WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbohydrate grain filling

  1. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  2. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.B.; Edrich, J.A.; Ford, M.A.; Blackwell, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m - 2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m -2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m -2 . The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m -2 ; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  3. Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Zhu, Q; Wang, W

    2001-09-01

    Lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars usually show slow grain filling when nitrogen is applied in large amounts. This study investigated the possibility that a hormonal change may mediate the effect of water deficit that enhances whole plant senescence and speeds up grain filling. Two rice cultivars showing high lodging resistance and slow grain filling were field grown and applied with either normal or high amount nitrogen (HN) at heading. Well-watered and water-stressed (WS) treatments were imposed 9 days post anthesis to maturity. Results showed that WS increased partitioning of fixed (14)CO(2) into grains, accelerated the grain filling rate but shortened the grain filling period, whereas the HN did the opposite way. Cytokinin (zeatin + zeatin riboside) and indole-3-acetic acid contents in the grains transiently increased at early filling stage and WS treatments hastened their declines at the late grain filling stage. Gibberellins (GAs; GA(1) + GA(4)) in the grains were also high at early grain filling but HN enhanced, whereas WS substantially reduced, its accumulation. Opposite to GAs, abscisic acid (ABA) in the grains was low at early grain filling but WS remarkably enhanced its accumulation. The peak values of ABA were significantly correlated with the maximum grain filling rates (r = 0.92**, P water stress during grain filling, especially a decrease in GAs and an increase in ABA, enhances the remobilization of prestored carbon to the grains and accelerates the grain filling rate.

  4. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  5. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  7. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  8. Martini Coarse-Grained Force Field : Extension to Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Cesar A.; Rzepiela, Andrzej J.; de Vries, Alex H.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Huenenberger, Philippe H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of the Martini coarse-grained force field to carbohydrates. The parametrization follows the same philosophy as was used previously for lipids and proteins, focusing on the reproduction of partitioning free energies of small compounds between polar and nonpolar phases. The

  9. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009-2010 and ...

  10. Phloem Transport Of Arsenic Species From Flag Leaf To Grain During Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was ...

  11. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  12. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Aberdeen); (UC); (Dartmouth)

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  13. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  14. Polyamines and ethylene interact in rice grains in response to soil drying during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yunji; Wang, Jingchao; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the interaction between polyamines and ethylene may mediate the effects of soil drying on grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two rice cultivars were pot grown. Three treatments, well-watered, moderate soil drying (MD), and severe soil drying (SD), were imposed from 8 d post-anthesis until maturity. The endosperm cell division rate, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of earlier flowering superior spikelets showed no significant differences among the three treatments. However, those of the later flowering inferior spikelets were significantly increased under MD and significantly reduced under SD when compared with those which were well watered. The two cultivars showed the same tendencies. MD increased the contents of free spermidine (Spd) and free spermine (Spm), the activities of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase and Spd synthase, and expression levels of polyamine synthesis genes, and decreased the ethylene evolution rate, the contents of 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and hydrogen peroxide, the activities of ACC synthase, ACC oxidase, and polyamine oxidase, and the expression levels of ethylene synthesis genes in inferior spikelets. SD exhibited the opposite effects. Application of Spd, Spm, or an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis to rice panicles significantly reduced ethylene and ACC levels, but significantly increased Spd and Spm contents, grain-filling rate, and grain weight of inferior spikelets. The results were reversed when ACC or an inhibitor of Spd and Spm synthesis was applied. The results suggest that a potential metabolic interaction between polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis responds to soil drying and mediates the grain filling of inferior spikelets in rice.

  15. Starch accumulation in hulless barley during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Guang; Qi, Jun-Cang; Hui, Hong-Shan; Lin, Li-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. In both cultivars, the activities of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) increased steadily during grain filling, reaching their maximums 20-25 days after anthesis. The activities of SSS and SBE were greater in Ganken 5 than in either Beiqing 6 or Kunlun 12. The expression of GBSS I was greater in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12 than in Ganken 5. In contrast, the expression of SSS I, SSS II and SBE I was greater in Ganken 5 than in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. The peak in GBSS I expression was later than that of SSS I, SSS II, SBE IIa and SBE IIb. The GBSS I transcript in Kunlun 12 was expressed on average 90 times more than the GBSS II transcript. The results suggest that SBE and SSS may control starch synthesis at the transcriptional level, whereas GBSS I may control starch synthesis at the post transcriptional level. GBSS I is mainly responsible for amylose synthesis whereas SSS I and SBE II are mainly responsible for amylopectin synthesis in amyloplasts.

  16. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  17. The Relationship between Polyamines and Hormones in the Regulation of Wheat Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat. PMID:24205154

  18. Assimilation, partitioning, and nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet compared with grain sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, D.M.; Miller, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in stems are greater for sweet than grain sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Knowledge of plant characteristics associated with high nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet sorghum will air efforts to increase nonstructural carbohydrates in grain sorghum stems. This study tested the hypothesis that variation of CO 2 assimilation rate, leaf area, branching at upper nodes, and partitioning of 14 C-labeled assimilate to main stems are associated with variation of stem nonstructural carbohydrates. A sweet (Atlas X Rio) and a grain (ATx623 X RTx5388) hybrid, stages near and after physiological maturity, and defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) treatments provided sources of variation for study. Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in lower and upper stems of the sweet hybrid were 1.4 and 2.7 times higher, respectively, than for the grain hybrid, after physiological maturity. Variation in branching, including 14 C-assimilate partitioning to branches, was not consistently associated with hybrid differences in stem nonstructural carbohydrates. Increased recovery (twofold) of 14 C-assimilate in roots and labeled leaves corresponded with lower percentages of 14 C-assimilate and lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems of the grain hybrid. Leaf areas and leaf CO 2 exchange rate were twice as great for the sweet hybrid. Although defoliation of the sweet hybrid minimized leaf area differences between hybrids, the sweet hybrid accumulated twice as much nonstructural carbohydrates in branches after physiological maturity. Greater potentials for CO 2 assimilation and for 14 C-assimilate accumulation in mature stem tissue were associated with higher levels of stem nonstructural carbohydrates in the sweet compared with the grain hybrid

  19. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  20. Structural and histochemical studies on grain-filling in the caryopsis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The endosperm and embryo that constitute the filial tissues of rice caryopsis are isolated from the maternal tissues by the ... The development and structure of rice grain are fairly well ... caryopsis, regulate water balance during grain-filling and.

  1. iTRAQ-based proteome profile analysis of superior and inferior Spikelets at early grain filling stage in japonica Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cuicui; Chen, Lin; He, Haibing; Wu, Liquan; Wang, Shaohua; Ding, Yanfeng; Ma, Chuanxi

    2017-06-07

    Large-panicle rice varieties often fail to achieve their yield potential due to poor grain filling of late-flowering inferior spikelets (IS). The physiological and molecular mechanisms of poor IS grain filling, and whether an increase in assimilate supply could regulate protein abundance and consequently improve IS grain filling for japonica rice with large panicles is still partially understood. A field experiment was performed with two spikelet removal treatments at anthesis in the large-panicle japonica rice line W1844, including removal of the top 1/3 of spikelets (T1) and removal of the top 2/3 of spikelets (T2), with no spikelet removal as a control (T0). The size, weight, setting rate, and grain filling rate of IS were significantly increased after spikelet removing. The biological functions of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between superior and inferior spikelets as well as the response of IS to the removal of superior spikelets (SS) were investigated by using iTRAQ at 10 days post anthesis. A total of 159, 87, and 28 DEPs were identified from group A (T0-SS/T0-IS), group B (T0-SS/T2-IS), and group C (T2-IS/T0-IS), respectively. Among these, 104, 63, and 22 proteins were up-regulated, and 55, 24, and 6 proteins were down-regulated, respectively. Approximately half of these DEPs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism (sucrose-to-starch metabolism and energy metabolism) and protein metabolism (protein synthesis, folding, degradation, and storage). Reduced endosperm cell division and decreased activities of key enzymes associated with sucrose-starch metabolism and nitrogen metabolism are mainly attributed to the poor sink strength of IS. In addition, due to weakened photosynthesis and respiration, IS are unable to obtain a timely supply of materials and energy after fertilization, which might be resulted in the stagnation of IS development. Finally, an increased abundance of 14-3-3 protein in IS could be involved in the inhibition of starch

  2. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Grain Filling Characteristics and Their Relations with Endogenous Hormones in Large- and Small-Grain Mutants of Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyang Zhang

    Full Text Available This study determined if the variation in grain filling parameters between two different spikelet types of rice (Oryza sativa L. is regulated by the hormonal levels in the grains. Two rice mutants, namely, a large-grain mutant (AZU-M and a small-grain mutant (ZF802-M, and their respective wild types (AZU-WT and ZF802-WT were grown in the field. The endosperm cell division rate, filling rate, and hormonal levels: zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z+ZR, indo-3-acetic acid (IAA, polyamines (PAs, and abscisic acid (ABA were determined. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the filling and endosperm cell division rates. These rates were synchronous between the superior and inferior spikelets for both mutants. However, the abovementioned parameters were significantly different between the two spikelet types for the two wild types. The superior spikelets filled faster and their filling rate was higher compared to the inferior ones. Changes in the concentrations of plant hormones were consistent with the observed endosperm cell division rate and the filling rate for both types of spikelets of mutant and wild type plants. Regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between cell division and filling rates with the concentrations of the investigated hormones. Exogenous chemical application verified the role of ABA, IAA, and PAs in grain filling. The results indicate that poor filling of inferior spikelets in rice occurs primarily due to the reduced hormone concentrations therein, leading to lower division rate of endosperm cells, fewer endosperm cells, slower filling rate, and smaller grain weight.

  4. Grain Filling Characteristics and Their Relations with Endogenous Hormones in Large- and Small-Grain Mutants of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiyang; Cao, Zhuanqin; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jing; Xu, Gengwen; Gu, Junfei; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This study determined if the variation in grain filling parameters between two different spikelet types of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is regulated by the hormonal levels in the grains. Two rice mutants, namely, a large-grain mutant (AZU-M) and a small-grain mutant (ZF802-M), and their respective wild types (AZU-WT and ZF802-WT) were grown in the field. The endosperm cell division rate, filling rate, and hormonal levels: zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z+ZR), indo-3-acetic acid (IAA), polyamines (PAs), and abscisic acid (ABA) were determined. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the filling and endosperm cell division rates. These rates were synchronous between the superior and inferior spikelets for both mutants. However, the abovementioned parameters were significantly different between the two spikelet types for the two wild types. The superior spikelets filled faster and their filling rate was higher compared to the inferior ones. Changes in the concentrations of plant hormones were consistent with the observed endosperm cell division rate and the filling rate for both types of spikelets of mutant and wild type plants. Regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between cell division and filling rates with the concentrations of the investigated hormones. Exogenous chemical application verified the role of ABA, IAA, and PAs in grain filling. The results indicate that poor filling of inferior spikelets in rice occurs primarily due to the reduced hormone concentrations therein, leading to lower division rate of endosperm cells, fewer endosperm cells, slower filling rate, and smaller grain weight.

  5. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  6. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Maize Grain Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xining; Fu, Zhiyuan; Lv, Panqing; Peng, Qian; Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    The grain filling rate is closely associated with final grain yield of maize during the period of maize grain filling. To identify the key microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA-dependent gene regulation networks of grain filling in maize, a deep-sequencing technique was used to research the dynamic expression patterns of miRNAs at four distinct developmental grain filling stages in Zhengdan 958, which is an elite hybrid and cultivated widely in China. The sequencing result showed that the expression amount of almost all miRNAs was changing with the development of the grain filling and formed in seven groups. After normalization, 77 conserved miRNAs and 74 novel miRNAs were co-detected in these four samples. Eighty-one out of 162 targets of the conserved miRNAs belonged to transcriptional regulation (81, 50%), followed by oxidoreductase activity (18, 11%), signal transduction (16, 10%) and development (15, 9%). The result showed that miRNA 156, 393, 396 and 397, with their respective targets, might play key roles in the grain filling rate by regulating maize growth, development and environment stress response. The result also offered novel insights into the dynamic change of miRNAs during the developing process of maize kernels and assisted in the understanding of how miRNAs are functioning about the grain filling rate.

  7. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  8. Characterization and Expression Patterns of microRNAs Involved in Rice Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanxiu; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Liu, Yanxia; Zhao, Yafan; Zhao, Quanzhi

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are upstream gene regulators of plant development and hormone homeostasis through their directed cleavage or translational repression of the target mRNAs, which may play crucial roles in rice grain filling and determining the final grain weight and yield. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was performed to survey the dynamic expressions of miRNAs and their corresponding target genes at five distinct developmental stages of grain filling. In total, 445 known miRNAs and 45 novel miRNAs were detected with most of them expressed in a developmental stage dependent manner, and the majority of known miRNAs, which increased gradually with rice grain filling, showed negatively related to the grain filling rate. Detailed expressional comparisons revealed a clear negative correlation between most miRNAs and their target genes. It was found that specific miRNA cohorts are expressed in a developmental stage dependent manner during grain filling and the known functions of these miRNAs are involved in plant hormone homeostasis and starch accumulation, indicating that the expression dynamics of these miRNAs might play key roles in regulating rice grain filling. PMID:23365650

  9. Permeability of Granite Including Macro-Fracture Naturally Filled with Fine-Grained Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kato, Masaji; Niri, Ryuhei; Kohno, Masanori; Sato, Toshinori; Fukuda, Daisuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Information on the permeability of rock is essential for various geoengineering projects, such as geological disposal of radioactive wastes, hydrocarbon extraction, and natural hazard risk mitigation. It is especially important to investigate how fractures and pores influence the physical and transport properties of rock. Infiltration of groundwater through the damage zone fills fractures in granite with fine-grained minerals. However, the permeability of rock possessing a fracture naturally filled with fine-grained mineral grains has yet to be investigated. In this study, the permeabilities of granite samples, including a macro-fracture filled with clay and a mineral vein, are investigated. The permeability of granite with a fine-grained mineral vein agrees well with that of the intact sample, whereas the permeability of granite possessing a macro-fracture filled with clay is lower than that of the macro-fractured sample. The decrease in the permeability is due to the filling of fine-grained minerals and clay in the macro-fracture. It is concluded that the permeability of granite increases due to the existence of the fractures, but decreases upon filling them with fine-grained minerals.

  10. Leaf nitrogen remobilisation for plant development and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux-Daubresse, C; Reisdorf-Cren, M; Orsel, M

    2008-09-01

    A major challenge of modern agriculture is to reduce the excessive input of fertilisers and, at the same time, to improve grain quality without affecting yield. One way to achieve this goal is to improve plant nitrogen economy through manipulating nitrogen recycling, and especially nitrogen remobilisation, from senescing plant organs. In this review, the contribution of nitrogen remobilisation efficiency (NRE) to global nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and tools dedicated to the determination of NRE are described. An overall examination of the physiological, metabolic and genetic aspects of nitrogen remobilisation is presented.

  11. Changes in Activities of Glutamine Synthetase during Grain Filling and Their Relation to Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-xun JIN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Four japonica rice varieties differed in cooking and eating qualities were used in a pot experiment to study the relationship between the activities of glutamine synthetase during grain filling and rice quality. The activities of glutamine synthetase gradually increased and then declined as a single peak curve in the course of grain filling. The 15th day after heading was a turning point, before which the enzymatic activities in the inferior rice varieties with high protein content were higher than those in the superior rice varietie with low protein content, and after which it was converse. The activity of glutamine synthetase in grain was correlated with the taste meter value, peak viscosity and breakdown negatively at the early stage of grain filling whereas positively at the middle and late stages. Moreover, it was correlated with the protein content of rice grain and setback positively at the early stage and negatively at the middle and late stages. The correlation degree varied with the course of grain filling. From 15 days to 20 days after heading was a critical stage, in which the direction of correlation between the activity of glutamine synthetase and taste meter value and RVA properties of rice changed.

