo 320 pH meter.The BC was determined by titration, adding 0.1 N NaOH in 10 mL of each drink until reaching a pH level of 7.0. The total carbohydrates were determined using the phenol sulfuric method, while the sucrose was determined through the incubation of each sample with the invertase enzyme.Results: The average value of pH was 2.61 (±0.29.The processed fruit juices analyzed needed, in average, 6.2 mL (±1.9 of NaOH in order to increase the pH to 7.0. The total carbohydrates showed to be according to the values presented in the labels.The sucrose content verified in each drink was very low and varied from 0.60 to 0.93 g / 200 mL.Conclusion: This study showed that the 15 drinks analyzed had low pH and erosive potential, once most juices presented high BC.The sucrose presented in each drink was very low, suggesting that they are not cariogenic. Nevertheless, further studies that demonstrate the action of these juices in the dental surface are required.

  18. [Influence of bean yellow mosaic virus on metabolism of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates in Glycine soja L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data on BYMV effects on some physiological processes of Glycine soja L. cultivated in the right-bank forest-steppe regions. Pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and water soluble carbohydrates were estimated and, as has been shown, are subjected to significant changes as compared with control plants, namely: a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids was 64%, 53% and 36% compared with the control plants. The significant increase in carbohydrates (56% compared to the control) was observed at the end of the test period.

  19. Metabolism of dinosaurs as determined from their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2015-09-01

    A model based on cellular properties is used to analyze the mass growth curves of 20 dinosaurs. This analysis yields the first measurement of the average cellular metabolism of dinosaurs. The organismal metabolism is also determined. The cellular metabolism of dinosaurs is found to decrease with mass at a slower rate than is observed in extant animals. The organismal metabolism increases with the mass of the dinosaur. These results come from both the Saurischia and Ornithischia branches of Dinosauria, suggesting that the observed metabolic features were common to all dinosaurs. The results from dinosaurs are compared to data from extant placental and marsupial mammals, a monotreme, and altricial and precocial birds, reptiles, and fish. Dinosaurs had cellular and organismal metabolisms in the range observed in extant mesotherms.

  20. Acclimatory responses of the Daphnia pulex proteome to environmental changes. I. Chronic exposure to hypoxia affects the oxygen transport system and carbohydrate metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlung Johannes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freshwater planktonic crustaceans of the genus Daphnia show a remarkable plasticity to cope with environmental changes in oxygen concentration and temperature. One of the key proteins of adaptive gene control in Daphnia pulex under hypoxia is hemoglobin (Hb, which increases in hemolymph concentration by an order of magnitude and shows an enhanced oxygen affinity due to changes in subunit composition. To explore the full spectrum of adaptive protein expression in response to low-oxygen conditions, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteome composition of animals acclimated to normoxia (oxygen partial pressure [Po2]: 20 kPa and hypoxia (Po2: 3 kPa, respectively. Results The comparative proteome analysis showed an up-regulation of more than 50 protein spots under hypoxia. Identification of a major share of these spots revealed acclimatory changes for Hb, glycolytic enzymes (enolase, and enzymes involved in the degradation of storage and structural carbohydrates (e.g. cellubiohydrolase. Proteolytic enzymes remained constitutively expressed on a high level. Conclusion Acclimatory adjustments of the D. pulex proteome to hypoxia included a strong induction of Hb and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. The scenario of adaptive protein expression under environmental hypoxia can be interpreted as a process to improve oxygen transport and carbohydrate provision for the maintenance of ATP production, even during short episodes of tissue hypoxia requiring support from anaerobic metabolism.

  1. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts. PMID:26760673

  2. Effects of sub-chronic exposure to SO{sub 2} on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovati, M.R. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Manzoni, C. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Daldossi, M. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Spolti, S. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy); Sirtori, C.R. [Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. While toxicological reports on SO{sub 2} have extensively dealt with the pulmonary system, essentially no data are available on the effects of chronic exposure to this pollutant on intermediary metabolism, although some biochemical changes in lipid metabolism have been detected. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the effects of sub-chronic exposure to SO{sub 2} on concentrations of serum lipids/lipoproteins and on glucose metabolism, in animal models of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. A specially designed controlinert atmosphere chamber was used, where male Sprague-Dawley rats fed on either standard or cholesterol enriched (HC) diets, as well as streptozotocin diabetics, were exposed to SO{sub 2} at 5 and 10 ppm, 24 h per day for 14 days. In rats, both on a standard diet and on a HC regimen, SO{sub 2} exposure determined a significant dose-dependent increase in plasma triglycerides, up to +363% in the 10 ppm HC exposed animals. This same gas concentration significantly reduced HDL cholesterol levels. In contrast, exposure of diabetic animals to 10 ppm SO{sub 2} resulted in a fall (-41%) of plasma and liver triglycerides and in a concomitant increase (+62%) of plasma HDL cholesterol. This discrepancy could apparently be related to diverging effects of SO{sub 2} exposure on plasma insulin levels in the different animal groups. Kinetic analyses of triglyceride synthesis carried out in rats on a standard diet revealed, in exposed animals, a significant reduction in the secretory rate, in spite of the concomitant hypertriglyceridemia. These findings suggest that SO{sub 2} exposure can markedly modify major lipid and glycemic indices, also indicating a differential response in normo/hyperlipidemic versus diabetic animals. (orig.)

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic disorders in horses Metabolismo de carboidratos e disfunções metabólicas em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda M. Hoffman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Horses evolved consuming primarily fermentable forage carbohydrates, but forage diets have been traditionally supplemented with grain meals rich in starch and sugar in order to provide additional calories, protein and micronutrients. Starch and sugar are important for performance horses, but the consumption starch-rich meals may cause equine digestive and metabolic disorders. The critical capacity for preileal starch digestibility appears to be 0.35 to 0.4% but may be as little, depending on the source of starch. Small intestinal absorption of simple sugars is limited by the activity and expression of two classes of glucose carrier proteins, which are affected by chronic intake of hydrolyzable carbohydrate but may be sluggish to respond to abrupt changes in diet, further exacerbating the risk of overload. The most rapid fermentation occurs during starch overload or in the presence of fructans. Rapid fermentation perturbs the microbial and pH balance of the cecum and colon, favoring proliferation of Lactobacillus spp and acid production and increasing the risk of colic and laminitis. In addition to digestive disturbances, feeding grain concentrates rich in hydrolyzable carbohydrate may increase the risk of insulin resistance, which has been associated with obesity, laminitis and chronic founder, developmental orthopedic disease, and Cushing's disease in horses. This threshold concentration of starch intake may be a starting point for horse owners, feed manufacturers and veterinarians that may be claimed to be "low" enough to reduce risk in insulin resistant horses sensitive to grain-associated disorders.Equinos desenvolvem-se consumindo primordialmente os carboidratos fermentáveis das forragens, porém as dietas a base de forragens vem sendo suplementadas com dietas a base de grãos, ricas em amido e açúcar, visando fornecer adicionais calorias, proteínas e micronutrientes. Amido e açucares são importantes para os equinos atletas, porém o

  4. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ning; Nobel, P.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    After exposure to a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration of 750 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} air for about 3 months, glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO{sub 2} concentration of 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration increased the noncturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32% soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO{sub 2} accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO{sub 2} increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica, consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO{sub 2}. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

  5. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  6. 饲料糖含量对南方鲇幼鱼日常代谢率的影响%Effect of Carbohydrate Content in Feed on the Daily Metabolic Rateof.S.meridionalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付世建; 谢小军

    2007-01-01

    The routine metabolic rate in southern catfish juvenile(24.3-250.8 g)fed with saccharine feed(CHO)Was measured in this study.Fish were fed with iso-nitrogenous(40% crude protein)and iso-lipidic(10% crude lipid)experimental feed containing 0(control feed),15%,30% of carbohydrate level.The routine metabolic rates of 15% and 30% dietary carbohydrate group were significandy higher than that of 0% dietary carbohydrate group.The relationship betwenn body mass(Wt)and routine metabolic rate(Rr)of gouthem catfishfed with different test feed could be described as:(1)0% CHO:In(Rr)=0.986 ln(Wt)+1.419 r2=0.922,,n=25,P<0.001;(2)15% CHO:ln(Rr)=0.912 ln(Wt)+1.74l r2=0.966,n=21.P<0.001;(3)30% CHO:ln(Rr)=0.762 ln(Wt)+2.378 r2=0.958,n=21,P<0.001. The intenrcept was increased and mass coefficient was decreased with the increase of carbohydrate level in feed. It could be concluded that southern Silurus meridionalis had poor metabolic capacity which led the increase of routine metabolic rate of fish with small size.But with the increase of body size southern Silurus meridionalis might had a better adaptation to high carbohydrate concentration.

  7. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions.

  8. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  9. Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 RpoN (Sigma 54) Is a Pleiotropic Regulator of Growth, Carbohydrate Metabolism, Motility, Biofilm Formation and Toxin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Tempelaars, Marcel; Nierop Groot, Masja; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    Sigma 54 is a transcriptional regulator predicted to play a role in physical interaction of bacteria with their environment, including virulence and biofilm formation. In order to study the role of Sigma 54 in Bacillus cereus, a comparative transcriptome and phenotypic study was performed using B. cereus ATCC 14579 WT, a markerless rpoN deletion mutant, and its complemented strain. The mutant was impaired in many different cellular functions including low temperature and anaerobic growth, carbohydrate metabolism, sporulation and toxin production. Additionally, the mutant showed lack of motility and biofilm formation at air-liquid interphase, and this correlated with absence of flagella, as flagella staining showed only WT and complemented strain to be highly flagellated. Comparative transcriptome analysis of cells harvested at selected time points during growth in aerated and static conditions in BHI revealed large differences in gene expression associated with loss of phenotypes, including significant down regulation of genes in the mutant encoding enzymes involved in degradation of branched chain amino acids, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, flagella synthesis and virulence factors. Our study provides evidence for a pleiotropic role of Sigma 54 in B. cereus supporting its adaptive response and survival in a range of conditions and environments.

  10. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Idowu Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg diabetic rats significantly reduced (P<0.05 the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P<0.05 the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  11. Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 RpoN (Sigma 54 Is a Pleiotropic Regulator of Growth, Carbohydrate Metabolism, Motility, Biofilm Formation and Toxin Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Hayrapetyan

    Full Text Available Sigma 54 is a transcriptional regulator predicted to play a role in physical interaction of bacteria with their environment, including virulence and biofilm formation. In order to study the role of Sigma 54 in Bacillus cereus, a comparative transcriptome and phenotypic study was performed using B. cereus ATCC 14579 WT, a markerless rpoN deletion mutant, and its complemented strain. The mutant was impaired in many different cellular functions including low temperature and anaerobic growth, carbohydrate metabolism, sporulation and toxin production. Additionally, the mutant showed lack of motility and biofilm formation at air-liquid interphase, and this correlated with absence of flagella, as flagella staining showed only WT and complemented strain to be highly flagellated. Comparative transcriptome analysis of cells harvested at selected time points during growth in aerated and static conditions in BHI revealed large differences in gene expression associated with loss of phenotypes, including significant down regulation of genes in the mutant encoding enzymes involved in degradation of branched chain amino acids, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, flagella synthesis and virulence factors. Our study provides evidence for a pleiotropic role of Sigma 54 in B. cereus supporting its adaptive response and survival in a range of conditions and environments.

  12. Role of a critical visceral adipose tissue threshold (CVATT) in metabolic syndrome: implications for controlling dietary carbohydrates: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Freedland ES

    2004-01-01

    Abstract There are likely many scenarios and pathways that can lead to metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews mechanisms by which the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may contribute to the metabolic syndrome, and explores the paradigm of a critical VAT threshold (CVATT). Exceeding the CVATT may result in a number of metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance to glucose uptake by cells. Metabolic profiles of patients with visceral obesity may substantially improve after onl...

  13. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    sugars. Added sugar consumption was strongly associated with GWG (Q5 vs Q1: 34, 95% CI 28 to 40 g/week, p for trend reduced GWG. This association appeared to be partly driven by a decrease in intake of added sugar. These results are consistent...... with randomised trials in non-pregnant participants. A dietary intervention targeting an increased P/C ratio with emphasis on reducing added sugar can contribute to reducing excessive GWG.......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...

  14. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  15. Acarbose, lente carbohydrate, and prebiotics promote metabolic health and longevity by stimulating intestinal production of GLP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which slows carbohydrate digestion and blunts postprandial rises in plasma glucose, has long been used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance. Like metformin, acarbose tends to aid weight control, postpone onset of diabetes and decrease risk for cardiovascular events. Acarbose treatment can favourably affect blood pressure, serum lipids, platelet aggregation, progression of carotid intima-media thickness and postprandial endothelial dysfunction. In mice, lifetime acarbose feeding can increase median and maximal lifespan-an effect associated with increased plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). There is growing reason to suspect that an upregulation of fasting and postprandial production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-stemming from increased delivery of carbohydrate to L cells in the distal intestinal tract-is largely responsible for the versatile health protection conferred by acarbose. Indeed, GLP-1 exerts protective effects on vascular endothelium, the liver, the heart, pancreatic β cells, and the brain which can rationalise many of the benefits reported with acarbose. And GLP-1 may act on the liver to modulate its production of FGF21 and IGF-I, thereby promoting longevity. The benefits of acarbose are likely mimicked by diets featuring slowly-digested 'lente' carbohydrate, and by certain nutraceuticals which can slow carbohydrate absorption. Prebiotics that promote colonic generation of short-chain fatty acids represent an alternative strategy for boosting intestinal GLP-1 production. The health benefits of all these measures presumably would be potentiated by concurrent use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, which slow the proteolysis of GLP-1 in the blood. PMID:25685364

  16. Interaction of storage carbohydrates and other cyclic fluxes with central metabolism: A quantitative approach by non-stationary 13C metabolic flux analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Mendez, C.A.; Hanemaaijer, M.; Ten Pierick, A.; Wolters, J.C.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    13C labeling experiments in aerobic glucose limited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at four different growth rates (0.054; 0.101, 0.207, 0.307 h−1) are used for calculating fluxes that include intracellular cycles (e.g., storage carbohydrate cycles, exchange fluxes with amino acids), which are

  17. Determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk by capillary electrophoresis in combination with graphene-cobalt microsphere hybrid paste electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipei; Sun, Motao; He, Peimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A graphene-cobalt microsphere (CoMS) hybrid paste electrode was developed for the determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk in combination with capillary electrophoresis (CE). The performance of the electrodes was demonstrated by detecting mannitol, sucrose, lactose, glucose, and fructose after CE separation. The five analytes were well separated within 9 min in a 40 cm long capillary at a separation voltage of 12 kV. The electrodes exhibited pronounced electrocatalytic activity, lower detection potentials, enhanced signal-to-noise characteristics, and higher reproducibility. The relation between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about three orders of magnitude. The proposed method had been employed to determine lactose in bovine milk and glucose and fructose in honey with satisfactory results. Because only electroactive substances in the samples could be detected on the paste electrode, the electropherograms of both food samples were simplified to some extent.

  18. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  19. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in fine roots of the native European black poplar (Populus nigra L.) in a heavy-metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobrawa, Krzysztof; Lorenc-Plucińska, Gabriela

    2007-02-01

    Effects of copper-smelter-related deposition of heavy metals in the soil on carbohydrate metabolism of fine roots of the native European black poplar were investigated in spring and autumn. Total soluble non-structural carbohydrates in fine roots from trees growing in the polluted habitat were lower than in a control site, but this was directly associated only with a lower raffinose concentration. Neither glucose nor fructose concentrations differed significantly between polluted and unpolluted sites. In contrast, the galactose concentration was higher in the presence of heavy metals, especially in autumn. Also the stachyose concentration was higher in the polluted site, but only in autumn, suggesting it could be an alternative way of detoxification of galactose. No difference between control and polluted stands was observed in sucrose concentration. However, estimates of sucrolytic activity revealed markedly higher activities of sucrose synthase (SuSy), soluble acid (AI) and neutral (NI) invertases in the polluted stand than in the control. In contrast, the estimated glycolytic enzyme activities were not affected by the presence of heavy metals in soil. PMID:17182084

  20. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians. PMID:24367390

  1. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  2. Biodiversity, ecological determinants, and metabolic exploitation of sourdough microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Vrancken, G; Ravyts, F; Rimaux, T; Weckx, S

    2009-10-01

    Sourdough is a microbial ecosystem of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in a matrix of mainly cereal flour and water. Culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiological analysis together with metabolite target analyses of different sourdoughs enabled to understand this complex fermentation process. It is difficult to link the species diversity of the sourdough microbiota with the (geographical) type of sourdough and the flour used, although the type and quality of the latter is the main source of autochthonous LAB in spontaneous sourdough fermentations and plays a key role in establishing stable microbial consortia within a short time. Carbohydrate fermentation targeted towards maltose catabolism, the use of external alternative electron acceptors, amino acid transamination reactions, and/or the arginine deiminase pathway are metabolic activities that favour energy production, cofactor (re)cycling, and/or tolerance towards acid stress, and hence contribute to the competitiveness and dominance of certain species of LAB found in sourdoughs. Also, microbial interactions play an important role. The availability of genome sequences for several LAB species that are of importance in sourdough as well as technological advances in the fields of functional genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics enable new approaches to study sourdough fermentations beyond the single species level and will allow an integral analysis of the metabolic activities and interactions taking place in sourdough. Finally, the implementation of selected starter cultures in sourdough technology is of pivotal importance for the industrial production of sourdoughs to be used as flavour carrier, texture-improving, or health-promoting dough ingredient.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism during long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment in girls with Turner syndrome participating in a randomized dose-response study. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); Th. Stijnen (Theo); H-J. Aanstoot (Henk-Jan); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTo assess possible side-effects of GH treatment with supraphysiological doses on carbohydrate (CH) metabolism in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) during long term GH treatment and after discontinuation of GH treatment, the results of oral glucose tolerance te

  4. Overexpression of the carbohydrate binding module of strawberry expansin2 in Arabidopsis thaliana modifies plant growth and cell wall metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Cristina F; Villarreal, Natalia M; Rossi, Franco R; Martínez, Santiago; Martínez, Gustavo A; Civello, Pedro M

    2015-05-01

    Several cell wall enzymes are carbohydrate active enzymes that contain a putative Carbohydrate Binding Module (CBM) in their structures. The main function of these non-catalitic modules is to facilitate the interaction between the enzyme and its substrate. Expansins are non-hydrolytic proteins present in the cell wall, and their structure includes a CBM in the C-terminal that bind to cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. We studied the ability of the Expansin2 CBM (CBMFaEXP2) from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) to modify the cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants overexpressing CBMFaEXP2 were characterized phenotypically and biochemically. Transgenic plants were taller than wild type, possibly owing to a faster growth of the main stem. Cell walls of CBMFaEXP2-expressing plants were thicker and contained higher amount of pectins. Lower activity of a set of enzymes involved in cell wall degradation (PG, β-Gal, β-Xyl) was found, and the expression of the corresponding genes (AtPG, Atβ-Gal, Atβ-Xyl5) was reduced also. In addition, a decrease in the expression of two A. thaliana Expansin genes (AtEXP5 and AtEXP8) was observed. Transgenic plants were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea infection than wild type, possibly as a consequence of higher cell wall integrity. Our results support the hypothesis that the overexpression of a putative CBM is able to modify plant cell wall structure leading to modulation of wall loosening and plant growth. These findings might offer a tool to controlling physiological processes where cell wall disassembly is relevant, such as fruit softening. PMID:25837738

  5. Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life according to Carbohydrate Metabolism Status: A Spanish Population-Based Study (Di@bet.es Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcuello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the association between diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life (HRQOL controlled for several sociodemographic and anthropometric variables, in a representative sample of the Spanish population. Methods. A population-based, cross-sectional, and cluster sampling study, with the entire Spanish population as the target population. Five thousand and forty-seven participants (2162/2885 men/women answered the HRQOL short form 12-questionnaire (SF-12. The physical (PCS-12 and the mental component summary (MCS-12 scores were assessed. Subjects were divided into four groups according to carbohydrate metabolism status: normal, prediabetes, unknown diabetes (UNKDM, and known diabetes (KDM. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results. Mean PCS-12/MCS-12 values were 50.9±8.5/ 47.6±10.2, respectively. Men had higher scores than women in both PCS-12 (51.8±7.2 versus 50.3±9.2; P<0.001 and MCS-12 (50.2±8.5 versus 45.5±10.8; P<0.001. Increasing age and obesity were associated with a poorer PCS-12 score. In women lower PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores were associated with a higher level of glucose metabolism abnormality (prediabetes and diabetes, (P<0.0001 for trend, but only the PCS-12 score was associated with altered glucose levels in men (P<0.001 for trend. The Odds Ratio adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI and educational level, for a PCS-12 score below the median was 1.62 (CI 95%: 1.2–2.19; P<0.002 for men with KDM and 1.75 for women with KDM (CI 95%: 1.26–2.43; P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion. Current study indicates that increasing levels of altered carbohydrate metabolism are accompanied by a trend towards decreasing quality of life, mainly in women, in a representative sample of Spanish population.

  6. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  7. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  8. Metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono en el síndrome de ovario poliquístico Metabolism of Carbohydrates in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Sabán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP es una entidad fisiopatológica compleja caracterizada por la presencia de: Irregularidades menstruales, hirsutismo, acné, obesidad y resistencia a la insulina. La frecuencia de intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono y diabetes mellitus en pacientes con SOP es del 30-40 % y 5-10 %; respectivamente. En pacientes con SOP el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es mayor que el de la población general. Se debe destacar que la tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, representa un factor de riesgo importante para el desarrollo de diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular. El método más sensible para detectar tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, en mujeres con SOP, es la prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa. De esta manera, el objetivo fue analizar los distintos mecanismos implicados en el SOP y las alteraciones del metabolismo de los hidratos carbono. Los autores declaran no poseer conflictos de interés.Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO is a complex pathophysiological entity characterized by the presence of: menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, acne, obesity and insulin resistance. The estimated frequency of intolerance to carbohydrates and diabetes mellitus in patients with PCOS is 30-40 % and 5-10 %, respectively. In patients with PCO, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus is higher than in the general population. It should be noted that glucose intolerance is a major risk factor for developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The most sensitive test to detect glucose intolerance in women with PCO is the oral glucose tolerance test. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the different mechanisms involved in PCO and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. No financial conflicts of interest exist.

  9. Various Terpenoids Derived from Herbal and Dietary Plants Function as PPAR Modulators and Regulate Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Goto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several herbal plants improve medical conditions. Such plants contain many bioactive phytochemicals. Terpenoids (also called “isoprenoids” constitute one of the largest families of natural products accounting for more than 40,000 individual compounds of both primary and secondary metabolisms. In particular, terpenoids are contained in many herbal plants, and several terpenoids have been shown to be available for pharmaceutical applications, for example, artemisinin and taxol as malaria and cancer medicines, respectively. Various terpenoids are contained in many plants for not only herbal use but also dietary use. In this paper, we describe several bioactive terpenoids contained in herbal or dietary plants, which can modulate the activities of ligand-dependent transcription factors, namely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. Because PPARs are dietary lipid sensors that control energy homeostasis, daily eating of these terpenoids might be useful for the management for obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Various Terpenoids Derived from Herbal and Dietary Plants Function as PPAR Modulators and Regulate Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Goto; Nobuyuki Takahashi; Shizuka Hirai; Teruo Kawada

    2010-01-01

    Several herbal plants improve medical conditions. Such plants contain many bioactive phytochemicals. Terpenoids (also called “isoprenoids”) constitute one of the largest families of natural products accounting for more than 40,000 individual compounds of both primary and secondary metabolisms. In particular, terpenoids are contained in many herbal plants, and several terpenoids have been shown to be available for pharmaceutical applications, for example, artemisinin and taxol as malaria and c...

  11. Inactivation of nitrate reductase alters metabolic branching of carbohydrate fermentation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao; Kumaraswamy, G Kenchappa; Zhang, Shuyi; Gates, Colin; Ananyev, Gennady M; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-05-01

    To produce cellular energy, cyanobacteria reduce nitrate as the preferred pathway over proton reduction (H2 evolution) by catabolizing glycogen under dark anaerobic conditions. This competition lowers H2 production by consuming a large fraction of the reducing equivalents (NADPH and NADH). To eliminate this competition, we constructed a knockout mutant of nitrate reductase, encoded by narB, in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. As expected, ΔnarB was able to take up intracellular nitrate but was unable to reduce it to nitrite or ammonia, and was unable to grow photoautotrophically on nitrate. During photoautotrophic growth on urea, ΔnarB significantly redirects biomass accumulation into glycogen at the expense of protein accumulation. During subsequent dark fermentation, metabolite concentrations--both the adenylate cellular energy charge (∼ATP) and the redox poise (NAD(P)H/NAD(P))--were independent of nitrate availability in ΔnarB, in contrast to the wild type (WT) control. The ΔnarB strain diverted more reducing equivalents from glycogen catabolism into reduced products, mainly H2 and d-lactate, by 6-fold (2.8% yield) and 2-fold (82.3% yield), respectively, than WT. Continuous removal of H2 from the fermentation medium (milking) further boosted net H2 production by 7-fold in ΔnarB, at the expense of less excreted lactate, resulting in a 49-fold combined increase in the net H2 evolution rate during 2 days of fermentation compared to the WT. The absence of nitrate reductase eliminated the inductive effect of nitrate addition on rerouting carbohydrate catabolism from glycolysis to the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway, indicating that intracellular redox poise and not nitrate itself acts as the control switch for carbon flux branching between pathways.

