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Sample records for carbohydrate diet fed

  1. The growth of juvenile jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense fed diets with different carbohydrate levels (ESP

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    Juan B Ulloa R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05 . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa values were found with the 18.8% carbohydrate diet. Growth performance, feed utilization parameters and the survival were the lowest with fish fed the highest carbohydrate level (35.6%. Fish body protein increased and body fat decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate levels. The body ash showed a trend similar to the body protein. It is concluded that juvenile C. managuense can grow well when fed 40% protein diets containing up to 26.5% carbohydrate.

  2. The growth of juvenile jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense) fed diets with different carbohydrate levels (ESP)

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    Ulloa R., Juan B; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted in a 16 45 L aquaria recirculation system. The objective was to evaluate the growth of jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense) when fed isocaloric diets with increasing carbohydrate levels from 11 to 36 percent. Relative metabolic growth rate and feed conversion were similar with diets containing 11.5%, 18.8% and 26.5% carbohydrate (P > 0.05) . The highest protein efficiency ratio (PER) and apparent net protein utilization (NPUa) values were found with the 18.8% ca...

  3. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

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    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  4. Gastrointestinal transit of extruded or pelletized diets in pacu fed distinct inclusion levels of lipid and carbohydrate

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    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pelletized or extruded diets, with different levels of carbohydrate and lipid, on the gastrointestinal transit time (GITT and its modulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. One hundred and eighty pacu juveniles were fed with eight isonitrogenous diets containing two carbohydrate levels (40 and 50% and two lipid levels (4 and 8%. Four diets were pelletized and four were extruded. Carbohydrate and lipid experimental levels caused no changes to the bolus transit time. However, the bolus permanence time was related to diet processing. Fish fed pelletized diets exhibited the highest gastrointestinal transit time. Regression analysis of bolus behavior for pelletized and extruded diets with 4% lipid depicted different fits. GITT regression analysis of fish fed 8% lipid was fitted to a cubic equation and displayed adjustments of food permanence, with enhanced utilization of the diets, either with extruded or pelletized diets. GITT of fish fed extruded diets with 4% lipid was adjusted to a linear equation. The GITT of pacu depends on the diet processing and is affected by dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate.

  5. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  6. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  7. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

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    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  8. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  9. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

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    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  10. Fgf21 impairs adipocyte insulin sensitivity in mice fed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet.

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    Yusuke Murata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD induces hepatic ketogenesis and is believed to affect energy metabolism in mice. As hepatic Fgf21 expression was markedly induced in mice fed KD, we examined the effects of KD feeding on metabolism and the roles of Fgf21 in metabolism in mice fed KD using Fgf21 knockout mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined C57BL/6 mice fed KD for 6 or 14 days. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels were greatly increased at 6 days, indicating that hepatic ketogenesis was induced effectively by KD feeding for 6 days. KD feeding for 6 and 14 days impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although it did not affect body weight, blood NEFA, and triglyceride levels. Hepatic Fgf21 expression and blood Fgf21 levels were markedly increased in mice fed KD for 6 days. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the knockout mice fed KD for 6 days were comparable to those in wild-type mice fed KD, indicating that Fgf21 is not required for ketogenesis. However, the impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity caused by KD feeding were improved in the knockout mice. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was significantly decreased in the white adipose tissue in wild-type mice fed KD compared with those fed normal chow, but not in the muscle and liver. Its phosphorylation in the white adipose tissue was significantly increased in the knockout mice fed KD compared with wild-type mice fed KD. In contrast, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression in Fgf21 knockout mice fed KD was comparable to those in the wild-type mice fed KD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings indicate that KD feeding impairs insulin sensitivity in mice due to insulin resistance in white adipose tissue. In addition, our findings indicate that Fgf21 induced to express by KD is a negative regulator of adipocyte insulin sensitivity in adaptation to a low-carbohydrate malnutritional state.

  11. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  12. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

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    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  13. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

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    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  14. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

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    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  15. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

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    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  16. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

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    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  17. Early endothelial damage detected by circulating particles in baboons fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates in conjunction with saturated or unsaturated fat.

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    Shi, Qiang; Hodara, Vida; Meng, Qinghe; Voruganti, V Saroja; Rice, Karen; Michalek, Joel E; Comuzzie, Anthony G; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that high-fat diets cause blood vessel damage, however, assessing pathological effects accurately and efficiently is difficult. In this study, we measured particle levels of static endothelium (CD31+ and CD105+) and activated endothelium (CD62E+, CD54+ and CD106+) in plasma. We determined individual responses to two dietary regimens in two groups of baboons. One group (n = 10), was fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates and saturated fats (the HSF diet) and the other (n = 8) received a diet high in simple carbohydrates and unsaturated fats (the HUF diet). Plasma samples were collected at 0, 3, and 7 weeks. The percentages of CD31+ and CD62E+ particles were elevated at 3 weeks in animals fed either diet, but these elevations were statistically significant only in animals fed the HUF diet. Surprisingly, both percentages and counts of CD31+ particles were significantly lower at week 7 compared to week 0 and 3 in the HSF group. The median absolute counts of CD105+ particles were progressively elevated over time in the HSF group with a significant increase from week 0 to 7; the pattern was somewhat different for the HUF group with significant increase from week 3 to 7. The counts of CD54+ particles exhibited wide variation in both groups during the dietary challenge, while the median counts of CD106+ particles were significantly lower at week 3 than at week 0 and week 7. Endothelial particles exhibited time-dependent changes, suggesting they were behaving as quantifiable surrogates for the early detection of vascular damage caused by dietary factors.