  12. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  13. Proteomics analysis of maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on iTRAQ reveals molecular mechanisms of poor grain filling in inferior grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Li, Geng; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhao, Bin

    2017-06-01

    In maize, inferior grains (IG) located on the upper part of the ear have poor grain filling process compared to superior grains (SG) located on the middle and lower parts of the ear. This difference limits satisfactory yield and quality; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology, the proteomes of IG and SG during early and middle grain filling stages were investigated. In total, 4720 proteins were identified in maize grain and 305 differentially accumulated proteins (DiAPs) were detected between IG and SG. These DiAPs were involved in diverse cellular and metabolic processes with preferred distribution in protein synthesis/destination and metabolism. Compared to SG, DiAPs related to cell growth/division and starch synthesis were lag-accumulated and down-regulated in IG, respectively, resulting in smaller sink sizes and lower sink activities in IG. Meanwhile, impediment of the glycolysis pathway in IG may lead to reduce energy supply and building materials for substance synthesis. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and the defense system were disturbed in IG, which might lead to reduce protection against various environmental stresses. The present study provides new information on the proteomic differences between IG and SG, and explains possible molecular mechanisms for poor grain filling in IG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbohydrate and protein contents of grain dusts in relation to dust morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashek, W V; Olenchock, S A; Mayfield, J E; Wirtz, G H; Wolz, D E; Young, C A

    1986-01-01

    Grain dusts contain a variety of materials which are potentially hazardous to the health of workers in the grain industry. Because the characterization of grain dusts is incomplete, we are defining the botanical, chemical, and microbial contents of several grain dusts collected from grain elevators in the Duluth-Superior regions of the U.S. Here, we report certain of the carbohydrate and protein contents of dusts in relation to dust morphology. Examination of the gross morphologies of the dusts revealed that, except for corn, each dust contained either husk or pericarp (seed coat in the case of flax) fragments in addition to respirable particles. When viewed with the light microscope, the fragments appeared as elongated, pointed structures. The possibility that certain of the fragments within corn, settled, and spring wheat were derived from cell walls was suggested by the detection of pentoses following colorimetric assay of neutralized 2 N trifluoroacetic acid hydrolyzates of these dusts. The presence of pentoses together with the occurrence of proteins within water washings of grain dusts suggests that glycoproteins may be present within the dusts. With scanning electron microscopy, each dust was found to consist of a distinct assortment of particles in addition to respirable particles. Small husk fragments and "trichome-like" objects were common to all but corn dust. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:3709476

  15. Adapting to warmer climate through prolonged maize grain filling period in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Zhuang, Q.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to negatively impact the US food productivity. How to adapt to the future warmer environment and meet the rising food requirement becomes unprecedented urgent. Continuous satellite observational data provides an opportunity to examine the historic responses of crop plants to climate variation. Here 16 years crop growing phases information across US Midwest is generated based on satellite observations. We found a prolonged grain-filling period during 2000-2015, which could partly explain the increasing trend in Midwest maize yield. This longer grain-filling period might be resulted from the adoption of longer maturity group varieties or more resistant varieties to temperature variation. Other management practice changes like advance in planting date could be also an effective way of adapting future warmer climate through lowering the possibility of exposure to heat and drought stresses. If the progress in breeding technology enables the maize grain-filling period to prolong with the current rate, the maize grain filling length could be longer and maize yield in Midwest could adapt to future climate despite of the warming.

  16. Grain filling, starch degradation and feeding value of maize for ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords; Maize (Zea mays L), Genotypes, Grain filling, Growth temperature, Kernels, Gas production, Starch degradation, Oven-drying, Silage, Ensiling temperature, Ensiling duration, Feeding value, Lactating cows

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major component in the ration of dairy cows in

  17. A quantitative approach to characterize sink-source relationships during grain filling in contrasting wheat genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Guo, W.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple generic framework to quantify source–sink relationships during grain filling, by using a determinate growth function which has a unique property, namely being able of explicitly describing the time for the end of a growth process. This model framework was applied to analyze these

  18. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  19. Physiological effects of endogenous IAA on grain filling of hybrid rice Xieyou 9308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Longxing; Wang Xi; Zhang Fudao

    2003-01-01

    The progress of grain filling and effects of TIBA and PCIB on sugar content and IAA level in superior and inferior spikelets of hybrid rice Xieyou 9308 and its restorer R-9308 were studied. The grain weight increment rate and sugar (fructose, glucose and sucrose) in superior spikelets were higher than those in inferior spikelets until 7 days after pollination, then, they were higher in inferior spikelets than those in superior ones. The differences of physiological activities between superior and inferior spikelets were more significant in combinations than in their restorers. IAA inhibitors decreased 3 H-IAA and 3 H-Try contents in both superior and inferior spikelets, reduced the efficiency of 3 H-Try bio-transforming to 3 H-IAA in rice plant and, therefor, reduced 3 H-glucose in grain. By treatment with high concentration of exogenous IAA on young panicle before heading, the grain-setting difference between superior and inferior spikelets was significantly decreased, and the total grain setting rate increased, indicating that IAA impels the grain filling progress in hybrid rice

  20. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate...... the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se....

  1. The course of protein synthesis during grain filling in normal and high lysine barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.; Andersen, B.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the course of protein synthesis during grain filling in Bomi and the high lysine barleys Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56 showed that the four salt-soluble proteins, protein Z, β-amylase and the chymotrypsin inhibitors CI-1 and CI-2, are synthesized in greater amounts earlier in the high lysine lines than in Bomi. On the other hand, the hordeins are synthesized in greater amounts earlier during grain filling in Bomi than in Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56. There is no indication of a significant reduction of total protein synthesis in the high lysine lines compared with the standard lines Bomi and Pirrka. Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56 are very similar in protein composition in that they have a lower hordein content and higher levels, particularly of β-amylase and the chymotrypsin inhibitors, than Bomi. (author)

  2. Relationship of carbohydrates and lignin molecular structure spectral profiles to nutrient profile in newly developed oats cultivars and barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Luciana Louzada; Refat, Basim; Lei, Yaogeng; Louzada-Prates, Mariana; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the chemical profile and the magnitude of differences in the oat and barley grain varieties developed by Crop Development Centre (CDC) in terms of Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate sub-fractions: CA4 (sugars), CB1 (starch), CB2 (soluble fibre), CB3 (available neutral detergent fibre - NDF), and CC (unavailable carbohydrate); to estimate the energy values; to detect the lignin and carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structure profiles in CDC Nasser and CDC Seabiscuit oat and CDC Meredith barley grains by using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR); to develop a model to predict nutrient supply based on CHO molecular profile. Results showed that NDF, ADF and CHO were greater (P 0.05) for oat and barley grains as well as non-structural CHO. However, cellulosic compounds peak area and height were greater (P < 0.05) in oat than barley grains. Multiple regressions were determined to predict nutrient supply by using lignin and CHO molecular profiles. It was concluded that although there were some differences between oat and barley grains, CDC Nasser and CDC Meredith presented similarities related to chemical and molecular profiles, indicating that CDC Meredith barley could be replaced for CDC Nasser as ruminant feed. The FTIR was able to identify functional groups related to CHO molecular spectral in oat and barley grains and FTIR-ATR results could be used to predict nutrient supply in ruminant livestock systems.

  3. Effects of high NH4+ on K+ uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingan eKong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that a high external NH4+ concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH4+ are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m-2 and high (30 g N m-2 supplies of NH4+ in the presence or absence of additional K+ (6 g K2O m-2 to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH4+ significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH4+. The additional provision of K+ considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH4+, resulting in a 19.41%-26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET showed that the net rate of transmembrane K+ influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K+ content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH4+. This study indicates that the effects of high NH4+ on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K+ uptake in wheat.

  4. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  5. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  6. Ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transduction during grain filling in apical and basal spikelets of compact-and lax-panicle rice (Oryza sativa cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain yields in modern super rice cultivars do not always meet the expectations because many spikelets are located on secondary branches in closely packed homogeneous distribution in these plants, and they do not fill properly. The factors limiting grain filling of such spikelets, especially in the lower panicle branches, are elusive. Two long-duration rice cultivars differing in panicle density, Mahalaxmi (compact and Upahar (lax were cultivated in an open field plot. Grain filling, ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers in apical and basal spikelets of the panicle were compared during the early post-anthesis stage, which is the most critical period for grain development. In another experiment, a similar assessment was made for the medium-duration cultivars compact-panicle OR-1918 and lax-panicle Lalat. Grain weight of the apical spikelets was always higher than that of the basal spikelets. This gradient of grain weight was wide in the compact-panicle cultivars and narrow in the lax-panicle cultivars. Compared to apical spikelets, the basal spikelets produced more ethylene at anthesis and retained the capacity for post-anthesis expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers longer. High ethylene production enhanced the expression of the RSR1 gene, but reduced expression of the GBSS1 gene. Ethylene inhibited the partitioning of assimilates of developing grains resulting in low starch biosynthesis and high accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. It is concluded that an increase in grain/spikelet density in rice panicles reduces apical dominance to the detriment of grain filling by production of ethylene and/or enhanced perception of the ethylene signal. Ethylene could be a second messenger for apical dominance in grain filling. The manipulation of the ethylene signal would possibly improve rice grain yield.

  7. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, black-eyed peas, split peas, and garbanzo beans Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn, green peas, and parsnips Whole grains, such as brown rice, oats, barley, and quinoa Refined grains, such as ...

  8. Participation of Green Organs to Grain Filling in Triticum turgidum var durum Grown under Mediterranean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneveux, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In wheat, flag leaf, stem, chaff and awns contribute to grain filling through photosynthesis and/or re-mobilization. Environmental and genetic effects on the relative contribution of each organ were examined by analyzing the consequences of sink-source manipulations (shading and excision) and by comparing carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) values in dry matter (at maturity) and sap (two weeks after anthesis) in six durum wheat genotypes grown in two contrasting seasons. The contribution of flag leaf, stem, chaff and awns to grain filling, estimated by sink-source manipulations, highly varied with the season. The contribution of ear photosynthesis and re-mobilization from the stem increased with post-anthesis water stress. They showed a large genetic variation that was, however, not clearly associated to morphological characteristics of ear and stem. Isotopic imprints of chaff on grain Δ were identified as a possible surrogate of the destructive and cumbersome sink-source manipulations to evaluate the contribution of carbon assimilated in ears or re-mobilized from stem. This might facilitate screening of genetic resources and allow the combining of favourable drought tolerance mechanisms in wheat. PMID:29295600

  9. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the great nutrients. That's why your best bet is whole grain. Enriched products means some of ... Molasses Syrup and malt syrup If you are thinking about using a sugar substitute, you may wonder ...

  10. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  11. Dynamics of Coarse-grained Model of Filled Rubber Composite under Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Ueno, Shinichi; Bito, Yasumasa; Takano, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Morita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    We presented a result of coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under deformation based on the Kremer-Grest Model. Because all polymer chains are connected to one network gel, the size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 33nm. We put 4 fillers, 80 polymer chains of 1024 particles, and many crosslink into the PBC box. One filler consists of 1280 particles of the C1280 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles of C1280 in order to make a sphere whose diameter is about 15nm. Some patterns of distribution of the fillers are examined. The stress-strain curves estimated by applying a deformation to the system in simulations qualitatively agree with those in experiments. It is successful to show hysteresis on the S-S curve between elongation / release of the filled rubber.

  12. A QTL on the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B affects the stability of grain weight in plants exposed to a brief heat shock early in grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdelmoghanloo, Hamid; Taylor, Julian D; Lohraseb, Iman; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Timmins, Andy; Martin, Peter; Mather, Diane E; Emebiri, Livinus; Collins, Nicholas C

    2016-04-22

    Molecular markers and knowledge of traits associated with heat tolerance are likely to provide breeders with a more efficient means of selecting wheat varieties able to maintain grain size after heat waves during early grain filling. A population of 144 doubled haploids derived from a cross between the Australian wheat varieties Drysdale and Waagan was mapped using the wheat Illumina iSelect 9,000 feature single nucleotide polymorphism marker array and used to detect quantitative trait loci for heat tolerance of final single grain weight and related traits. Plants were subjected to a 3 d heat treatment (37 °C/27 °C day/night) in a growth chamber at 10 d after anthesis and trait responses calculated by comparison to untreated control plants. A locus for single grain weight stability was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B in both winter- and autumn-sown experiments, determining up to 2.5 mg difference in heat-induced single grain weight loss. In one of the experiments, a locus with a weaker effect on grain weight stability was detected on chromosome 6B. Among the traits measured, the rate of flag leaf chlorophyll loss over the course of the heat treatment and reduction in shoot weight due to heat were indicators of loci with significant grain weight tolerance effects, with alleles for grain weight stability also conferring stability of chlorophyll ('stay-green') and shoot weight. Chlorophyll loss during the treatment, requiring only two non-destructive readings to be taken, directly before and after a heat event, may prove convenient for identifying heat tolerant germplasm. These results were consistent with grain filling being limited by assimilate supply from the heat-damaged photosynthetic apparatus, or alternatively, accelerated maturation in the grains that was correlated with leaf senescence responses merely due to common genetic control of senescence responses in the two organs. There was no evidence for a role of mobilized stem reserves (water

  13. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 is a negative regulator of grain filling and gibberellin-mediated seedling establishment in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Hoefgen, Rainer; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Grain quality is an important agricultural trait that is mainly determined by grain size and composition. Here, we characterize the role of the rice transcription factor (TF) SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1) during grain development. Through genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that SERF1 directly regulates RICE PROLAMIN-BOX BINDING FACTOR (RPBF), a TF that functions as a positive regulator of grain filling. Loss of SERF1 enhances RPBF expression resulting in larger grains with increased starch content, while SERF1 overexpression represses RPBF resulting in smaller grains. Consistently, during grain filling, starch biosynthesis genes such as GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASEI (GBSSI), STARCH SYNTHASEI (SSI), SSIIIa, and ADP-GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE LARGE SUBUNIT2 (AGPL2) are up-regulated in SERF1 knockout grains. Moreover, SERF1 is a direct upstream regulator of GBSSI. In addition, SERF1 negatively regulates germination by controlling RPBF expression, which mediates the gibberellic acid (GA)-induced expression of RICE AMYLASE1A (RAmy1A). Loss of SERF1 results in more rapid seedling establishment, while SERF1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Our study reveals that SERF1 represents a negative regulator of grain filling and seedling establishment by timing the expression of RPBF.

  14. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  15. [Effects of PASP-KT-NAA on the grain-filling of maize in different accumulated temperature zones of Hilongjiang Province, Norheast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Jun; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Jiao; Chen, Chuan-Xiao; Jiao, Liu; Xie, Zhen-Xing

    2013-02-01

    Taking the two maize varieties Zhengdan 958 and Fengdan 3 grown on the three accumulated temperature zones (I, II and III) in Heilongjiang Provice as test materials, a field investigation was made in 2010 and 2011 to study the effects of PASP-KT-NAA (PKN), a compound of exogenous plant growth regulators, on the grain filling and yield of the varieties under different environmental temperatures. From zone I to III, the air temperature at the grain filling stage had a decreasing trend, with the average minimum temperature being 12.16, 11.40, and 9.56, respectively. The effective accumulated temperature at the mid-ate amt sae stage of grain filling was too low to be sufficient for grain filling, which severely affected the grain filling process. Applying N, P and K promoted the dry matter accumulation of maize grain and the grain filling rate in the three zones, delayed the peak time (Tmax) of the grain filling rate of Fengdan 3 but advanced that of Zhengdan 958, promoted the growth capacity at peak time of grain filling rate and the maximum grain filling rate of the two varieties, and shortened their active grain filling period. Applying N, P, and K increased the grain yield of the two varieties in the three zones obviously, and, as compared with those in zones I and II , the grain yields of Zhengdan 958 and Fengdan 3 in zone III were increased by 8.2% and 5.1% , and 3.4% and 0.8% , respectively. Therefore, applying N, P and K could help maize utilizing the limited accumulation temperature, improve the grain filling rate, decrease the grain water content, and ultimately, increase the maize yield.

  16. Starch granules size distribution in superior and inferior grains of wheat is related to enzyme activities and their gene expressions during grain filling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanhui; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    with the temporally change patterns of starch synthase activities and relative gene expression levels. For instance, activities of soluble and granule-bound starch synthases (designated SSS and GBSS) peaked at 20 and 24 DAF. Genes encoding isoforms of starch synthases expressed at different grain filling periods...

  17. Reactive oxygen species induced by heat stress during grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are involved in occurrence of grain chalkiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyasak, Chetphilin; Harano, Keisuke; Tanamachi, Koichiro; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Tamada, Aina; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress during grain filling increases rice grain chalkiness due to increased activity of α-amylase, which hydrolyzes starch. In rice and barley seeds, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced after imbibition induce α-amylase activity via regulation of gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels during seed germination. Here, we examined whether ROS is involved in induction of grain chalkiness by α-amylase in developing rice grains under heat stress. To elucidate the role of ROS in grain chalkiness, we grew post-anthesis rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) under control (25°C) or heat stress (30°C) conditions with or without antioxidant (dithiothreitol) treatment. The developing grains were analyzed for expression of NADPH oxidases, GA biosynthesis genes (OsGA3ox1, OsGA20ox1), ABA catabolism genes (OsABA8'OH1, OsABA8'OH2) and an α-amylase gene (OsAmy3E), endogenous H 2 O 2 content and the grain quality. In grains exposed to heat stress, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes (especially, OsRbohB, OsRbohD, OsRbohF and OsRbohI) and the ROS content increased. Heat stress also increased the expression of OsGA3ox1, OsGA20ox1, OsABA8'OH1, OsABA8'OH2 and OsAmy3E. On the other hand, dithiothreitol treatment reduced the effects of heat stress on the expression of these genes and significantly reduced grain chalkiness induced by heat stress. These results suggest that, similar to cereal seed germination mechanism, ROS produced under heat stress is involved in α-amylase induction in maturating rice grains through GA/ABA metabolism, and consequently caused grain chalkiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Deformation and fracture of Coarse-grained Model of Filled Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Takano, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    We presented a result of coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulation of filled polymer melts with Sulfur-crosslink under deformation based on the Kremer-Grest Model. Under uni-axial deformation (extension) by setting Poisson's ratio to less than 0.5, facture of this polymer nanocomoposites occurs due to volume increase for increasing the strain. In order to study facture behavior, we use the original Lennard Jones potential formula (with attractive part) as interaction between polymers. The size of simulation box under periodic boundary conditions (PBC) is set to about 133nm. We put 2048 fillers, 5120 polymer chains of 1024 particles, and many crosslink into the PBC box. Due to the crosslink, all polymer chains are connected to one network gel. One filler consists of 320 particles of the C320 fullerene structure. A repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the particles of C320 in order to make a sphere whose diameter is about 7nm. We can observe the fracture occurs due to void created near surface of fillers for the case that interaction between polymer and filler is relatively non- attractive. Various cases of Poisson's ratio and interaction between polymer and filler are examined.