  12. Inactivation of nitrate reductase alters metabolic branching of carbohydrate fermentation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao; Kumaraswamy, G Kenchappa; Zhang, Shuyi; Gates, Colin; Ananyev, Gennady M; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-05-01

    To produce cellular energy, cyanobacteria reduce nitrate as the preferred pathway over proton reduction (H2 evolution) by catabolizing glycogen under dark anaerobic conditions. This competition lowers H2 production by consuming a large fraction of the reducing equivalents (NADPH and NADH). To eliminate this competition, we constructed a knockout mutant of nitrate reductase, encoded by narB, in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. As expected, ΔnarB was able to take up intracellular nitrate but was unable to reduce it to nitrite or ammonia, and was unable to grow photoautotrophically on nitrate. During photoautotrophic growth on urea, ΔnarB significantly redirects biomass accumulation into glycogen at the expense of protein accumulation. During subsequent dark fermentation, metabolite concentrations--both the adenylate cellular energy charge (∼ATP) and the redox poise (NAD(P)H/NAD(P))--were independent of nitrate availability in ΔnarB, in contrast to the wild type (WT) control. The ΔnarB strain diverted more reducing equivalents from glycogen catabolism into reduced products, mainly H2 and d-lactate, by 6-fold (2.8% yield) and 2-fold (82.3% yield), respectively, than WT. Continuous removal of H2 from the fermentation medium (milking) further boosted net H2 production by 7-fold in ΔnarB, at the expense of less excreted lactate, resulting in a 49-fold combined increase in the net H2 evolution rate during 2 days of fermentation compared to the WT. The absence of nitrate reductase eliminated the inductive effect of nitrate addition on rerouting carbohydrate catabolism from glycolysis to the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway, indicating that intracellular redox poise and not nitrate itself acts as the control switch for carbon flux branching between pathways. PMID:26479976

  13. Quantitative determination of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Gloria; Zuriarrain, Juan; Zuriarrain, Andoni; Berregi, Iñaki

    2016-04-01

    A method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy has been developed to quantify simultaneously thirteen analytes in honeys without previous separation or pre-concentration steps. The method has been successfully applied to determine carboxylic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic and succinic acids), amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine), carbohydrates (α- and β-glucose and fructose), ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in eucalyptus, heather, lavender, orange blossom, thyme and rosemary honeys. Quantification was performed by using the area of the signal of each analyte in the honey spectra, together with external standards. The regression analysis of the signal area against concentration plots, used for the calibration of each analyte, indicates a good linearity over the concentration ranges found in honeys, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.985 for the thirteen quantified analytes. The recovery studies give values over the 93.7-105.4% range with relative standard deviations lower than 7.4%. Good precision, with relative standard deviations over the range of 0.78-5.21% is obtained. PMID:26593586

  14. Application of a new capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of carbohydrates in forensic, pharmaceutical, and beverage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2012-09-15

    A new capillary electrophoresis method dedicated to the analysis of neutral underivatized carbohydrates was recently developed by our group. It involved a background electrolyte composed of 98 mM NaOH and 120 mM NaCl, and direct UV detection via the formation of an absorbing intermediate in the detection window by photooxidation. This article focuses on the validation of this method for the determination of fructose, glucose, lactose, and sucrose in forensic, pharmaceutical, and beverage samples. Intermediate precisions were about 2.3% for normalized corrected peak areas and 1.8% for normalized migration times using naphthalenesulfonate as internal standard. Limits of detection varying from 5 μM for sucrose and lactose to 7 μM for glucose and 10 μM for fructose were obtained. Potential matrix effects were statistically studied for soil, cloth, plastic, cotton, red wine, and with simulated iron, calcium, and sucrose-based matrices, containing various inorganic anions and cations, sometimes at high levels. No significant matrix effect was observed. Finally, analyses of real post-explosion residues, smoke device, cough syrup, red wine, and apple juice were successfully performed. PMID:22967542

  15. Quantitative determination of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Gloria; Zuriarrain, Juan; Zuriarrain, Andoni; Berregi, Iñaki

    2016-04-01

    A method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy has been developed to quantify simultaneously thirteen analytes in honeys without previous separation or pre-concentration steps. The method has been successfully applied to determine carboxylic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic and succinic acids), amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine), carbohydrates (α- and β-glucose and fructose), ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in eucalyptus, heather, lavender, orange blossom, thyme and rosemary honeys. Quantification was performed by using the area of the signal of each analyte in the honey spectra, together with external standards. The regression analysis of the signal area against concentration plots, used for the calibration of each analyte, indicates a good linearity over the concentration ranges found in honeys, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.985 for the thirteen quantified analytes. The recovery studies give values over the 93.7-105.4% range with relative standard deviations lower than 7.4%. Good precision, with relative standard deviations over the range of 0.78-5.21% is obtained.

  16. Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Wu

    Full Text Available Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended.

  17. Structure of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2081 at 2.05 Å resolution: the first structural representative of a new protein family that may play a role in carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of BT2081 from B. thetaiotaomicron reveals a two-domain protein with a putative carbohydrate-binding site in the C-terminal domain. BT2081 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (GenBank accession code NP-810994.1) is a member of a novel protein family consisting of over 160 members, most of which are found in the different classes of Bacteroidetes. Genome-context analysis lends support to the involvement of this family in carbohydrate metabolism, which plays a key role in B. thetaiotaomicron as a predominant bacterial symbiont in the human distal gut microbiome. The crystal structure of BT2081 at 2.05 Å resolution represents the first structure from this new protein family. BT2081 consists of an N-terminal domain, which adopts a β-sandwich immunoglobulin-like fold, and a larger C-terminal domain with a β-sandwich jelly-roll fold. Structural analyses reveal that both domains are similar to those found in various carbohydrate-active enzymes. The C-terminal β-jelly-roll domain contains a potential carbohydrate-binding site that is highly conserved among BT2081 homologs and is situated in the same location as the carbohydrate-binding sites that are found in structurally similar glycoside hydrolases (GHs). However, in BT2081 this site is partially occluded by surrounding loops, which results in a deep solvent-accessible pocket rather than a shallower solvent-exposed cleft

  18. ACTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING METHODOLOGY TO APPROACH CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM: An interdisciplinary strategy that involved the Moodle tool in the development of Problem Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M.P. Borges

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Highlight the relevance of topics studied for professional practice and associate approaches provided by different areas of knowledge are pointed as essential aspects for significant learning. Contextualize the study of metabolic pathways, linking the clinical use and expanding the vision with the approach of cellular and molecular biology discipline was the motivation for the development of the strategy described and evaluated here. In this work, starting from the concept of active methodology of teaching and learning was developed a methodological strategy to approach the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This strategy included: questioning the content through the clinical case study on diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, individual and collective study in the external space the classroom with the help of Moodle tool, classroom discussion accompanied by the teacher, preparation of seminar, evaluation of the content through individual written test and evaluation of the method. Analysis of student involvement with method indicates an average frequency of 98% in the practical class of Biochemistry discipline, effective participation in the preparation of seminars, an increase of 2 points in average of individual written evaluation. As for the fact that the cases were studied in two curricular components, the answers show that 92% of students feel more compression. Only 6% of students think  unnecessary to interdisciplinary approach. As for the different steps of the method, the answers show that 99% of students consider how relevant the initial self-study and discussions in class. However, only 50% of students appreciated the use of Moodle tool. Thus, student responses indicated the perception of the effectiveness of the method for their ability to: stimulate interest in learning, stimulate the search for answers through research and the building of learning.

  19. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582 and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581 were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

  20. Rice alcohol dehydrogenase 1 promotes survival and has a major impact on carbohydrate metabolism in the embryo and endosperm when seeds are germinated in partially oxygenated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Greenway, Hank; Matsumura, Hideo; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rice (Oryza sativa) has the rare ability to germinate and elongate a coleoptile under oxygen-deficient conditions, which include both hypoxia and anoxia. It has previously been shown that ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE 1 (ADH1) is required for cell division and cell elongation in the coleoptile of submerged rice seedlings by means of studies using a rice ADH1-deficient mutant, reduced adh activity (rad). The aim of this study was to understand how low ADH1 in rice affects carbohydrate metabolism in the embryo and endosperm, and lactate and alanine synthesis in the embryo during germination and subsequent coleoptile growth in submerged seedlings. Methods Wild-type and rad mutant rice seeds were germinated and grown under complete submergence. At 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after imbibition, the embryo and endosperm were separated and several of their metabolites were measured and compared. Key results In the rad embryo, the rate of ethanol fermentation was halved, while lactate and alanine concentrations were 2·4- and 5·7- fold higher in the mutant than in the wild type. Glucose and fructose concentrations in the embryos increased with time in the wild type, but not in the rad mutant. The rad mutant endosperm had lower amounts of the α-amylases RAMY1A and RAMY3D, resulting in less starch degradation and lower glucose concentrations. Conclusions These results suggest that ADH1 is essential for sugar metabolism via glycolysis to ethanol fermentation in both the embryo and endosperm. In the endosperm, energy is presumably needed for synthesis of the amylases and for sucrose synthesis in the endosperm, as well as for sugar transport to the embryo. PMID:24431339

  1. Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flavio O; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Bishop, David

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high- or low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance, aerobic and anaerobic contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Six physically-active men first performed a cycling exercise bout at 115% maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion after following their normal diet for 48 h (∼50% of CHO, control test). Seventy-two hours after, participants performed a muscle glycogen depletion exercise protocol, followed by either a high- or low-CHO diet (∼70 and 25% of CHO, respectively) for 48 h, in a random, counterbalanced order. After the assigned diet period (48 h), the supramaximal cycling exercise bout (115% maximal oxygen consumption) to exhaustion was repeated. The low-CHO diet reduced time to exhaustion when compared with both the control and the high-CHO diet (-19 and -32%, respectively, p low-CHO diet was accompanied by a lower total aerobic energy contribution (-39%) compared with the high-CHO diet (p 0.05). The low-CHO diet was associated with a lower blood lactate concentration (p 0.05). In conclusion, a low-CHO diet reduces both performance and total aerobic energy provision during supramaximal exercise. As peak K(+) concentration was similar, but time to exhaustion shorter, the low-CHO diet was associated with an earlier attainment of peak plasma K(+) concentration.

  2. Absence of effects of dietary wheat bran on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mouse liver and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J C; Lambadarios, J A; Newsholme, E A

    1986-03-01

    1. The effects of a 100 g/kg dietary substitution of wheat bran on the body-weight gain, food consumption and faecal dry weight of mice given a high-sucrose diet and on the activities of some key enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue were studied. 2. Wheat bran had no effect on body-weight gain, food consumption or faecal dry weight. 3. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44), malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+) (EC 1.1.1.40), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). The activity of hepatic 6-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) increased but only when expressed on a body-weight basis. 4. Wheat bran had no effect on the activities of adipose tissue glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) (NADP+), ATP-citrate (pro-3S)-lyase, hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), 6-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase. 5. These results suggest that unlike guar gum and bagasse, wheat bran does not change the flux through some pathways of lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissue when mice are given high-sucrose diets.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of oil palm leaves infected with Ganoderma boninense revealed changes in proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and immunity and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery Daim, Leona Daniela; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Ithnin, Nalisha; Mohd Yusof, Hirzun; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2015-08-01

    The basidiomycete fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense is the causative agent for the incurable basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. This disease causes significant annual crop losses in the oil palm industry. Currently, there is no effective method for disease control and elimination, nor is any molecular marker for early detection of the disease available. An understanding of how BSR affects protein expression in plants may help identify and/or assist in the development of an early detection protocol. Although the mode of infection of BSR disease is primarily via the root system, defense-related genes have been shown to be expressed in both the root and leafs. Thus, to provide an insight into the changes in the global protein expression profile in infected plants, comparative 2DE was performed on leaf tissues sampled from palms with and without artificial inoculation of the Ganoderma fungus. Comparative 2DE revealed that 54 protein spots changed in abundance. A total of 51 protein spots were successfully identified by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The majority of these proteins were those involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism as well as immunity and defense.

  4. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  5. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes or non-nutritive sweeteners. They can be used to sweeten food and drinks for less calories and carbohydrate when they replace sugar. Sugar and Desserts With diabetes, it's important to ...

  6. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  7. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  8. Construction of 12 EST libraries and characterization of a 12,226 EST dataset for chicory (Cichorium intybus) root, leaves and nodules in the context of carbohydrate metabolism investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Boutry Marc; Watillon Bernard; Purnelle Bénédicte; Muys Céline; Mingeot Dominique; Dauchot Nicolas; Van Cutsem Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a member of the Asteraceae family that accumulates fructan of the inulin type in its root. Inulin is a low calories sweetener, a texture agent and a health promoting ingredient due to its prebiotic properties. Average inulin chain length is a critical parameter that is genotype and temperature dependent. In the context of the study of carbohydrate metabolism and to get insight into the transcriptome of chicory root and to visua...

  9. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis for the determination of molecular mass of heparins and low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzega, Dania; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2008-11-01

    We report the use of fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) to determine the molecular mass (M) values of heparins (Heps) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)-Hep derivatives. Hep are labeled with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid and FACE is able to resolve each fraction as a discrete band depending on their M. After densitometric acquisition, the migration distance of each Hep standard is acquired and the third-grade polynomial calibration standard curve is determined by plotting the logarithms of the M values as a function of migration ratio. Purified Hep samples having different properties, pharmaceutical Heps and various LMW-Heps were analyzed by both FACE and conventional high-performance size-exclusion liquid chromatography (HPSEC) methods. The molecular weight value on the top of the chromatographic peak (Mp), the number-average Mn, weight-average Mw and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) were examined by both techniques and found to be similar. This approach offers certain advantages over the HPSEC method. The derivatization process with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid is complete after 4 h so that many samples may be analyzed in a day also considering that multiple samples can be run simultaneously and in parallel and that a single FACE analysis requires approx. 15 min. Furthermore, FACE is a very sensitive method as it requires approx. 5-10 microg of Heps, about 10-100-fold lower than samples and standards used in HPSEC evaluation. Finally, the utilization of mini-gels allows the use of very low amounts of reagents with neither expensive equipment nor any complicated procedures having to be applied. This study demonstrates that FACE analysis is a sensitive method for the determination of the M values of Heps and LMW-Heps with possible utilization in virtually any kind of research and development such as quality control laboratories due to its rapid, parallel analysis of multiple samples by means of common and simple largely used

  10. PANCREATIC AND EXTRA-PANCREATIC EFFECTS OF INCRETINS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR STUDYING ENTEROINSULIN HORMONAL SYSTEM DURING GESTATIONAL DISORDER OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of an ideal medicine for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, that would be able to provide not only high quality and constant monitoring of glycemia without increasing body weight, with no risk of hypoglycemia, with no negative impact on the heart, kidneys, liver, but could also ensure the preservation of the secretory function of β-cells, makes scientists continue to search for new opportunities to influence the occurrence and progression of T2D.Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of glucose or nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Within the pancreas, GIP and GLP-1 together promote β-cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, thereby expanding pancreatic β-cell mass, while GIP enhances postprandial glucagon response and GLP-1 suppresses it. In adipose tissues, GIP but not GLP-1 facilitates fat deposition. In bone, GIP promotes bone formation while GLP-1 inhibits bone absorption. In the brain, both GIP and GLP-1 are thought to be involved in memory formation as well as the control of appetite. In addition to these differences, secretion of GIP and GLP-1 and their insulinotropic effects on β-cells have been shown to differ in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects.Enteroinsulin hormones' role in the development of gestational disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood.In a review article we analyze the publications that summarize what is known about the pancreatic and extra-pancreatic GIP and GLP-1-effects compared with healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. The aspects of gestational diabetes pathophysiology and the perspectives for studying enteroinsulin hormonal system during pregnancy are also discussed in the article.

  11. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of [14C]glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of [14C]glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls

  12. Effects of starvation, refeeding, and insulin on energy-linked metabolic processes in catfish (Rhamdia hilarii) adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C.R.; Garofalo, M.A.; Roselino, J.E.; Kettelhut, I.C.; Migliorini, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    The effects of starvation and of a short period of refeeding on energy-linked metabolic processes, as well as the effects of insulin administration, were investigated in an omnivorous fish (catfish, Rhamdia hilarii) previously adapted to a carbohydrate-rich diet. Following food deprivation blood sugar levels declined progressively to about 50% of fed values after 30 days. During the same period plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration increased twofold. Starvation resulted in reduced concentrations of lipid and glycogen in the liver and of glycogen, lipid, and protein in white muscle. However, taking into account the initial and final concentrations of tissue constituents, the liver weight, and the large fractions of body weight represented by muscle, it could be estimated that most of the energy utilized during starvation derived from the catabolism of muscle lipid and protein. Refeeding starved fishes for 48 hr induced several-fold increases in the rates of in vivo and in vitro incorporation of (14C)glucose into liver and muscle lipid and of (14C)glycine into liver and muscle protein. Incorporation of (14C)glucose into liver glycogen was also increased. However; refeeding did not affect the incorporation of labeled glucose into muscle glycogen, neither in vivo nor in vitro. Administration of pharmacological doses of insulin to normally fed catfishes resulted in marked increases in the in vivo incorporation of 14C from glucose into lipid and protein in both liver and muscle. In contrast, labeled glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen was not affected by insulin and label incorporation into liver glycogen was actually lower than that in noninjected controls.

  13. [Effect of fragmentation and quality of carbohydrates diet on metabolic control parameters in insulin treated type 2 diabetic individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambra Vásquez, Verónica; Tapia Fernández, Carolina; Vega Soto, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Actualmente no existe consenso en relación al fraccionamiento, cantidad y calidad de los hidratos de carbono (CHO) que debieran seguir los sujetos diabéticos tipo 2 insulino requirentes (DM2IR). Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el fraccionamiento de la dieta, la calidad de CHO disponibles en cada tiempo de comida y los parámetros de control metabólico en sujetos con DM2IR con una o doble dosis de insulina de acción intermedia. Métodos: Se evaluaron a 40 sujetos con DM2IR, mediante encuestas alimentarias para obtener la cantidad de CHO, índice glicémico (IG), carga glicémica (CG) de los tiempos de comida y el fraccionamiento de la dieta. El control metabólico se determinó por exámenes de laboratorio (hemoglobina glicada; HbA1c, glicemia venosa de ayuno) y glicemias capilares de ayuno (GlicA), preprandiales (GlicPre), postprandiales (GlicPost) y “antes de dormir” (GlicAd) con hemoglucotest. Se aplicaron análisis estadísticos considerando significativo un p.

  14. Determination of carbohydrates in tobacco by pressurized liquid extraction combined with a novel ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Hu, Deyu; Lei, Bo; Zhao, Huina; Pan, Wenjie; Song, Baoan

    2015-07-01

    A novel derivatization-ultrasonic assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 main carbohydrates in tobacco has been developed. The combined method involves pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), derivatization, and UA-DLLME, followed by the analysis of the main carbohydrates with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). First, the PLE conditions were optimized using a univariate approach. Then, the derivatization methods were properly compared and optimized. The aldononitrile acetate method combined with the O-methoxyoxime-trimethylsilyl method was used for derivatization. Finally, the critical variables affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency were searched using fractional factorial design (FFD) and further optimized using Doehlert design (DD) of the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 44 μL for CHCl3, 2.3 mL for H2O, 11% w/v for NaCl, 5 min for the extraction time and 5 min for the centrifugation time. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit of the method (LODs) and linear correlation coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.06-0.90 μg mL(-1) and 0.9987-0.9999. The proposed method was successfully employed to analyze three flue-cured tobacco cultivars, among which the main carbohydrate concentrations were found to be very different. PMID:26043096

  15. Determination of carbohydrates in tobacco by pressurized liquid extraction combined with a novel ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Hu, Deyu; Lei, Bo; Zhao, Huina; Pan, Wenjie; Song, Baoan

    2015-07-01

    A novel derivatization-ultrasonic assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 main carbohydrates in tobacco has been developed. The combined method involves pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), derivatization, and UA-DLLME, followed by the analysis of the main carbohydrates with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). First, the PLE conditions were optimized using a univariate approach. Then, the derivatization methods were properly compared and optimized. The aldononitrile acetate method combined with the O-methoxyoxime-trimethylsilyl method was used for derivatization. Finally, the critical variables affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency were searched using fractional factorial design (FFD) and further optimized using Doehlert design (DD) of the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 44 μL for CHCl3, 2.3 mL for H2O, 11% w/v for NaCl, 5 min for the extraction time and 5 min for the centrifugation time. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit of the method (LODs) and linear correlation coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.06-0.90 μg mL(-1) and 0.9987-0.9999. The proposed method was successfully employed to analyze three flue-cured tobacco cultivars, among which the main carbohydrate concentrations were found to be very different.

  16. The Correlation Between Soluble Carbohydrate Metabolism and Lipid Accumulation in Castor Seeds%蓖麻种子油脂累积与可溶性糖变化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 刘爱忠

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between soluble carbohydrates metabolism and lipid accumulation in the development of castor seeds was studied by HPLC,RNA-seq sequencing and radioactive carbon isotope tracing method. Soluble carbohydrates in developing castor seeds were mainly composed of glucose,fructose and sucrose,and decreased obviously with seed development and oil accumulation. The significant negative correlation between sucrose content and lipid accumulation(r=0.980)was observed. Hexose-to-sucrose ratio was much higher and the genes related to carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in the early stage of seed development. Especially,sucrose synthase played the key role in carbohydrates metabolism. Hexose-to-sucrose ratio was decreased and the genes involved in carbohydrates metabolism were down regulated with the rapid accumulation of seed oil during the middle and late developmental stages,while the expressions of genes related to fatty acid synthesis and lipid accumulation increased significantly. Confirmed by 14C-sucrose isotope tracing experiments,the conversion of carbohydrates to oil was significantly inhibited by reducing the sucrose intake;consequently lipid accumulation was limited in developing castor seeds. Therefore,soluble carbohydrates metabolism(mainly sucrose)may play an important role in the process of lipid accumulation in castor seeds.%通过高效液相色谱、RNA-seq测序和放射性碳同位素示踪等技术研究了蓖麻种子发育过程中可溶性糖代谢与油脂累积过程的关系。结果表明,蓖麻种子可溶性糖主要由葡萄糖、果糖和蔗糖构成。随着种子发育和油脂累积,可溶性糖含量呈现明显的下降趋势。其中蔗糖含量变化与油脂累积存在极显著的负相关性(r=0.980)。在种子发育早期,己糖/蔗糖比值较高,糖代谢相关基因大量表达,其中蔗糖合成酶在蔗糖代谢过程中起关键性作用;而在发育中后期,随着种子油脂快速

  17. 复方口服避孕药对糖代谢和脂代谢的影响%Influence of Combination Oral Contraceptives on Carbohydrates and Lipids Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 王蔼明; 姜文; 贾晓宁

    2012-01-01

    Combination oral contraceptives (COCs) should affect a series of metabolic factors, such as carbohydrates and lipids profile. The metabolic effects of the COCs seem to be related to their types and dose. The lower doses of estrogen influence the metabolism smaller. The metabolic effects of the progestins seem to be related to their androgenic properties. Non-androgenic or anti-androgenic progestins exert minimal influence on the lipid profile and carbohydrate metabolism. The carbohydrates and lipids metabolic effects of different kinds of COCs, different routes of delivery, and different methods of administration are discussed in this article. The metabolic effect of oral contraceptives on women with PCOS are discussed at the same time. This review are expected to reinforce the benefits and the risks of COCs.%复方口服避孕药可以影响一系列代谢因素的改变,如糖代谢和脂代谢相关指标.雌、孕激素对代谢的影响因其剂量和种类而异.雌激素剂量越低对代谢的影响越小;孕激素对代谢的影响与其雄激素样特性有关,非雄激素样或抗雄激素样特性的孕激素对糖代谢和脂代谢影响最小.本文分别就不同类型口服避孕药、不同给药途径和不同给药方式对糖代谢和脂代谢的影响,以及在避孕药的特殊使用人群多囊卵巢综合征患者中糖代谢和脂代谢的变化加以综述,使我们能够对避孕药有更加准确和客观的认识.