  18. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

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    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  19. In vitro TNF-α- and noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis is impaired in adipocytes from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

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    Feres, Daniel D S; Dos Santos, Maísa P; Buzelle, Samyra L; Pereira, Mayara P; de França, Suélem A; Garófalo, Maria A R; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Froelich, Mendalli; de Almeida, Fhelipe J S; Frasson, Danúbia; Chaves, Valéria E; Kawashita, Nair H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and noradrenaline (NE)-stimulated lipolysis in retroperitoneal (RWAT) and epididymal (EAT) white adipose tissue as a means of understanding how low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats maintain their lipid storage in a catabolic environment (marked by increases in serum TNF-α and corticosterone and sympathetic flux to RWAT and EAT), as previously observed. Adipocytes or tissues from the RWAT and EAT of rats fed an LPHC diet and rats fed a control (C) diet for 15 days were used in the experiments. The adipocytes from both tissues of the LPHC rats exhibited lower TNF-α- stimulated lipolysis compared to adipocytes from the C rats. The intracellular lipolytic agents IBMX, DBcAMPc and FSK increased lipolysis in both tissues from rats fed the C and LPHC diets compared to basal lipolysis; however, the effect was approximately 2.5-fold lower in adipocytes from LPHC rats. The LPHC diet induced a marked reduction in the β3 and α2-AR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) content in RWAT and EAT. The LPHC diet did not affect TNF-α receptor 1 content but did induce a reduction in ERK p44/42 in both tissues. The present work indicates that RWAT and EAT from LPHC rats have an impairment in the lipolysis signaling pathway activated by NE and TNF-α, and this impairment explains the reduced response to these lipolytic stimuli, which may be fundamental to the maintenance of lipid storage in LPHC rats.

  20. Large bowel fermentation of maize or sorghum-acorn diets fed as a different source of carbohydrates to Landrace and Iberian pigs.

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    Morales, J; Pérez, J F; Martín-Orúe, S M; Fondevila, M; Gasa, J

    2002-11-01

    Twenty-four finishing pigs (twelve Iberian and twelve Landrace) were used in a growing and slaughtering experiment. Animals were fed two diets differing in their ingredients, maize (diet C) or sorghum-acorn (diet A). At an average weight of 107.0 kg pigs were slaughtered and hindgut digesta sampled to study the effect of breed and diet on large bowel fermentation. Flows of digesta to the hindgut compartment were estimated based on an indigestible flow marker (Cr2O3) and were higher in Iberian than in Landrace pigs (Pfeed intake (3.50 v. 2.70 kg/d, PFermentation of different carbohydrates through the large bowel showed that NSP-glucose had lower digestibility in Iberian than in Landrace pigs (62.5 v. 94.2 %, Ptype and amount of carbohydrates reaching the large bowel were related to the diet but also to breed, and promoted differences in the fermentative activity associated with different volatile fatty acid patterns and changes in microbial enzymic activity.

  1. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

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    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  2. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

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    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  3. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 μM) increased AMPK α-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1α mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol.

  4. Effect of chromium picolinate and melatonin either in single or in a combination in high carbohydrate diet-fed male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddigarla, Zephy; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to know the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and melatonin (Mel) each alone and in a combination on high carbohydrate diet-fed (HCD-fed) male Wistar rats that exhibit insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats have been categorized into five groups. Each group consisted of six male Wistar rats, control rats (group I), HCD (group II), HCD + CrPic (group III), HCD + Mel (group IV), and HCD + CrPic + Mel (group V). Insignificant differences were observed in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and zinc in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II rats respectively. Significant differences were observed in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II in homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), and in the levels of blood glucose (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), triacylglycerols (<0.05, <0.001, <0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), malondialdehyde (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), catalase (P <0.05, <0.05, <0.05), glutathione (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05), Mel (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), and copper (P < 0.05, <0.05, < 0.001). In view of these results, HCD-fed male Wistar rats that are destined to attain IR and T2DM through diet can be prevented by giving CrPic and Mel administration in alone or in a combination.

  5. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jessica; Ericsson, Madelene; Joibari, Masoumeh Motamedi; Anderson, Fredrick; Carlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Stefan K; Sjödin, Anna; Burén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty ...