  19. Coarse grained MD simulations of a fracture of filler-filled polymer nanocomposites under uniaxial elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Takano, Hiroshi

    We performed coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on Kremer-Grest model in order to investigate a fracture of polymer nanocomposites filled with spherical nanoparticles (NPs) under uniaxial elongation with a Poisson ratio of 0.4. In our model, the NP consists of 320 surface beads and one center bead. In order to make the NP spherical, a harmonic potential is applied to the surface particles from the center of the NP. Here, the initial volume fraction of the NPs is about 20%. The dependences of the fracture on the interactions between the NPs and polymers were examined. In order to observe the creation of nanovoids, the interaction among the polymers was set to be attractive. When the NP-polymer interaction is attractive, nanovoids appear in the bulk of polymers. On the other hand, for repulsive NP-polymer interaction, nanovoids are created at the surface between the polymers and NPs. At the same time, segregation of NPs is observed. We found that these behaviors depend on crosslink densities.

  20. Characterization of the Wheat Leaf Metabolome during Grain Filling and under Varied N-Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien Heyneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha−1. Four lines from a segregating doubled haploid population derived of a cross of the wheat elite cvs. Avalon and Cadenza were chosen as they showed pairwise differences in either N utilization efficiency (NUtE or senescence timing. 108 annotated metabolites of primary metabolism and ions were determined. The analysis did not provide genotype specific markers because of a remarkable stability of the metabolome between lines. We speculate that the reason for failing to identify genotypic markers might be due to insufficient genetic diversity of the wheat parents and/or the known tendency of plants to keep metabolome homeostasis even under adverse conditions through multiple adaptations and rescue mechanism. The data, however, provided a consistent catalogue of metabolites and their respective responses to environmental and developmental factors and may bode well for future systems biology approaches, and support plant breeding and crop improvement.

  1. Quantification of fructans, galacto-oligosacharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiekierski, J R; Rosella, O; Rose, R; Liels, K; Barrett, J S; Shepherd, S J; Gibson, P R; Muir, J G

    2011-04-01

    Wholegrain grains and cereals contain a wide range of potentially protective factors that are relevant to gastrointestinal health. The prebiotics best studied are fructans [fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin] and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). These and other short-chain carbohydrates can also be poorly absorbed in the small intestine (named fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols; FODMAPs) and may have important implications for the health of the gut. In the present study, FODMAPs, including fructose in excess of glucose, FOS (nystose, kestose), GOS (raffinose, stachyose) and sugar polyols (sorbitol, mannitol), were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light scattering detector. Total fructan was quantified using an enzymic hydrolysis method. Fifty-five commonly consumed grains, breakfast cereals, breads, pulses and biscuits were analysed. Total fructan were the most common short-chain carbohydrate present in cereal grain products and ranged (g per portion as eaten) from 1.12 g in couscous to 0 g in rice; 0.6 g in dark rye bread to 0.07 g in spelt bread; 0.96 g in wheat-free muesli to 0.11 g in oats; and 0.81 g in muesli fruit bar to 0.05 g in potato chips. Raffinose and stachyose were most common in pulses.   Composition tables including FODMAPs and prebiotics (FOS and GOS) that are naturally present in food will greatly assist research aimed at understanding their physiological role in the gut. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  3. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  4. The effect of grain size and surface area on organic matter, lignin and carbohydrate concentration, and molecular compositions in Peru Margin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Tsamakis, Elizabeth; Keil, Richard G.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; Hedges, John I.

    1997-03-01

    A C-rich sediment sample from the Peru Margin was sorted into nine hydrodynamically-determined grain size fractions to explore the effect of grain size distribution and sediment surface area on organic matter content and composition. The neutral monomeric carbohydrate composition, lignin oxidation product yields, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen contents were determined independently for each size fraction, in addition to sediment surface area and abundance of biogenic opal. The percent organic carbon and percent total nitrogen were strongly related to surface area in these sediments. In turn, the distribution of surface area closely followed mass distribution among the textural size classes, suggesting hydrodynamic controls on grain size also control organic carbon content. Nevertheless, organic compositional distinctions were observed between textural size classes. Total neutral carbohydrate yields in the Peru Margin sediments were found to closely parallel trends in total organic carbon, increasing in abundance among grain size fractions in proportion to sediment surface area. Coincident with the increases in absolute abundance, rhamnose and mannose increased as a fraction of the total carbohydrate yield in concert with surface area, indicating these monomers were preferentially represented in carbohydrates associated with surfaces. Lignin oxidation product yields varied with surface area when normalized to organic carbon, suggesting that the terrestrially-derived component may be diluted by sorption of marine derived material. Lignin-based parameters suggest a separate source for terrestrially derived material associated with sand-size material as opposed to that associated with silts and clays.

  5. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller

    2009-01-01

    18% BG (w/w) dry matter 30 days after flowering (DAF), seemingly compensating for a decreased synthesis of starch. The spectral information of the barley flour was compared to pure BG spectra and partial least squares regression (PLS) models were constructed for calibration to BG content. Informative...... the normal control Cork were studied. The Cork and lys3a genotypes showed a linear BG accumulation throughout the grain filling to reach a maximum of approximately 6 and 4% BG (w/w) dry matter, respectively. However, lys5f mutant exhibited an exponential increase in BG synthesis to a maximum of approximately...

  6. Proportioning equipment for vibration filling and compacting of grain materials in pipe containers, especially of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkas, V.; Filip, Z.; Beranek, J.

    1981-01-01

    The equipment consists of a base plate to which are attached the fastening collar fo the pipe container and the guide column with the height-adjustable support. The filling pipe is fixed to the support. The proportioning equipment prevents particles of grain material from segregation, thus allowing to achieve homogeneity of the material in the whole volume to be compacted. It also allows determining the height of the column of material in the pipe container without destructive effects on the stacked material. The equipment is designed for the manufacture of shortened fuel elements. (J.B.)

  7. Dynamic coarse-graining fills the gap between atomistic simulations and experimental investigations of mechanical unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Fabian; Schäfer, Ken; Diezemann, Gregor; Speck, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We present a dynamic coarse-graining technique that allows one to simulate the mechanical unfolding of biomolecules or molecular complexes on experimentally relevant time scales. It is based on Markov state models (MSMs), which we construct from molecular dynamics simulations using the pulling coordinate as an order parameter. We obtain a sequence of MSMs as a function of the discretized pulling coordinate, and the pulling process is modeled by switching among the MSMs according to the protocol applied to unfold the complex. This way we cover seven orders of magnitude in pulling speed. In the region of rapid pulling, we additionally perform steered molecular dynamics simulations and find excellent agreement between the results of the fully atomistic and the dynamically coarse-grained simulations. Our technique allows the determination of the rates of mechanical unfolding in a dynamical range from approximately 10-8/ns to 1/ns thus reaching experimentally accessible time regimes without abandoning atomistic resolution.

  8. Changes in Enzyme Activities Involved in Starch Synthesis and Hormone Concentrations in Superior and Inferior Spikelets and Their Association with Grain Filling of Super Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing FU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The changes in activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose-to-starch conversion and concentrations of hormones in superior and inferior spikelets of super rice were investigated and their association with grain filling was analyzed. Four super rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu, IIyou 084, Huaidao 9 and Wujing 15, and two high-yielding and elite check cultivars, Shanyou 63 and Yangfujing 8, were used. The activities of sucrose synthase (SuSase, adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase, starch synthase (StSase and starch branching enzyme (SBE, and the concentrations of zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z + ZR, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA in superior and inferior spikelets were determined during the grain filling period and their relationships with grain filling rate were analyzed. Maximum grain filling rate, the time reaching the maximum grain-filling rate, mean grain filling rate and brown rice weight for superior spikelets showed a slight difference between the super and check rice cultivars, but were significantly lower in the super rice than in the check rice for inferior spikelets. Changes of enzyme activities and hormone concentrations in grains exhibited single peak curves during the grain filling period. The peak values and the mean activities of SuSase, AGPase, StSase and SBE were lower in inferior spikelets than in superior ones, as well as the peak values and the mean concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA. However, the peak value and the mean concentration of ABA were significantly higher in inferior spikelets than in superior ones and greater in the super rice than in the check rice. The grain filling rate was positively and significantly correlated with the activities of SuSase, AGPase and StSase and the concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA. The results suggested that the low activities of SuSase, AGPase and StSase and the low concentrations of Z + ZR and IAA might be important physiological reasons for the slow grain

  9. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  10. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  11. Use of the Stable Nitrogen Isotope to Reveal the Source-Sink Regulation of Nitrogen Uptake and Remobilization during Grain Filling Phase in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yang

    Full Text Available Although the remobilization of vegetative nitrogen (N and post-silking N both contribute to grain N in maize (Zea mays L., their regulation by grain sink strength is poorly understood. Here we use 15N labeling to analyze the dynamic behaviors of both pre- and post-silking N in relation to source and sink manipulation in maize plants. The results showed that the remobilization of pre-silking N started immediately after silking and the remobilized pre-silking N had a greater contribution to grain N during early grain filling, with post-silking N importance increasing during the later filling stage. The amount of post-silking N uptake was largely driven by post-silking dry matter accumulation in both grain as well as vegetative organs. Prevention of pollination during silking had less effect on post-silking N uptake, as a consequence of compensatory growth of stems, husk + cob and roots. Also, leaves continuously export N even though grain sink was removed. The remobilization efficiency of N in the leaf and stem increased with increasing grain yield (hence N requirement. It is suggested that the remobilization of N in the leaf is controlled by sink strength but not the leaf per se. Enhancing post-silking N uptake rather than N remobilization is more likely to increase grain N accumulation.

  12. Effects of dietary combination of corn and rice as whole crop silage and grain sources on carbohydrate digestion and nitrogen use in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongfu; Sugino, Toshihisa; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2014-02-01

    Four Holstein steers were used to evaluate the combination effects of whole crop corn (Cs) or rice (Rs) silage with steam-flaked corn (Cg) or rice (Rg) grain (four dietary treatments) on ruminal carbohydrate digestion, duodenal nitrogen (N) flow and plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. The ruminal digestibility of starch and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) for Rs and Rg diets compared with Cs and Cg diets was greater, but that of neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) was less. Because the ruminal disappearance of NFC plus aNDFom was similar across four dietary treatments, microbial N flow was not affected by the diets. There was an interaction of methionine (Met) flow by silage and grain sources: greatest for CsRg and least for RsRg diet, and blood plasma concentration of Met after feeding was lower for Rg than Cg diets. Postprandial reduction degree of plasma EAA varied with the diets and individual EAA. The Cs diets compared with the Rs diets tended to be greater in N retention because of greater digestible organic matter (OM) intake. These results suggest that silage source combined with corn or rice grain affects N use in steers through the digestible OM intake, and the kinds of limiting AA may differ among the combination of silage and grain sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Changes in the Chlorophyll Content and Cytokinin Levels in the Top Three Leaves of New Plant Type Rice During Grain Filling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubia, L.; Rangan, L.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Dobrev, Petre; Malbeck, Jiří; Fowler, M.; Khush, G.; Elliott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2014), s. 66-76 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chlorophyll * Cytokinins * Grain filling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2014

  14. Response of rice plants to heat stress during initiation of panicle primordia or grain-filling phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Restrepo-Diaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf photosynthesis, a major determinant for yield sustainability in rice, is greatly conditioned by high temperature stress during growth. The effect of short-term high temperatures on leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, Fv/Fm, SPAD readings and yield characteristics was studied in two Colombian rice cultivars. Two genotypes, cv. Fedearroz 50 (F50 and cv. Fedearroz 733 (F733 were used in pot experiments with heat stress treatment (Plants were exposed to 40°C for two and half hours for five consecutive days and natural temperature (control treatment. Heat treatments were carried out at the initiation of panicle primordial (IP or grain-filling (GF phases. The results showed that short-term high temperature stress produced a reduction on the photosynthesis rate in both cultivars either IP or GF phases. Similar trends were found on stomatal conductance in all cases due to high temperatures. Although Fv/Fm and SPAD readings were not affected by high temperatures, these variables diminished significantly among phenological phases. 'F733' rice plants showed higher number spikelet sterility due to heat stress treatments. These results seem to indicate that heat-tolerant cultivars of rice is associated with high levels of photosynthesis rate in leaves.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Genes in Inferior and Superior Spikelets of Rice Cultivars with Contrasting Panicle-Compactness and Grain-Filling Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    Full Text Available Breeding programs for increasing spikelet number in rice have resulted in compactness of the panicle, accompanied by poor grain filling in inferior spikelets. Although the inefficient utilization of assimilate has been indicated as responsible for this poor grain filling, the underlying cause remains elusive. The current study utilized the suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify 57 and 79 genes that overexpressed in the superior and inferior spikelets (with respect to each other, respectively, of the compact-panicle rice cultivar Mahalaxmi. Functional categorization of these differentially expressed genes revealed a marked metabolic difference between the spikelets according to their spatial location on the panicle. The expression of genes encoding seed storage proteins was dominant in inferior spikelets, whereas genes encoding regulatory proteins, such as serine-threonine kinase, zinc finger protein and E3 ligase, were highly expressed in superior spikelets. The expression patterns of these genes in the inferior and superior spikelets of Mahalaxmi were similar to those observed in another compact-panicle cultivar, OR-1918, but differed from those obtained in two lax-panicle cultivars, Upahar and Lalat. The results first suggest that the regulatory proteins abundantly expressed in the superior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars and in both the superior and inferior spikelets of lax-panicle cultivars but poorly expressed in the inferior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars promote grain filling. Second, the high expression of seed-storage proteins observed in the inferior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars appears to inhibit the grain filling process. Third, the low expression of enzymes of the Krebs cycle in inferior spikelets compared with superior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars is bound to lead to poor ATP generation in the former and consequently limit starch biosynthesis, an ATP-consuming process

  16. Effect of high temperature on grain filling period, yield, amylose content and activity of starch biosynthesis enzymes in endosperm of basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nisar; Tetlow, Ian J; Nawaz, Sehar; Iqbal, Ahsan; Mubin, Muhammad; Nawaz ul Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Butt, Aisha; Lightfoot, David A; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-08-30

    High temperature during grain filling affects yield, starch amylose content and activity of starch biosynthesis enzymes in basmati rice. To investigate the physiological mechanisms underpinning the effects of high temperature on rice grain, basmati rice was grown under two temperature conditions - 32 and 22 °C - during grain filling. High temperature decreased the grain filling period from 32 to 26 days, reducing yield by 6%, and caused a reduction in total starch (3.1%) and amylose content (22%). Measurable activities of key enzymes involved in sucrose to starch conversion, sucrose synthase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch phosphorylase and soluble starch synthase in endosperms developed at 32 °C were lower than those at 22 °C compared with similar ripening stage on an endosperm basis. In particular, granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) activity was significantly lower than corresponding activity in endosperms developing at 22 °C during all developmental stages analyzed. Results suggest changes in amylose/amylopectin ratio observed in plants grown at 32 °C was attributable to a reduction in activity of GBSS, the sole enzyme responsible for amylose biosynthesis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Using vibrational molecular spectroscopy to reveal association of steam-flaking induced carbohydrates molecular structural changes with grain fractionation, biodigestion and biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ningning; Liu, Jianxin; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-04-01

    Advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and non-destructive tool to reveal intrinsic molecular structure conformation of biological tissues. However, this technique has not been used to systematically study flaking induced structure changes at a molecular level. The objective of this study was to use vibrational molecular spectroscopy to reveal association between steam flaking induced CHO molecular structural changes in relation to grain CHO fractionation, predicted CHO biodegradation and biodigestion in ruminant system. The Attenuate Total Reflectance Fourier-transform Vibrational Molecular Spectroscopy (ATR-Ft/VMS) at SRP Key Lab of Molecular Structure and Molecular Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture Strategic Research Chair Program (SRP, University of Saskatchewan) was applied in this study. The fractionation, predicted biodegradation and biodigestion were evaluated using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The results show that: (1) The steam flaking induced significant changes in CHO subfractions, CHO biodegradation and biodigestion in ruminant system. There were significant differences between non-processed (raw) and steam flaked grain corn (P R2 = 0.87, RSD = 0.74, P R2 = 0.87, RSD = 0.24, P < .01). In summary, the processing induced molecular CHO structure changes in grain corn could be revealed by the ATR-Ft/VMS vibrational molecular spectroscopy. These molecular structure changes in grain were potentially associated with CHO biodegradation and biodigestion.