  18. Construction of 12 EST libraries and characterization of a 12,226 EST dataset for chicory (Cichorium intybus root, leaves and nodules in the context of carbohydrate metabolism investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutry Marc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a member of the Asteraceae family that accumulates fructan of the inulin type in its root. Inulin is a low calories sweetener, a texture agent and a health promoting ingredient due to its prebiotic properties. Average inulin chain length is a critical parameter that is genotype and temperature dependent. In the context of the study of carbohydrate metabolism and to get insight into the transcriptome of chicory root and to visualize temporal changes of gene expression during the growing season, we obtained and characterized 10 cDNA libraries from chicory roots regularly sampled in field during a growing season. A leaf and a nodule libraries were also obtained for comparison. Results Approximately 1,000 Expressed Sequence Tags (EST were obtained from each of twelve cDNA libraries resulting in a 12,226 EST dataset. Clustering of these ESTs returned 1,922 contigs and 4,869 singlets for a total of 6,791 putative unigenes. All ESTs were compared to public sequence databases and functionally classified. Data were specifically searched for sequences related to carbohydrate metabolism. Season wide evolution of functional classes was evaluated by comparing libraries at the level of functional categories and unigenes distribution. Conclusion This chicory EST dataset provides a season wide outlook of the genes expressed in the root and to a minor extent in leaves and nodules. The dataset contains more than 200 sequences related to carbohydrate metabolism and 3,500 new ESTs when compared to other recently released chicory EST datasets, probably because of the season wide coverage of the root samples. We believe that these sequences will contribute to accelerate research and breeding of the industrial chicory as well as of closely related species.

  19. Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Genetically Diabetic (C57BL/Ksj Db+/Db+) and Non-Diabetic Original Strain (C57BL/Ksj) Mice

    OpenAIRE

    KECHRID, Zine; Bouzerna, Noureddine

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake on zinc and carbohydrate metabolism in type II diabetes. Male, 4–5-week-old, genetically diabetic (C57B/LKsJdb+/db+) and nondiabetic original strain (C57BL/KsJ) mice were fed a diet containing 1 mg of Zn/kg (low zinc groups) or 54 mg of Zn/kg (control groups) for 27 days. Food intake and body weight gain were recorded regularly. On day 28, after an overnight fast, the animals were sacrificed and blood glucose, serum in...

  20. Investigating the Influence of (Deoxy)fluorination on the Lipophilicity of Non-UV-Active Fluorinated Alkanols and Carbohydrates by a New log P Determination Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linclau, Bruno; Wang, Zhong; Compain, Guillaume; Paumelle, Vincent; Fontenelle, Clement Q; Wells, Neil; Weymouth-Wilson, Alex

    2016-01-11

    Property tuning by fluorination is very effective for a number of purposes, and currently increasingly investigated for aliphatic compounds. An important application is lipophilicity (log P) modulation. However, the determination of log P is cumbersome for non-UV-active compounds. A new variation of the shake-flask log P determination method is presented, enabling the measurement of log P for fluorinated compounds with or without UV activity regardless of whether they are hydrophilic or lipophilic. No calibration curves or measurements of compound masses/aliquot volumes are required. With this method, the influence of fluorination on the lipophilicity of fluorinated aliphatic alcohols was determined, and the log P values of fluorinated carbohydrates were measured. Interesting trends and changes, for example, for the dependence on relative stereochemistry, are reported.

  1. Investigating the Influence of (Deoxy)fluorination on the Lipophilicity of Non‐UV‐Active Fluorinated Alkanols and Carbohydrates by a New log P Determination Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Compain, Guillaume; Paumelle, Vincent; Fontenelle, Clement Q.; Wells, Neil; Weymouth‐Wilson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Property tuning by fluorination is very effective for a number of purposes, and currently increasingly investigated for aliphatic compounds. An important application is lipophilicity (log P) modulation. However, the determination of log P is cumbersome for non‐UV‐active compounds. A new variation of the shake‐flask log P determination method is presented, enabling the measurement of log P for fluorinated compounds with or without UV activity regardless of whether they are hydrophilic or lipophilic. No calibration curves or measurements of compound masses/aliquot volumes are required. With this method, the influence of fluorination on the lipophilicity of fluorinated aliphatic alcohols was determined, and the log P values of fluorinated carbohydrates were measured. Interesting trends and changes, for example, for the dependence on relative stereochemistry, are reported. PMID:26592706

  2. Size structure, not metabolic scaling rules, determines fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    that even though small species have a higher productivity than large species their resilience towards fishing is lower than expected from metabolic scaling rules. Further, we show that the fishing mortality leading to maximum yield per recruit is an ill-suited reference point. The theory can be used...... these empirical relations is lacking. Here, we combine life-history invariants, metabolic scaling and size-spectrum theory to develop a general size- and trait-based theory for demography and recruitment of exploited fish stocks. Important concepts are physiological or metabolic scaled mortalities and flux...... of individuals or their biomass to size. The theory is based on classic metabolic relations at the individual level and uses asymptotic size W∞ as a trait. The theory predicts fundamental similarities and differences between small and large species in vital rates and response to fishing. The central result...

  3. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  4. Experimentally determined temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 °C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half of its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase the rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rates and thus both the rate of primary production and respiration will increase. However, these predictions do not consider the specific metabolic balance of the communities. We tested, experimentally, the response of Arctic plankton communities to seawater temperature spanning from 1 °C to 10 °C. Two types of communities were tested, open-ocean Arctic communities from water collected in the Barents Sea and Atlantic influenced fjord communities from water collected in the Svalbard fjord system. Metabolic rates did indeed increase as suggested by metabolic theory, however these results suggest an experimental temperature threshold of 5 °C, beyond which the metabolism of plankton communities shifts from autotrophic to heterotrophic. This threshold is also validated by field measurements across a range of temperatures which suggested a temperature 5.4 °C beyond which Arctic plankton communities switch to heterotrophy. Barents Sea communities showed a much clearer threshold response to temperature manipulations than fjord communities.

  5. Progress on carbohydrate metabolism regulating antioxidant capacity of postharvest Chinese bayberry fruit%糖代谢调控杨梅果实采后抗氧化活性机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施丽愉; 陈伟; 苏新国; 杨震峰

    2013-01-01

    There are accumulated data indicating that the natural antioxidant compounds from Chinese bayberry fruits have biological properties which can enhance human health. Since antioxidant capacity is be-coming an important quality parameter for postharvest fruit, it is focusing on maintaining and improvement of antioxidant activity in fruit during postharvest storage. Carbohydrate metabolism is one of the most important physiological activities of postharvest fruit, and is also closely related to the biosynthesis and metabolism of anthocyanin and phenolic. This paper introduced the antioxidant properties of postharvest Chinese bayberry fruit, and focused on the research progress of carbohydrate metabolism regulating antioxidant capacity in post-harvest Chinese bayberry fruit. Moreover, this paper also indicated the future research highlights to the specific mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism in the biosynthesis and metabolism of anthocyanin and phenolic in bayberry fruit.%杨梅果实中天然抗氧化物质对人类健康的作用日益受到人们的重视,抗氧化活性的大小已成为衡量果实采后品质的一个重要指标,维持和提高果实采后抗氧化能力已成为果实采后贮运保鲜研究中的热点。糖代谢是果实采后主要的生理活动之一,与果实采后花色苷和酚类物质的代谢存在密切的联系。本文简要介绍了杨梅果实的抗氧化特性,重点综述了糖代谢调控果实采后抗氧化活性机制的研究进展,提出了糖代谢调控杨梅果实采后花色苷和酚类物质合成代谢机制的研究展望。

  6. Influence of high carbohydrate versus high fat diet in ozone induced pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic impairment in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution has been recently linked to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been postulated that dietary risk factors might exacerbate air pollution-induced metabolic impairment. We have recently reported that ozone exposure induces acute systemic ...

  7. Indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels in G1 and G2 cells of the carbohydrate-starved root meristems in Vicia faba var. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Polit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the 34kDa kinase (p34 encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key regulator of both the onset of DNA synthesis (G1 to S phase transition and the onset of mitosis (G1 to M phase transition. Using mouse anti-human PSTAIRE and FITClabelled goat antibodies, indirect semiquantitative determination of p34cdc2 levels was performed in meristematic cells from the control (intact and excised, carbohydrate-starved main roots of Vicia faba var. minor. No evident differences in the intensity of fluorescence was found either between the G1 and G2 cells or between the control cells and the cells arrested at both Principal Control Points by carbohydrate starvation. It seems thus, that the cell cycle block induced in meristematic cells of V. faba var. minor is not correlated with the absolute level of the key cell cycle enzyme responsible for phosphory-lution of cellular proteins, but primarily with the altered activity of p34cdc2.

  8. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. PMID:27001278

  9. Genetic Determinants of the Network of Primary Metabolism and Their Relationships to Plant Performance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Weiwei; Li, Kun; Alseekh, Saleh; Omranian, Nooshin; Zhao, Lijun; Zhou, Yang; Xiao, Yingjie; Jin, Min; Yang, Ning; Liu, Haijun; Florian, Alexandra; Li, Wenqiang; Pan, Qingchun; Nikoloski, Zoran; Yan, Jianbing; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering the influence of genetics on primary metabolism in plants will provide insights useful for genetic improvement and enhance our fundamental understanding of plant growth and development. Although maize (Zea mays) is a major crop for food and feed worldwide, the genetic architecture of its primary metabolism is largely unknown. Here, we use high-density linkage mapping to dissect large-scale metabolic traits measured in three different tissues (leaf at seedling stage, leaf at reproductive stage, and kernel at 15 d after pollination [DAP]) of a maize recombinant inbred line population. We identify 297 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with moderate (86.2% of the mapped QTL, R(2) = 2.4 to 15%) to major effects (13.8% of the mapped QTL, R(2) >15%) for 79 primary metabolites across three tissues. Pairwise epistatic interactions between these identified loci are detected for more than 25.9% metabolites explaining 6.6% of the phenotypic variance on average (ranging between 1.7 and 16.6%), which implies that epistasis may play an important role for some metabolites. Key candidate genes are highlighted and mapped to carbohydrate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and several important amino acid biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, with two of them being further validated using candidate gene association and expression profiling analysis. Our results reveal a metabolite-metabolite-agronomic trait network that, together with the genetic determinants of maize primary metabolism identified herein, promotes efficient utilization of metabolites in maize improvement. PMID:26187921

  10. Experimentally determined temperature thresholds for Arctic plankton community metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, C. M.; J. M. Arrieta; R. Vaquer-Sunyer; Coello-Camba, A.; P. Wassmann; Agustí, S.

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming is especially severe in the Arctic, where the average temperature is increasing 0.4 C per decade, two to three times higher than the global average rate. Furthermore, the Arctic has lost more than half of its summer ice extent since 1980 and predictions suggest that the Arctic will be ice free in the summer as early as 2050, which could increase the rate of warming. Predictions based on the metabolic theory of ecology assume that temperature increase will enhance metabolic rat...

  11. Effect of Different Rice-Crab Coculture Modes on Soil Carbohydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ying; LIU Ming-da; YANG Dan; ZHANG Wei; AN Hui; WANG Yao-jing; XIE Hong-tu; ZHANG Xu-dong

    2014-01-01

    Traditional agricultural systems have contributed to food and livelihood security. Rice-crab coculture (RC) is an important eco-agricultural process in rice production in northern China. Recognizing the soil fertility in RC may help develop novel sustainable agriculture. Soil carbohydrates are important factors in determining soil fertility in different culture modes. In this study, soil carbohydrates were analyzed under three different culture modes including rice monoculture (RM), conventional rice-crab coculture (CRC) and organic rice-crab coculture (ORC). Results showed that the contents of soil organic carbon and carbohydrates were signiifcantly higher in the ORC than those in RM. The increasing effect was greater with increased organic manure. Similar tendency was found in CRC, but the overall effect was less pronounced compared with ORC. Carbohydrates were more sensitive to RC mode and manure amendment than soil organic carbon. Compare to RM, the (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio decreased in all the RC modes, indicating a relative enrichment in plant-derived carbohydrates due to the input of crab feed and manure. While the increasing (Gal+Man)/(Ara+Xyl) ratio in ORC modes with increased organic manure suggested that crab activity and metabolism induced microbially derived carbohydrates accumulation. The lower GluN/MurA ratio in ORC indicated an enhancement of bacteria contribution to SOM turnover in a short term. The ifndings reveal that the ORC mode could improve the quantity and composition of soil carbohydrates, effectively, to ensure a sustainable use of paddy soil.

  12. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Regulation of glucose and fat metabolism in the liver by Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) and impact of dietary influence

    OpenAIRE

    Elkatry, Haiam Omar Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Deregulationen in der Leberlipidsynthese sind häufig mit Adipositas und Diabetes Typ 2 verbunden und daher ist ein detailliertes Verständnis der beteiligten, regulierenden Stoffwechselwege sehr wichtig, um künftig potentielle therapeutische Targets zu identifizieren. Die Leber ist der wichtigste Ort für den Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel (Glykolyse und Glykogen-Synthese) sowie Triglycerid-Synthese (Lipogenese). Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) wurden in die Regulation durch ...

  13. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation.

    OpenAIRE

    Qianhe eLiu; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Hong eXue; Susanne eRasmussen

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilised from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilisation of reserve c...

  14. Does gibberellin biosynthesis play a critical role in the growth of Lolium perenne? Evidence from a transcriptional analysis of gibberellin and carbohydrate metabolic genes after defoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianhe; Jones, Chris S; Parsons, Anthony J.; Xue, Hong; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Global meat and milk production depends to a large extent on grazed pastures, with Lolium perenne being the major forage grass in temperate regions. Defoliation and subsequent regrowth of leaf blades is a major and essential event with respect to L. perenne growth and productivity. Following defoliation, carbohydrates (mainly fructans and sucrose) have to be mobilized from heterotrophic tissues to provide energy and carbon for regrowth of photosynthetic tissues. This mobilization of reserve c...

  15. Determinants of drug metabolism in early neonatal life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Allegaert (Karel); J.N. van den Anker (John); G. Naulaers; J.N. de Hoon

    2007-01-01

    textabstractClinical pharmacology intends to predict drug-specific effects and side effects based on pharmacokinetics (i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (i.e. dose/effect relationship). Developmental pharmacology focuses on the maturational aspects of th

  16. Body composition, dietary carbohydrates and fatty acids determine post-fertilisation development of bovine oocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, S J; Powell, K; Rooke, J A; Webb, R; Sinclair, K D

    2006-02-01

    This study assessed the interactive effects of carbohydrate type (fibre vs starch) and fatty acid (FA) supplementation (0% vs 6% calcium soaps of palm oil FA) on the post-fertilisation development of oocytes recovered from low and moderate body condition score (BCS) heifers. A secondary objective was to compare the FA composition of plasma to that of granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from these animals, and to relate these findings to the developmental potential of oocytes. Plasma, GCs and COCs were recovered from 32 heifers on day 5 of a synchronised oestrous cycle for FA analyses. Oocytes were also recovered on days 10 and 15 of the same cycle after short-term ovarian stimulation (FSH + GnRH), and matured, fertilised and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro. High levels of dietary starch increased (P < 0.01) plasma insulin but, together with dietary FA, reduced (P < 0.05) blastocyst yields in low, but not in moderate, BCS heifers. Diet-induced alterations to the FA content of plasma were less apparent in GCs and COCs. In summary, although dietary lipids increased the FA content of COCs, the selective uptake of saturated FAs at the expense of mainly polyunsaturated FAs within the follicular compartment ensured that the FA composition of COCs was largely unaffected by diet. However, the concentration of saturated FAs within COCs was inherently high, and so further increases in FA content may have impaired post-fertilisation development. The data establish a robust nutritional framework for more detailed studies into the mechanistic effects of dietary composition on the post-fertilisation developmental potential of oocytes. PMID:16452718

  17. Carbohydrate modified diet & insulin sensitizers reduce body weight & modulate metabolic syndrome measures in EMPOWIR (enhance the metabolic profile of women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial of normoglycemic women with midlife weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriette R Mogul

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Progressive midlife weight gain is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes and may represent an early manifestation of insulin resistance in a distinct subset of women. Emerging data implicate hyperinsulinema as a proximate cause of weight gain and support strategies that attenuate insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: To assess a previously reported novel hypocaloric carbohydrate modified diet alone (D, and in combination with metformin (M and metformin plus low-dose rosiglitazone (MR, in diverse women with midlife weight gain (defined as >20lbs since the twenties, normal glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. PARTICIPANTS: 46 women, mean age 46.6±1.0, BMI 30.5±0.04 kg/m2, 54.5% white, 22.7% black, 15.9% Hispanic, at 2 university medical centers. METHODS: A dietary intervention designed to reduce insulin excursions was implemented in 4 weekly nutritional group workshops prior to randomization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in 6-month fasting insulin. Pre-specified secondary outcomes were changes in body weight, HOMA-IR, metabolic syndrome (MS measures, leptin, and adiponectin. RESULTS: Six-month fasting insulin declined significantly in the M group: 12.5 to 8.0 µU/ml, p = .026. Mean 6-month weight decreased significantly and comparably in D, M, and MR groups: 4.7, 5.4, and 5.5% (p's.049, .002, and.032. HOMA-IR decreased in M and MR groups (2.5 to 1.6 and 1.9 to 1.3, p's = .054, .013. Additional improvement in MS measures included reduced waist circumference in D and MR groups and increased HDL in the D and M groups. Notably, mean fasting leptin did not decline in a subset of subjects with weight loss (26.15±2.01 ng/ml to 25.99±2.61 ng/ml, p = .907. Adiponectin increased significantly in the MR group (11.1±1.0 to 18.5±7.4, p<.001 Study medications were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EMPOWIR's easily implemented dietary interventions, alone and in combination with pharmacotherapies that

  18. Determination of key enzymes for threonine synthesis through in vitro metabolic pathway analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanfei; Meng, Qinglong; Ma, Hongwu; Liu, Yongfei; Cao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei; Jiang, Wenxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    Background The overexpression of key enzymes in a metabolic pathway is a frequently used genetic engineering strategy for strain improvement. Metabolic control analysis has been proposed to quantitatively determine key enzymes. However, the lack of quality data often makes it difficult to correctly identify key enzymes through control analysis. Here, we proposed a method combining in vitro metabolic pathway analysis and proteomics measurement to find the key enzymes in threonine synthesis pat...

  19. The determination of standard metabolic rate in fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot, Denis; Steffensen, John Fleng; Farrell, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    This review and data analysis outline how fish biologists should most reliably estimate the minimal amount of oxygen needed by a fish to support its aerobic metabolic rate (termed standard metabolic rate; SMR). By reviewing key literature, it explains the theory, terminology and challenges...... underlying SMR measurements in fishes, which are almost always made using respirometry (which measures oxygen uptake, ṀO2 ). Then, the practical difficulties of measuring SMR when activity of the fish is not quantitatively evaluated are comprehensively explored using 85 examples of ṀO2 data from different...... fishes and one crustacean, an analysis that goes well beyond any previous attempt. The main objective was to compare eight methods to estimate SMR. The methods were: average of the lowest 10 values (low10) and average of the 10% lowest ṀO2 values, after removing the five lowest ones as outliers (low10...

  20. Defects in leaf carbohydrate metabolism compromise acclimation to high light and lead to a high chlorophyll fluorescence phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied the impact of carbohydrate-starvation on the acclimation response to high light using Arabidopsis thaliana double mutants strongly impaired in the day- and night path of photoassimilate export from the chloroplast. A complete knock-out mutant of the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT; tpt-2 mutant was crossed to mutants defective in (i starch biosynthesis (adg1-1, pgm1 and pgi1-1; knock-outs of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, plastidial phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase or (ii starch mobilization (sex1-3, knock-out of glucan water dikinase as well as in (iii maltose export from the chloroplast (mex1-2. Results All double mutants were viable and indistinguishable from the wild type when grown under low light conditions, but - except for sex1-3/tpt-2 - developed a high chlorophyll fluorescence (HCF phenotype and growth retardation when grown in high light. Immunoblots of thylakoid proteins, Blue-Native gel electrophoresis and chlorophyll fluorescence emission analyses at 77 Kelvin with the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant revealed that HCF was linked to a specific decrease in plastome-encoded core proteins of both photosystems (with the exception of the PSII component cytochrome b559, whereas nuclear-encoded antennae (LHCs accumulated normally, but were predominantly not attached to their photosystems. Uncoupled antennae are the major cause for HCF of dark-adapted plants. Feeding of sucrose or glucose to high light-grown adg1-1/tpt-2 plants rescued the HCF- and growth phenotypes. Elevated sugar levels induce the expression of the glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator2 (GPT2, which in principle could compensate for the deficiency in the TPT. A triple mutant with an additional defect in GPT2 (adg1-1/tpt-2/gpt2-1 exhibited an identical rescue of the HCF- and growth phenotype in response to sugar feeding as the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant, indicating that this rescue is independent from the

  1. Metabolic stability and determination of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes' contribution to the metabolism of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie-Claude; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Medetomidine is a potent and selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist. The activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptor mediates a variety of effects including sedation, analgesia, relief of anxiety, vasoconstriction and bradycardia. However, our main interest is the sedative effects of medetomidine when used as a premedicant prior surgery in companion animals, especially in dogs. Recently, data suggested that following intravenous infusion at six dosing regiments non-linear pharmacokinetics was observed. Major causes of non-linear pharmacokinetics are the elimination of the drug not following a simple first-order kinetics and/or the elimination half-life changing due to saturation of an enzyme system. The goal of this study was to establish the metabolic stability and determine the metabolic pathway of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes. Consequently, Michaelis-Menten parameters (V(max), K(m)), T(1/2) and CL(i) were determined. The incubations were performed in a microcentrifuge tube and containing various concentrations of medetomidine (10-5000 nM), 1 mg/mL of microsomal proteins suspended in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Microsomal suspensions were preincubated with NADPH (1 mM) for 5 min at 37 degrees C prior to fortification with medetomidine. Samples were taken at various time points for kinetic information and the initial velocity (v(i)) was determined after 10 min incubation. The reaction was stopped by the addition of an internal standard solution (100 ng/mL of dextrometorphan in acetone). Medetomidine concentrations were determined using a selective and sensitive HPLC-ESI/MS/MS method. Using non-linear regression, we determined a K(m) value of 577 nM, indicating relatively low threshold enzyme saturation consistent with previous in vivo observation. The metabolic stability was determined at a concentration of 100 nm (dog liver microsomes, also consistent with previous in vivo data. Moreover, results suggest that principally medetomidine is metabolized by the

  2. Power Analysis and Sample Size Determination in Metabolic Phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Benjamin J; Correia, Gonçalo; Tin, Adrienne; Young, J Hunter; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Lewis, Matthew; Pearce, Jake T M; Elliott, Paul; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine; Ebbels, Timothy M D

    2016-05-17

    Estimation of statistical power and sample size is a key aspect of experimental design. However, in metabolic phenotyping, there is currently no accepted approach for these tasks, in large part due to the unknown nature of the expected effect. In such hypothesis free science, neither the number or class of important analytes nor the effect size are known a priori. We introduce a new approach, based on multivariate simulation, which deals effectively with the highly correlated structure and high-dimensionality of metabolic phenotyping data. First, a large data set is simulated based on the characteristics of a pilot study investigating a given biomedical issue. An effect of a given size, corresponding either to a discrete (classification) or continuous (regression) outcome is then added. Different sample sizes are modeled by randomly selecting data sets of various sizes from the simulated data. We investigate different methods for effect detection, including univariate and multivariate techniques. Our framework allows us to investigate the complex relationship between sample size, power, and effect size for real multivariate data sets. For instance, we demonstrate for an example pilot data set that certain features achieve a power of 0.8 for a sample size of 20 samples or that a cross-validated predictivity QY(2) of 0.8 is reached with an effect size of 0.2 and 200 samples. We exemplify the approach for both nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data from humans and the model organism C. elegans.

  3. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    James Wilfred Navalta; Brian Keith McFarlin; Scott Lyons; Scott Wesley Arnett; Mark Anthony Schafer

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise‐induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: E...

  4. iTRAQ Protein Profile Differential Analysis of Dormant and Germinated Grassbur Twin Seeds Reveals that Ribosomal Synthesis and Carbohydrate Metabolism Promote Germination Possibly Through the PI3K Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Liang; Zhu, Yue; Fu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Rui-Hai; Zhang, Yan-Lei; Song, Zhen; Xia, Gui-Xian; Wu, Jia-He

    2016-06-01

    Grassbur is a destructive and invasive weed in pastures, and its burs can cause gastric damage to animals. The strong adaptability and reproductive potential of grassbur are partly due to a unique germination mechanism whereby twin seeds develop in a single bur: one seed germinates, but the other remains dormant. To investigate the molecular mechanism of seed germination in twin seeds, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to perform a dynamic proteomic analysis of germination and dormancy. A total of 1,984 proteins were identified, 161 of which were considered to be differentially accumulated. The differentially accumulated proteins comprised 102 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated proteins. These proteins were grouped into seven functional categories, ribosomal proteins being the predominant group. The authenticity and accuracy of the results were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR). A dynamic proteomic analysis revealed that ribosome synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism affect seed germination possibly through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. As the PI3K pathway is generally activated by insulin, analyses of seeds treated with exogenous insulin by qPCR, ELISA and iTRAQ confirmed that the PI3K pathway can be activated, which suppresses dormancy and promotes germination in twin grassbur seeds. Together, these results show that the PI3K pathway may play roles in stimulating seed germination in grassbur by modulating ribosomal synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:27296714

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) protects against oleate-induced INS-1E beta cell dysfunction by preserving carbohydrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigerio, F; Brun, T; Bartley, C;

    2009-01-01

    and investigated key metabolic pathways and genes responsible for metabolism-secretion coupling during a culture period of 3 days in the presence of 0.4 mmol/l oleate. RESULTS: In INS-1E cells, the secretory dysfunction primarily induced by oleate was aggravated by silencing of PPARalpha. Conversely, PPARalpha...... enzyme pyruvate carboxylase. PPARalpha overproduction increased both beta-oxidation and fatty acid storage in the form of neutral triacylglycerol, revealing overall induction of lipid metabolism. These observations were substantiated by expression levels of associated genes. CONCLUSIONS....../INTERPRETATION: PPARalpha protected INS-1E beta cells from oleate-induced dysfunction, promoting both preservation of glucose metabolic pathways and fatty acid turnover....

  6. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also influenced by body composition — people with more muscle and less fat generally have higher BMRs. previous continue Things That Can Go Wrong With Metabolism Most of the time your metabolism works effectively ...

  7. Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008255 Serum adiponectin level declines in the elderly with metabolic syndrome.WU Xiaoyan(吴晓琰),et al.Dept Geriatr,Huashan Hosp,Fudan UnivShanghai200040.Chin J Geriatr2008;27(3):164-167.Objective To investigate the correlation between ser-um adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in the elderly·Methods Sixty-one subjects with metabolic syndrome and140age matched subjects without metabolic

  8. Interaction of Some Commercial Teas with Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Linked with Type-2 Diabetes: A Dietary Intervention in the Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    (3-Ethylbenzo-Thiazoline~6-sulfonate “ABTS” scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property, and inhibition of pancreatic-α-amylase and intestinal-α-glucosidase in vitro. The study revealed that GT had the highest total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, ABTS* scavenging ability, and ferric reducing ability. Furthermore, all the teas inhibited Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas, with GT having the highest inhibitory effect. Conversely, there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the inhibitory effects of the teas on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The antidiabetic property of the teas could be attributed to their inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes implicated in diabetes and their antioxidant activities.

  9. Remission of screen-detected metabolic syndrome and its determinants: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Engelsen Corine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of the metabolic syndrome may prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to assess remission of the metabolic syndrome and its determinants after a population based screening without predefined intervention in the Netherlands. Methods In 2006 we detected 406 metabolic syndrome cases (The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III definition among apparently healthy individuals with an increased waist circumference. They received usual care in a primary care setting. After three years metabolic syndrome status was re-measured. We evaluated which baseline determinants were independently associated with remission. Results The remission rate among the 194 participants was 53%. Baseline determinants independently associated with a remission were the presence of more than three metabolic syndrome components (OR 0.46 and higher levels of waist circumference (OR 0.91, blood pressure (OR 0.98 and fasting glucose (OR 0.60. Conclusions In a population with screen-detected metabolic syndrome receiving usual care, more than half of the participants achieved a remission after three years. This positive result after a relatively simple strategy provides a solid basis for a nation-wide implementation. Not so much socio-demographic variables but a higher number and level of the metabolic syndrome components were predictors of a lower chance of remission. In such cases, primary care physicians should be extra alert.

  10. Metabolic equivalent determination in the cultural dance of hula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usagawa, T; Look, M; de Silva, M; Stickley, C; Kaholokula, J K; Seto, T; Mau, M

    2014-05-01

    Ethnic minorities share an unequal burden of cardiometabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for improving the outcomes of these diseases. While metabolic equivalents (METs) have been calculated for diverse activities, most cultural activities have not been evaluated. Hula, the traditional dance of Native Hawaiians, is practiced by men and women of all ages but its MET value is unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first scientific evaluation of energy expenditure of hula. 19 competitive hula dancers performed 2 dance sets of low- and high-intensity hula. METs were measured with a portable indirect calorimetry device. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all the variables. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to identify differences for gender and intensity. The mean MET were 5.7 (range 3.17-9.77) and 7.55 (range 4.43-12.0) for low-intensity and high-intensity, respectively. There was a significant difference between intensities and no significant difference between genders. This study demonstrates that the energy expenditure of both low- and high-intensity hula met the recommended guidelines for moderate and vigorous intensity exercise, respectively, and that hula can be utilized as a prescribed PA.

  11. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight.

  12. Intraspecific variation in flight metabolic rate in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens: repeatability and functional determinants in workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darveau, Charles-A; Billardon, Fannie; Bélanger, Kasandra

    2014-02-15

    The evolution of flight energetics requires that phenotypes be variable, repeatable and heritable. We studied intraspecific variation in flight energetics in order to assess the repeatability of flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency, as well as the functional basis of phenotypic variation in workers and drones of the bumblebee species Bombus impatiens. We showed that flight metabolic rate and wingbeat frequency were highly repeatable in workers, even when controlling for body mass variation using residual analysis. We did not detect significant repeatability in drones, but a smaller range of variation might have prevented us from finding significant values in our sample. Based on our results and previous findings, we associated the high repeatability of flight phenotypes in workers to the functional links between body mass, thorax mass, wing size, wingbeat frequency and metabolic rate. Moreover, differences between workers and drones were as predicted from these functional associations, where drones had larger wings for their size, lower wingbeat frequency and lower flight metabolic rate. We also investigated thoracic muscle metabolic phenotypes by measuring the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and we found positive correlations between mass-independent metabolic rate and the activity of all enzymes measured, but in workers only. When comparing workers and drones that differ in flight metabolic rate, only the activity of the enzymes hexokinase and trehalase showed the predicted differences. Overall, our study indicates that there should be correlated evolution among physiological phenotypes at multiple levels of organization and morphological traits associated with flight. PMID:24198266

  13. Structural determination of the carbohydrate chains from arthropod and mollusc hemocyanin by means of 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis carbohydrate structures of hemocyanins of arthropods and molluscs are studied. Hemocyanins are high-molecular-mass, copper-containing oxygen-transport proteins. The function of these carbohydrate chains are yet still unknown. It is not probable that they play a role in the oxygen-binding processes. They are rather thought to have a function in the build-up of the hemocyanin molecules. 286 refs.; 30 figs.; 25 tabs

  14. Nonstructural leaf carbohydrates dynamics of Pinus edulis during drought-induced tree mortality reveal role for carbon metabolism in mortality mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Germino, Matthew J.; Breshears, David D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Zou, Chris B.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2013-01-01

    * Vegetation change is expected with global climate change, potentially altering ecosystem function and climate feedbacks. However, causes of plant mortality, which are central to vegetation change, are understudied, and physiological mechanisms remain unclear, particularly the roles of carbon metabolism and xylem function.

  15. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K;

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Health in Subjects with Obesity in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic health in subjects with obesity in the Chinese population and to identify the determinants related to metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Methods: 5013 subjects were recruited from seven provincial capitals in China. The obesity and metabolic status were classified based on body mass index (BMI and the number of abnormalities in common components of metabolic syndrome. Results: 27.9% of individuals with obesity were metabolically healthy. The prevalence of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO phenotype was significantly decreased with age in women (p trend < 0.001, but not significantly in men (p trend = 0.349. Central obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93–8.59, longer sedentary time (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.27–3.06, and with a family history of obesity related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.26–2.71 were significantly associated with having metabolic abnormality in obese individuals. Higher levels of physical activity and more fruit/vegetable intake had decreased ORs of 0.67 (95%CI = 0.45–0.98 and 0.44 (95%CI = 0.28–0.70, respectively. Conclusion: 27.9% of obese participants are in metabolic health. Central obesity, physical activity, sedentary time, fruits/vegetables intake and family history of diseases are the determinants associated with metabolic status in obesity.

  17. ACTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING METHODOLOGY TO APPROACH CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM: An interdisciplinary strategy that involved the Moodle tool in the development of Problem Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    J. M.P. Borges; R. El Bacha; Costa, M. F.; Freire, E

    2015-01-01

    Highlight the relevance of topics studied for professional practice and associate approaches provided by different areas of knowledge are pointed as essential aspects for significant learning. Contextualize the study of metabolic pathways, linking the clinical use and expanding the vision with the approach of cellular and molecular biology discipline was the motivation for the development of the strategy described and evaluated here. In this work, starting from the concept of active methodolo...

  18. WHAT CAN WE EXPECT USING ACE INHIBITOR RAMIPRIL IN PERSONS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND EARLY DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? LESSONS OF DREAM TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. Mamedov; M. B. Stroeva

    2008-01-01

    Primary prevention of diabetes in persons with high cardiovascular risk is an actual problem. Results of DREAM trial are discussed. Influence of ACE inhibitor, ramipril, on risk of diabetes onset in patients with pre-diabetes and low cardiovascular risk is focused. Metabolic effects of other groups of antihypertensive drugs and their ability to prevent diabetes onset are compared. Ramipril three years therapy resulted in normalization in glucose level but did not have effect on frequency of d...

  19. Effect of exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide on the carbohydrate metabolism of the Indian Major Carp Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen N. Dube

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were designed to study in-vivo effects of sodium cyanide on biochemical endpoints in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (0.106 and 0.064mg/L for a period of 15 days. Levels of glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and the enzymatic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, phosphorylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (AcP were assessed in different tissues (liver, muscle and gills. Result indicated a steady decrease in glycogen, pyruvate, SDH, ALP and AcP activity with a concomitant increase in the lactate, phosphorylase, LDH and G6PD activity in all selected tissues. The alterations in all the above biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 time and dose dependent. In all the above parameters, liver pointing out the intensity of cyanide intoxication compare to muscle and gills. Study revealed change in the metabolic energy by means of altered metabolic profile of the fish. Further, these observations indicated that even sublethal concentrations of sodium cyanide might not be fully devoid of deleterious influence on metabolism in L. rohita.

  20. Fat metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Orngreen, Mette Cathrine; Van Hall, Gerrit;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with defects of the respiratory chain have metabolic adaptations that promote a preferential use of fats or carbohydrates, similar to what is observed in metabolic myopathies affecting glycolysis or fat oxidation. DESIGN: Causation and case-control study...... of palmitate and total free fatty acids, glucose mobilization, and total carbohydrate oxidation. RESULTS: Fat turnover and plasma concentrations of palmitate and total free fatty acids were similar in patients and healthy subjects at rest and during exercise. In line with the higher relative workload...... of the patients, glucose mobilization and total carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the patients compared with the healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: During moderate-intensity exercise, the balance between fat and carbohydrate use in patients with mtDNA mutations matches that seen in healthy subjects, indicating...

  1. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  2. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  3. WHAT CAN WE EXPECT USING ACE INHIBITOR RAMIPRIL IN PERSONS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND EARLY DISORDERS OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM? LESSONS OF DREAM TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary prevention of diabetes in persons with high cardiovascular risk is an actual problem. Results of DREAM trial are discussed. Influence of ACE inhibitor, ramipril, on risk of diabetes onset in patients with pre-diabetes and low cardiovascular risk is focused. Metabolic effects of other groups of antihypertensive drugs and their ability to prevent diabetes onset are compared. Ramipril three years therapy resulted in normalization in glucose level but did not have effect on frequency of diabetes onset. Change in life-style and regular usage of ACE inhibitor, ramipril, can contribute in normalization of glycemia level in patients with combination of pre-diabetes and arterial hypertension.

  4. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood ...

  5. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores. PMID:26553494

  6. Genetic and metabolic determinants of methotrexate-induced mucositis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, M. A. H.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; te Winkel, M. L.; Tissing, W.; de Rooij, J. D. E.; Gutierrez-Camino, A.; Garcia-Orad, A.; den Boer, E.; Pieters, R.; Pluijm, S. M. F.; de Jonge, R.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective and toxic chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this prospective study, we aimed to identify metabolic and genetic determinants of MTX toxicity. One hundred and thirty-four Dutch pediatric ALL patients were treat

  7. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  8. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  9. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  10. Changes of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in seedling leaves of a temperature-induced greenable albino mutant line W25 of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; SHUQingyao; XIAYingwu

    1998-01-01

    W25 is a low-temperature sensitive albino mutant line, Temperature not only controls the albino phenotype expression of W2o, but also determines whether it could survive, When the temperature is lower than 25℃. the leaves of W25 shows complete albino, but they exhibits normal green when temperature is higher than 30℃

  11. Relation of bud dormancy to carbohydrate metabolism in Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok.%休眠期欧李碳水化合物代谢与休眠关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀珍; 陈苏丹; 李天忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned on the relation of bud dormancy to carbohydrate metabolism, The annual shoots from underground stem was used as the experimental materials. The components of carbohydrates and the enzymes activities were measured in phloem and bud of dormant Cerasus humilis (Bge.) Sok. The results indicated that soluble sugar content was higher than starch in phloem and bud in dormancy period. The highest ratio of soluble sugar and starch reached to 4.77. Most sugar was sucrose and then fructose, sorbitol and glucose. A few amount of fructose in bud were detected in natural dormancy stage. But its content increased rapidly in enhanced dormancy stage and in germination period,reaching to 2.05% in germination period. The changes in enzyme activities in phloem and bud were in line with that of soluble sugar. The activity of SPS was higher than that of other enzymes, but quickly decreased in natural dormancy stage,and reached to minimum at the end of the natural dormancy. The reduction in bud and phloem was 94. 18% and 84.78% respectively. The activity of p-amylase was higher that of a-amylase. Based on the integrated analyses above,the main accumulated carbohydrate in dormant Chinese dwarf cherry was soluble sugar. The relief of natural dormancy was obviously linked with the change of sucrose and reduction of the SPS activity. Change in the fructose contents was related to the dormancy and germination of bud.%为探讨休眠期欧李碳水化合物代谢与休眠的关系,以休眠期欧李1年生基生枝为试材,采用气相色谱等方法,分析了韧皮部、芽中碳水化合物含量及其相关酶活性变化。结果表明:休眠阶段欧李韧皮部和芽中可溶性糖含量均高于淀粉,二者比值最高可达4.77,其中含量最高的为蔗糖,其次是果糖、山梨醇和葡萄糖;自然休眠期芽中检查不到果糖含量,但在被迫休眠期和芽萌动期迅速增加,至芽萌动期质量分数达2.05%;休眠期韧皮部和芽中

  12. Wholeness and primary and secondary food structure effects on in vitro digestion patterns determine nutritionally distinct carbohydrate fractions in cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Suman; Monro, John

    2012-12-01

    Starchy foods of differing structure, including bakery products, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pulses were digested in vitro. Bakery products and processed breakfast cereals with little resilient structure yielded large amounts of rapidly available carbohydrate (RAC), less slowly digested starch (SDS) and little inaccessible digestible starch (IDS) (70:22:8%). Partially processed grains, such as rolled oats contained an increased proportion of SDS (55:38:7%). Pastas, being dense starch structures digested more gradually to completion by superficial erosion, yielding approximately equal proportions of RAC and SDS but little IDS (43:52:4%). Pulses, which retained their cellular morphology, digested more linearly yielding a lower proportion of RAC, a larger proportion of SDS and more IDS (9:69:22%). Preservation of native "primary" structure, and use of processing to create "secondary" structure, are both means by which wholeness, in the sense of intactness, can be used to influence carbohydrate digestion to make foods of lower glycaemic impact.

  13. Utilization of economical substrate-derived carbohydrates by solventogenic clostridia: pathway dissection, regulation and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2014-10-01

    Solventogenic clostridia can produce acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by using different carbohydrates. For economical reasons, the utilization of cheap and renewable biomass in clostridia-based ABE fermentation has recently attracted increasing interests. With the study of molecular microbiology and development of genetic tools, the understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in clostridia has increased in recent years. Here, we review the pioneering work in this field, with a focus on dissecting the pathways and describing the regulation of the metabolism of economical substrate-derived carbohydrates by clostridia. Recent progress in the metabolic engineering of carbohydrate utilization pathways is also described.

  14. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  15. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Zhao; Hong Yan; Ruihai Yang; Qiang Li; Shaonong Dang; Yuying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Edu...

  16. Effect of Weak Light Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism of Flue-cured Tobacco%弱光胁迫对云南烤烟碳水化合物代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭振兴; 徐向丽; 徐双红; 易克; 韩定国; 朱毅

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed o discuss the effect of weak light stress on the carbohydrate metabolism of Yuannan flue-cured tobaccos during the period from topping to baking. [Method] The flue-cured tobaccos was covered by using the sunshade net with the shading rate of 75% and the effect of weak light stress on the carbohydrate metabolism in the middle and upper leaves of Yuanyan 87. [Result] The weak light stress in the different time reduced the contents of starch, total sugar, reducing sugar and sucrose, but had no significant effect on the contents of glucose and fructose in the upper leaves of flue-cured tobacco; its influence on middle leaves was significant than that on the upper leaves, it reduced the contents of starch, total sugar and reducing sugar, increased the sucrose content, and had no notable effect on the contents of glucose and fructose in the middle leaves. [Conclusion] Under the weak light stress, the contents of starch, total sugar and reducing sugar in the tobacco leaves was decreased obviously. The influence of the weak light stress on the middle leaves was greater than that on the upper leaves, and the influence was enhanced with the prolonging of the stress tine, so in the production it should using the way with the reasonable density could reduce the influence of weak light stress on the flue-cured tobacco.%[目的]探讨弱光胁迫对云南烤烟打项至采烤期间碳水化合物代谢的影响,为云南烤烟提质增效提供理论依据.[方法]利用遮阳网(遮光率75%)对烤烟进行遮盖,研究弱光胁迫对云烟87中部及上部烟叶碳水化合物代谢的影响.[结果]不同时间的弱光胁迫降低了烤烟上部叶中淀粉、总糖、还原糖、蔗糖的含量,对葡萄糖、果糖含量无显著影响;对中部叶影响比上部叶显著,降低了中部烟叶中淀粉、总糖、还原糖的含量,增加了蔗糖含量,对葡萄糖、果糖含量无显著影响.[结论]在弱光胁迫下,烟叶中的淀粉

  17. Comparison of Carbohydrate Metabolism after Anthesis in the Leaves of Two Tomato Types%两种不同类型番茄叶片中碳水化合物代谢的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利; 崔娜; 范海延; 苗青; 曲波; 李天来

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of tomato Solanum chmielewskii and Micro-Tom were used to studcy the dynamic changes of carbohydrate in their leaves at different growth stages and define the carbohydrate metabolism after anthesis, providing a referance for the study of sugar metabolism of Micro-Tom and the utilization of wild tomato resources. The main results showed that the contents of fructose and glucose in the leaves of Micro -Tom were significantly 247% and 290% higher than those of Solanum chmielewskii at 25 days after anthesis and the sucrose contents in the leaves of Micro-Tom were 111%, 96% and 169% higher than those of Solanum chmielewskii at 25 days, 35 days and 45 days after anthesis, respectively; the content of starch in the leaves of Solanum chmielewskii was 142% higher than that of Micro-Tom. Activities of invertases including acid invertase and neutral invertase in Micro-Tom were 348% and 138% higher than those in Solanum chmielewskii at 25 days after anthesis; sucrose synthase in Micro-Tom was always higher than that in Solanum chmielewskii at the same stage, however, sucrose phosphate synthase in Solanum chmielewskii was always higher during the whole development of fruits.%选用野生型番茄克梅留斯基(Solanum chmielewskii)和普通栽培型番茄Micro-Tom(Solanum lycopersicum)为试验材料,比较两种不同类型番茄花后不同生长阶段叶片中碳水化合物代谢的动态变化,明确其在开花后叶片碳水化合物代谢的规律,为以Micro-Tom为试材的糖代谢研究及野生型番茄资源的利用服务.结果表明:在番茄开花后25d,叶片中果糖、葡萄糖含量Micro-Tom明显高于克梅留斯基,分别高出247%和290%;花后25,35d,45d Micro-Tom叶片中蔗糖含量高于克梅留斯基,分别高出111%、96%和169%;而克梅留斯基在花后15d,叶片中淀粉含量明显高于Micro-Tom,为142%.转化酶(酸性转化酶和中性转化酶)活性在花后25d Micro-Tom叶片明显高

  18. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  19. Determination of Carbohydrates in Cigarette by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography%超高效液相色谱法测定卷烟烟丝中7种水溶性糖含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤建国; 袁大林; 乔丹娜

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the determination of seven carbohydrates such as rhamnose, xylose, fructose, mannose, glucose, sucrose, maltose in cigarette by ultra performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector was established. The carbohydrates were separated on acquity UPLC BEH Amide column by using acetonitrile-0.2%TEA-water as the mobile phase. The linear regression coefficients of seven carbohydrates were more than 0.999, detection limits were 0.56-1.11 ug/mL. Recoveries of the method for the seven carbohydrates were 90.4%-106.4% with relative standard deviations of 0.78%-5.66 %(n=6). This method is sensitive and accurate, it can be applied to the determination of carbohydrates in cigarette.%以ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide柱为分析柱,乙腈- 0.2%三乙胺-水作为流动相,建立了超高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测器测定卷烟烟丝中鼠李糖、木糖、果糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖、蔗糖、麦芽糖7种水溶性糖的分析方法.7种水溶性糖回归方程的线性相关系数均大于0.999,检出限为0.56~1.11 μg/mL.7种水溶糖的回收率在90.43%~106.41%之间,相对标准偏差为1.66%~4.35%(n=6).该方法灵敏度、准确度高,稳定性好,可用于大批量卷烟烟丝中水溶性糖含量的测定.

  20. Dietary Proteins as Determinants of Metabolic and Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Harvey Anderson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins elicit a wide range of nutritional and biological functions. Beyond their nutritional role as the source of amino acids for protein synthesis, they are instrumental in the regulation of food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, bone metabolism and immune function. The interaction of dietary proteins and their products of digestion with the regulatory functions of the gastrointestinal (GI tract plays a dominant role in determining the physiological properties of proteins. The site of interaction is widespread, from the oral cavity to the colon. The characteristics of proteins that influence their interaction with the GI tract in a source-dependent manner include their physico-chemical properties, their amino acid composition and sequence, their bioactive peptides, their digestion kinetics and also the non-protein bioactive components conjugated with them. Within the GI tract, these products affect several regulatory functions by interacting with receptors releasing hormones, affecting stomach emptying and GI transport and absorption, transmitting neural signals to the brain, and modifying the microflora. This review discusses the interaction of dietary proteins during digestion and absorption with the physiological and metabolic functions of the GI tract, and illustrates the importance of this interaction in the regulation of amino acid, glucose, lipid metabolism, and food intake.

  1. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  2. 饲料碳、脂比例对胭脂鱼幼鱼生长及糖代谢的影响%Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid levels on growth performance and carbohydrate metabolism of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颂; 蒋明; 文华; 黄凤; 吴凡; 田娟; 刘伟

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]This study investigated the influences of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid m( CHO)∶m ( L) on growth performance , feed utilization and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes activities of juvenile Chinese sucker , Myxocyprinus asiaticus to detect the suitable addition proportion of m( CHO)∶m( L) to the diet of juvenile Chinese sucker .[Method]Six isonitrogenous ( crude protein 41%) and isoenergetic (16 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain with graded levels of m( CHO)∶m( L) (0.29,0.81,1.58, 2.88 ,5.46 and 13.22 ) .Each diet was randomly fed to one treatment of Chinese sucker with an average initial body mass of (4.01 ±0.02) g for 8 weeks.Mass gain rate(MGR), specific growth rate (SGR), body composition and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes activities of juvenile Chinese sucker were detec -ted and analyzed .[Result and conclusion]The mass gain rate and specific growth rate increased initially but then decreased with the increasing dietary m( CHO)∶m( L) , thus reaching the highest in fish fed di-ets with m(CHO)∶m(L) of 5.46, which was significantly higher than those of fish fed other diets (P0.05 ) .Based on broken-line regression analysis of SGR against di-etary m( CHO)∶m( L) , a m( CHO)∶m( L) of 4.65 was proved to be optimal for the growth of juvenile Chinese sucker .%【目的】研究饲料中碳水化合物(CHO)与脂肪(L)比例[m(CHO)∶m(L)]对胭脂鱼Myxocyprinus asiaticus幼鱼生长、饲料利用及糖代谢酶活力的影响,确定其适宜添加比例.【方法】以m( CHO)∶m( L)为0.29、0.81、1.58、2.88、5.46和13.22的6种等氮(粗蛋白质量分数41%)等能(16 kJ/g)饲料,投喂初始体质量为(4.01±0.02) g的胭脂鱼幼鱼8周,测定并分析其对胭脂鱼幼鱼增质量率、特定生长率、鱼体营养成分和糖代谢酶活力等指标的影响.【结果和结论】随着饲料m(CHO)∶m(L)增加,胭脂鱼幼鱼的增质量率和特定生长率先上升

  3. Dynamic changes in fat oxidation in human primary myocytes mirror metabolic characteristics of the donor

    OpenAIRE

    Ukropcova, Barbara; McNeil, Michele; Sereda, Olga; de Jonge, Lilian; Xie, Hui; Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility of skeletal muscle, that is, the preference for fat oxidation (FOx) during fasting and for carbohydrate oxidation in response to insulin, is decreased during insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the capacity of myotubes to oxidize fat in vitro reflects the donor’s metabolic characteristics. Insulin sensitivity (IS) and metabolic flexibility of 16 healthy, young male subjects was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Muscle ...