  18. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32 P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  19. Structure and properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries under stress in geological materials. Geologica Ultraiectina (290)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two of the three processes making up the deformation mechanism of intergranular pressure solution, being dissolution and diffusion, take place in the grain boundary fluid phase. Hence, the structure and physical properties of wet grain boundaries under stress can be expected to influence the

  20. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial degradation of whole-grain complex carbohydrates and impact on short-chain fatty acids and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    Whole-grain cereals have a complex dietary fiber (DF) composition consisting of oligosaccharides (mostly fructans), resistant starch, and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs); the most important are arabinoxylans, mixed-linkage β(1,3; 1,4)-d-glucan (β-glucan), and cellulose and the noncarbohydrate...... to the intake of DF. The type and composition of cereal DF can consequently be used to modulate the microbial composition and activity as well as the production and molar ratios of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Arabinoxylans and β-glucan in whole-grain cereals and cereal ingredients have been shown...... on the concentration in peripheral blood was less because the majority of propionate and butyrate is cleared in the liver. Active microbial fermentation with increased SCFA production reduced the exposure of potentially toxic compounds to the epithelium, potentially stimulating anorectic hormones and acting...

  3. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  4. Canopy temperature depression at grain filling correlates to winter wheat yield in the U.S. southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat breeding has improved drought tolerance over the years. However, our knowledge on drought tolerance in relation to the canopy temperature (CT) and grain yield is limited. A three-season wheat field study ending 2012, 2015, and 2016 was conducted at Bushland, Texas to investigate the relationsh...

  5. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  6. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  7. Effect of Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzymes and Cell Death Related Traits in Resistant and Susceptible Wheat Cultivars at Grain Filling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasheminasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in Iran. Twenty Iranian wheat cultivars with wide range of sensitivity to drought, including 18 varieties of bread wheat and two varieties of durum wheat were used in two separate field experiments in 2009-2010 at the Experimental Station of College of Agricultural in Shiraz University. Each experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one of the experiments was optimum (100% field capacity while the second experiment was conducted under drought stress (45% field capacity. Several biochemical components including antioxidant enzymes and hydrogen peroxide and some physiological traits were analyzed in the two conditions. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant activity at the grain filling stage. Superoxide dismutase activity showed the highest increase. Lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and cell death increased significantly under drought condition, however membrane stability index decreased. Resistant cultivars showed the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage. This trend was reversed in the susceptible cultivars. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase had a significant correlation with yield stability index. Hydrogen peroxide and cell membrane stability indices showed the highest correlation with yield stability index. Also Pishtaz and Alamut were selected respectively as the most resistance and susceptible cultivars.

  8. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    promoting rhizobacteria application on yield, yield components and grain filling period of soybean. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and some agronomic characteristics of soybean, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2013 at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch. Factors were included foliar application of Nano-Zinc oxide at four levels (Zero as control, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g l-1 and seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria at five levels (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+Psedomonas putida, seed inoculation with Brady rhizobium japanicum+ Azosprillum lipoferum strain OF+ Psedomonas putida. Results and Discussion The results of growth indices showed that the maximum total dry matter (530 g m-2, crop growth rate (9.48 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.1 g.g-1.day-1 were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium+Azosprillum+ Psedomonas and the least of these indices were obtained without of foliar application Nano-Zinc oxide × seed inoculation. The results showed that plant height, the number of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant, grain yield and grain 100 weight were significantly affected by Nano-Zinc oxide, seed inoculation and interaction of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation. Maximum of plant height, grain 100 weight, the number of nodules per plant and grain yield were obtained at foliar application of 0.9 g l-1 of Nano-Zinc oxide×seed inoculation with rhizobium and PGPR. Dry weight of nodules per plant, the number of pod per plant and the number of grains per plant

  9. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  10. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  11. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  12. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  13. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  14. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Duração do período de formação do grão em trigo Duration of the grain filling period in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Osório

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Admitindo a existência de correlação positiva entre o tempo de enchimento dos grãos e a produtividade, foi estudada a duração do período de formação dos grãos em cultivares brasileiras de trigo. Os resultados obtidos demonstram existir grande variação entre cultivares na duração deste período, o qual mostrou-se menor nas cultivares tardias de ciclo vegetativo longo. Destacaram-se, por possuírem longo período de formação dos grãos, as cultivares super-precoces SB 7519, CEP 7596 e IAS 58; as cultivares precoces Jacui, PF 75171, CNT 9, PEL 72393, Frontana, PAT 7392, IAS 54, Coxilha, Cotiporã e Nobre e as cultivares de ciclo intermediário CNT 8 e PEL 72390. Nenhuma cultivar tardia dentre as testadas evidenciou longo período do espigamento à colheita.Assuming positive correlation between the grain filling period duration and yield this character was studied for 38 Brazilian wheat cultivare. Results demonstrate a great variation in the gram filling period duration that was shorter in late than hi earlier cultivars. The following earlier and semi-late cultivare had the longest grain filling period: SB 7519, CEP 7596, IAS 58, Jacui, PF 75171, CNT 9, PEL 72393, Frontana, PAT 7392, IAS 54, Coxilha, Cotiporã, Nobre CNT 8 and PEL 72390. None of the tested late cultivars has shown a long period from heading to harvest.

  16. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  17. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    may have to accept that there are currently no acceptable, widely applicable analyses that meet these criteria, and seek to fill this analytical gap. Overall, there are good possibilities for accomplishing the nutritional partitioning of carbohydrates. But to ensure that this is done well, as a discipline, we need to continue our discussions on the basis for partitioning, on what fractions are actually significant, and rigorously evaluate proposed analyses to verify that they are analytically sound.

  18. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  19. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  20. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  1. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  2. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  3. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  4. Metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares, G. I L [UNESP; Rodrigues, L. [UNESP; Cañizares, M. C. [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    The carbohydrates provide 50 to 80% of the dry matter of grain and roughage and can be divided into structural (cellulose, hemicellulose) and non-structural (starch, pectin and sugars). The non-structural carbohydrates are primarily digested in the rumen and its dynamic process is a sequence for the supply of nutrients to the intestine. The quality and quantity of products resulting from ruminal fermentation are dependent on the type and activity of microorganisms in the rumen influenced by t...

  5. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  6. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  7. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  8. DoGlycans-Tools for Preparing Carbohydrate Structures for Atomistic Simulations of Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Carbohydrate Polymers for GROMACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danne, Reinis; Poojari, Chetan; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group of biological molecules and macromolecules. In cells they are involved in, e.g., energy storage, signaling, and cell-cell recognition. All of these phenomena take place in atomistic scales, thus atomistic simulation would...... be the method of choice to explore how carbohydrates function. However, the progress in the field is limited by the lack of appropriate tools for preparing carbohydrate structures and related topology files for the simulation models. Here we present tools that fill this gap. Applications where the tools...

  9. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  10. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  11. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin-Induced Osmotic and Antioxidant Regulation in Two Drought-Tolerant and Drought-Sensitive Cultivars of Wheat During Grain Filling Under Water Deficit in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza SARAFRAZ-ARDAKANI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play critical roles in regulating plant responses to stress. The present study investigates the effect of cytokinin, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction on some osmoprotectants and antioxidant parameters induced by drought stress in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. of ‘Pishgam’ and ‘MV-17’ as tolerant and sensitive to drought during post-anthesis phase, respectively grown in field conditions. The most considerable effect of the treatments was exhibited 21 days after anthesis. Under drought conditions, the flag leaf soluble carbohydrate content increased in both cultivars while starch content was remarkably decreased in ‘Pishgam’ as compared to ‘MV-17’. Abscisic acid increased total soluble sugar and reduced starch more than other hormonal treatments, although it decreased studied monosaccharaides in ‘Pishgam’, especially. Drought stress induced high proportion of gylycinebetain and free proline in ‘Pishgam’ cultivar. Application of abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction increased gylycinebetain and proline content in both cultivars under irrigation and drought conditions. The tolerant cultivar exhibited less accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in relation to significant increase of catalase and peroxidase activities and α-tocpherol content under drought conditions. All hormonal treatments increased the named enzyme activities under both irrigation and drought conditions, while higher accumulation of α-tocopherol was only showed in case of cytokinin application. Also, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid could decrease drought-induced hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde level to some extent, although abscisic acid increased both of hydrogen peroxide andmalondialdehyde content in irrigation phase, especially.

  13. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  14. A label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics analysis of rice grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hee-Jong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a great deal of rice proteomic research has been conducted, there are relatively few studies specifically addressing the rice grain proteome. The existing rice grain proteomic researches have focused on the identification of differentially expressed proteins or monitoring protein expression patterns during grain filling stages. Results Proteins were extracted from rice grains 10, 20, and 30 days after flowering, as well as from fully mature grains. By merging all of the identified proteins in this study, we identified 4,172 non-redundant proteins with a wide range of molecular weights (from 5.2 kDa to 611 kDa and pI values (from pH 2.9 to pH 12.6. A Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis for the 4,172 proteins revealed that 52 categories were enriched, including the carbohydrate metabolic process, transport, localization, lipid metabolic process, and secondary metabolic process. The relative abundances of the 1,784 reproducibly identified proteins were compared to detect 484 differentially expressed proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis and Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis revealed that proteins involved in the metabolic process were enriched through all stages of development, suggesting that proteome changes occurred even in the desiccation phase. Interestingly, enrichments of proteins involved in protein folding were detected in the desiccation phase and in fully mature grain. Conclusion This is the first report conducting comprehensive identification of rice grain proteins. With a label free shotgun proteomic approach, we identified large number of rice grain proteins and compared the expression patterns of reproducibly identified proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis, Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis, and the analysis of composite expression profiles revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, we

  15. Effect of salinity and inoculation with Azosprillium on carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The measured parameters were chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis (Ps) rates, carbohydrates, nitrate, ammonium and protein content, nitrogenase activity, yield and yield components. The results showed that salinity decreased plant height and grain yield (GY) in all levels. GY reduction in the inoculated treatment was ...

  16. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  17. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  18. High Temperature-Induced Expression of Rice α-Amylases in Developing Endosperm Produces Chalky Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nakata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming impairs grain filling in rice and reduces starch accumulation in the endosperm, leading to chalky-appearing grains, which damages their market value. We found previously that high temperature-induced expression of starch-lytic α-amylases during ripening is crucial for grain chalkiness. Because the rice genome carries at least eight functional α-amylase genes, identification of the α-amylase(s that contribute most strongly to the production of chalky grains could accelerate efficient breeding. To identify α-amylase genes responsible for the production of chalky grains, we characterized the histological expression pattern of eight α-amylase genes and the influences of their overexpression on grain appearance and carbohydrate components through a series of experiments with transgenic rice plants. The promoter activity of most α-amylase genes was elevated to various extents at high temperature. Among them, the expression of Amy1A and Amy3C was induced in the internal, especially basal to dorsal, region of developing endosperm, whereas that of Amy3D was confined near the ventral aleurone. These regions coincided with the site of occurrence of chalkiness, which was in clear contrast to conventionally known expression patterns of the enzyme in the scutellum and aleurone during seed germination. Furthermore, overexpression of α-amylase genes, except for Amy3E, in developing endosperm produced various degrees of chalky grains without heat exposure, whereas that of Amy3E yielded normal translucent grains, as was the case in the vector control, even though Amy3E-overexpressing grains contained enhanced α-amylase activities. The weight of the chalky grains was decreased due to reduced amounts of starch, and microscopic observation of the chalky part of these grains revealed that their endosperm consisted of loosely packed round starch granules that had numerous pits on their surface, confirming the hydrolysis of the starch reserve by

  19. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  20. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  1. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  2. High-biomass C4 grasses-Filling the yield gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E

    2017-08-01

    A significant increase in agricultural productivity will be required by 2050 to meet the needs of an expanding and rapidly developing world population, without allocating more land and water resources to agriculture, and despite slowing rates of grain yield improvement. This review examines the proposition that high-biomass C 4 grasses could help fill the yield gap. High-biomass C 4 grasses exhibit high yield due to C 4 photosynthesis, long growth duration, and efficient capture and utilization of light, water, and nutrients. These C 4 grasses exhibit high levels of drought tolerance during their long vegetative growth phase ideal for crops grown in water-limited regions of agricultural production. The stems of some high-biomass C 4 grasses can accumulate high levels of non-structural carbohydrates that could be engineered to enhance biomass yield and utility as feedstocks for animals and biofuels production. The regulatory pathway that delays flowering of high-biomass C 4 grasses in long days has been elucidated enabling production and deployment of hybrids. Crop and landscape-scale modeling predict that utilization of high-biomass C 4 grass crops on land and in regions where water resources limit grain crop yield could increase agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  4. Identification of companion small grains for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rye was the most successful small grain in being able to fill the winter gap in the fodder flow of Midmar ryegrass. The small grains on average contributed about 25% towards the total DM production in the small grain-Midmar mixtures. Oats, although initially slow, had significantly (P < 0, 05) higher yields than any of the ...

  5. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  6. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... under terminal heat stress in bread wheat. (Triticum aestivum L.) Girish Chandra Pandey1, Jagadish ... ficantly in all the bread and durum wheat genotypes, because of significant interaction of each ..... wheat varieties and registered genetic stocks (Triticum L.). Technical. Bulletin No.13, Directorate of Wheat ...

  7. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  8. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  9. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  10. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  11. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  13. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  14. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  15. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  16. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  17. Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill in mine excavations are considered. The time dependence of drainage from the deposited material was determined from ''in situ'' measurements with the aid of radioisotope gauges. The measurements were performed for given drainage conditions and practically constant grain size composition. It was found that in a few hours after the end of the back-filling operation the mechanical properties of the deposited material are practically constant. (author)

  18. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  19. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  20. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  2. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde......Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  3. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  4. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  5. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  6. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  7. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  8. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  9. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  10. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  11. The Effect of Water Deficit stress on Osmotic Metabolites and Anti Oxidant System and Grain and Oil Yield of Amaranth CV. Koniz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Yarnia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that highly affect crop growth and yield. But the response of crops to stress depending on the timing of crop growth stages is different. The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of different levels of water stress (irrigation after 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan on different stages of Amaranth growth (establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling. To find the effects of water deficit stress on this plant it was decided to determine its protein percentage, oil and grain yields under drought stress. Evaluation of physiological characteristics as to the extent of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant activity was also carried out. Results showed that water deficit stress,depending on the severity and duration of stress, caused a reduction between between a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 89 percent in yield, 28 to 70 percent in harvest index, 12 to 32 percent in grain protein and 29 to 97 percent in oil yield. This indicates the high sensitivity of grain and oil yields to severe and prolonged drought stresses. Changes in osmotic substances (proline and soluble carbohydrates showed that this crop under water stress conditions increased proline and soluble carbohydrates by 31 and 50 percents, respectively. Thus, if could be said that under severe droughts the ability of crops to cops with drought will be reduced. Similarly, amaranth, to cope with water stress, increases the amount of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and super oxid dismutase up to 53, 23 and 79%, respectively. Higher amount of super oxid dismutase enzyme produce as the result of drought stress may play an important role to cope with reactive oxygen species and oxidative stresses.

  12. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  13. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  14. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  15. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. I. Dynamics of dry matter accumulation. Grain yield and structural elements of yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadin, K.; Nonkova, M.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The genotype peculiarities in the translocation dynamics of dry matter in relation to wheat yield were studied under vegetation-laboratory and field conditions. The new wheat varieties Enola, Karat and Svilena created at the Institute for Wheat and Sunflower 'Dobroudja' have a high production potential due to their high intensity of dry matter accumulation in grain during the second half of maturation. It was established that in the standard variety Pliska the intensity of dry matter accumulation in reproductive parts was higher during heading-grain filling and then sharply decreased during maturation. This variety was characterized with high translocation of vegetation mass eventually leading to grain yield decrease. Significant genotype variations were established in the vegetation mass translocation in the respective parts during the stages of development. The contribution of the individual organs concerning carbohydrate reutilization to grain was mainly due to stems. An especially important peculiarity of the leaves of cv. Svilena was established: they ensured over 30 of grain yield at optimal nutrition. The complex evaluation of the new varieties revealed their high plasticity, the cultivar Karat showing the best characteristics. Refs. 13 (author)

  16. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  17. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  18. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  19. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. (EPA); (U. South Australia); (Manchester); (Aberdeen); (UC)

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  20. Quantitative partition of protein, carbohydrate and fat pools in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Thorbek, G

    1995-01-01

    A model combining data from balance experiments with data from oxidation of nutrients demonstrating the pools of protein, carbohydrate and fat and their partition in the body was presented. Data from more than 200 experiments with growing pigs were used to fill up the "black boxes" in the model a...