  4. The association between carbohydrate-rich foods and risk of cardiovascular disease is not modified by genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia as determined by 80 validated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sonestedt

    Full Text Available It is still unclear whether carbohydrate consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Genetic susceptibility might modify the associations between dietary intakes and disease risk.The aim was to examine the association between the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods (vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, potatoes, whole grains, refined grains, cookies and cakes, sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages and the risk of incident ischemic CVD (iCVD; coronary events and ischemic stroke, and whether these associations differ depending on genetic susceptibility to dyslipidemia.Among 26,445 individuals (44-74 years; 62% females from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, 2,921 experienced an iCVD event during a mean follow-up time of 14 years. At baseline, dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method, and clinical risk factors were measured in 4,535 subjects. We combined 80 validated genetic variants associated with triglycerides and HDL-C or LDL-C, into genetic risk scores and examined the interactions between dietary intakes and genetic risk scores on the incidence of iCVD.Subjects in the highest intake quintile for whole grains had a 13% (95% CI: 3-23%; p-trend: 0.002 lower risk for iCVD compared to the lowest quintile. A higher consumption of foods rich in added sugar (sugar and sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages had a significant cross-sectional association with higher triglyceride concentrations and lower HDL-C concentrations. A stronger positive association between a high consumption of sugar and sweets on iCVD risk was observed among those with low genetic risk score for triglycerides (p-interaction=0.05.In this prospective cohort study that examined food sources of carbohydrates, individuals with a high consumption of whole grains had a decreased risk of iCVD. No convincing evidence of an interaction between genetic susceptibility for dyslipidemia, measured as genetic risk scores of

  5. The effect of low-carbohydrate diets for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome, obesity, weight%低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者体重和代谢综合征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of low-carbohydrate diets for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver weight obesity and metabolic syndrome.Methods: 32 patients in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver fat low carbohydrate diet intervention, before and after comparison analysis. Results: 32 cases of patients with BMI, TG, TC, LDL-C lowering, HDL-C increased compared with before the intervention significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion: Low-carbohydrate diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in obese patients with weight and metabolic syndrome improved significantly.%目的:探讨低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者体重和代谢综合征的影响。方法32例非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者患者低碳水化合物饮食干预,前、后对照分析。结果32例患者BMI、TG、TC、LDL-C降低,HDL-C上升,与干预前比较差异明显(P <0.05)。结论低碳水化合物饮食对非酒精性脂肪肝肥胖患者体重和代谢综合征改善明显。

  6. Effect of low temperature on phytohormones and carbohydrates metabolism in Ber-muda grass%低温胁迫对狗牙根激素和碳水化合物代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 娄燕宏; 杨知建; 向佐湘; 徐庆国; 胡龙兴

    2016-01-01

    以杂交狗牙根品种天堂419,天堂328,老鹰草,运动百慕大和普通狗牙根品种保定狗牙根为试验材料,分析了人工模拟昼夜温度为适温(30℃/25℃)、亚适温(18℃/10℃)、冷害(8℃/4℃)和冻害(4℃/-4℃)等4种梯度降温冷驯化条件下,低温胁迫对狗牙根叶片细胞膜稳定性、叶绿素含量、内源激素(ABA、IAA,GA3和 tZR)以及可溶性糖、淀粉、果聚糖、总非结构性糖等碳水化合物代谢的影响。结果表明:随着温度的降低,狗牙根叶片的电导率显著升高,叶绿素含量下降,内源激素 ABA 含量升高,而 IAA,GA3和 tZR 含量均下降;碳水化合物中可溶性糖、果糖和总非结构性糖含量在5个品种中均呈不同程度的升高,但不同品种在冷驯化过程中不同温度处理下其变化差异较大,如天堂328、老鹰草和运动百慕大的淀粉含量下降;天堂419的淀粉含量变化不大,而保定狗牙根的淀粉含量则呈上升趋势。综合分析各生理指标的变化,5个狗牙根品种的抗寒能力强弱为:保定狗牙根最弱,而天堂419,老鹰草、天堂328和运动百慕大耐寒能力依次较强。低温胁迫下积累或维持较高的内源激素 ABA、GA3、IAA、tZR和碳水化合物可溶性糖和果聚糖可能是耐寒性较强的主要原因,这些代谢物的积累或维持有助于狗牙根细胞内渗透平衡和细胞膜稳定性的维持,延缓叶片的枯黄衰老和诱导抗性相关基因或蛋白的表达从而提高了狗牙根品种的抗寒能力。%To investigate the effects of modulated cold acclimation on the leaf membrane stability,chlorophyll content,endogenous hormones (ABA,IAA,GA3 ,tZR),and carbohydrate (soluble sugars,starch,fructan, total nonstructural carbohydrates)metabolism,five Bermuda grass cultivars,Tifway,Tifgreen,Tifsport, Tifeagle and Baoding were selected and treated under a range of temperatures

  7. Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Jiang; Jing Li; Lan Ma

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy metabolism is a fundamental biological process that is vital for the survival of all species. Disorders in the metabolic system result in deficiency or redundancy of certain nutrients, including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, etc. Abnormality of the energy metabolism system leads to a number of metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. Broadly speaking, the term "metabolic diseases" now tends to be widened to the category that refers to all diseases with metabolism disorder.

  8. Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demars B. O.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP − ER has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015, GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake

  9. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in Paenibacillus macerans: metabolic pathways and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Murarka, Abhishek; Campbell, Paul; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-09-01

    Paenibacillus macerans is one of the species with the broadest metabolic capabilities in the genus Paenibacillus, able to ferment hexoses, deoxyhexoses, pentoses, cellulose, and hemicellulose. However, little is known about glycerol metabolism in this organism, and some studies have reported that glycerol is not fermented. Despite these reports, we found that several P. macerans strains are capable of anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. One of these strains, P. macerans N234A, grew fermentatively on glycerol at a maximum specific growth rate of 0.40 h(-1) and was chosen for further characterization. The use of [U-13C]glycerol and further analysis of extracellular metabolites and proteinogenic amino acids via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy allowed identification of ethanol, formate, acetate, succinate, and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as fermentation products and demonstrated that glycerol is incorporated into cellular components. A medium formulation with low concentrations of potassium and phosphate, cultivation at acidic pH, and the use of a CO2-enriched atmosphere stimulated glycerol fermentation and are proposed to be environmental determinants of this process. The pathways involved in glycerol utilization and synthesis of fermentation products were identified using NMR spectroscopy in combination with enzyme assays. Based on these studies, the synthesis of ethanol and 1,2-PDO is proposed to be a metabolic determinant of glycerol fermentation in P. macerans N234A. Conversion of glycerol to ethanol fulfills energy requirements by generating one molecule of ATP per molecule of ethanol synthesized. Conversion of glycerol to 1,2-PDO results in the consumption of reducing equivalents, thus facilitating redox balance. Given the availability, low price, and high degree of reduction of glycerol, the high metabolic rates exhibited by P. macerans N234A are of paramount importance for the production of fuels and chemicals. PMID:19617389

  10. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... that increasing the protein content of the diet from 15% up to 20–30%, at the expense of carbohydrate, increases the satiating effect of the diet, and induces a spontaneous weight loss, and this could turn out to be a preferred option for patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes....

  11. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  12. Use of scanning calorimetry and microrespiration to determine effects of Bt toxin doses on Pandemis leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential scanning calorimetry and microrespiration were used to determine the effects of the biopesticide, Bt toxin, on the metabolism of infected Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis purusana (Kearfott). The metabolic heat rate, CO2 evolution, O2 consumption of 2nd and 3rd instars following a 2 h expo...

  13. Defective carbohydrate metabolism in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Deepali

    2015-01-01

    La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad crónica del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en el que episodios repetidos de inflamación (bortes), dan lugar a inflamación que conduce a la interrupción de la vaina de mielina por daños producidos en la misma. Junto a este fenómeno de inflación focal, existe una inflamación difusa en el SNC, que unida a la anterior, dará lugar a que aparezca un proceso de neurodegeneración, que será el responsable último de la afectación axonal y neuronal difusa qu...

  14. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during Giardia encystment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Jarroll, E.L.; Macechko, P.T.; Steimle, P.A.; Bulik, D.; Karr, C.D.; Keulen, Harry van; Paget, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis trophozoites encyst when they are exposed to bile. During encystment, events related to the inducible synthesis of a novel N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer, occur. Within the first 6 h of encystment, mRNA for glucosamine 6-P isomerase (GPI), the first inducible enzy

  15. Protein,carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930463 The relation of polymorphism of LDLreceptor gene with serum cholesterol levels.FAN Leming(范乐明),et al.Atherosclerosis ResCenter,Nanjing Med Coll,Nanjing,210029.NatlMed J China 1993;73(4):242—244.PvuII polymorphism of LDL receptor gene andserum lipid levels were analysed in 115 nor-molipidemic subjects and 57 individuals with hy-percholesterolemia.A significant relationshipwas found between P2 allele and lower serumcholesterol level,suggesting that the LDL recep-tor might contribute to the variation in choles-terol levels in normolipidemic population.Al-

  16. Protein,carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010295 Relation of serum leptin and adiponectin to cardiovascular risk factors in older adults:a Guangzhou biobank cohort study-CVD. BAO Bei(鲍蓓),et al. Guangzhou No 12 Hosp,Guangzhou 510620.Chin J Epidemiol 2010;31(2):121-125. Objective To study the serum leptin and adiponectin levels among relatively healthy older people and their association with

  17. Determining novel functions of Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins in central metabolic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Celine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are considered master regulators of many signal transduction cascades in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have major roles as regulators of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, conclusions based on the studies of a few specific 14-3-3 targets. Results In this study, extensive novel roles of 14-3-3 proteins in plant metabolism were determined through combining the parallel analyses of metabolites and enzyme activities in 14-3-3 overexpression and knockout plants with studies of protein-protein interactions. Decreases in the levels of sugars and nitrogen-containing-compounds and in the activities of known 14-3-3-interacting-enzymes were observed in 14-3-3 overexpression plants. Plants overexpressing 14-3-3 proteins also contained decreased levels of malate and citrate, which are intermediate compounds of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. These modifications were related to the reduced activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of TCA cycle. In addition, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 proteins interacted with one isocitrate dehydrogenase and two malate dehydrogenases. There were also changes in the levels of aromatic compounds and the activities of shikimate dehydrogenase, which participates in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that 14-3-3 proteins play roles as crucial tuners of multiple primary metabolic processes including TCA cycle and the shikimate pathway.

  18. Determining the control circuitry of redox metabolism at the genome-scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Federowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining how facultative anaerobic organisms sense and direct cellular responses to electron acceptor availability has been a subject of intense study. However, even in the model organism Escherichia coli, established mechanisms only explain a small fraction of the hundreds of genes that are regulated during electron acceptor shifts. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs, ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome-scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes by ArcA and extensive activation of chemiosmotic genes by Fnr. We further corroborated this regulatory scheme by showing a 0.71 r(2 (p<1e-6 correlation between changes in metabolic flux and changes in regulatory activity across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Finally, we are able to relate the proposed model to a wealth of previously generated data by contextualizing the existing transcriptional regulatory network.

  19. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  20. 贮藏温度对彩色马蹄莲块茎糖类代谢与生长的影响%Effects of Storage Treatments on Growth and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Calia Lily Tubers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涤; 李瑞芳; 贾桂霞; 王贤; 卫尊征

    2011-01-01

    以彩色马蹄莲(Zantedeschia hybrids)的Black Magic为试材,研究其块茎经不同贮藏温度和时间处理后,块茎碳水化合物代谢及后期植株生长的变化.结果表明,贮藏温度越高,淀粉降解越快;各温度处理总可溶性糖含量与蔗糖含量变化趋势基本一致,9、12、15℃下,贮藏第28天总可溶性糖含量与蔗糖含量达到峰值后明显下降;12℃、15℃贮藏第56天淀粉酶活性达到峰值后明显下降,还原糖含量上升到较高水平,总可溶性糖含量处于较低水平;此阶段块茎萌芽率快速提高,萌芽伸长明显;块茎栽植后株高迅速增高、开花较多.贮藏第56天块茎休眠的打破、萌发与糖类物质变化密切相关.在本试验中,短期贮藏(56 d)以12℃为宜,长期贮藏(112 d)以12℃贮藏56 d再降低至6℃最佳.%Different temperature treatments on Calla lily were used to study the changes of carbohydrate metabolism in tubers, the germination and growth of Calla lily.The results indicated that starch content in tubers declined along with the increase of storage temperature, and the changes of sucrose content accorded with that of total soluble sugar, however, the changes of reducing sugar had the opposite trend at 56 d.Amylase activities decreased as the storage temperature increased.In this period tubers sprouted obviously, and plant height and flower numbers increased.It was suggested that the turning point of sugar contents should be related to the beginning of tuber sprout.The results indicated that the best treatments of short period storage is at 12 ℃ for 56 d, and long period storage is at 12 ℃ for 56 d,then turn to 6 ℃ for 56 d.

  1. Vida útil e metabolismo de carboidratos em raízes de mandioquinha-salsa sob refrigeração e filme de PVC Shelf life and carbohydrate metabolism of arracacha roots stored under refrigeration and PVC film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Antonio Ribeiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e do uso do filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC sobre a perda de matéria fresca e água, incidência de danos causados por frio e metabolismo pós-colheita dos carboidratos, em raízes tuberosas de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. O filme de PVC reduziu a perda de matéria fresca e manteve o teor de água das raízes, durante o armazenamento por 60 dias a 5 e 10ºC. Os danos causados por frio foram inibidos nas raízes embaladas em filme de PCV, em ambas as temperaturas de armazenamento. As baixas temperaturas induziram o acúmulo de açúcares solúveis e a degradação de amido e, para as raízes armazenadas sem PVC, o aumento do conteúdo dos açúcares solúveis foi transiente e a taxa de degradação de amido foi superior à das raízes armazenadas com PVC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the storage temperature and stretch polyvinylchloride (PVC film on the loss of fresh weight and water, on the development of chilling injury symptoms, and on the postharvest metabolism of carbohydrates, in arracacha tuber roots (Arracacia xanthorrhiza. The PVC film reduced the fresh weight loss and kept water content in the roots during 60-day storage period at 5 and 10ºC. PVC film in both storage temperatures inhibited the development of external and internal chilling injury symptoms. The low temperatures induced the increase of soluble sugar content and decrease of starch concentration, where the increase in soluble sugar was transient in roots stored without PVC film, and the rate of starch degradation was higher compared to the roots stored with PVC.

  2. Effect of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Infection on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Citrus sinensis%柑橘黄龙病菌侵染对甜橙叶片糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴越; 苏华楠; 黄爱军; 周彦; 李中安; 刘金香; 周常勇

    2015-01-01

    具有显著相关性(P<0.05)。蔗糖分解相关基因中,蔗糖合成酶基因 SuSy 在感病不同时期的表达差异不大,变化幅度小;细胞壁酸性转化酶基因 CSCWI 在不同时期均上调表达,最高上调约7.4倍,且表达量一直维持在较高水平;与 CSCWI 相比,液泡酸性转化酶基因 CUAI1的表达水平较低。淀粉合成相关酶 ADP-葡萄糖焦磷酸化酶基因最高上调3倍左右;淀粉分解相关基因 BAM3、MEX1和 DPE2在不同时期有所下调,达到显著性差异水平(P<0.05)。【结论】柑橘黄龙病感染甜橙后,对植株叶片中光合产物的形成与运转产生影响,扰乱宿主糖代谢平衡,与宿主淀粉积累及后期症状的产生有密切关系。%[Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) infection on carbohydrate metabolism in Citrus sinensis, elucidate the relationship between HLB infection and starch accumulation, and provide a theoretical basis for HLB pathogenesis. [Method]C. sinensis were used as the experimental materials, plants were inoculated by grafting three bark pieces onto the rootstock portion of each plant. For infected plants, bark pieces were derived from trees infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which were confirmed positive for Ca. L. asiaticus by PCR. For non-infected plants, bark pieces were obtained from healthy trees. Three plants in good growth state were chosen for successive test, mature leaves were collected every month until October. DNA and RNA were extracted, the content of soluble sugar and starch were measured immediately, the other leaf tissue was snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃ for testing carbohydrate metabolism related key enzyme activities. At the same time, the expression levels were compared using real-time quantitative PCR analysis.[Result]The content of soluble sugar and starch tended to increase with time extended, and their peak value were respectively

  3. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any ...

  4. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Ignacio Hormaza, José; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A CZE method with two different MS detection conditions (MRM and Full Scan) was developed to determine qualitative and quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana). LODs in MRM approach were found between 20.1 and 203.0 ppb for abscisic acid and perseitol, respectively, whilst in Full Scan, varied within the range 0.22–1.90 ppm for the same metabolites. The RSDs for reproducibility test did not exceed 11.45%. The two MS approaches were used to quantify 10 metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, a carbohydrate, an organic acid, a vitamin and a phytohormone) in 18 samples of avocado at different ripening states, and the achieved results were compared. Perseitol, quinic, chlorogenic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as epicatechin and catechin decreased during the ripening process, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids showed the opposite trend. Moreover, some other unknown compounds whose concentration changed largely during ripening were also studied by MS/MS and QTOF MS to get a tentative identification.

  5. Determination of changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana) by two CE-MS approaches (targeted and non-targeted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, Paulina K; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Gómez-Romero, María; Ignacio Hormaza, José; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    A CZE method with two different MS detection conditions (MRM and Full Scan) was developed to determine qualitative and quantitative changes in the metabolic profile of avocado fruits (Persea americana). LODs in MRM approach were found between 20.1 and 203.0 ppb for abscisic acid and perseitol, respectively, whilst in Full Scan, varied within the range 0.22–1.90 ppm for the same metabolites. The RSDs for reproducibility test did not exceed 11.45%. The two MS approaches were used to quantify 10 metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, a carbohydrate, an organic acid, a vitamin and a phytohormone) in 18 samples of avocado at different ripening states, and the achieved results were compared. Perseitol, quinic, chlorogenic, trans-cinnamic, pantothenic and abscisic acids, as well as epicatechin and catechin decreased during the ripening process, whereas ferulic and p-coumaric acids showed the opposite trend. Moreover, some other unknown compounds whose concentration changed largely during ripening were also studied by MS/MS and QTOF MS to get a tentative identification. PMID:24228266

  6. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, P M

    2005-01-01

    The most widely spread eating habit is characterized by a reduced intake of dietary fiber, an increased intake of simple sugars, a high intake of refined grain products, an altered fat composition of the diet, and a dietary pattern characterized by a high glycemic load, an increased body weight and reduced physical activity. In this chapter the effects of this eating pattern on disease risk will be outlined. There are no epidemiological studies showing that the increase of glucose, fructose or sucrose intake is directly and independently associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). On the other hand a large number of studies has reported a reduction of fatal and non-fatal CHD events as a function of the intake of complex carbohydrates--respectively 'dietary fiber' or selected fiber-rich food (e.g., whole grain cereals). It seems that eating too much 'fast' carbohydrate [i.e., carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI)] may have deleterious long-term consequences. Indeed the last decades have shown that a low fat (and consecutively high carbohydrate) diet alone is not the best strategy to combat modern diseases including atherosclerosis. Quantity and quality issues in carbohydrate nutrient content are as important as they are for fat. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that for cardiovascular disease prevention a high sugar intake should be avoided. There is growing evidence of the high impact of dietary fiber and foods with a low GI on single risk factors (e.g., lipid pattern, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial function etc.) as well as also the development of the endpoints of atherosclerosis especially CHD. PMID:16596802

  7. Natural Selection at the Brush-Border: Adaptations to Carbohydrate Diets in Humans and Other Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontremoli, Chiara; Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Pozzoli, Uberto; Menozzi, Giorgia; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Dietary shifts can drive molecular evolution in mammals and a major transition in human history, the agricultural revolution, favored carbohydrate consumption. We investigated the evolutionary history of nine genes encoding brush-border proteins involved in carbohydrate digestion/absorption. Results indicated widespread adaptive evolution in mammals, with several branches experiencing episodic selection, particularly strong in bats. Many positively selected sites map to functional protein regions (e.g., within glucosidase catalytic crevices), with parallel evolution at SI (sucrase-isomaltase) and MGAM (maltase-glucoamylase). In human populations, five genes were targeted by positive selection acting on noncoding variants within regulatory elements. Analysis of ancient DNA samples indicated that most derived alleles were already present in the Paleolithic. Positively selected variants at SLC2A5 (fructose transporter) were an exception and possibly spread following the domestication of specific fruit crops. We conclude that agriculture determined no major selective event at carbohydrate metabolism genes in humans, with implications for susceptibility to metabolic disorders. PMID:26319403

  8. The rate of metabolism as a factor determining longevity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molon, Mateusz; Szajwaj, Monika; Tchorzewski, Marek; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Despite many controversies, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be used as a model organism for the study of aging. Numerous theories and hypotheses have been created for several decades, yet basic mechanisms of aging have remained unclear. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is to propose a possible mechanism leading to increased longevity in yeast. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that there is a link between decreased metabolic activity, fertility and longevity expressed as time of life in yeast. Determination of reproductive potential and total lifespan with the use of fob1Δ and sfp1Δ mutants allows us to compare the "longevity" presented as the number of produced daughters with the longevity expressed as the time of life. The results of analyses presented in this paper suggest the need for a change in the definition of longevity of yeast by taking into consideration the time parameter. The mutants that have been described as "long-lived" in the literature, such as the fob1Δ mutant, have an increased reproductive potential but live no longer than their standard counterparts. On the other hand, the sfp1Δ mutant and the wild-type strain produce a similar number of daughter cells, but the former lives much longer. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the decreased efficiency of the translational apparatus and the longevity of the sfp1Δ mutant. We suggest that a possible factor regulating the lifespan is the rate of cell metabolism. To measure the basic metabolism of the yeast cells, we used the isothermal microcalorimetry method. In the case of sfp1Δ, the flow of energy, ATP concentration, polysome profile and translational fitness are significantly lower in comparison with the wild-type strain and the fob1Δ mutant.

  9. Litter size variation in hypothalamic gene expression determines adult metabolic phenotype in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early postnatal environments may have long-term and potentially irreversible consequences on hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. Litter size is an important life history trait and negatively correlated with milk intake in small mammals, and thus has been regarded as a naturally varying feature of the early developmental environment. Here we investigated the long-term effects of litter size on metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA expression involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, using the offspring reared from large (10-12 and small (3-4 litter sizes, of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii, a rodent species from Inner Mongolia grassland in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hypothalamic leptin signaling and neuropeptides were measured by Real-Time PCR. We showed that offspring reared from small litters were heavier at weaning and also in adulthood than offspring from large litters, accompanied by increased food intake during development. There were no significant differences in serum leptin levels or leptin receptor (OB-Rb mRNA in the hypothalamus at weaning or in adulthood, however, hypothalamic suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 mRNA in adulthood increased in small litters compared to that in large litters. As a result, the agouti-related peptide (AgRP mRNA increased in the offspring from small litters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support our hypothesis that natural litter size has a permanent effect on offspring metabolic phenotype and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression, and suggest central leptin resistance and the resultant increase in AgRP expression may be a fundamental mechanism underlying hyperphagia and the increased risk of overweight in pups of small litters. Thus, we conclude that litter size may be an important and central determinant of metabolic fitness in adulthood.

  10. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  11. A computer program for the algebraic determination of control coefficients in Metabolic Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Fell, D A

    1993-06-01

    A computer program (MetaCon) is described for the evaluation of flux control, concentration control and branch-point distribution control coefficients of a metabolic pathway. Requiring only the reaction scheme as input, the program produces algebraic expressions for the control coefficients in terms of elasticity coefficients, metabolite concentrations and pathway fluxes. Any of these variables can be substituted by numeric or simple algebraic expressions; the expressions will then be automatically rearranged in terms of the remaining unknown variables. When all variables have been substituted, numeric values will be obtained for the control coefficients. The program is a computerized implementation of the matrix method for the determination of control coefficients. The features of MetaCon are compared with those of other programs available to workers in Metabolic Control Analysis. Potential benefits of, and methods of using, MetaCon are discussed. The mathematical background and validity of the matrix method rules are discussed, and the algorithm used by MetaCon is described. The matrix method is shown to be a specific case of a previously described general formalism for calculating control coefficients. PMID:8503870

  12. Carbohydrate catabolic diversity of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lakshminarayanan, Bhuvaneswari; Stanton, Catherine; Paul Ross, R; Brulc, Jennifer; Menon, Ravi; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-06-16

    Because increased proportions of particular commensal bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been linked to human health through a variety of mechanisms, there is corresponding interest in identifying carbohydrates that promote growth and metabolic activity of these bacteria. We evaluated the ability of 20 carbohydrates, including several commercially available carbohydrates that are sold as prebiotic ingredients, to support growth of 32 human-derived isolates belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, including those isolated from healthy elderly subjects. In general, bifidobacterial strains were shown to display more diverse carbohydrate utilization profiles compared to the tested Lactobacillus species, with several bifidobacterial strains capable of metabolizing xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS), arabinoxylan, maltodextrin, galactan and carbohydrates containing fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) components. In contrast, maltodextrin, galactan, arabinogalactan and galactomannan did not support robust growth (≥0.8 OD600 nm) of any of the Lactobacillus strains assessed. Carbohydrate fermentation was variable among strains tested of the same species for both genera. This study advances our knowledge of polysaccharide utilization by human gut commensals, and provides information for the rational design of selective prebiotic food ingredients. PMID:25817019

  13. Energy and carbohydrate for training and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Loucks, Anne B; Broad, Nick

    2006-07-01

    Soccer players should achieve an energy intake that provides sufficient carbohydrate to fuel the training and competition programme, supplies all nutrient requirements, and allows manipulation of energy or nutrient balance to achieve changes in lean body mass, body fat or growth. Although the traditional culture of soccer has focused on carbohydrate intake for immediate match preparation, top players should adapt their carbohydrate intake on a daily basis to ensure adequate fuel for training and recovery between matches. For players with a mobile playing style, there is sound evidence that dietary programmes that restore and even super-compensate muscle glycogen levels can enhance activity patterns during matches. This will presumably also benefit intensive training, such as twice daily practices. As well as achieving a total intake of carbohydrate commensurate with fuel needs, the everyday diet should promote strategic intake of carbohydrate and protein before and after key training sessions to optimize the adaptations and enhance recovery. The achievement of the ideal physique for soccer is a long-term goal that should be undertaken over successive years, and particularly during the off-season and pre-season. An increase in lean body mass or a decrease in body fat is the product of a targeted training and eating programme. Consultation with a sports nutrition expert can assist soccer players to manipulate energy and nutrient intake to meet such goals. Players should be warned against the accidental or deliberate mismatch of energy intake and energy expenditure, such that energy availability (intake minus the cost of exercise) falls below 125 kJ (30 kcal) per kilogram of fat-free mass per day. Such low energy availability causes disturbances to hormonal, metabolic, and immune function. PMID:16766497

  14. Sugar for my honey: carbohydrate partitioning in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Grunze, Nina; Willmann, Martin; Reich, Marlis; Küster, Helge

    2007-01-01

    Simple, readily utilizable carbohydrates, necessary for growth and maintenance of large numbers of microbes are rare in forest soils. Among other types of mutualistic interactions, the formation of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between tree roots and certain soil fungi, is a way to overcome nutrient and carbohydrate limitations typical for many forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhiza formation is typical for trees in boreal and temperate forests of the northern hemisphere and alpine regions world-wide. The main function of this symbiosis is the exchange of fungus-derived nutrients for plant-derived carbohydrates, enabling the colonization of mineral nutrient-poor environments. In ectomycorrhizal symbiosis up to 1/3 of plant photoassimilates could be transferred toward the fungal partner. The creation of such a strong sink is directly related to the efficiency of fungal hexose uptake at the plant/fungus interface, a modulated fungal carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhiza, and the export of carbohydrates towards soil growing hyphae. However, not only the fungus but also the plant partner increase its expression of hexose importer genes at the plant/fungus interface. This increase in hexose uptake capacity of plant roots in combination with an increase in photosynthesis may explain how the plant deals with the growing fungal carbohydrate demand in symbiosis and how it can restrict this loss of carbohydrates under certain conditions to avoid fungal parasitism. PMID:17078984

  15. Determination of the modes of action and synergies of xylanases by analysis of xylooligosaccharide profiles over time using fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Tian, Li; Liu, Shijia; Wu, Xiuyun; Li, Fuli; Wang, Lushan

    2016-07-01

    The structure of xylan, which has a 1,4-linked β-xylose backbone with various substituents, is much more heterogeneous and complex than that of cellulose. Because of this, complete degradation of xylan needs a large number of enzymes that includes GH10, GH11, and GH3 family xylanases together with auxiliary enzymes. Fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is able to accurately differentiate unsubstituted and substituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in the heterogeneous products generated by different xylanases and allows changes in concentrations of specific XOS to be analyzed quantitatively. Based on a quantitative analysis of XOS profiles over time using FACE, we have demonstrated that GH10 and GH11 family xylanases immediately degrade xylan into sizeable XOS, which are converted into smaller XOS in a much lower speed. The shortest substituted XOS produced by hydrolysis of the substituted xylan backbone by GH10 and GH11 family xylanases were MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 and MeGlcA(2) Xyl4 , respectively. The unsubstituted xylan backbone was degraded into xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose by both GH10 and GH11 family xylanases; the product profiles are not family-specific but, instead, depend on different subsite binding affinities in the active sites of individual enzymes. Synergystic action between xylanases and β-xylosidase degraded MeGlcA(2) Xyl4 into xylose and MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 but further degradation of MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 required additional enzymes. Synergy between xylanases and β-xylosidase was also found to significantly accelerate the conversion of XOS into xylose. PMID:27060349

  16. Global microarray analysis of carbohydrate use in alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajian Song

    Full Text Available The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources.

  17. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  18. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  19. 反刍动物饲料碳水化合物和蛋白质组分划分及消化道代谢规律%Division of Carbohydrate and Protein Fractions in Feed for Ruminants and Their Metabolism in Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓花; 杨亮; 杨琴; 熊本海

    2014-01-01

    饲料养分的绝大部分是碳水化合物和蛋白质,其营养价值的准确评定及其在瘤胃内代谢规律的精细化研究对发展反刍动物的精细饲养具有重要意义,目前在国际上受到广泛关注和应用的美国康奈尔净碳水化合物和蛋白质体系( Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, CNCPS)是一种反刍动物饲料营养价值评定的重要方法,但在国内实际生产中尚未广泛应用。本文系统地概述了CNCPS中碳水化合物和蛋白质各组分的划分及其变化,并通过列举常用饲料各组分的含量和变化范围及计算公式等,全面揭示了不同类型饲料中碳水化合物及蛋白质组分的含量特性及其差异的原因,以及瘤胃降解速率( Kd)及食糜流通速率( Kp)的变化规律;同时比较了CNCPS与传统饲料养分划分体系的联系与区别。%Carbohydrate and protein account for the most of feed nutrients, and accurate assessment of their nu-tritional values and ruminal metabolism become more and more significant.Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Pro-tein System( CNCPS) as an important method to evaluate feeds nutritional values, has not been widely used in ruminant production in China.This paper systematically reviewed the division of carbohydrate and protein frac-tions in CNCPS and their changes, as well as revealed ht e diversity of carbohydrate and protein fractions in dif-ferent feedstuffs and variation of rumen degradation rate (Kd) and passage rate (Kp).The relationship and difference between CNCPS system andother assessment systems were also reviewed.

  20. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corella, Dolores

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 514C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the 75G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the 1131TC in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken.Las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales referentes al consumo de grasas en la dieta han sido realizadas sin tener en cuenta las posibles diferencias genéticas de las personas que podrían ser las responsables de las diferentes respuestas interindividuales que frecuentemente se observan ante la misma dieta. La presencia de variabilidad genética ha sido puesta de manifiesto para todos los genes relacionados con el metabolismo lipídico, por lo que existe un ingente número de genes y de variantes genéticas para ser incluidas en los estudios sobre interacciones dieta-genotipo en el ámbito específico del consumo de grasas y aceites. Se revisarán algunos ejemplos sobre interacciones grasa

  1. 糖对草鱼肝脂代谢关键基因转录水平的调控研究%Effects of Carbohydrates on Transcription of Five Key Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君君; 卢荣华; 常志光; 秦超彬; 杨峰; 聂国兴

    2015-01-01

    在目前集约化水产养殖模式下,草鱼肝脂质代谢紊乱问题比较严重,已引起人们的高度关注。为获知糖对草鱼肝脂代谢的影响及作用机理,本研究分别从活体和细胞水平上分析了糖对肝脂代谢5个关键基因转录水平变化的影响。采用实时荧光定量 PCR(qRT‐PCR)技术,检测了在低糖(糖含量24%)和高糖(糖含量42%)投喂条件下草鱼肝脏中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶的转录水平变化,H·E染色观察肝脏组织形态学变化;并检测了在不同浓度葡萄糖作用下,草鱼肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶和脂蛋白脂酶基因的表达变化。结果显示,肝组织中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶在高糖组中的表达量显著高于对照组和低糖组(P <0.05),过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α在高糖和低糖条件下变化不明显(P>0.05);H · E染色观察发现在高糖条件下草鱼肝组织出现了大量的脂肪蓄积;在其肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶、脂蛋白脂酶的mRNA表达量随葡萄糖浓度增加均呈先升后降趋势,分别在葡萄糖浓度为10 mmol/L和20 mmol/L时达到最高值(P <0.05)。研究结果表明,葡萄糖可能通过调节固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶和脂蛋白脂酶等基因的表达进而调节体内糖向脂的转化过程。研究结果为丰富鱼类糖代谢调控机理提供研究资料,并有望为提高鱼类饲料糖的利用效率提供理论依据。%In current intensive aquaculture ,the hepatopancreatic lipid metabolic disorderis are serious in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ,and has caused the attention of people .The transcriptional effects of carbohydrates on the five key genes involved in lipid metabolism in

  2. [Metabolic therapy for heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Ferdinando; Alberti, Luca; Lauretta, Ludovica; Puccetti, Patrizia; Silipigni, Carmen; Margonato, Alberto; Fragasso, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure may promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation, and determining an increased utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates for energy production. In fact, fasting blood ketone bodies as well as fat oxidation have been shown to be increased in patients with heart failure. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. A direct approach to manipulate cardiac energy metabolism consists in modifying substrate utilization by the failing heart. To date, the most effective metabolic treatments include several pharmacological agents that directly inhibit fatty acid oxidation. The results of current research are supporting the concept that shifting the energy substrate preference away from fatty acid metabolism and toward glucose metabolism could be an effective adjunctive treatment in patients with heart failure. Trimetazidine is the most studied drug in this context. Several small studies have evidenced the usefulness of such additional therapeutic tools for heart failure. More specifically, recent meta-analyses and a multicenter retrospective study have shown that additional use of trimetazidine in patients with heart failure, along with symptoms and cardiac function improvement, also provides a significant protective effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and hospitalization due to cardiac causes. Nevertheless, the exact role of metabolic therapy in heart failure is yet to be established, and a large multicenter randomized trial is necessary. PMID:25072544

  3. Determination of cerebral metabolic patterns in dementia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of the Kety-Schmidt method whole brain measurements of blood flow and metabolism were first applied to normal aged and demented patients. Chronically demented patients were consistently found to have marked reductions in cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization when dementia was severe, and lesser reductions when it was mild. Others found that cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization were decreased in parallel in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple infarct dementia (MID). The intraarterial /sup 133/Xe method has been used to determine abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow that correlate with cognitive deficits in patients with organic dementia, mostly Alzheimer's cases. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the /sup 18/F fluorodeoxyglycose (FDG) method have been applied to small numbers of demented patients with advanced AD. In general, decreases were found in global cerebral glucose utilization, but especially in temporal and parietal cortex. Others, using PET and the /sup 15/O/sub 2/ steady-state method, found a coupled decline in global cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization that was correlated with increasing severity of dementia in both AD and MID, but there was no increase in oxygen extraction ratio, and therefore no evidence to support the existence of a chronic ischemic brain process. In this chapter, the author reviews some of the recent findings at UCLA using PET and the method in the study of normal aging and dementing disorders

  4. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip;

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth...

  5. Carbohydrate loading in the preoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L T; Miller, M G A

    2015-03-01

    Nutrition support is an evolving field, and modern clinical nutrition practice should actively incorporate strategies to enhance various clinical outcomes. In surgical patients, clinical benefits can be maximised by nutritional support protocols that minimise and manage the perioperative fasting period. This approach, which includes the perioperative provision of clear carbohydrate-containing fluids, has been shown to be safe, is evidence based, and is supported by many professional societies. Such a strategy has been shown to aid the anaesthetic process and maintain an optimal metabolic state, including improved insulin sensitivity and blunted muscle catabolic activity. Some important consequences of this improved metabolic control include shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. A proactive multidisciplinary team approach is essential to use this nutrition support strategy with success across a hospital's surgical service. PMID:26294840

  6. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of diet foods. These foods may contain extra sugar as a substitute for fat calories. Try to include your child or teen as you evaluate and select healthy carbohydrate-containing foods. With ... blood sugar. By taking a smart approach to balancing carbohydrates, ...

  7. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  9. Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Leone; Potgieter, Johannes Cornelis; Steyn, Hendrik Stefanus; J. Prinsloo; De Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholest...

  10. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  11. The growth of juvenile jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense fed diets with different carbohydrate levels (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B Ulloa R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05 . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa values were found with the 18.8% carbohydrate diet. Growth performance, feed utilization parameters and the survival were the lowest with fish fed the highest carbohydrate level (35.6%. Fish body protein increased and body fat decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The body ash showed a trend similar to the body protein. It is concluded that juvenile C. managuense can grow well when fed 40% protein diets containing up to 26.5% carbohydrate.

  12. Metabolic flexibility and obesity in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, J; Duché, P; Timmons, B W

    2011-05-01

    The concept of metabolic flexibility describes the ability of skeletal muscle to switch between the oxidation of lipid as a fuel during fasting periods to the oxidation of carbohydrate during insulin stimulated period. Alterations in energy metabolism in adults with obesity, insulin resistance and/or type 2 diabetes induce a state of impaired metabolic flexibility, or metabolic inflexibility. Despite the increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in obese children and youth, less is known about the factors involved in the development of metabolic inflexibility in the paediatric population. Metabolic flexibility is conditioned by nutrient partitioning in response to feeding, substrate mobilization and delivery to skeletal muscle during fasting or exercising condition, and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Our aim in this review was to identify among these factors those making obese children at risk of metabolic inflexibility. The development of ectopic rather than peripheral fat storage appears to be a factor strongly linked with a reduced metabolic flexibility. Tissue growth and maturation are determinants of impaired energy metabolism later in life but also as a promising way to reverse metabolic inflexibility given the plasticity of many tissues in youth. Finally, we have attempted to identify perspectives for future investigations of metabolic flexibility in obese children that will improve our understanding of the genesis of metabolic diseases associated with obesity. PMID:20977601

  13. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A;

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P metabolic ratio decreased to an equally low level (3.2 +/- 0.3) and the surplus uptake of glucose equivalents was not significantly different (7 +/- 1 mmol; P = 0.08). A time-dependent cerebral surplus uptake of carbohydrate was not substantiated...... with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade by metoprolol. Exhaustive exercise (24.8 +/- 6.1 min; mean +/- SE) decreased the cerebral metabolic ratio from a resting value of 5.6 +/- 0.2 to 3.0 +/- 0.4 (P

  14. Oral carbohydrate loading with 18% carbohydrate beverage alleviates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative 12.6% oral carbohydrate loading is an element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol aimed at alleviating postoperative insulin resistance; however, in Japan, beverages with 18% carbohydrate content are generally used for preoperative carbohydrate loading. We investigated the effect of 18% carbohydrate loading on alleviating insulin resistance. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover-randomized study and were segregated into 2 groups: volunteers in the carbohydrate-loading group (group A) who fasted from after 9 pm and ingested 375 mL of a beverage containing 18% carbohydrate (ArginaidWaterTM; Nestle, Tokyo, Japan) between 9 pm and 12 pm, and 250 mL of the same liquid at 6:30 am. Volunteers in control group (group B) drank only water. At 8:30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) and levels of ketone bodies and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) before clamping were evaluated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Levels of blood glucose, insulin, and cytokines at the start of the clamp were similar in both the groups. The GIR in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (11.5±2.4 vs 6.2±2.2 mg/kg/min, p=0.005), while blood ketone body levels were significantly lower in group A (22±4 vs 124±119 μmol/L, p=0.04). Preoperative 18% carbohydrate loading could prevent the decrease in insulin sensitivity and suppress catabolism in healthy volunteers. Thus, carbohydrate loading with a beverage with 18% carbohydrate content might contribute to improvements in perioperative management. PMID:23353610

  15. Determination of metabolic stability using cryopreserved hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard protocols for isolating, cryopreserving, and thawing rainbow trout hepatocytes are described, along with procedures for using fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes to assess chemical metabolic stability in fish by means of a substrate depletion approach. Variations on thes...

  16. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  17. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  18. Metabolic and Hormonal Determinants of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Hemodynamics in Severely Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Vitolo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. Methods: We measured GFR (mGFR by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects. Results: Compared with mGFR, the better performing EstForm was CKD-EPI (5.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 bias by Bland-Altman analysis. mGFR was directly related with RPF, total and incremental glucose AUC, and inversely with PTH and h8 cortisol. Patients with mGFR below the median shown significantly higher PTH and lower vitamin D3. Basal or dynamic renal resistive index, FMD, pulse wave velocity were not related with mGFR. In an adjusted regression model, renal diameter and plasma flow remained related with mGFR (R2 = 0.67, accounting for 15% and 21% of mGFR variance, respectively. Conclusions: CKD-EPI formula should be preferred in morbid obesity; glucose increments during oral glucose tolerance test correlate with hyperfiltration; RPF and diameter are independent determinants of mGFR; slightly high PTH values, frequent in obesity, might influence mGFR.

  19. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  20. THE RESPONSE OF PLANT CARBOHYDRATES TO ELEVATED CO2: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT FROM FACE STUDIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS,A.; AINSWORTH,E.A.; BERNACCHI,C.J.; GIBON,Y.; STITT,M.; LONG,S.P.

    2004-08-29

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) is expected to rise from a current level of 372 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} to about 550 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} by the middle of the century (Prentice 2001). Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and universal changes observed in the leaves of C{sub 3} plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] (Drake et al 1997). Carbohydrates are the product of photosynthetic cells and the substrate for sink metabolism. However, carbohydrates are not just substrates, changes in the composition and pool size of foliar carbohydrates have the potential to communicate source-sink balance and a role for carbohydrates in the regulation of the expression of many plant genes is well established (Koch 1996). Importantly, carbohydrate feedback is thought to be the mechanism through which long-term exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] leads to a reduction in carboxylation capacity (Rogers et a1 199S, Long et al 2004). Foliar sugar content has recently been linked to an increased susceptibility of soybeans to insect herbivory (Hamilton et al submitted). In addition increases in the C:N ratio of leaf litter of plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] has been implicated in negative feedbacks on ecosystem productivity (Oechel et al 1994). Understanding of the response of foliar carbohydrates will form an important part of our ability to understand and predict the effects of rising [CO{sub 2}] on plants and ecosystems. As Free-Air CO{sub 2} enrichment technology was emerging, understanding of the link between carbohydrates and plant responses to rising [CO{sub 2}] was increasing. However, there were concerns that the hypotheses generated using model system or from studies on mostly juvenile plants grown for relatively short periods of time in controlled environments may not translate to the field. Of particular concern was the effect of a limited rooting volume. Arp (1991) argued that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2

  1. Metabolism and nutritional support in the surgical neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Agostino

    2002-06-01

    Various factors can influence the metabolism of surgical neonates. These include prematurity, operative stress, critical illness, and sepsis. The nutritional management of surgical infants with congenital or acquired intestinal abnormalities has improved after the introduction of parenteral nutrition. This article is focused on the energy and protein metabolism of surgical neonates with particular reference to the metabolic response to operative trauma and sepsis. The metabolic utilization of intravenous nutrients also is discussed. The metabolic response to operative trauma is different between neonates and adults. Infants have high rates of protein turnover and are avid retainers of nitrogen. Energy expenditure increases only transiently (4 to 6 hours) after major surgery in neonates. Protein turnover and catabolism seems not to be affected by major operative procedures in neonates. In neonates on parenteral nutrition, carbohydrate and fat have an equivalent effect on protein metabolism. The main determinants of fat utilization are carbohydrate intake and resting energy expenditure. Parenteral nutrition in surgical neonates is associated with increased production of oxygen-free radicals. This seems to be related to intravenous fat administration. Promoting fat utilization by reducing the carbohydrate to fat ratio in the intravenous diet reduces free radical activity to a similar extent as fat exclusion. Glutamine appears to be safe for use in neonates and infants and is "conditionally essential" in very-low birth weight infants and in septic neonates. Enteral glutamine supplementation in very-low birth weight infants reduces the risk of sepsis. The metabolism of surgical neonates is affected by operative trauma, critical illness, and sepsis. Nutritional support in surgical neonates has a profound impact on outcome. Exogenous glutamine can modulate immune, metabolic, and inflammatory responses. Further investigations are needed to clarify the clinical benefit of

  2. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  3. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  4. [The effect of verapamil on the course of stenocardia of effort, on the blood serum lipid level and on the basic indices of carbohydrate metabolism during the long-term use of the preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostko, S Z; Abramov, A A; Shek, A B; Mukhitdinova, G N; Galikhanova, F A; Levkovich, O A

    1992-07-01

    The therapeutical efficiency of verapamil given for 3 months was studied in 36 patients with stable exercise-induced angina by multistep gradually increasing bicycle ergometry exercise test. The effects of the agent on serum lipid levels were evaluated in 30 cases. The therapeutical effect was achieved in 24 patients; verapamil caused a pronounced increase in physical working capacity just during the acute drug test in all cases and showing growing effects within a month of treatment. No increase in therapeutical effects was observed in 12 cases in whom a rise in exercise time was insignificant during the acute drug test. Verapamil produced no noticeable effect on fasting serum glucose and insulin levels after glucose tolerance test in 19 healthy individuals and 11 patients with lower carbohydrate tolerance. Thirteen patients with primary hypercholesterolemia had decreased levels of total cholesterol due to low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:1487877

  5. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. PMID:22480785

  6. Determining the Control Circuitry of Redox Metabolism at the Genome-Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federowicz, Stephen; Kim, Donghyuk; Ebrahim, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    -scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes...... that are regulated during electron acceptor shifts. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs), ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic......, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome...

  7. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  8. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  9. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye (Secale cereale) lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, E; Rapacz, M; Dziurka, M; Kolasińska, I

    2016-07-01

    In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost. These could include flooding from melting snow and/or rain, coincident with fungal diseases. Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye (Secale cereale) plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding. These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones. Thus increase in resistant line was connected with a decrease in the energy dissipation rate in PSII/increased photosynthetic activity (energy flux for electron transport), a lower rate of starch degradation and higher rates of sucrose metabolism in leaves. The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses. These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch

  10. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye (Secale cereale) lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, E; Rapacz, M; Dziurka, M; Kolasińska, I

    2016-07-01

    In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost. These could include flooding from melting snow and/or rain, coincident with fungal diseases. Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye (Secale cereale) plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding. These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones. Thus increase in resistant line was connected with a decrease in the energy dissipation rate in PSII/increased photosynthetic activity (energy flux for electron transport), a lower rate of starch degradation and higher rates of sucrose metabolism in leaves. The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses. These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch

  11. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  12. Does Inflammation Determine Whether Obesity Is Metabolically Healthy or Unhealthy? The Aging Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO converts into metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO. What causes this transition to occur and what is the role of obesity-related mediators of inflammation during this transition is discussed in this paper.

  13. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  14. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  15. Type 2 diabetes, cognitive function and dementia: vascular and metabolic determinants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Kessels, R.P.C.; Kappelle, L.J.; Hann, E.H. de; Biessels, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic disease with a rising global prevalence. It is associated with slowly progressive end-organ damage in the eyes and kidneys, but also in the brain. The latter complication is often referred to as "diabetic encephalopathy" and is characterized by mild to moderate

  16. Determination of Arsenic Poisoning and Metabolism in Hair by Synchrotron Radiation: The Case of Phar Lap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot A. (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia)

    2010-08-26

    Fresh physical evidence about the demise of the racehorse Phar Lap (see photograph) has been gathered from the study of mane hair samples by synchrotron radiation analysis with high resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The results are indicative of arsenic ingestion and metabolism, and show that the racing champion died from arsenic poisoning.

  17. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  18. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  19. Energy metabolism determines the sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanide drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Ling-Chia; Hsia, Cheng-Yuan; Yin, Pen-Hui; Chi, Chin-Wen; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Lee, Hsin-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide particularly in Asia. Deregulation of cellular energetics was recently included as one of the cancer hallmarks. Compounds that target the mitochondria in cancer cells were proposed to have therapeutic potential. Biguanide drugs which inhibit mitochondrial complex I and repress mTOR signaling are clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) and were recently found to reduce the risk of HCC in T2DM patients. However, whether alteration of energy metabolism is involved in regulating the sensitivity of HCC to biguanide drugs is still unclear. In the present study, we treated four HCC cell lines with mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and oligomycin) and biguanide drugs (metformin and phenformin), and found that the HCC cells which had a higher mitochondrial respiration rate were more sensitive to these treatments; whereas the HCC cells which exhibited higher glycolysis were more resistant. When glucose was replaced by galactose in the medium, the altered energy metabolism from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration in the HCC cells enhanced the cellular sensitivity to mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanides. The energy metabolism change enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, mTOR repression and downregulation of cyclin D1 and Mcl-1 in response to the mitochondrial inhibitors and biguanides. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased mitochondrial oxidative metabolism upregulates the sensitivity of HCC to biguanide drugs. Enhancing the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in combination with biguanide drugs may be a therapeutic strategy for HCC.