  1. The composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of sorghum into human food and feed is limited by its low digestibility compared to corn, which has been linked to the higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain. Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain phys...

  2. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  3. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  5. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  6. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  7. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  8. Carbohydrate Microarray on Glass: a Tool for Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Giesbers, M.; Visser, G.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to immobilize carbohydrates on a glass surface to obtain a carbohydrate microarray is described. The array was used to study carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The glass surface was modified with aldehyde terminated linker groups of various chain lengths. Coupling of carbohydrates

  9. Effects of Post-Anthesis Drought and Waterlogging on Accumulation of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Glutenin Macropolymers Content in Wheat Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, D; Yue, H; Wollenweber, B

    2009-01-01

    Drought and flooding during grain filling have become major constraints to wheat quality and yield. The impacts of water deficits and waterlogging during the grain filling on contents of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) in grains of the winter w...

  10. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  11. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  12. Reproductive performance of reindeer fed all-grain and hay-grain rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Blanchard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance of grain-fed reindeer {Rangifer tarandus was evaluated over a 2-year period. Groups of pregnant reindeer were fed one of three rations, (1 100% whole-grain barley, (2 98.9% whole-grain barley and 1.2% mineral and trace element supplement, and (3 70% whole-grain barley and 30% finely-chopped bluegrass hay. Reindeer fed unsupplemented whole-barley failed to produce a single live calf. The addition of mineral and trace element supplement to the ration did not result in any significant improvement in reproductive performance. Eighty-five percent of the reindeer consuming unsupplemented and supplemented all-barley rations became pregnant; however, 76% of the pregnancies resulted in stillborn calves. One-hundred percent of the cows maintained on the grain/hay ration produced live calves. We speculate that reproductive failure in reindeer cows maintained on all-grain rations is most likely a result of a diet induced disfunction in maternal rumen and/or carbohydrate metabolism rather than a micro-nutrient deficiency. More research is neeeded to determine which metabolic pathways are affected.

  13. Processing method of radiation concrete waste and manufacturing method for radioactive waste solidifying filling mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukekiyo, Mitsuaki; Okamoto, Masamichi

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive concrete wastes are crushed and pulverized. Fine solid granular materials caused by the pulverization are classified and the grain size is controlled so that the maximum grain size is 2.5mm, with the grains having a grain size of up to 0.15mm being up to 30% by weight to form fine aggregates. Separated and recovered fine concrete powders are classified and the size of the powder is controlled within a range of from 3,000 to 15,000cm 2 /g which is smaller than cement particles to form fine powders having a stable quality suitable as a mixing agent. The fine aggregates and the mixing agent are mixed to form a filling mortar (filler) for solidifying radioactive wastes. The filling mortar is filled together with other radioactive wastes in a drum to form a waste body in a drum. With such a constitution, crushed radioactive concrete wastes can be reutilized completely. (I.N.)

  14. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  15. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  16. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  17. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  20. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  1. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...

  3. Study on transference of assimilate in filling summer maize using isotope 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhongxue; Wang Pu; Liang Zhenxing

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic of assimilate transference from the ear leaf to grain during effective grain filling stage was studied by 14 C tracer. The results showed that the rates of assimilate transportation out of the ear leaf and transference to grain changed very fast. The rate was very big in 4 - 6 hour just after 14 C feeding and decreased with time. The grain which accumulated 14 C-assimilate in a higher rate and got much more 14 C-assimilate in fixed time could develop into larger size

  4. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  5. Fermentable carbohydrate dietary consumption measured by a cariogenicity scoring system and caries experience in youth and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Fernández, Constanza E; Díaz S, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate if dietary fermentable carbohydrate consumption associates with caries experience of youths and adults when assessed by a scoring system of putative cariogenicity of the foods. Methods: Two hundred and seventy five subjects (12 to 67 years-old) were examined to assess caries experience by the DMFT Index (decay missing and filled teeth) and radiographs. Subjects filled a weekly diet diary registering the type, frequency and time of consumption of foods. An arbitrary scoring sy...

  6. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  7. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  8. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  9. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  10. Occurrence and origin of carbohydrates in peat samples from a red mangrove environment as reflected by abundances of neutral monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Baas, M.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Boon, J. J.; Schenck, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Acid hydrolysates of fractionated red mangrove peat samples and handpicked roots and rootlets of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) from Jewfish Key in the Florida Everglades were analysed for neutral monosaccharides. In the peat samples two major sources of carbohydrates could be determined: (1) vascular plant carbohydrates derived from Rhizophora mangle and (2) microbially derived carbohydrates. Significant correlations exist between the relative contributions of most neutral monosaccharides and the total carbohydrate concentration. The fine-grained peat fractions yielded low total neutral monosaccharides whose distributions indicate contributions of microbial carbohydrates. The coarse-grained peat samples yielded high total neutral monosaccharides with distributions indicating major contributions of vascular plant carbohydrates. It is estimated that a substantial part of the sugars analysed in the finegrained samples originates from microorganisms ([cyano] bacteria, algae).The absence of a trend in total neutral monosaccharide concentrations with depth suggests that microbial degradation is limited to the upper levels of the peat and that the microbial sugars determined at lower peat levels are derived from nonviable or dormant microorganisms. Results from factor analysis may suggest differences in microbial populations in the various peat samples.

  11. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  12. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  13. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  14. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  15. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  16. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  17. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkel, van J.; Vergauwen, R.; Sévenier, R.; Hakkert, J.C.; Laere, van A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Inulin is a fructose-based polymer that is isolated from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) taproots. The degree of polymerization (DP) determines its application and hence the value of the crop. The DP is highly dependent on the field conditions and harvest time. Therefore, the present study was

  18. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  19. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  2. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  3. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  4. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  5. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  6. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  7. Implications of Earth analogs to Martian sulfate-filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-filled fractures in fine-grained sediments on Mars are interpreted to be the result of fluid movement during deep burial. Fractures in the Dewey Lake (aka Quartermaster) Formation of southeastern New Mexico and west Texas are filled with gypsum that is at least partially synsedimentary. Sulfate in the Dewey Lake takes two principal forms: gypsum cement and gypsum (mainly fibrous) that fills fractures ranging from horizontal to vertical. Apertures are mainly mm-scale, though some are > 1 cm. The gypsum is antitaxial, fibrous, commonly approximately perpendicular to the wall rock, and displays suture lines and relics of the wall rock. Direct evidence of synsedimentary, near-surface origin includes gypsum intraclasts, intraclasts that include smaller intraclasts that contain gypsum clasts, intraclasts of gypsum with suture lines, gypsum concentrated in small desiccation cracks, and intraclasts that include fibrous gypsum-filled fractures that terminate at the eroded clast boundary. Dewey Lake fracture fillings suggest that their Martian analogs may also have originated in the shallow subsurface, shortly following the deposition of Martian sediments, in the presence of shallow aquifers.

  8. A functional carbohydrate chip platform for analysis of carbohydrate-protein interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    A carbohydrate chip based on glass or other transparent surfaces has been suggested as a potential tool for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we proposed a facile, efficient, and cost-effective method whereby diverse carbohydrate types are modified in a single step and directly immobilized onto a glass surface, with retention of functional orientation. We modified various types of carbohydrates by reductive amination, in which reducing sugar groups were coupled with 4-(2-aminoethyl)aniline, which has di-amine groups at both ends. The modified carbohydrates were covalently attached to an amino-reactive NHS-activated glass surface by formation of stable amide bonds. This proposed method was applied for efficient construction of a carbohydrate microarray to analyze carbohydrate-protein interactions. The carbohydrate chip prepared using our method can be successfully used in diverse biomimetic studies of carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions, and carbohydrate sensor chip or microarray development for diagnosis and screening.

  9. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  10. Sedimentary controls on modern sand grain coat formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Patrick J.; Worden, Richard H.; Utley, James; Hodgson, David M.

    2017-05-01

    Coated sand grains can influence reservoir quality evolution during sandstone diagenesis. Porosity can be reduced and fluid flow restricted where grain coats encroach into pore space. Conversely pore-lining grain coats can restrict the growth of pore-filling quartz cement in deeply buried sandstones, and thus can result in unusually high porosity in deeply buried sandstones. Being able to predict the distribution of coated sand grains within petroleum reservoirs is thus important to help find good reservoir quality. Here we report a modern analogue study of 12 sediment cores from the Anllóns Estuary, Galicia, NW Spain, collected from a range of sub-environments, to help develop an understanding of the occurrence and distribution of coated grains. The cores were described for grain size, bioturbation and sedimentary structures, and then sub-sampled for electron and light microscopy, laser granulometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Anllóns Estuary is sand-dominated with intertidal sand flats and saltmarsh environments at the margins; there is a shallowing/fining-upwards trend in the estuary-fill succession. Grain coats are present in nearly every sample analysed; they are between 1 μm and 100 μm thick and typically lack internal organisation. The extent of grain coat coverage can exceed 25% in some samples with coverage highest in the top 20 cm of cores. Samples from muddy intertidal flat and the muddy saltmarsh environments, close to the margins of the estuary, have the highest coat coverage (mean coat coverage of 20.2% and 21.3%, respectively). The lowest mean coat coverage occurs in the sandy saltmarsh (10.4%), beyond the upper tidal limit and sandy intertidal flat environments (8.4%), close to the main estuary channel. Mean coat coverage correlates with the concentration of clay fraction. The primary controls on the distribution of fine-grained sediment, and therefore grain coat distribution, are primary sediment transport and deposition processes that

  11. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  12. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  13. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  14. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  15. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  16. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  17. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. © The Author 2016. Published by

  18. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  19. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  20. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  1. The effect of the interaction of various spawn grains with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The high protein, carbohydrate, fatty acid and amino acid content of brown rice stimulate fruiting (Roux and Labarère, 1991; Shin and Godber, 1996). In addition, grains have also been ... pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility and electrophoretic karyotype with field populations of Stagnospora nodorum. Plant Pathol. 49(2):.

  2. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  3. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  4. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  5. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  6. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  7. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  8. Fermentation Kinetic of Maize Straw-Gliricidia Feed Mixture Supplemented by Fermentable Carbohydrate Measured by In Vitro Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, D.; Nurhayati

    2018-02-01

    Utilization of crop by-products such as maize straw mixed with legume is expected to be able to overcome the limitation of forage availability during dry season and have similar nutritional value with grass. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate in this diet can be improved fermentability and reduced methane production. The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground corn grain or rice bran as fermentable carbohydrate in maize straw-gliricidiamixture. Treatment diets evaluated were: Maize straw + gliricidialeaf meal (Control/RO); Control + 10% ground maize grain (ROC); Control + 10% rice bran (RORB). Maize straw was chopped and ground then mixed with gliricidia leaf meal at ratio 60:40% DM. Maize straw-gliricidia mixture then supplemented either with ground corn grain or rice bran at 10% of DM basal diet (control). Sample was incubated for 48 hours, gas production was recorded at 4, 8,12, 16, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Study was conducted in randomized complete design. Results of the study showed that supplementation of fermentable carbohydrate from corn grain or rice bran was able to increased (Pfermentation and reduced methane production.

  9. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  10. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  11. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  12. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  13. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  14. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  15. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  16. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  17. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  18. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  19. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  20. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  1. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  2. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  3. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  4. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  5. Potential impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav; Chakraborty, Debashis; Sehgal, Vinay K; Pal, Madan

    2015-11-15

    Experiments were conducted in open-top chambers to assess the effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment (E-CO2) on the quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop. Physical attributes of the grains was not affected, but the hydration and swelling capacities of the flour increased. Increase in carbohydrates and reduction in protein made the grains more carbonaceous (higher C:N) under E-CO2. Among other mineral nutrients, K, Ca and Zn concentrations decreased, while P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and B concentrations did not change. The pH, bulk density and cooking time of chickpea flour remained unaffected, although the water absorption capacity of flour increased and oil absorption reduced. Results suggest that E-CO2 could affect the grain quality adversely and nutritional imbalance in grains of chickpea might occur. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  7. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  8. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  9. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  10. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  12. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Jelena D.; Radosavljević Miloš S.; Grujić Olgica S.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Nikolić Svetlana B.; Đukić-Vuković Aleksandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer) throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products) and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage cos...

  13. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  14. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  15. Comparison of Cellulose Iβ Simulations with Three Carbohydrate Force Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, James F; Beckham, Gregg T; Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin; Brady, John W; Himmel, Michael E; Crowley, Michael F

    2012-02-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of cellulose have recently become more prevalent due to increased interest in renewable energy applications, and many atomistic and coarse-grained force fields exist that can be applied to cellulose. However, to date no systematic comparison between carbohydrate force fields has been conducted for this important system. To that end, we present a molecular dynamics simulation study of hydrated, 36-chain cellulose Iβ microfibrils at room temperature with three carbohydrate force fields (CHARMM35, GLYCAM06, and Gromos 45a4) up to the near-microsecond time scale. Our results indicate that each of these simulated microfibrils diverge from the cellulose Iβ crystal structure to varying degrees under the conditions tested. The CHARMM35 and GLYCAM06 force fields eventually result in structures similar to those observed at 500 K with the same force fields, which are consistent with the experimentally observed high-temperature behavior of cellulose I. The third force field, Gromos 45a4, produces behavior significantly different from experiment, from the other two force fields, and from previously reported simulations with this force field using shorter simulation times and constrained periodic boundary conditions. For the GLYCAM06 force field, initial hydrogen-bond conformations and choice of electrostatic scaling factors significantly affect the rate of structural divergence. Our results suggest dramatically different time scales for convergence of properties of interest, which is important in the design of computational studies and comparisons to experimental data. This study highlights that further experimental and theoretical work is required to understand the structure of small diameter cellulose microfibrils typical of plant cellulose.

  16. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  17. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... to their potential for digestion by endogenous enzymes. Carbohydrates are the principal substrates for energy metabolism but also exert a number of other effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The starch structure as well as type and levels of DF influence, to a varying degree, the rate of starch digestion...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...

  18. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  19. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentrations in stem-wood, bark and root tissues of the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst) in two natural woodlands of Ethiopia. Two tapping treatments, one without tapping (control) and the other with tapping at 12 incisions, are applied on experimental trees. Trees are tapped in the leafless dry period, diminishing their carbon storage pools. If storage pools are not refilled by assimilation during the wet season, when crowns are in full leaf, tapping may deplete the carbon pool and weaken Boswellia trees. The highest soluble sugar concentrations were in the bark and the highest starch concentrations in the stem-wood. The stem-wood contains 12 times higher starch than soluble sugar concentrations. Hence, the highest TNC concentrations occurred in the stem-wood. Moreover, wood volume was larger than root or bark volumes and, as a result, more TNC was stored in the stem-wood. As predicted, tapping reduced the TNC concentrations and pool sizes in frankincense trees during the dry season. During the wet season, these carbon pools were gradually filled in tapped trees, but never to the size of non-tapped trees. We conclude that TNC is dynamic on a seasonal time scale and offers resilience against stress, highlighting its importance for tree carbon balance. But current resin tapping practices are intensive and may weaken Boswellia populations, jeopardizing future frankincense production.

  20. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  1. Predictive coarse-graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  2. The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate ("Eco-Atkins") diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Greaves, Kathryn A; Paul, Gregory; Singer, William

    2009-06-08

    Low-carbohydrate, high-animal protein diets, which are advocated for weight loss, may not promote the desired reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. The effect of exchanging the animal proteins and fats for those of vegetable origin has not been tested. Our objective was to determine the effect on weight loss and LDL-C concentration of a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetable proteins from gluten, soy, nuts, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and vegetable oils compared with a high-carbohydrate diet based on low-fat dairy and whole grain products. A total of 47 overweight hyperlipidemic men and women consumed either (1) a low-carbohydrate (26% of total calories), high-vegetable protein (31% from gluten, soy, nuts, fruit, vegetables, and cereals), and vegetable oil (43%) plant-based diet or (2) a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (58% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 25% fat) for 4 weeks each in a parallel study design. The study food was provided at 60% of calorie requirements. Of the 47 subjects, 44 (94%) (test, n = 22 [92%]; control, n = 22 [96%]) completed the study. Weight loss was similar for both diets (approximately 4.0 kg). However, reductions in LDL-C concentration and total cholesterol-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B-apolipoprotein AI ratios were greater for the low-carbohydrate compared with the high-carbohydrate diet (-8.1% [P = .002], -8.7% [P = .004], and -9.6% [P = .001], respectively). Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also seen (-1.9% [P = .052] and -2.4% [P = .02], respectively). A low-carbohydrate plant-based diet has lipid-lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet in improving heart disease risk factors not seen with conventional low-fat diets with animal products.