  20. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression: impact of diet, sex, metabolic status, and cis genetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Viguerie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases.

  1. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  2. Application of compartmental metabolic models for determination of retention and excretion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an intake of radioactive material, its behaviour in the human body can be described by mathematical models, where organs, tissues or regions of the body are treated as a chain of linked compartments. The mathematical approach for such metabolic models is usually done through a system of differential equations of first order with constant coefficients. The solutions of this system of equations associates the radionuclide intake, with the fraction excreted or retained in the organ of interest. A computer program - called INCORP and for running in PC compatible microcomputers - was developed in order to find the solutions of such system of equations, using an analytical method based on expansion of series of exponential matrices. The metabolic model presented in the ICRP-30 publication was simulated using the INCORP program, in order to find the respective retention and excretion curves for selected radionuclides. (author)

  3. Obesity, metabolism, and hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and hypertension is complex and poorly understood. A developing body of information suggests that metabolic factors related to the obese state are importantly involved. The pertinent observations include: (1) Diet influences sympathetic nervous system activity. Fasting suppresses, while carbohydrate and fat feeding stimulate, sympathetic activity. (2) Dietary-induced changes in sympathetic activity contribute to the changes in metabolic rate that accompany cha...

  4. Microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection for the determination of analytes in the dopamine metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Rachel A; Reid, Erin A; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-08-01

    A method for the separation and detection of analytes in the dopamine metabolic pathway was developed using microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. The microchip consisted of a 5 cm PDMS separation channel in a simple-t configuration. Analytes in the dopamine metabolic pathway were separated using a background electrolyte composed of 15 mM phosphate at pH 7.4, 15 mM SDS, and 2.5 mM boric acid. Two different microchip substrates using different electrode materials were compared for the analysis: a PDMS/PDMS device with a carbon fiber electrode and a PDMS/glass hybrid device with a pyrolyzed photoresist film carbon electrode. While the PDMS/PDMS device generated high separation efficiencies and good resolution, more reproducible migration times were obtained with the PDMS/glass hybrid device, making it a better choice for biological applications. Lastly, the optimized method was used to monitor l-DOPA metabolism in a rat brain slice. PMID:25958983

  5. Interplay between Dioxin-Mediated Signaling and Circadian Clock: A Possible Determinant in Metabolic Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rotation of the earth on its axis creates the environment of a 24 h solar day, which organisms on earth have used to their evolutionary advantage by integrating this timing information into their genetic make-up in the form of a circadian clock. This intrinsic molecular clock is pivotal for maintenance of synchronized homeostasis between the individual organism and the external environment to allow coordinated rhythmic physiological and behavioral function. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a master regulator of dioxin-mediated toxic effects, and is, therefore, critical in maintaining adaptive responses through regulating the expression of phase I/II drug metabolism enzymes. AhR expression is robustly rhythmic, and physiological cross-talk between AhR signaling and circadian rhythms has been established. Increasing evidence raises a compelling argument that disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms contributes to the development of disease, including sleep disorders, metabolic disorders and cancers. Similarly, exposure to environmental pollutants through air, water and food, is increasingly cited as contributory to these same problems. Thus, a better understanding of interactions between AhR signaling and the circadian clock regulatory network can provide critical new insights into environmentally regulated disease processes. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the reciprocal interactions between dioxin-mediated AhR signaling and the circadian clock including how these pathways relate to health and disease, with emphasis on the control of metabolic function.

  6. Determinants of brain cell metabolic phenotypes and energy substrate utilization unraveled with a modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitana Neves

    Full Text Available Although all brain cells bear in principle a comparable potential in terms of energetics, in reality they exhibit different metabolic profiles. The specific biochemical characteristics explaining such disparities and their relative importance are largely unknown. Using a modeling approach, we show that modifying the kinetic parameters of pyruvate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial NADH shuttling within a realistic interval can yield a striking switch in lactate flux direction. In this context, cells having essentially an oxidative profile exhibit pronounced extracellular lactate uptake and consumption. However, they can be turned into cells with prominent aerobic glycolysis by selectively reducing the aforementioned parameters. In the case of primarily oxidative cells, we also examined the role of glycolysis and lactate transport in providing pyruvate to mitochondria in order to sustain oxidative phosphorylation. The results show that changes in lactate transport capacity and extracellular lactate concentration within the range described experimentally can sustain enhanced oxidative metabolism upon activation. Such a demonstration provides key elements to understand why certain brain cell types constitutively adopt a particular metabolic profile and how specific features can be altered under different physiological and pathological conditions in order to face evolving energy demands.

  7. Carbohydrate feeding and exercise: effect of beverage carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R; Seifert, J G; Eddy, D E; Paul, G L; Halaby, G A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ingesting fluids of varying carbohydrate content upon sensory response, physiologic function, and exercise performance during 1.25 h of intermittent cycling in a warm environment (Tdb = 33.4 degrees C). Twelve subjects (7 male, 5 female) completed four separate exercise sessions; each session consisted of three 20 min bouts of cycling at 65% VO2max, with each bout followed by 5 min rest. A timed cycling task (1200 pedal revolutions) completed each exercise session. Immediately prior to the first 20 min cycling bout and during each rest period, subjects consumed 2.5 ml.kg BW-1 of water placebo (WP), or solutions of 6%, 8%, or 10% sucrose with electrolytes (20 mmol.l-1 Na+, 3.2 mmol.l-1 K+). Beverages were administered in double blind, counterbalanced order. Mean (+/- SE) times for the 1200 cycling task differed significantly: WP = 13.62 +/- 0.33 min, *6% = 13.03 +/- 0.24 min, 8% = 13.30 +/- 0.25 min, 10% = 13.57 +/- 0.22 min (* = different from WP and 10%, P less than 0.05). Compared to WP, ingestion of the CHO beverages resulted in higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and higher RER values during the final 20 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). Markers of physiologic function and sensory perception changed similarly throughout exercise; no differences were observed among subjects in response to beverage treatments for changes in plasma concentrations of lactate, sodium, potassium, for changes in plasma volume, plasma osmolality, rectal temperature, heart rate, oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion, or for indices of gastrointestinal distress, perceived thirst, and overall beverage acceptance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Biochemical characterization of human gluconokinase and the proposed metabolic impact of gluconic Acid as determined by constraint based metabolic network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohatgi, Neha; Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Bjørn, Sara Petersen;

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of gluconate is well characterized in prokaryotes where it is known to be degraded following phosphorylation by gluconokinase. Less is known of gluconate metabolism in humans. Human gluconokinase activity was recently identified proposing questions about the metabolic role of gluco......, the results highlight that little is known of the mechanism of gluconate metabolism in humans despite its widespread use in medicine and consumer products.......The metabolism of gluconate is well characterized in prokaryotes where it is known to be degraded following phosphorylation by gluconokinase. Less is known of gluconate metabolism in humans. Human gluconokinase activity was recently identified proposing questions about the metabolic role...... of gluconate in humans. Here we report the recombinant expression, purification and biochemical characterization of isoform I of human gluconokinase alongside substrate specificity and kinetic assays of the enzyme catalyzed reaction. The enzyme, shown to be a dimer, had ATP dependent phosphorylation activity...

  9. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  10. BISOPROLOL AND METFORMIN IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nevzorova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare efficacy of bisoprolol and bisoprolol+metformin combination in patients with arterial hypertension (AH and metabolic syndrome (MS.Material and methods. 20 patients with AH and MS were involved in the study. They were randomized in 2 groups, 10 patients in each group. Patients of the 1st group received bisoprolol. Patients of the 2nd group received combination of bisoprolol and metformin. Blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, microalbuminuria (МАU level was determined before, within and at the end of 24-week treatment.Results. Both treatments resulted in similar reduction in BP. Reduction of BMI and insulin plasma concentration was more significant in patients received combined therapy. Both treatments improved lipid profile and reduced MAU.Conclusion. Bisoprolol has positive effect on pathogenic mechanisms of AH and MS. Metformin additionally improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  11. Accumulation of Carbohydrate and Regulation of 14-3-3 Protein on Sucrose Phosphate Synthase (SPS) Activity in Two Tomato Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; CUI Na; ZHAO Xiao-cui; FAN Hai-yan; LI Tian-lai

    2014-01-01

    To explore the differences of carbohydrate metabolism in two tomato species and discuss the possible regulation of 14-3-3 proteins on the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, we determined the contents of soluble sugar and starch through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of sugar-metabolizing enzymes were assayed in desalted extract, and the relative expression levels of related genes in sugar metabolism were determined though real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that glucose and fructose were mainly accumulated during the maturation of the fruit because of the high acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) in Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, while inSolanum chmielewskii fruit, SPS which went along with the change of sucrose content led to the rapid sucrose increase during the fruit ripening. TFT1 and TFT10, belonging to 14-3-3 protein in tomato, were likely to down-regulated SPS activity during young and intumescence period.

  12. Cationic technetium and rhenium complexes with pendant carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cara L. [Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)], E-mail: cara.ferreira@mdsinc.com; Marques, Fabio L.N. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Trav. R. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos s/n Sao Paulo, 05403-010 (Brazil)], E-mail: flnmarqu@hcnet.usp.br; Okamoto, Miriam R.Y. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Trav. R. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos s/n Sao Paulo, 05403-010 (Brazil); Otake, Andreia H. [Laboratorio de Oncologia Experimental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455, Sao Paulo 01246-903 (Brazil); Sugai, Yuko; Mikata, Yuji [KYOUSEI Science Center, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Storr, Tim; Bowen, Meryn [Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yano, Shigenobu [Division of Functional Material Science, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Adam, Michael J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chammas, Roger [KYOUSEI Science Center, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Orvig, Chris [Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Three carbohydrate conjugated dipicolylamine chelators, 2-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)amino)ethyl 1-deoxy-1-thio-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (L{sup 1}), 2-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)amino)ethyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (L{sup 2}), and 2-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)amino) carboxamide-N-(2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose) (L{sup 3}) were complexed to the [M(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} core (M=Tc, Re) and the properties of the resulting complexes were investigated. Synthesis and characterization of the chelator 2-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)amino)ethyl 1-deoxy-1-thio-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (L{sup 1}) and the corresponding Re complex are reported. All chelators were radiolabeled in high yield with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup +} (>98%) and [{sup 186}Re(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup +} (>80%). The chelators and Re-complexes were determined to not be substrates for the glucose metabolism enzyme hexokinase. However, the biodistribution of each of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes demonstrated fast clearance from most background tissue, including >75% clearance of the activity in the kidneys and the liver within 2 h post-injection.

  13. Effect of metabolic acidosis on renal tubular sodium handling in rats as determined by lithium clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegon L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic metabolic acidosis is known to cause a decrease in salt and water reabsorption by the kidney. We have used renal lithium clearance to investigate the effect of chronic, NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis on the renal handling of Na+ in male Wistar-Hannover rats (200-250 g. Chronic acidosis (pH 7.16 ± 0.13 caused a sustained increase in renal fractional Na+ excretion (267.9 ± 36.4%, accompanied by an increase in fractional proximal (113.3 ± 3.6% and post-proximal (179.7 ± 20.2% Na+ and urinary K+ (163.4 ± 5.6% excretion when compared to control and pair-fed rats. These differences occurred in spite of an unchanged creatinine clearance and Na+ filtered load. A lower final body weight was observed in the acidotic (232 ± 4.6 g and pair-fed (225 ± 3.6 g rats compared to the controls (258 ± 3.7 g. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the kidney weights of acidotic rats (1.73 ± 0.05 g compared to the other experimental groups (control, 1.46 ± 0.05 g; pair-fed, 1.4 ± 0.05 g. We suggest that altered renal Na+ and K+ handling in acidotic rats may result from a reciprocal relationship between the level of metabolism in renal tubules and ion transport.

  14. Tbx15 controls skeletal muscle fibre-type determination and muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kevin Y.; Manvendra K. Singh; Ussar, Siegfried; Wetzel, Petra; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Kispert, Andreas; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is composed of both slow-twitch oxidative myofibers and fast-twitch glycolytic myofibers that differentially impact muscle metabolism, function and eventually whole-body physiology. Here we show that the mesodermal transcription factor T-box 15 (Tbx15) is highly and specifically expressed in glycolytic myofibers. Ablation of Tbx15 in vivo leads to a decrease in muscle size due to a decrease in the number of glycolytic fibres, associated with a small increase in the number of o...

  15. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jurak; Arjen M Punt; Wim Arts; Mirjam A Kabel; Harry Gruppen

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed a...

  16. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, AD; Carbone, MS; Keenan, TF; Czimczik, CI; Hollinger, DY; Murakami, P; Schaberg, PG; Xu, X.

    2013-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars in a subset of trees using the radiocarbon ((14) C) bomb spike. With these data, we then tested different carbon (C) allocatio...

  17. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Calabrò; Aulus C. Carciofi; Nadia Musco; Raffaella Tudisco; Gomes, Marcia O. S.; Monica I. Cutrignelli

    2013-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  18. Determining the association between retinopathy and metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus visiting Mayo Hospital, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Diabetic retinopathy is common sequel of diabetes. Objective: To determine the frequency of retinopathy in patients of type 2 diabetes metabolic syndrome. Study Design; Descriptive study. This study was conducted in diabetic clinic of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January 17, 2007 to July 16,2007. Methods; Three hundred and sixty patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for this study and divided into two groups. (Diabetes and with metabolic syndrome) Demographic data of each patient including age, sex, height and weight were collected. Each patient was interviewed about the duration, treatment and complications of diabetes. Data were analyzed by SPSS. P value was calculated by Chi Square test. Results; In group I, the mean height was 1.60 +- 0.08 meters, mean weight was 68.82 +- 7.36 kilograms and mean BMI was 26.38 +- 1.10 kg/m2 and In group II, the mean height was 1.56 +- 0.12 meters, mean weight was 81.58 +- 9.85 kilograms and mean BMI was 33.80 +- 3.61 kg/m/sup 2/. In group I micro aneurysms, dot hemorrhages, blot hemorrhages and hard exudates were found in 12.22% patients. In group II, micro aneurysms, dot hemorrhages, blot hemorrhages and hard exudates were found in 25% patients (p 0.0028). In group I, there were 10.56% patients in which cotton wool spots were found and in group II there were 11.67% patients in which cotton wool spots were found (p 0.0358). In group I, there were 2.78% patients in which new blood vessel formation were found and in group II there were 4.44% patients in which new blood vessel formation was found (p 0.625). Conclusion; It is concluded from this study that frequency of retinopathy is high in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients without metabolic syndrome. (author)

  19. Absorption and Metabolism Characteristics of Triptolide as Determined by a Sensitive and Reliable LC-MS/MS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Gong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed and applied to determine the concentration of triptolide in rat plasma, microsomes, and cell incubation media. The absolute oral bioavailability of triptolide is 63.9% at a dose of 1 mg·kg−1. In vitro, the bidirectional transport of triptolide across Caco-2 cells was studied. A markedly higher transport of triptolide across Caco-2 cells was observed in the basolateral-to-apical direction and was abrogated in the presence of the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. The result indicated that P-gp might be involved in the absorption of triptolide in intestinal. The metabolic stability was also investigated using human liver microsome incubation systems in vitro. In HLMs, incubations with an initial triptolide concentration of 1 μM resulted in an 82.4% loss of substrate over 60 min, and the t1/2 was 38 min, which indicated that triptolide was easily metabolized in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, the absolute oral bioavailability of triptolide in plasma, transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, and metabolic stability in human liver microsomes were systematically investigated by using a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS method.

  20. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic 11C-Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinlin; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhong, Min; Walker, Natalie N.; He, Jiang; Berr, Stuart S.; Keller, Susanna R.; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring FA metabolism with partial volume (PV) and spill-over (SP) corrections using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Methods Twenty-minute dynamic 11C-palmitate PET scans of four 18–20 week old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus 120 PET scanner. A model corrected blood input function (MCIF), by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1−k5) are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial FA oxidation (MFAO), myocardial FA esterification (MFAE), myocardial FA utilization (MFAU) and myocardial FA uptake (MFAUp). Results The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03±43.83 nmoles/min/g. This compares well with the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmoles/g/min and 400 nmoles/min/g. Conclusions FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model were validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo. PMID:26462138

  1. Compartmentalised cerebral metabolism of [1,6-13C]glucose determined by in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M.N. Duarte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metabolism is compartmentalised between neurons and glia. Although glial glycolysis is thought to largely sustain the energetic requirements of neurotransmission while oxidative metabolism takes place mainly in neurons, this hypothesis is matter of debate. The compartmentalization of cerebral metabolic fluxes can be determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy upon infusion of 13C-enriched compounds, especially glucose. Rats under light α-chloralose anaesthesia were infused with [1,6-13C]glucose and 13C enrichment in the brain metabolites was measured by 13C NMR spectroscopy with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at 14.1 T. This allowed determining 13C enrichment curves of amino acid carbons with high reproducibility and to reliably estimate cerebral metabolic fluxes (mean error of 8%. We further found that TCA cycle intermediates are not required for flux determination in mathematical models of brain metabolism. Neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle rate (VTCA and neurotransmission rate (VNT were 0.45±0.01 and 0.11±0.01 µmol/g/min, respectively. Glial VTCA was found to be for 38±3% of total cerebral oxidative metabolism, accounting for more than half of neuronal oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, glial anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation rate (VPC was 0.069±0.004 µmol/g/min, i.e. 25±1% of the glial TCA cycle rate. These results support a role of glial cells as active partners of neurons during synaptic transmission beyond glycolytic metabolism.

  2. Effect of salidroside on carbohydrate metabolism and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats under negative psychological stress induced by experimental navigation and intensive exercise%红景天苷对负性心理应激下高强度运动大鼠糖代谢及炎症因子水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽; 王扬天; 王群; 孙玲君; 王坚; 李洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of salidroside on the carbohydrate metabolism and the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in rats under negative psychological stress induced by experimental navigation and intensive exercise. Methods A total of 30 6-week Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly and equally allocated into 3 groups, quiescent control group (group A), training control group (group B) and salidroside treatment group (group C). Rats from group A received no stimulation, and administered a 7-day intragastrical injection of normal saline. Rats from group B underwent a 10-day run training with increasing load on treadmill and received 7-day intragastrical administration of normal saline. Group C were subjected to the same procedure of run training as group B, and received 7-day intragastrical administration of 0.4g/kg salidroside. Then, all the rats underwent experimental navigation and intensive exercise. Blood samples were immediately obtained for detection of blood glucose and the levels of inflammatory response-related cytokines, high sensitive-C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α), interleukin 6(IL-6), and endothelin 1 (ET-1) by ELISA. Results As compared with group A, the levels of blood glucose, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, ET-1 was significantly increased in group B (P<0.05), while, the levels of blood glucose was significantly increased (P<0.05), and those of hs-CRP, IL-6, and ET-1 were significantly decreased in group C (P<0.05). The levels of hs-CRP, TNF-a, IL-6, ET-1 in group C were also significantly decreased than in group B (P<0.05). The level of blood glucose in group C showed a decreasing tendency. Conclusion Negative psychological stress and intensive exercise lead to disorders of glucose metabolism and increase the production of inflammatory cytokines in rats. Salidroside therapy reduces the levels of blood glucose and inflammatory cytokines in rats under stress, and thus improve glucose metabolism and

  3. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.; Crawford, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. ...

  4. Influence of Single-bout Resistance Training and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation on Urine Androgen Metabolism of Male Boxers and Bodybuilders%急性抗阻运动及不同比例糖和蛋白营养干预对男子力量项目运动员尿雄激素代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文安; 王启荣; 方子龙; 邵晶; 陈成亮; 周钰杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察急性抗阻运动及不同比例糖和蛋白营养干预对男子力量项目运动员尿雄激素变化的影响.方法:18名男子力量项目(拳击、健美)运动员,分为糖加高蛋白补充组(HP组,糖和蛋白比例为3∶1)、糖加低蛋白补充组(LP组,糖和蛋白补充比例为6∶1)及纯糖补充对照组(C组),所有受试者进行相同的抗阻运动,先进行4组70%1RM深蹲动作,每组8次,组间休息60 s,第4组完成后休息90 s;随后完成4组50%1RM深蹲动作,第1、2组重复8次,后两组重复至不能完成动作为止,组间休息60 s,第4组完成后休息150 s;接下来完成4组70% 1RM卧推动作,组间休息60 s,第4组完成后休息90 s;最后完成4组50% 1RM卧推动作,第1、2组重复8次,后两组重复至不能完成动作为止,组间休息60 s.采用气相质谱色谱仪(GC-MS)测定运动前、运动后即刻及次日晨尿雄激素.结果:急性运动后即刻各组尿本胆烷醇酮及雄酮比运动前显著升高(P<0.05),组间无差异.运动后次日晨,HP组和LP组尿5α-雄烷二醇和5β-雄烷二醇比运动前显著升高(P<0.05),组间比较HP组5α-雄烷二醇和5β-雄烷二醇显著高于LP、C组(P<0.05).结论:急性抗阻运动及糖和蛋白营养干预能加速男子力量项目运动员性腺雄激素和肾上腺雄激素转化和代谢,促进睾酮向双氢睾酮转化,有利于脂肪分解和糖酵解,促进机体运动后疲劳恢复.%Objective To investigate the effects of carbohydrate-protein supplementations with different ratios on the body recovery process after acute resistance training and urine androgen metabolism of male boxers and bodybuilders. Methods Eighteen male boxers and bodybuilders were supplied with high-protein and low-carbohydrate (group HP, carbohydrate:protein = 3:1) ,low-protein and high-carbohydrate (group LP,carbohydraterprotein = 6:1) and carbohydrate only (group C). All subjects completed 4 sets of 8-repetition squats at 70% of

  5. Very low-carbohydrate diets in the management of diabetes revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Grant Martin; Henderson, George; Thornley, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Humans can derive energy from carbohydrate, fat, or protein. The metabolism of carbohydrate requires by far the highest secretion of insulin. The central pathology of diabetes is the inability to maintain euglycaemia because of a deficiency in either the action or secretion of insulin. That is, because of either insulin resistance often accompanied by hyperinsulinaemia, or insulin deficiency caused by pancreatic beta cell failure. In individuals dependent on insulin and other hypoglycaemic medication, the difficulty of matching higher intakes of carbohydrates with the higher doses of medication required to maintain euglycaemia increases the risk of adverse events, including potentially fatal hypoglycaemic episodes. Thus, mechanistically it has always made sense to restrict carbohydrate (defined as sugar and starch, but not soluble and insoluble fibre) in the diets of people with diabetes. Randomised clinical trials have confirmed that this action based on first principles is effective. The continued recommendation of higher-carbohydrate, fat-restricted diets has been criticised by some scientists, practitioners and patients. Such protocols when compared with very low-carbohydrate diets provide inferior glycaemic control, and their introduction and subsequent increase in carbohydrate allowances has never been based on strong evidence. The trend towards highercarbohydrate diets for people with diabetes may have played a part in the modern characterisation of type 2 diabetes as a chronic condition with a progressive requirement for multiple medications. Here we will introduce some of the evidence for very low-carbohydrate diets in diabetes management and discuss some of the common objections to their use. PMID:27356254

  6. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  7. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  8. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Jose E.; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this “metabolic inflexibility” i...

  9. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Deliang Guo; Arnab Chakravarti; Williams, Terence M.; Peng Ru

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a...

  10. Nutrition and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albornoz López, Raúl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The exact etiology is unclear, although it is known thatthere is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, dietary habits play an important role in the treatment and prevention of this condition. General classic recommendations include control of obesity, increased physical activity, decreased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, reduced intake of simple sugars and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. It has been studied the influence of diets low in carbohydrates, diets rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber intake, the Mediterranean diet and the glycemic index in relation to metabolic syndrome.Other nutrients recently studied are the micronutrients (magnesium and calcium, soy and other phytochemicals. Evidence suggests that a healthy diet like the Mediterranean protects against metabolic syndrome,caracterized for a low content in saturated and trans fat, high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, balanced intake of carbohydrates and high in fiber, fruits and vegetables. There is more controversy about the type of diet of choice for the control ofmetabolic syndrome (low-carbohydrate diets or lowfat, needing more studies on the role of soy and other phytochemicals.

  11. Determinants of DHA status and functional effects on metabolic markers and immune modulation in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    intake and other potential determinants in infancy and childhood. The first part of the PhD thesis describes several potential determinants of infant and young child DHA status including genetic variation in FADS, breastfeeding and fish intake. Results can be found in Paper 1. Evidence for effects of n-3...