  3. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  4. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  5. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  6. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  7. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  8. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  9. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  10. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  11. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  12. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  13. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  14. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  15. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  16. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  17. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  19. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  20. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  1. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  2. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  3. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  4. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  5. Radiation chemistry of carbohydrates, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, J.F.; Saint-Lebe, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes undergone by carbohydrates at irradiation are reviewed. The discussion includes the irradiation of pure sugars (low molecular weight sugars and derivatives in the solid state or in solution; polysaccharides) as well as the irradiation of simple mixtures containing a given sugar, emphasizing the irradiation of foodstuffs containing one or more sugars

  6. Carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight to nineteen ethanol-soluble carbohydrate components were identified in vegetative tissues of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. The analysed carbohydrates included: monosaccharides, cyclitols, galactosyl cyclitols, raffinose family oligosaccharides, lichnose family oligosaccharides, kestose family oligosaccharides. The analysed vegetative tissues accumulated from 447 to 139 mg/g d.m. soluble carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica respectively. The raffinose family oligosaccharides constituted 53.3% in Colobanthus quitensis of the identified soluble carbohydrate component pool. Vegetative tissues accumulated starch in Colobanthus quitensis 20.6 mg/g d.m. and 261.6 mg/g d.m. in Deschampsia antarctica. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative part of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica revealed the presence of various ergastic materials in intercellular spaces, cell walls and protoplasts. Various parts of these plants contain insoluble, PAS positive polysaccharides in intercellular spaces and in cell walls. Chloroplasts of analysed tissues contained starch. Less starch was visible in young, growing parts of shoots of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica, more starch appears in mature, differentiated parts.

  7. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    with chlorophyll a (P 0.001) and phaeopigments (P 0.001) suggesting its release from the former and zooplankton grazing in the latter. Inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen, phosphate and nitrate indicated the possibility of the release of carbohydrate from...

  8. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  9. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  10. DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND β-CAROTENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    A sample of each vegetable was washed and ground to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. The operation was done under dim light to reduce the rate of carotene oxidation contained in them. One gramme (1g) and 10g of macerated sample were weighed using Metler PT balance for carbohydrate and β-carotene analysis ...

  11. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  12. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  13. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  14. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...

  15. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  16. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  17. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  18. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  19. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates......, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its “omics”, glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates...

  20. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  1. Genetic Engineering of Maize (Zea mays L.) with Improved Grain Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Duan, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yongzhen; Cheng, Jieshan; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Bei

    2018-02-21

    Cell-wall invertase plays important roles in the grain filling of crop plants. However, its functions in the improvement of grain nutrients have not been investigated. In this work, the stable expression of cell-wall-invertase-encoding genes from different plant species and the contents of total starch, protein, amino acid, nitrogen, lipid, and phosphorus were examined in transgenic maize plants. High expressions of the cell-wall-invertase gene conferred enhanced invertase activity and sugar content in transgenic plants, leading to increased grain yield and improved grain nutrients. Transgenic plants with high expressions of the transgene produced more total starch, protein, nitrogen, and essential amino acids in the seeds. Overall, the results indicate that the cell-wall-invertase gene can be used as a potential candidate for the genetic breeding of grain crops with both improved grain yield and quality.

  2. Interstellar depletions and the filling factor of the hot interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Scalo, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    We have examined theoretically the evolution of refractory interstellar grain abundances and corresponding metal deplections in the solar neighborhood. The calculations include a self-consistent treatment of red-giant winds, planetary nebulae, protostellar nebulae, and suprnovae as sources of grains and star formation, and of encounters with supernova blast waves as sinks. We find that in the standard two-phase model for the interstellar medium (ISM), grain destruction is very efficient, and the abundance of refractory grains should be negligible, contrary to observations. In a cloudy three-phase ISM most grains reside in the warm and cold phases of the medium. Supernova blast waves expand predominantly in the hot and tenuous phase of the medium and are showed down as they propagate through a cloud. In order to obtain significant (approx.3) depletions of metals presubably locked up in refractory grain cores, the destruction of grains that reside in the clouds must be minimal. This requires that (a) the density contrast between the cloud and intercloud medium be sufficiently high, and (b) the filling factor of the hot and tenuous gas of the interstellar medium, which presumably gives rise to the O VI absorption and soft X-ray emission, be nearly unity. Much larger depletions (> or approx. =10) must reflect accretion of mantles within interstellar clouds

  3. Grain boundary cavity growth under applied stress and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, J.F.

    1977-08-01

    The growth of grain boundary cavities under applied stress and internal gas pressure was investigated. Methane gas filled cavities were produced by the C + 4H reversible CH4 reaction in the grain boundaries of type 270 nickel by hydrogen charging in an autoclave at 500 0 C with a hydrogen pressure of either 3.4 or 14.5 MPa. Intergranular fracture of nickel was achieved at a charging temperature of 300 0 C and 10.3 MPa hydrogen pressure. Cavities on the grain boundaries were observed in the scanning electron microscope after fracture. Photomicrographs of the cavities were produced in stereo pairs which were analyzed so as to correct for perspective distortion and also to determine the orientational dependence of cavity growth under an applied tensile stress

  4. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  5. Grain boundary cavitation under reversed constant stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, R.

    1978-06-01

    The growth of grain boundary cavities by diffusion processes has been examined for cyclic stresses. It is found that the time required to grow a void by a predetermined amount (tsub(t)) is always longer than the time required to shrink the same defect to its original size (tsub(c)) under reversed stress. The ratio tsub(c)/tsub(t) is a function of the magnitude of the applied stress and tensile hold time. Similar calculations have been performed for gas filled bubbles. Similar results to those for voids are found at long hold times, but a significantly different ratio of tsub(c)/tsub(t) is obtained at short times. (author)

  6. The Acute Impact of Ingestion of Sourdough and Whole-Grain Breads on Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins in Overweight and Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mofidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g in part 1 (n=12 and bread mass (107 g in part 2 (n=11, and blood glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 were determined for 3 h. In part 1, glucose response for sprouted-grain was lower than 11-grain, sourdough, and white breads. Insulin area under the curve (AUC for sourdough and white was lower than 11-grain and sprouted-grain breads. GLP-1 response to sourdough was lower than all breads. In part 2, glucose and insulin AUC for sourdough was greater than 11-grain, sprouted-grain, and 12-grain breads. Sprouted-grain bread improved glycemia by lowering glucose response and increasing GLP-1 response. In overweight and obese men, the glycemic response to sprouted grain bread was reduced in both parts 1 and 2 while the other whole-grain test breads did not improve metabolic responses in the acute postprandial state.

  7. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  8. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  9. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses seed germination and seedling growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants were sprayed with abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) at 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and repeated at 26 DAA. The seeds of those...

  10. Changes in fatty acid content and composition in silage maize during grain filling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Khan, M.A.; Struik, P.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The stage of maturity at harvest has a major effect on the fatty acid (FA) content and composition of forage plants consumed by dairy cows. The present study investigated the dynamics of FA content and composition in stover (leaves and stem) and ears (cob, shank and husks) of two maize

  11. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  12. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  13. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, the possibility of early and rapid progress of complications, a large number of undiagnosed cases and disappointing forecasts of the World Health Organization on the prospects of DM spreading in the world, timely and accurate diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders is important. The criteria for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism and DM are shown in the article. The article includes a new consensus on the staging of type 1 DM and a discussion of a proposed unifying diabetes classification scheme that focuses on β-cell dysfunction and disease stage as indicated by glucose status. Modern recommendations 2017 of the American Diabetes Association are shown in relation to the criteria of diagnostics of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The value of insulin resistance and functional state of pancreatic β-cells is underlined in determination of type 2 DM duration. A plan of type 2 DM management is brought.

  14. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  16. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  17. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  18. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  19. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  20. The absorption ability for carbohydrate between vigorous and weak spikelets in hybrid rice and its restorers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Tao Longxing; Tian Shulan; Huang Xiaolin; Yu Meiyu

    2000-01-01

    Some hybrid rice combinations and their restorers, II you2070 (indica/Indica) and its restorer2070, Shuangyou23 (Japonica/Japonica) with its restorer 91-23, sub-species hybrid rice Xieyou 413 (Indica/Japonica) with its restorer Zhong 413, were selected as rice material and planted in pot and field to study the differences of absorption ability for labelled carbohydrate between vigorous and weak spikelets, and to demonstrate the phenomenon of 'inter-grain apical dominance' in rice. It was shown that the absorbing rate of hybrid rice and it restorer for store material and for photo-material was 50% and 80% respectively, and the absorbing rate of hybrid rice was a litter higher than that of its restorer. However, there was a big difference between vigorous spikelets and weak spikelets in the absorbing ability for carbohydrate. The absorbing amount of vigorous spikelets was 10 times higher than that of the weak spikelets, especially in hybrid rice combinations. It was also observed that the 'inter-grain apical dominance' in hybrid rice was stronger than its restorer, which might be one of the main reasons for low seed setting in hybrid rice combination

  1. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  2. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  3. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  4. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  5. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  6. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  7. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  8. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  9. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  10. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  11. The choice of iron-containing filling for composite radioprotective material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyukhin, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the data the composition of modern composite building materials including materials which in addition to high physical-mechanical have radio-protective properties. The article presents infrared researches and differential thermal data of fine-grained magnetite and hematite beneficiated iron-ore concentrates. The choice of the most suitable filling for new composite radio-protective building material engineering and development was made basing on the magnetite and hematite data presented in the paper.

  12. TaGW2-6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Li, Liqun; Lv, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Li; Li, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Functional allelic variants of TaGW2 - 6A produce large grains, possibly via changes in endosperm cells and dry matter by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In wheat, TaGW2-6A coding region allelic variants are closely related to the grain width and weight, but how this region affects grain development has not been fully elucidated; thus, we explored its influence on grain development based mainly on histological and grain filling analyses. We found that the insertion type (NIL31) TaGW2-6A allelic variants exhibited increases in cell numbers and cell size, thereby resulting in a larger (wider) grain size with an accelerated grain milk filling rate, and increases in grain width and weight. We also found that cytokinin (CK) synthesis genes and key starch biosynthesis enzyme AGPase genes were significantly upregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, while CK degradation genes and starch biosynthesis-negative regulators were downregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, which was consistent with the changes in cells and grain filling. Thus, we speculate that TaGW2-6A allelic variants are linked with CK signaling, but they also influence the accumulation of starch by regulating the expression of related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to control the grain size and grain weight.

  13. Fine-grained sediment dispersal along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2013-01-01

    Fine-grained sediment (silt and clay) enters coastal waters from rivers, eroding coastal bluffs, resuspension of seabed sediment, and human activities such as dredging and beach nourishment. The amount of sediment in coastal waters is an important factor in ocean ecosystem health, but little information exists on both the natural and human-driven magnitudes of fine-grained sediment delivery to the coastal zone, its residence time there, and its transport out of the system—information upon which to base environmental assessments. To help fill these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with Federal, State, and local agencies to monitor fine-grained sediment dispersal patterns and fate in the coastal regions of California. Results of these studies suggest that the waves and currents of many of the nearshore coastal settings of California are adequately energetic to transport fine-grained sediment quickly through coastal systems. These findings will help with the management and regulation of fine-grained sediment along the U.S. west coast.

  14. Stochastic theory of grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiyun; Xing Xiusan.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this note is to set up a stochastic theory of grain growth and to derive the statistical distribution function and the average value of the grain radius so as to match them with the experiment further. 8 refs, 1 fig

  15. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    children; increased body mass index of people formerly wasted by HIV/AIDS; ... and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to ... Peru, grain amaranth also used the grains as food; preparation of local beverage; added ... initiated to know the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of ...

  16. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available of length b (1+ epsilon) is parallel to sigma, embedded in a grain in which the lattice vector b (1+ epsilon) is transverse to sigma. If the embedded grain grows at the expense of its matrix, the source of the stress will do work, and therefore the presence...

  17. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  18. Improvement of triticale for fertility and grain character through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, A.; Saleem, M.; Afzal, M.

    1980-01-01

    Triticale is a new cereal resulting from a cross between wheat and rye. It has better yield potential than wheat and rye but suffers from low fertility, and poor development of grain. Two mutant lines NIAB T-102 and NIAB T-103 showing improvement in fertility and grain character were obtained from AUT. 567 through 10 KR exposure of gamma irradiation. As compared to the parent, the mutant lines yielded better and possessed well filled grains. The possibilities of using these mutant lines as fodder crop as well as in cross breeding programme are discussed. (author)

  19. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  20. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  1. Availability of iron in grains common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigide, Priscila

    2002-01-01

    Common bean is the legume more consuming in Brazil, however, the average income of the farming in Brazil is low must the infestation of the grains, to fight these losses the irradiation process is an alternative healthful if compared the chemical handling. The objective of this research was evaluate the iron availability in irradiated raw and cooked beans (doses of 0, 2, 6 and 10 kGy). It was carried through the centesimal composition, anti nutritional factors (tannins and phytate) and iron dialyses for the method 'in vitro'. Cooking diminished the mainly components of the composition with exception of available carbohydrates, the protein content of 27.4 and 23.9; fat 1.2 and 1.1; fibre 23.7 and 18.6, carbohydrates 43.3 and 52.5; respectively for raw grains and cooked. It also had reduction in the amount of tannin which if correlated reversely with the applied doses, with exception of the dose of 2 kGy, varying of 1.56 (10 kGy) to 2.49 (2 kGy) to the for raw grains and traces (10 kGy) to 0.103 (2 kGy ) for grains cooked. The phytate varied of 4.63 (2 kGy) to 8.28 (0 kGy) and 5.29 (6 kGy) to the 9.55 (0 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked. In relation to the dialysed iron, the content varied of 1.16 (0 kGy) to 2.39 (6 kGy) and 5.33 (0 kGy) to the 8.02 (6 kGy), respectively for raw grains and cooked The dose of 6 kGy showed positive effect availability such as raw as cooked grain, it being recommended for the utilization. (author)

  2. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  3. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  4. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of each grain (such as their centre-of-mass positions, volumes, phases, orientations and/or elastic strain tensor components), while the exact locations of the grain boundaries are unknown. In the present chapter a detailed description of the setup and software for both grain centre mapping...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  5. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  6. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  7. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies. PMID:3709478

  8. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  9. Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1992-02-01

    Macronutrients can modulate the intestinal absorption of trace elements by binding the metal or altering mucosal function. We investigated whether certain simple and complex carbohydrates modify copper (Cu) absorption, using an in vivo perfusion technique in the rat. Corn syrup solids, which contain a mixture of glucose polymers of diverse length, added at either 20 or 50 mosm/kg enhanced Cu absorption from a 31.5 microM (2 mg/liter) Cu solution (128 +/- 11 and 130 +/- 11 pmol/min x cm, respectively, vs 101 +/- 4 pmol/min x cm, P less than 0.05, in the absence of carbohydrate). This was concomitant with a stimulation of net water absorption (1.05 +/- 0.08 and 0.84 +/- 0.08 microliter/min x cm, respectively, vs 0.63 +/- 0.02 microliter/min x cm with no carbohydrate, P less than 0.05). Glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose had no influence on Cu absorption, although they altered water exchanges, an effect attributable to a reduction of the outflow component of fluid recirculation. Low concentrations of lactose resulted in a greater accumulation of Cu in the intestinal mucosa (8.75 +/- 0.71 micrograms/g vs 5.77 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g for controls, P less than 0.05). Hence, solutes that moderately stimulate mucosa-to-serosa fluid influx in a progressive manner, such as glucose polymers, may contribute to functionally increase Cu absorption. Conversely, conditions which tend to reduce water inflow or increase water outflow across the small intestinal mucosa, as may occur with high lactose diets or in cases of chronic diarrhea, may have negative effects.

  10. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  11. Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parillo, M; Riccardi, G

    1995-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates represent one of the major sources of energy for the human body. However, the main (if not the only) therapy for diabetes since ancient times has been based on reducing dietary carbohydrates drastically because of their effects on blood glucose levels. The introduction of insulin in the 1920s and then of oral hypoglycaemic drugs led to various studies evaluating the biochemical characteristics of carbohydrates and their effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. This review considers the role of dietary carbohydrates in the diet of diabetic patients in the light of the most recent studies and provides a short summary of the biochemistry of carbohydrates and the physiology of carbohydrate digestion.

  12. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  14. DNP NMR of carbohydrate converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    intermediate, however, this evidence is based on mutant of X-ray crystallography and simulations. As the natural substrate lactose does not have any quaternary carbon with long T1, the unnatural substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside was used (figure 1) as the quaternarypositions have T1 relaxations...... of ca. 15 s instead of hydrolysis of this substrate can be seen in figure 2, and another use of this substrate is for optimizing the conditions for a labelled substrate (figure 1), which would further increase the signal and allow monitoring of the carbohydrate...

  15. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III.

    1994-01-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group's discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15

  16. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  17. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.

  18. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Style What Is a Healthy Eating Style? Choosing Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars ... may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, ... weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and ...

  19. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  20. Chemisputtering of interstellar graphite grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of erosion of interstellar graphite grains as a result of chemical reaction with H, N, and O is estimated using the available experiment evidence. It is argued that ''chemical sputtering'' yields for interstellar graphite grains will be much less than unity, contrary to earlier estimates by Barlow and Silk. Chemical sputtering of graphite grains in evolving H II regions is found to be unimportant, except in extremely compact (n/sub H/> or approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) H II regions. Alternative explanations are considered for the apparent weakness of the lambda=2175 A extinction ''bump'' in the direction of several early type stars

  1. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly

  2. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  3. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  5. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  6. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  7. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6 2 22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  8. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  9. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work tha...

  10. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given

  11. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  12. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  13. High mature grain phytase activity in the Triticeae has evolved by duplication followed by neofunctionalization of the purple acid phosphatase phytase (PAPhy) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holme, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The phytase activity in food and feedstuffs is an important nutritional parameter. Members of the Triticeae tribe accumulate purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhy) during grain filling. This accumulation elevates mature grain phytase activities (MGPA) up to levels between ~650 FTU/kg for barley...

  14. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  15. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  17. Grain boundary diffusion in terms of the tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibatov, R.T., E-mail: ren_sib@bk.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, 432017, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Svetukhin, V.V. [Ulyanovsk State University, 432017, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 115487, 18 Nagatinskaya str., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-28

    Mathematical treatment of grain-boundary diffusion based on the model first proposed by Fisher is usually formulated in terms of normal diffusion equations in a two-component nonhomogeneous medium. On the other hand, fractional equations of anomalous diffusion proved themselves to be useful in description of grain-boundary diffusion phenomena. Moreover, the most important propagation regime predicted by Fisher's model demonstrates subdiffusive behavior. However, the direct link between fractional approach and the Fisher model and its modifications has not found yet. Here, we fill this gap and show that solution of fractional subdiffusion equation offers general properties of classical solutions obtained by Whipple and Suzuoka. The tempered fractional approach is a convenient tool for studying precipitation in granular materials as the tempered subdiffusion limited process. - Highlights: • The link connected fractional diffusion approach and Fisher's model of grain-boundary diffusion is derived. • The subdiffusion exponent of grain-boundary diffusion can differ from 1/2. • Nucleation in granular materials is modeled by the process limited by tempered subdiffusion.

  18. Grain boundary diffusion in terms of the tempered fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibatov, R.T.; Svetukhin, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical treatment of grain-boundary diffusion based on the model first proposed by Fisher is usually formulated in terms of normal diffusion equations in a two-component nonhomogeneous medium. On the other hand, fractional equations of anomalous diffusion proved themselves to be useful in description of grain-boundary diffusion phenomena. Moreover, the most important propagation regime predicted by Fisher's model demonstrates subdiffusive behavior. However, the direct link between fractional approach and the Fisher model and its modifications has not found yet. Here, we fill this gap and show that solution of fractional subdiffusion equation offers general properties of classical solutions obtained by Whipple and Suzuoka. The tempered fractional approach is a convenient tool for studying precipitation in granular materials as the tempered subdiffusion limited process. - Highlights: • The link connected fractional diffusion approach and Fisher's model of grain-boundary diffusion is derived. • The subdiffusion exponent of grain-boundary diffusion can differ from 1/2. • Nucleation in granular materials is modeled by the process limited by tempered subdiffusion.

  19. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  20. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  1. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-11-02

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified. Compensation between the rate and duration of grain filling minimized the impact of HNT, but irreversible impacts on seed-set, grain filling and ultimately grain weight were recorded with HDT and HNDT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated irregular and smaller starch granule formation affecting amyloplast build-up with HDT and HNDT, while a quicker but normal amylopast build-up was recorded with HNT. Our findings revealed temporal variation in the starch metabolism enzymes in all three stress treatments. Changes in the enzymatic activity did not derail starch accumulation under HNT when assimilates were sufficiently available, while both sucrose supply and the conversion of sucrose into starch were affected by HDT and HNDT. The findings indicate differential mechanisms leading to high day and high night temperature stress-induced loss in yield and quality. Additional genetic improvement is needed to sustain rice productivity and quality under future climates. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  2. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet, and provide many important nutrients. Still, not all carbs are created equal. Here's how to make healthy carbohydrates work in a balanced diet: Emphasize fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for ...

  4. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner...... conjugates and their use in vaccination, production of antibodies, high throughput screening, diagnostic assays and libraries....

  5. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  6. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  7. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  8. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement in 40 km time trial time between an isocaloric GP-only or a GP and fructose drink, and no differences in any of the measured variables other than exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at 90 minutes during the pre-time trial steady state ride. Keywords: multiple carbohydrate, cycling, endurance, glucose, fructose ...

  9. Carbohydrates in the waters of ponds of Ramanthuruthu Island, Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    carbohydrate showed high variability and the concentration varied from 0.2 to 11 mg/l. High concentration of particulate carbohydrate observed during monsoon months is believed to be due to high phytoplankton population and also to the large amount of organic...

  10. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  11. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  12. Fissure fillings from Finnsjoen and Studsvik Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.-L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1982-12-01

    Samples were taken from cores and collected at different levels. The bedrock at Finnsjoen is a Svecokarelian granite-granodiorite, the most frequent mineral in the fissures being calcite. The water from boreholes have a mean S 18 O value of -12 per thousand and saturated by calcite. Isotopically three different groups of calcite have been distinguished. Ages of 29+-13x10 3 years to 79+-25x10 3 years were estimated. Two generations of quartz were recognized the minerals prehnite and lanmontite were found Most fissure filling materials have cation exchange capacities. The bedrock at Studsvik is a Svecokarelian gneiss of sedimentary type which is migmatized with calcite and chlorite as fissure filling minerals. Most fissure fillings are thin and simple Claby minerals of smectite type are also frequent. (G.B.)

  13. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  14. Molecular Tools for Facilitative Carbohydrate Transporters (Gluts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R

    2017-09-19

    Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  16. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  17. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  18. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  19. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  20. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  1. [Specific problems posed by carbohydrate utilization in the rainbow trout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, F

    1979-01-01

    Carbohydrate incorporation in trout diets arises problems both at digestive and metabolic levels. Digestive utilization of carbohydrate closely depends on their molecular weight. In addition, in the case of complex carbohydrates (starches), different factors such as the level of incorporation, the amount consumed and the physical state of starch influence the digestibility. The measurement of digestibility in itself is confronted with methodological difficulties. The way the feces are collected can affect the digestion coefficient. Dietary carbohydrates actually serve as a source of energy. Nevertheless, above a certain level in the diet, intolerance phenomena may appear. The question that arises now is to establish the optimal part that carbohydrates can take in the metabolizable energy of a given diet.

  2. Structure of a streptococcal adhesion carbohydrate receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, F.J.; Fales, H.M.; London, J.; Carlson, R.W.; van Halbeek, H.

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between complementary protein and carbohydrate structures on different genera of human oral bacteria have been implicated in the formation of dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Streptococcus sanguis H1 that is specific for the adhesion on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 has been isolated from the streptococcal cell wall, purified, and structurally characterized. The hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was purified by reverse-phase, amino-bonded silica, and gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography. Earlier studies established that the repeating unit was a hexasaccharide composed of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose in the ration of 2:3:1, respectively. In the present study, determination of absolute configuration by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl (+)-2-butyl glycosides revealed that the rhamnose residues were of the L configuration while the hexoses were all D. 252Californium plasma desorption mass spectrometry of the native, the acetylated and the reduced and acetylated hexasaccharide determined that the molecular mass of the native hexasaccharide was 959, and that the 2 rhamnose residues were linked to each other at the nonreducing terminus of the linear molecule. Methylation analysis revealed the positions of the glycosidic linkages in the hexasaccharide and showed that a galactose residue was present at the reducing end. The structural characterization of the hexasaccharide was completed by one and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for each glycosyl residue were established by two-dimensional (1H,1H) correlation spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, and (13C,1H) correlation experiments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages were inferred from the chemical shifts and coupling constants of the anomeric 1H and 13C resonances

  3. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m −2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  4. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  5. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  6. Fat, Sugar, Whole Grains and Heart Disease: 50 Years of Confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. Temple

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1970s some investigators proposed that refined carbohydrates, especially sugar and a low intake of dietary fiber, were major factors in coronary heart disease (CHD. This suggestion was eclipsed by the belief that an excess intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA was the key dietary factor, a view that prevailed from roughly 1974 to 2014. Findings that have accumulated since 1990 inform us that the role of SFA in the causation of CHD has been much exaggerated. A switch from SFA to refined carbohydrates does not lower the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol in the blood and therefore does not prevent CHD. A reduced intake of SFA combined with an increased intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids lowers the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol; this may reduce the risk of CHD. The evidence linking carbohydrate-rich foods with CHD has been steadily strengthening. Refined carbohydrates, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, increase the risk of CHD. Conversely, whole grains and cereal fiber are protective. An extra one or 2 servings per day of these foods increases or decreases risk by approximately 10% to 20%.

  7. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  8. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  9. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  10. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  11. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  12. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  13. Grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Scoberg, J.A.; Walden, W.

    1979-06-01

    Grain growth studies have been carried out on UO 2 to provide data for the fuel modelling program and to evaluate fuel fabricated in commissioning the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel examined includes natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from ADU powder for CANDU reactors; natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from AU powder; natural UO 2 from ADU and AU powder, fabricated in the MOFFL; and commercially fabricated UO 2 enriched 1.7, 4.5, and 9.6 wt. percent U-235 in U. Samples were step-annealed in vacuo at 1870-2070 K for up to 32.5 h. All data fit a (grain size)sup(2.5) versus annealing time relationship. Apparent activation energy for grain growth, Q, depends on fuel type and varies from 150+-10 kJ/mol for early AU powder to 360+-10 kJ/mol for pellets from ADU fabricated in the MOFFL. Grain sizes calculated using the laboratory equation in a fuel performance code tend to be greater than those measured in irradiated natural fuel, suggesting irradiation-induced inhibition of grain growth. However, any inhibition is equivalent to that expected for a systematic 5 percent underpredicition in reactor power. (author)

  14. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  15. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  16. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  17. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  18. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J; Fischer, F D

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported. (paper)

  19. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita S Elidottir

    Full Text Available Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD.A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors.Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids, respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (<5g/day, including the intake of dietary fiber (11g/day. Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal.Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies.

  20. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  1. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  2. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  3. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  4. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  5. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  6. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  7. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  8. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  9. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  10. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  11. Safety Distances for hydrogen filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, A. J. C. M.; Kooi, E. S.

    2005-07-01

    In the Netherlands there is a growing interest in using natural gas as a transport fuel. The most important drivers behind this development are formed by poor inner city air quality and the decision to close several LPG filling stations. Dwellings are not allowed within the safety distances of 45 or 110 meters from the tanker filling point of these LPG stations, depending on the capacity of the station. Another driver is global warming. We are carrying out a study on station supply, compression, storage and filling for natural gas stations, and a similar, simultaneous study on hydrogen as a followup to our risk analysis for the hydrogen filling station in Amsterdam. Here, three buses drive on hydrogen as part of the European CUTE project. Driving on natural gas is an important step in the transition to cars on hydrogen. This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment to advise on external safety aspects of future hydrogen filling stations. According to Dutch law homes may not be built within an individual risk contour of 10-6 per year of a dangerous object, such as a plant with hazardous materials or a filling station. An individual risk contour of 10-6 is represented by a line around a dangerous object that connects locations with an individual risk level of 10-6 per year. An individual 'located' within this contour line has a chance of one per million per year or more to be killed as a result of an accident caused by this object. The longest distance between the object and such a contour is called a 'safety distance'. A study on safety distances is now in progress for different kinds of hydrogen filling stations (e. g. gaseous and liquid hydrogen) and for different capacities, such as big, medium and small stations. The focus is on different kinds of hydrogen production and the hydrogen supply of the filling station. To decide on the design and supply of the hydrogen station, we examined the

  12. Physical properties of five grain dust types.

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, C B; Jones, D D; Rutherford, R D; Goforth, K J

    1986-01-01

    Physical properties of grain dust derived from five grain types (soybean, rice, corn, wheat, and sorghum) were measured and reported. The grain dusts were obtained from dust collection systems of terminal grain handling facilities and were assumed to be representative of grain dust generated during the handling process. The physical properties reported were as follows: particle size distributions and surface area measurements using a Coulter Counter Model TAII; percent dust fractions less tha...

  13. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  14. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  16. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  17. Tracer concentration contours in grain lattice and grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Olander, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Grain boundary diffusion plays a significant role in fission gas release, which is one of the crucial processes dominating nuclear fuel performance. Gaseous fission products such as Xe and Kr generated during nuclear fission have to diffuse in the grain lattice and the boundary inside fuel pellets before they reach the open spaces in a fuel rod. These processes can be studied by 'tracer diffusion' techniques, by which grain boundary diffusivity can be estimated and directly used for low burn-up fission gas release analysis. However, only a few models accounting for the both processes are available and mostly handle them numerically due to mathematical complexity. Also the numerical solution has limitations in a practical use. In this paper, an approximate analytical solution in case of stationary grain boundary in a polycrystalline solid is developed for the tracer diffusion techniques. This closed-form solution is compared to available exact and numerical solutions and it turns out that it makes computation not only greatly easier but also more accurate than previous models. It can be applied to theoretical modelings for low burn-up fission gas release phenomena and experimental analyses as well, especially for PIE (post irradiation examination). (author)

  18. Effect of Agromorphological Diversity and Botanical Race on Biochemical Composition in Sweet Grains Sorghum [Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench] of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbéwendé Sawadogo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is an under-harvested crop in Burkina Faso. It is grown mainly for its sweet grains in the pasty stage. However, the precocity of the cycle and the sweet grains at pasty stage make it an interesting plant with agro-alimentary potential during the lean season. This study was carried out to identify the main sugars responsible for the sweetness of the grains at the pasty stage and their variation according to the agro-morphological group and the botanical race. Thus, the grains harvested at the pasty stage of fifteen (15 accessions selected according to the agro-morphological group and botanical race were lyophilized and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results reveal the presence of four (4 main carbohydrates at pasty stage of grains such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch. Analysis of variance revealed that these carbohydrates discriminate significantly the agro-morphological groups and the botanical races. Moreover, with exception of the sucrose, the coefficient of determination (R2 values shows that the agro-morphological group factor has a greater effect on the expression of glucose, fructose and starch than the botanical race. Group III and caudatum race have the highest levels of fructose and would be the sweetest. While group IV and the guinea-bicolor race with the low value of fructose would be the least sweet. Fructose is therefore the main sugar responsible for the sweetness of the pasty grains of sweet grains sorghum.

  19. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  20. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  1. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  2. Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm−1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm−1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This

  3. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  4. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  6. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  7. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  8. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  9. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P carbohydrate was not substantiated...... and, consequently, exhaustive exercise involves a brain surplus carbohydrate uptake of a magnitude comparable with its glycogen content....

  10. [Soil carbohydrates: their determination methods and indication functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; He, Hongbo; Zheng, Lichen; Wang, Ge

    2006-08-01

    Soil carbohydrates are the important component of soil organic matter, and play an important role in soil aggregation formation. Their hydrolysis methods involve sulfur acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) hydrolysis, and their determination methods include colorimetry, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) , high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). This paper summarized the methods of carbohydrates' hydrolysis, purification and detection, with focus on the derived methods of GLC, and briefly introduced the indication functions of carbohydrates in soil organic matter turnover.

  11. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Alignment of dust grains in ionized regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nels; Watson, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which charged dust grains in a plasma are torqued by passing ions and electrons is calculated. When photo-emission of electrons is not important, attraction of ions by the grain monopole potential increases the rate at which the grains' spins are dealigned by nearly an order of magnitude. Consequently, the energy density of the magnetic field required to align grains in an H II region may be increased by about an order of magnitude. In contrast, electric dipole and quadrupole moments are unlikely to produce large dealignment rates for grains of modest length-to-width ratio. Nonetheless, for positively charged grains these higher-order moments likely prevent monopole repulsion of ions from reducing the dealignment rate far below that for neutral grains. The presence of positive grain charge therefore does not greatly facilitate grain alignment in an H II region.

  13. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, John Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.; Boyce, Brad Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Metallurgy and Materials Joining Dept.