  12. Carbohydrates - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbohydrates URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbohydrates.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  14. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies......Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  15. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-13

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  16. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  17. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code “NT”); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code “HB12”); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code “TT8”). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also

  18. Effect of Exogenous Application of Silicon with Drought Stress on Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Edible Beans (Vigna radiate & Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under field conditions to determine the impact of silicon application with different concentrations (20, 40, 60 ppm, on selected physiological characteristics of the leaves of mungbean (Vignaradiata and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata under different 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% soil moisture regimes. Stock solution (100 ppm of silicon was prepared by MgSi3 salt but apply as 20, 40, 60 ppm solution in both treated and control plants. Results showed that silicon application significantly increases total carbohydrate & protein contents in treated samples as compare to control plants. In present study we concluded that silicon promoted growth in the drought susceptible species to greater extent & it’s more beneficial for carbohydrates and protein metabolism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata as compare to mungbean (Vignaradiata plants.

  19. Fluorous-based carbohydrate quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Pengfei; Chen, Guosong

    2015-03-20

    Fluorous chemistry has brought many applications from catalysis to separation science, from supramolecular materials to analytical chemistry. However, fluorous-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has not been reported so far. In the current paper, fluorous interaction has been firstly utilized in QCM, and carbohydrate-protein interaction and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction have been detected afterward. PMID:25541017

  20. Interactions of carbohydrates and proteins by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gang-Liang Huang; Xin-Ya Mei; Peng-George Wang

    2006-06-01

    A sensitive, specific, and rapid method for the detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions is demonstrated by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The procedure is simple and the cost is low. The advantage of this method is that carbohydrate-protein interactions can be easily displayed by FACE, and the carbohydrates do not need to be purified.

  1. Genetic determinism of inulin metabolism in industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) : an association mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Raulier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a fructose polymer extracted from the root of industrial chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). The quality of the root extract is determined by the polymerization degree of inulin molecules and the free fructose concentration. Low autumnal temperatures trigger an inulin degradation phase which decreases the quality of the root extract. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to understand the genetic determinism of the synthesis and the cold induced degradation of inulin. To do so, we...

  2. Glucose metabolism determines resistance of cancer cells to bioenergetic crisis after cytochrome-c release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huber, Heinrich J

    2011-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs activate caspases via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Activation of this pathway triggers a concomitant bioenergetic crisis caused by the release of cytochrome-c (cyt-c). Cancer cells are able to evade these processes by altering metabolic and caspase activation pathways. In this study, we provide the first integrated system study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and apoptosis signalling and examine the role of mitochondrial cyt-c release in these events. In accordance with single-cell experiments, our model showed that loss of cyt-c decreased mitochondrial respiration by 95% and depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨ(m) from -142 to -88 mV, with active caspase-3 potentiating this decrease. ATP synthase was reversed under such conditions, consuming ATP and stabilising ΔΨ(m). However, the direction and level of ATP synthase activity showed significant heterogeneity in individual cancer cells, which the model explained by variations in (i) accessible cyt-c after release and (ii) the cell\\'s glycolytic capacity. Our results provide a quantitative and mechanistic explanation for the protective role of enhanced glucose utilisation for cancer cells to avert the otherwise lethal bioenergetic crisis associated with apoptosis initiation.

  3. Nuclear reprogramming: kinetics of cell cycle and metabolic progression as determinants of success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Thomas Balbach

    Full Text Available Establishment of totipotency after somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT requires not only reprogramming of gene expression, but also conversion of the cell cycle from quiescence to the precisely timed sequence of embryonic cleavage. Inadequate adaptation of the somatic nucleus to the embryonic cell cycle regime may lay the foundation for NT embryo failure and their reported lower cell counts. We combined bright field and fluorescence imaging of histone H(2b-GFP expressing mouse embryos, to record cell divisions up to the blastocyst stage. This allowed us to quantitatively analyze cleavage kinetics of cloned embryos and revealed an extended and inconstant duration of the second and third cell cycles compared to fertilized controls generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Compared to fertilized embryos, slow and fast cleaving NT embryos presented similar rates of errors in M phase, but were considerably less tolerant to mitotic errors and underwent cleavage arrest. Although NT embryos vary substantially in their speed of cell cycle progression, transcriptome analysis did not detect systematic differences between fast and slow NT embryos. Profiling of amino acid turnover during pre-implantation development revealed that NT embryos consume lower amounts of amino acids, in particular arginine, than fertilized embryos until morula stage. An increased arginine supplementation enhanced development to blastocyst and increased embryo cell numbers. We conclude that a cell cycle delay, which is independent of pluripotency marker reactivation, and metabolic restraints reduce cell counts of NT embryos and impede their development.

  4. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core struc...

  5. Influence of Carbohydrate Restricted Diet on Energy and Glucose Metabolism in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients%低碳水化合物膳食对新诊断糖尿病患者能量及葡萄糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严利君; 孙世安; 彭建华; 蒋升; 王宁; 谢自敬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of carbohydrate restricted diet on the energy and glucose metabolism in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. Methods 173 people above 20 years old were diagnosed as diabetes mellitus by oral glucose tolerance test for the first time in 103 formation corps of Xinjiang. And they were randomly divided into intervention group and control group, with each group given carbohydrate restricted diet and common diet treatment respectively for twelve months. Results ( 1 ) In intervention group, the proportion of patients achieving expectant standard of dietary carbohydrate intake was 55. 1% , and proportion of hemoglobin A1C ( HbA1c ) less than 7. 0% was 57. 3%. ( 2 ) Between the two groups there were statistically significant differences in the decrease of post - treatment body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c, serum total cholesterol, dietary energy and carbohydrate intake and the increase in dietary protein intake ( P 0. 05 ) . ( 3 ) In intervention group, there were statistically significant differences in the decrease of post - treatment waist circumference and body weight between the two subgroups of body mass index less than 25 kg/m and more than 25 kg/ m2 ( P < 0. 05 ), but only the decrease in body weight showed statistically significant difference between the above mentioned subgroups in control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Compared with common diet group, carbohydrate restricted diet could control dietary energy intake more effectively and increase protein intake moderately among newly diagnosed diabetic patients, and it can also improve energy metabolism, reduce postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c and total cholesterol as well as lessen abdominal obesity in overweight or obese patients.%目的 探讨低碳水化合物膳食对新诊断的糖尿病患者能量代谢及葡萄糖代谢的影响.方法 选取新疆103团经口服葡萄糖耐量试验确诊的173例20岁以上新诊断

  6. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  7. Characterization of human metabolism and disposition of levo-tetrahydropalmatine: Qualitative and quantitative determination of oxidative and conjugated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weibin; Shen, Guolin; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Ran, Xiaorong; Zhu, Mingshe; Li, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is a tetrahydroprotoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid and has been used as an analgesic agent in China for over 50 years. Recent studies revealed that l-THP was effective in the treatment of drug addiction. However, the plasma metabolic profile, mass balance and clearance pathways of l-THP in human remain unknown. In the present study, an analytical strategy was developed for qualitative and quantitative investigation of metabolism and disposition of l-THP in human. Detection and structural characterization of l-THP metabolites were performed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Selected major metabolites in plasma, urine and feces determined by liquid chromatography with UV detection were further quantified using a triple quadruple mass spectrometry and reference standards. A total of 20 metabolites were identified, most of which were formed via demethylation, mono-hydroxylation, and glucuronidation and sulfonation of desmethyl metabolites. Five major metabolites accounted for over 10% of the parent drug concentration in plasma. Major urinary and fecal metabolites and the parent drug that were monitored for 72h accounted for 46.3% of the dose, while only 0.16% of the dose was the unchanged drug. Multiple demethylations followed by glucuronide and sulfate conjugations and renal excretion were the major drug clearance pathways of l-THP in human. PMID:27343900

  8. Maternal malnutrition and offspring sex determine juvenile obesity and metabolic disorders in a swine model of leptin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Barbero

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine, in a swine model of leptin resistance, the effects of type and timing of maternal malnutrition on growth patterns, adiposity and metabolic features of the progeny when exposed to an obesogenic diet during their juvenile development and possible concomitant effects of the offspring sex. Thus, four groups were considered. A CONTROL group involved pigs born from sows fed with a diet fulfilling their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy. The treated groups involved the progeny of females fed with the same diet but fulfilling either 160% or 50% of pregnancy requirements during the entire gestation (OVERFED and UNDERFED, respectively or 100% of requirements until Day 35 of pregnancy and 50% of such amount from Day 36 onwards (LATE-UNDERFED. OVERFED and UNDERFED offspring were more prone to higher corpulence and fat deposition from early postnatal stages, during breast-feeding; adiposity increased significantly when exposed to obesogenic diets, especially in females. The effects of sex were even more remarkable in LATE-UNDERFED offspring, which had similar corpulence to CONTROL piglets; however, females showed a clear predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the three groups of pigs with maternal malnutrition showed evidences of metabolic syndrome and, in the case of individuals born from OVERFED sows, even of insulin resistance and the prodrome of type-2 diabetes. These findings support the main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases in ethnics with leptin resistance.

  9. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.;

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  10. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  11. Autophagy is an important metabolic pathway to determine leukemia cell survival following suppression of the glycolytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Moemi; Aoki, Shigeki; Hirao, Takuya; Morita, Michie; Ito, Kousei

    2016-05-20

    Most cancer cells predominantly produce energy by glycolysis, even in the presence of adequate oxygen. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis is a promising cancer treatment target. Recently, it has been recognized that to conduct thorough treatment of cancer, comprehensive understanding of cancer metabolism is essential, not only focusing on glycolysis. Here, we investigated the supporting mechanism of autophagy, which is a catabolic process that recycles intracellular components, for energy supply in the glycolysis-inhibited condition. Autophagy is thought to be highly activated in cancers and to promote their growth or progression by adapting to the harsh surrounding microenvironment. We found that cancer cells positively promoted autophagy to overcome the energy shortage from glycolysis by maintaining mitochondrial activity for ATP production essential for survival. Conclusively, autophagy plays a role in determining whether cancer cells live or die, and autophagic ability in cancer cells is a promising target for therapy. PMID:27107693

  12. Analytical protocols for the determination of sulphur compounds characteristic of the metabolism of Chlorobium limicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aliboni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorobium limicola belongs to the green sulphur bacteria that has a potential for technological applications such as biogas clean up oxidising hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur through photosynthetic process. In the present work, analytical methods are described for the determination of different sulphur species in C. limicola cultures – sulphide by GC-FPD, sulphate by ionic HPLC and elemental sulphur by RP HPLC. The latter method eliminates the need for chloroform extraction of water suspensions of elemental sulphur. Data from sulphide and elemental sulphur analyses have been compared with ones coming from more traditional analytical methodologies.

  13. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought.

  14. Cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake does not alter exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wilfred Navalta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: Endurance trained male and female (N = 10 athletes were randomly assigned to one of two groups based on either a correct or incorrect cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake. In the incorrect group, the subjects were informed that they were receiving the carbohydrate beverage but actually received the placebo beverage. Participants completed a 60-min ride on a cycle ergometer at 80% VO2peak under carbohydrate and placebo supplemented conditions. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after exercise and were used to determine the plasma glucose concentration, lymphocyte count, and extent of lymphocyte apoptosis. Cognitive awareness, either correct or incorrect, did not have an effect on any of the measured variables. RESULTS: Carbohydrate supplementation during exercise did not have an effect on lymphocyte count or apoptotic index. Independent of drink type, exercise resulted in significant lymphocytosis and lymphocyte apoptosis (apoptotic index at rest = 6.3 ± 3% and apoptotic index following exercise = 11.6 ± 3%, P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Neither carbohydrate nor placebo supplementation altered the typical lymphocyte apoptotic response following exercise. While carbohydrate supplementation generally has an immune-boosting effect during exercise, it appears that this influence does not extend to the mechanisms that govern exercise-induced lymphocyte cell death.

  15. Effect of Low ph on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. ph affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri), representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low ph, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low ph ocean.

  16. Effect of Low pH on Carbohydrate Production by a Marine Planktonic Diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. O. Thornton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activity are causing the surface ocean to become more acidic. Diatoms play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in the ocean. pH affected the quantum efficiency of photosystem II and carbohydrate metabolism in a planktonic diatom (Chaetoceros muelleri, representative of a widely distributed genus. In batch cultures grown at low pH, the proportion of total carbohydrate stored within the cells decreased and more dissolved carbohydrates were exuded from the cells into the surrounding medium. Changes in productivity and the way in which diatoms allocate carbon into carbohydrates may affect ecosystem function and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump in a low pH ocean.

  17. Effects of low-carbohydrate diet therapy in overweight subject with autoimmune thyroiditis: possible synergism with ChREBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Esposito,1,2 Jean Marc Lobaccaro,3 Maria Grazia Esposito,4 Vincenzo Monda,1 Antonietta Messina,1 Giuseppe Paolisso,5 Bruno Varriale,2 Marcellino Monda,1 Giovanni Messina1,6 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3UMR, Clermont Université, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Aubière Cedex, France; 4Complex Surgery Unit, Evangelic Hospital Villa Betania, 5Department of Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche, Neurologiche, Metaboliche e dell’Invecchiamento, Second University of Naples, Naples, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy Abstract: The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs in patients with high amounts of Abs. In a diet devoid of carbohydrates (bread, pasta, fruit, and rice, free from goitrogenic food, and based on body mass index, the distribution of body mass and intracellular and extracellular water conducted for 3 weeks gives the following results: patients treated as above showed a significant reduction of antithyroid (-40%, P<0.013, anti-microsomal (-57%, P<0.003, and anti-peroxidase (-44%, P<0,029 Abs. Untreated patients had a significant increase in antithyroid (+9%, P<0.017 and anti-microsomal (+30%, P<0.028 Abs. Even the level of anti-peroxidase Abs increased without reaching statistical significance (+16%, P>0064

  18. Analysis of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes of Spongospora subterranea Using 454 Pyrosequencing / Análisis de Genes del Metabolismo de Carbohidratos de Spongospora subterranea Utilizando Pirosecuenciación 454

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Spongospora subterranea, the causal agent of Potato powdery scab, is an important soil-borne obligate protozoan commonly found in Andean soils. This is a serious problem that causes cosmetic damage on the skin of tubers and induces root gall formation, diminishing the yield and commercial value of the potato. Genetic studies on S. subterranea are difficult due to its obligate parasitism, which explains the lack of available knowledge on its basic biology. S. subterranea is a member of the Plasmodiophorida order, a protist taxa that includes other important plant pathogens such as Plasmodiophora brassicae and Spongospora nasturtii. Little is known about the genomes of Plasmodiophorida; however, with the use of Next-GenerationSequencing technologies combined with appropriate bioinformatic techniques, it is possible to obtain genomic sequences from obligate pathogens such as S. subterranea. To gain a better understanding of the biology of this pathogen and Plasmodiophorida in general, DNA sequences from a cystosori-enriched sample of S. subterranea were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing technology. As a first step in understanding the nutritional requirements ofS. subterranea as well as its infective and resistance structures, we present a bioinformatic analysis of 24 contigs related to genes involved in the glycolysis, starch, celullose and chitin metabolism. Intron structure and codon usage is also discussed. The genes analyzed in this study are a good source of information for studies aimed at characterizing these enzymes in vitro, as well as the generation of new methods for the molecular detection of S. subterranea in either soils or infected plants. / Resumen. Spongospora subterranea, el agente causal de la sarna polvosa de la papa, es un protozoo y patógeno obligado presente en los suelos andinos. Esta enfermedad es un serio problema para el cultivo de papa, al causar lesiones cosméticas en la piel de los

  19. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-01

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  20. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with added sugar provide calories, but they lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Because they lack nutrients, these foods ... foods. In addition to calories, whole foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. By making smart food choices, you ...

  1. 夜间亚低温对番茄果实糖含量和糖代谢酶活性的影响%Effects of Sub-low Night Temperature on Sugar Content in Tomato(L.esculentum Mill.)Fruits and Activities of Enzymes Involved in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 李天来

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of sub-low night temperature on contents of several sugars in tomato fruits and activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. [ Method] The effects of sub-low night temperature at 9 ℃ (15 ℃ as control) on contents of fructose,glucose and sucrose in tomato fruits,and activities of acid invertase (AI) .neutral invertase (NI), sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase(SPS). Then the relationship between sugar contents and activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were analyzed. [Result] The results indicated that contents of fructose, glucose, sucrose and activities of AI and NI were lower than control under sub-low night temperature, while SS and SPS activities had no obvious laws. The changes of AI and NI activities in tomato fruits were small relatively during young fruit period,while that was increased rapidly during fruit maturity period. SS activity gradually decreased with fruit development, and was very low during fruit maturity period. SPS activity was always low during test. There were most significant positive correlations among activities of AI, NI and contents of fructose, glucose in tomato fruits, and the correlation of SS activity with sucrose content was also most significant positive. [ Conclusion] The main factors of leading to the contents of sugar in tomato fruits decrease was the activities of invertase under sub-low night temperature.%[目的]研究夜间亚低温对番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)果实几种糖含量及糖代谢酶活性的影响.[方法]以15℃夜温为对照,研究了9℃夜间亚低温处理对番茄果实果糖、葡萄糖和蔗糖含量及酸性转化酶(AI)、中性转化酶(NI)、蔗糖合成酶(SS)和蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS)活性的影响,并分析了糖含量与糖代谢酶活性的相关性.[结果]经过夜间亚低温处理后,番茄果实中果糖、葡萄糖和蔗糖含量均小于对照.与对照相比,夜间亚低

  2. Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Brandon W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins compared to a commercial product (sport chews. Methods Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO2max treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT. Heart rate (HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA, glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures with a Fisher’s post hoc analysis to determine significant differences. Results VO2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L-1 during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively, and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively. Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6

  3. Characterization of carbohydrate-protein matrices for nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2011-05-01

    Amorphous carbohydrates may show glass transition and crystallization as a result of thermal or water plasticization. Proteins often affect the state transitions of carbohydrates in carbohydrate-protein systems. Water sorption behavior and effects of water on glass transition and crystallization in freeze-dried lactose, trehalose, lactose-casein (3: 1), lactose-soy protein isolate (3:1), trehalose-casein (3:1), and trehalose-soy protein isolate (3:1) systems were studied. Water sorption was determined gravimetrically as a function of time, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) models were fitted to the experimental data. Glass transition temperature (T(g)) and instant crystallization temperature (T(ic)) in anhydrous and water plasticized systems were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Gordon-Taylor equation was used to model water content dependence of the T(g) values. The critical water content and water activity (a(w)) at 24 °C were calculated and crystallization of lactose and trehalose in the systems was followed at and above 0.54 a(w). Carbohydrate-protein systems showed higher amounts of sorbed water and less rapid sugar crystallization than pure sugars. A greater sugar crystallization delay was found in carbohydrate-casein systems than in carbohydrate-soy protein isolate systems. The T(g) and T(ic) values decreased with increasing water content and a(w). However, higher T(ic) values for lactose-protein systems were found than for lactose at the same a(w). Trehalose showed lower T(ic) value than lactose at 0.44 a(w) but no instant crystallization was measured below 0.44 a(w). State diagrams for each system are useful in selecting processing parameters and storage conditions in nutrient delivery applications. PMID:22417357

  4. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between coloni...

  5. Low-carbohydrate diets affect energy balance and fuel homeostasis differentially in lean and obese rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morens, C.; Sirot, V.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with increased prevalence of overweight people in affluent societies are individuals trying to lose weight, often using low-carbohydrate diets. Nevertheless, long-term metabolic consequences of those diets, usually high in (saturated) fat, remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-

  6. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    URITA, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Susumu; Akimoto, Tatsuo; Kato, Hiroto; HARA, Noriko; Honda, Yoshiko; Nagai, Yoko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Shimada, Nagato; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Miki, Kazumasa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

  7. Metabolic Factors in Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Hargreaves

    2006-01-01

    Increased non-oxidative and oxidative ATP production via metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of force and power production during exercise. However, substrate depletion and accumulation of metabolic byproducts are potential causes of fatigue. Reduced PCr availability can limit power production during sprint exercise, whereas carbohydrate depletion is a major limitation to endurance performance. During sprint exercise increased Pi and H+ may contribute to fatigue, and during prolonged strenuous exercise, the accumulation of NH3, reactive oxygen species, and heat can limit performance. Appropriate training programs and nutritional interventions are potential strategies to enhance fatigue resistance and exercise performance.

  8. Metabolic aspects of acromegaly and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quabbe, H J; Plöckinger, U

    1996-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) affects virtually all facets of metabolism. This review concentrates on the effects of GH excess on carbohydrate, lipid, and bone metabolism, and on body composition. The effect of treatment with the somatostatin analog, octreotide, on the gastrointestinal-pancreatic axis is also discussed.

  9. Impaired glucose metabolism treatment and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    MATYSZEWSKI, ARTUR; Czarnecka, Anna; Kawecki, Maciej; KORZEŃ, PIOTR; SAFIR, ILAN J.; Kukwa, Wojciech; SZCZYLIK, CEZARY

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism disorders increase the risk of carcinogenesis. Diabetes mellitus alters numerous physiological processes that may encourage cancer growth. However, treating impaired glucose homeostasis may actually promote neoplasia; maintaining proper glucose plasma concentrations reduces metabolic stresses, however, certain medications may themselves result in oncogenic effects. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that metformin reduces the cancer risk. However, the use o...

  10. The carbon assimilation network in Escherichia coli is densely connected and largely sign-determined by directions of metabolic fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Baldazzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks consist of direct interactions but also include indirect interactions mediated by metabolites and signaling molecules. We describe how these indirect interactions can be derived from a model of the underlying biochemical reaction network, using weak time-scale assumptions in combination with sensitivity criteria from metabolic control analysis. We apply this approach to a model of the carbon assimilation network in Escherichia coli. Our results show that the derived gene regulatory network is densely connected, contrary to what is usually assumed. Moreover, the network is largely sign-determined, meaning that the signs of the indirect interactions are fixed by the flux directions of biochemical reactions, independently of specific parameter values and rate laws. An inversion of the fluxes following a change in growth conditions may affect the signs of the indirect interactions though. This leads to a feedback structure that is at the same time robust to changes in the kinetic properties of enzymes and that has the flexibility to accommodate radical changes in the environment.

  11. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback

  12. Biochemical software: Carbohydrates on Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Heidrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Educators around  the  world  are  being  challenged  to  develop  and  design  better and  more  effective strategies for student learning  using a variety  of modern  resources.  In this  present  work, an educa- tional  hypermedia  software  was constructed as a support tool to biochemistry teaching.  Occurrence, structure, main  characteristics and  biological  function  of the  biomolecule  Carbohydrates were pre- sented  through  modules.  The  software was developed  using concept  maps,  ISIS-Draw,  and  FLASH- MX animation program.  The chapter  Carbohydrates on Laboratory illustrates experimental methods of carbohydrates characterization, through  animation of a laboratory scenery.   The  subject was de- veloped showing reactions  as Bial, Benedict, Selliwanoff, Barfoed, Phenol  Sulphuric,  and Iodines, and also enzymatic  reactions  as glucose oxidase and amylase.  There are also links with short texts  in order to help the understanding of the contents  and principles of laboratory practice  as well as background reactions. Application of the software to undergraduate students and high school teachers  showed an excellent  acceptance.   All of them  considered  the  software  a very good learning  tool.  Both  teachers and students welcomed this program  as it is more flexible, and allows the learning in a more individual rhythm. In addition, application of the software would be suitable  to a more effective learning  and it is less expensive than conventional experimental teaching.

  13. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  14. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliang Guo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  15. Functional analysis of thermostable proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerboom, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Thermostable proteins can resist temperature stress whilst keeping their integrity and functionality. In many cases,  thermostable proteins originate from hyperthermophilic microorganisms that thrive in extreme environments. These systems are generally located close to geothermal (volcanic) activity

  16. Diversity of carbohydrate metabolism in species of A spergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Hainaut, Matthieu; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo;

    ), and secondary metabolites (including bioactives and toxins such as ochratoxin A).Because of these abilities they represent a substantial economic interests in bioenergy applications. In a project collaboration with the US Joint Genome Institute and JBEI we are sequencing 300 different species of Aspergillus...

  17. Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato

    OpenAIRE

    Appeldoorn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon, followed by the induction, initiation and growth of the tuber. Tuber initiation is characterized by swelling of the stolon tip. The formation of tubers is accompanied by a large accumulation of starch and of a sp...

  18. Developmental changes in carbohydrate metabolism during early tuberisation of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The potato tuber is a vegetative storage organ, which is initiated at the tip of an underground diagravitropic growing stem, called a stolon. The process of tuber formation comprises the induction, initiation and growth of a stolon, cessation of the longitudinal growth of the stolon, followed by the

  19. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H.P.M. Jutte (Nicolet)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractIn mammals the testis, the site of male germ cell development, can be divided morphologically in two cellular compartments, viz. the seminiferous tubules and the interstitial tiSsue between the tubules. The seminiferous tubules contain developing germ cells and Sertoli cells and are surr

  20. Dynamics of Storage Carbohydrates Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez-Mendez, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of chemicals via biotechnological routes are becoming rapidly an alternative to oil-based processes. Several microorganisms including yeast, bacteria, fungi and algae can transform feedstocks into high-value molecules at industrial scale. Improvement of the bioprocess performance is a key