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  14. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  15. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  16. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary

  17. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  18. Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density. This problem renders the affected structures unusable in glyco-chemical terms. Bringing structural glycobiology up to 'protein standards' will require a total overhaul of the methodology. Time is of the essence, as the community is steadily increasing the production rate of glycoproteins, and electron cryo-microscopy has just started to image them in precisely that resolution range where crystallographic methods falter most. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshu, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  20. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  1. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  2. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  3. Proteomic analysis of the impacts of powdery mildew on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Xinhao; Yang, Xiwen; Li, Yongchun; Wang, Chenyang; He, Dexian

    2018-09-30

    Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants. The significant increase in triticin, serpin and HMW-GS in grains from infected wheat might relate to the superior gluten quality. In addition, overabundant carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins in grains from infected wheat were conducive to the depletion of starch, whereas the decreased abundance of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase might be related to the deficiency of starch synthesis. These results provide a deeper understanding on the change of wheat quality under powdery mildew infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoperiodic control of soybean 14C-assimilate partitioning during the seed filling period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Photoperiod not only controls the timing of flowering, but also affects later stages of seed development. To study its effect on assimilate partitioning, soybean plants were kept in short days (SD) or night interrupted (NI) during seed filling. The source-sink ratio was fixed to one leaflet-one pod per node. The node was girdle-isolated and its leaflet was pulse labelled with 14 CO 2 . SD plants partitioned more 14 C into seeds, while NI plants showed higher proportions in the petiole, stem and carpel. Seed growth rate and final seed dry weight were increased by 40% in SD. The sugar/starch ratio was increased in cotyledons and decreased in leaves of SD plants. In contrast, NI plants showed more 14 C incorporation into proteins. No changes were detected in carbon exchange ratio, dark respiration and total node dry weight. Thus, photoperiodic induced changes in carbohydrate and protein partitioning occurred without changes in the overall assimilatory process

  5. Soft Chemistry, Coloring and Polytypism in Filled Tetrahedral Semiconductors: Toward Enhanced Thermoelectric and Battery Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Miles A; Medina-Gonzalez, Alan M; Vela, Javier

    2018-03-12

    Filled tetrahedral semiconductors are a rich family of compounds with tunable electronic structure, making them ideal for applications in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, and battery anodes. Furthermore, these materials crystallize in a plethora of related structures that are very close in energy, giving rise to polytypism through the manipulation of synthetic parameters. This Minireview highlights recent advances in the solution-phase synthesis and nanostructuring of these materials. These methods enable the synthesis of metastable phases and polytypes that were previously unobtainable. Additionally, samples synthesized in solution phase have enhanced thermoelectric performance due to their decreased grain size. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  7. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  8. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  9. The partially filled viscous ring damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.

  10. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  11. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  12. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  13. Phenotype diversity analysis of red-grained rice landraces from Yuanyang Hani's terraced fields, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianjie; Cheng, Long

    2017-10-01

    There are many areas in the world have terraced fields, Yuanyang Rani's terraced fields are examples in the world, and their unique ecological diversity is beyond other terraced fields, rice landraces are very rich. In order to provide useful information for protection and utilization of red-grained rice landraces from Rani's terraced fields, 61 red-grained rice landraces were assessed based 20 quantitative traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that 20 quantitative characters could be simplified to seven principal components, and their accumulative contribution ration amounted to 78.699%. The first principal component (PC1) explained 18.375% of the total variance, which was contributed by filled grain number, 1000-grain weight, spikelets per panicle, secondary branch number, grain length, and grain thickness. PC2 accounted for 16.548% of the variance and featured flag leaf width, flag leaf area, panicle neck length and primary branch number. These traits were the most effective parameters to discriminate individuals. At the request of the proceedings editor and with the approval of all authors, article 040111 titled, "Phenotype diversity analysis of red-grained rice landraces from Yuanyang Hani's terraced fields, China," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 040110 published in the same volume.

  14. Genetic dissection of grain traits in Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Satoshi; Suehiro, Miki; Ebana, Kaworu; Hori, Kiyosumi; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Yamasaki, Masanori

    2017-12-01

    The grain traits of Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice cultivar in Japan, are governed by multiple QTLs, namely, a total of 42 QTLs including six major QTLs. Japanese rice wine (sake) is produced using brewing rice (Oryza sativa L.) that carries traits desirable for sake-brewing, such as a larger grain size and higher white-core expression rate (WCE) compared to cooking rice cultivars. However, the genetic basis for these traits in brewing rice cultivars is still unclear. We performed analyses of quantitative trait locus (QTL) of grain and days to heading over 3 years on populations derived from crosses between Koshihikari, a cooking rice, and Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice. A total of 42 QTLs were detected for the grain traits, and the Yamadanishiki alleles at 16 QTLs contributed to larger grain size. Two major QTLs essential for regulating both 100-grain weight (GWt) and grain width (GWh) were harbored in the same regions on chromosomes 5 and 10. An interaction was noted between the environment and the QTL associated with WCE on chromosome 6, which was detected in two of 3 years. In addition, two QTLs for WCE on chromosomes 3 and 10 overlapped with the QTLs for GWt and GWh, suggesting that QTLs associated with grain size also play an important role in the formation of white-core. Despite differences in the rate of grain growth in both Koshihikari and Yamadanishiki across 2 years, the WCE in Yamadanishiki remained consistent, thus demonstrating that the formation of white-core does not depend on grain filling speed. These data can be informative for programs involved in breeding better cooking and brewing rice cultivars.

  15. Boron filled siloxane polymers for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouriau, Andrea; Robison, Tom; Shonrock, Clinton; Simmonds, Steve; Cox, Brad; Pacheco, Adam; Cady, Carl

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate changes to structure-property relationships of 10B filled siloxane-based polymers when exposed to nuclear reactor radiation. Highly filled polysiloxanes were synthesized with the intent of fabricating materials that could shield high neutron fluences. The newly formulated materials consisted of cross-linked poly-diphenyl-methylsiloxane filled with natural boron and carbon nanofibers. This polymer was chosen because of its good thermal and chemical stabilities, as well as resistance to ionizing radiation thanks to the presence of aromatic groups in the siloxane backbone. Highly isotopically enriched 10B filler was used to provide an efficient neutron radiation shield, and carbon nanofibers were added to improve mechanical strength. This novel polymeric material was exposed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Labs to five different neutron/gamma fluxes consisting of very high neutron fluences within very short time periods. Thermocouples placed on the specimens recorded in-situ temperature changes during radiation exposure, which agreed well with those obtained from our MCNP simulations. Changes in the microstructural, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM, DSC, TGA, FT-IR NMR, solvent swelling, and uniaxial compressive load measurements. Our results demonstrate that these newly formulated materials are well-suitable to be used in applications that require exposure to different types of ionizing conditions that take place simultaneously.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL FILLING OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for a more detailed post processing and filling of digital elevation models (DEMs in urban areas is presented. To reach the required specifications in a first step the errors in digital surface models (DSMs generated by dense stereo algorithms are analyzed and methods for detection and classification of the different types of errors are implemented. Subsequently the classified erroneous areas are handled in separate manner to eliminate outliers and fill the DSM properly. The errors which can be detected in DSMs range from outliers – single pixels or small areas containing extremely high or low values – over noise from mismatches, single small holes to occlusions, where large areas are not visible in one of the images of the stereo pair. To validate the presented method artificial DSMs are generated and superimposed with all different kinds of described errors like noise (small holes cut in, outliers (small areas moved up/down, occlusions (larger areas beneath steep walls and so on. The method is subsequently applied to the artificial DSMs and the resulting filled DSMs are compared to the original artificial DSMs without the introduced errors. Also the method is applied to stereo satellite generated DSMs from the ISPRS Comission 1 WG4 benchmark dataset and the results are checked with the also provided first pulse laser DSM data. Finally the results are discussed, strengths and weaknesses of the approach are shown and suggestions for application and optimization are given.

  17. Influence of dietary nonstructural carbohydrate concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Aviña, Daniel; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Since very little information exists about the topic; in this experiment we compare, in a long-term finishing program, the growth-performance responses and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers where non-structural carbohydrate concentration of the diet is reduced from 64% to 51% (dry matter basis). Sixty Holstein steer calves (129±2.2 kg) were blocked by initial weight into five groups and randomly assigned within weight groupings to 10 pens. Calves were fed with a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets containing 51% higher fiber (HF) or 64% lower fiber (LF) nonstructural carbohydrates. Non-structural carbohydrates concentrations were manipulated substituting dried distiller grain with solubles and alfalfa hay for flaked corn. Cattle were weighed every 112 days and at the end of the experiment (day 308) when the cattle were harvested and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Steers fed the HF diet showed improvement (8.8%) in average daily gain (ADG) during the initial 112-d period. This effect was followed by a numerical trend for greater ADG throughout the remainder of the study so that overall ADG tended to be greater (4.9%, p = 0.06) for the HF than for LF. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake. Gain efficiency and estimated dietary net energy (NE) were greater 8.3% and 5.2%, respectively for HF during the initial 112-d period. Overall (308-d) gain efficiency and estimated dietary NE were similar for both dietary treatments. However, due to differences in tabular dietary NE, the ratio of observed:expected dietary NE tended to be greater (4.1%, p = 0.06) for the HF vs LF diet. There were no treatment effects on carcass characteristics except for a tendency toward a slightly greater (0.5%, p = 0.09) estimated carcass yield. Reducing the non-structural carbohydrate concentration of a conventional steam-flaked corn-based growing finishing diet for Holstein steers can effectively enhance growth performance, particularly during the early

  18. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  19. Differential carbohydrate media and anaerobic replica plating techniques in delineating carbohydrate-utilizing subgroups in rumen bacterial populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Leedle, J A; Hespell, R B

    1980-01-01

    A basal (BC) medium devoid of added carbohydrates, a complete (CC) medium containing nine carbohydrates were developed for enumerating rumen bacteria. The colony counts on the BC medium were 85 to 100% of those obtained on the CC medium. These colonies were pinpoint size (less than or equal to mm in diameter) but increased in size (2 to 5 mm in diameter) when carbohydrates were subsequently added. With the CC medium or other media tested, the colony counts were 20 to 50% higher on plates than...

  20. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  1. Sublethal effects of manganese on the carbohydrate metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbohydrate metabolism provides (1) energy,. (2) precursors for synthetic reactions ... as a response to the adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the ... During the exposure experiments, control groups were also set-up. The control fish ...

  2. Recent Progress in Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The important roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes and their potential application in diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccine development have made them attractive synthetic targets. Despite ongoing challenges, tremendous progresses have been made in recent years for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The chemical glycosylation methods have become more sophisticated and the synthesis of oligosaccharides has become more predictable. Simplified one-pot glycosylation strategy and automated synthesis are increasingly used to obtain biologically important glycans. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis continues to be a powerful alternative for obtaining complex carbohydrates. This review highlights recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates with a particular focus on the methods developed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycosylated natural products. PMID:19833544

  3. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  4. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an isocaloric carbohydrate and protein supplement and ingested the assigned ..... week, and day showed that the 4-way interaction with “condition” ..... on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study.

  5. Coupling individual kernel-filling processes with source-sink interactions into GREENLAB-Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuntao; Chen, Youjia; Zhu, Jinyu; Meng, Lei; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2018-02-13

    Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand. The remobilization of non-structural carbohydrates from reserve organs to kernels was also incorporated. Two years of field experiments were conducted to determine the model parameter values and to evaluate the model using two maize hybrids with different plant densities and pollination treatments. Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and dry weights of individual kernels and other above-ground plant organs throughout the seasons. Three basic traits characterizing an individual kernel were compared on simulated and measured individual kernels: (1) final kernel size; (2) kernel growth rate; and (3) duration of kernel filling. Simulations of individual kernel growth closely corresponded to experimental data. The model was able to reproduce the observed dry weight of plant organs well. Then, the source-sink dynamics and the remobilization of carbohydrates for kernel growth were quantified to show that remobilization processes accompanied source-sink dynamics during the kernel-filling process. We conclude that the model may be used to explore options for optimizing plant kernel yield by matching maize management to the environment, taking into account responses at the level of individual kernels. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. APPROACHING CARBOHYDRATES AND ITS METABOLISM: AN EXPERIENCE FOR EDUCATIONAL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Henrique Dias Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study of carbohydrates, its metabolism and many other fields of biochemistry are often understood by students as a junction of chemical structures and reactions of difficult compression. However, Biochemistry should no longer be seen as an abstruse field, but a way to know the human body and its components, including molecular, structural and functional aspects. Therefore, some alternatives are being evaluated in order to assist and improve the dissemination of knowledge among them highlights are the educational games. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the production of two educational games able to include the contents of carbohydrates and its metabolism in higher education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The educational games produced were made from available materials and low cost. The games were tested in courses of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology of the Federal University of Uberlândia and the response of the students towards the activities was analyzed. The application, had the presence of trained students to instruct on the activity and correcting. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: "What is the Carbohydrate?" and "Mastering the metabolism" are two educational games covering the content of structure and function carbohydrates and basal metabolism, respectively. "What is the Carbohydrate?" consists in unravel amid several options the carbohydrate in the hands of the others players. For this, several questions with two possible answers, “yes” or “not”, are accepted each round, and if the player find difficulty in formulating questions, there are cards tips. “Mastering the metabolism” consists in a combination of cards that simulate pieces of a domino that must be mounted following the metabolic pathway of carbohydrates, and as the game progresses, the main points of regulation of the pathway will be accompanied by surprise questions. The games showed great acceptance by students. CONCLUSION: “What is the Carbohydrate

  7. [The participation of ethanol in induction of carbohydrates metabolism disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol and products of its metabolism lead to impairment of many organs functions, what cause systemic and local carbohydrates metabolism disturbances. Abusing of alcohol induces changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes secretion, what contributes to development of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Alcohol can cause secondary diabetes, what is result of pancreatic beta-cells damage and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Alcohol cause liver cells degeneration and induction of many metabolic disturbances especially carbohydrates.

  8. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distal delta-plain successions : architecture and lithofacies of organics and lake fills in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to analyze and explain the architecture, facies distribution, age and origin of coarse-grained overbank deposits, with special attention for organic-clastic lake fills, and organics in the distal Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain. In order to depict the influence of

  10. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  11. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  12. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  13. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125 I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125 I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  14. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary))

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of /sup 125/I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism.

  15. Physics of dust grains in hot gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Charging of dust grains in hot (10 4 --10 9 K) plasma is studied, including photoelectron and secondary electron emission, field emission, and transmission of electrons and ions through the grain; resulting grain potentials are (for T > or approx. = 10 5 K) considerably smaller in magnitude than found by Burke and Silk. Even so, large electrostatic stresses can cause ion field emission and rapid destruction of small grains in very hot gas. Rapid rotation can also disrupt small grains, but damping (by microwave emission) usually limits the centrifugal stress to acceptable values for plasma densities n/sub H/ -3 . Sputtering rates are estimated for grains in hot gas, based upon a semiempirical fit to experimental data. Predicted sputtering rates for possible grain constituents are similar to estimates by Barlow, but in some cases differ significantly. Useful approximation formulae are given for the drag forces acting on a grain with arbitrary Mach number

  16. Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew R; Crews, Timothy E; Culman, Steven W; DeHaan, Lee R; Hayes, Richard C; Jungers, Jacob M; Bakker, Matthew G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality. Several perennial cereals can be used to produce both grain and forage, and these dual-purpose crops can be intercropped with legumes for additional benefits. Highly diverse perennial grain polycultures can further enhance ecosystem services, but increased management complexity might limit their adoption. PMID:29662249

  17. A grain-boundary diffusion model of dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Nam; Hiraga, Keijiro; Sakka, Yoshio; Ahn, Byung-Wook

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation is modelled on the basis of a grain-boundary diffusion mechanism. On the grain boundary where a static and a dynamic potential difference coexist, matter transport along the boundary is assumed to contribute to dynamic grain growth through depositing the matter on the grain surface located opposite to the direction of grain-boundary migration. The amount of the diffusive matter during deformation is calculated for an aggregate of spherical grains and is converted to the increment of mean boundary migration velocity. The obtained relationship between the strain rate and the dynamic grain growth rate is shown to be independent of deformation mechanisms, provided that the grain growth is controlled by grain-boundary diffusion. The strain dependence, strain-rate dependence and temperature dependence of grain growth predicted from this model are consistent with those observed in superplastic ZrO 2 -dispersed Al 2 O 3

  18. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  19. Ten per cent more grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-08-15

    At a low estimate, ten per cent of stored grain is lost every year to insect pests. In this article, based on a lecture given earlier this year in Switzerland, Dr. Harry E. Goresline, Food Radiation Specialist of the Food and Agriculture Organisation, now assisting the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, explains how use of radiation can help to prevent losses and the research which has taken place to ensure its safety

  20. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.