  6. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  7. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Flowers; A.K. Groen; A.T. Oler; M.P. Keller; Y. Choi; K.L. Schueler; O.C. Richards; H. Lan; M. Miyazaki; F. Kuipers; C.M. Kendziorski; J.M. Ntambi; A.D. Attie

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprot

  8. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Matthew T; Groen, Albert K; Oler, Angie Tebon; Keller, Mark P; Choi, Younjeong; Schueler, Kathryn L; Richards, Oliver C; Lan, Hong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuipers, Folkert; Kendziorski, Christina M; Ntambi, James M; Attie, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprotein X. The rate of LDL clearance was decreased in VLF SCD1(-/-) mice relative to VLF SCD1(+/+) mice, indicating that reduced apoB-containing lipoprotein clearance contributed to the hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, HDL-cholesterol was dramatically reduced in these mice. The presence of increased plasma bile acids, bilirubin, and aminotransferases in the VLF SCD1(-/-) mice is indicative of cholestasis. Supplementation of the VLF diet with MUFA- and PUFA-rich canola oil, but not saturated fat-rich hydrogenated coconut oil, prevented these plasma phenotypes. However, dietary oleate was not as effective as canola oil in reducing LDL-cholesterol, signifying a role for dietary PUFA deficiency in the development of this phenotype. These results indicate that the lack of SCD1 results in an increased requirement for dietary unsaturated fat to compensate for impaired MUFA synthesis and to prevent hypercholesterolemia and hepatic dysfunction. Therefore, endogenous MUFA synthesis is essential during dietary unsaturated fat insufficiency and influences the dietary requirement of PUFA.

  9. Low-carbohydrate diets and prostate cancer: how low is "low enough"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Elizabeth M; Thomas, Jean A; Antonelli, Jodi A; Lloyd, Jessica C; Phillips, Tameika E; Poulton, Susan H; Dewhirst, Mark W; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Freedland, Stephen J

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that carbohydrate intake influences prostate cancer biology, as mice fed a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD) had significantly smaller xenograft tumors and longer survival than mice fed a Western diet. As it is nearly impossible for humans to consume and maintain NCKD, we determined whether diets containing 10% or 20% carbohydrate kcal showed similar tumor growth as NCKD. A total of 150 male severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a Western diet ad libitum, injected with the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC-4, and then randomized 2 weeks later to one of three arms: NCKD, 10% carbohydrate, or 20% carbohydrate diets. Ten mice not injected were fed an ad libitum low-fat diet (12% fat kcal) serving as the reference in a modified-paired feeding protocol. Mice were sacrificed when tumors reached 1,000 mm(3). Despite consuming extra calories, all mice receiving low-carbohydrate diets were significantly lighter than those receiving a low-fat diet (P Diet did not affect survival (P = 0.34). There were no differences in serum insulin-like growth factor-I or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 at sacrifice among the low-carbohydrate arms (P = 0.07 and P = 0.55, respectively). Insulin was significantly lower in the 20% carbohydrate arm (P = 0.03). LAPC-4 xenograft mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet (10-20% carbohydrate kcal) had similar survival as mice consuming NCKD (0% carbohydrate kcal).

  10. Effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on carbohydrate fractions and metabolites in stomach and ileum of pigs fed wheat bran based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Inborr, J.; Bakker, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 40 heat bran incubated with a water:acetic acid mixture (control, C) and a cellulase (Cel-i) or xylanase (Xyl-i) preparation or with addition of the cellulase (Cel-a) or xylanase (Xyl-a) preparation immediately before feeding. Stomach and ileal samples were analysed fo

  11. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  12. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)- induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, A.M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...... on the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in the rat colon...

  13. Complex carbohydrate digestion and large bowel fermentation in rats given wholemeal bread and cooked haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) fed in mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; Mathers, J C

    1993-03-01

    The digestion of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and of resistant starch (RS) by rats fed on wholemeal-bread-based diets containing 0-450 g cooked, freeze-dried haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)/kg diet was measured over the final 14 d of a 21 d feeding experiment. The bread and beans provided all the dietary polysaccharide. RS could not be detected consistently in faeces and it was assumed that this fraction was entirely fermented in the large bowel (LB). NSP digestibilities were 0.56 and 0.86 for wholemeal bread and beans respectively with no evidence that the dietary presence of beans affected digestibility of bread NSP. Bean non-cellulosic polysaccharides were highly digestible with values of 0.98, 0.88 and 0.99 for arabinose, xylose and uronic acids components respectively. There were large increases in organic matter flow to the LB when beans were fed which was associated with marked caecal hypertrophy and alterations in caecal volatile fatty acids (VFA) pattern. Calculated VFA absorption from the LB was 5-fold higher with the highest level of beans and this was reflected in higher concentrations of VFA in portal and heart blood.

  14. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Herbert Read

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  15. The Origin of the Constant Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read CharlesHerbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constant Carbohydrate diet, based entirely on carbohydrate exchanges, is now widely used in the dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Being based on sound scientific principles and simple in design, the Constant Carabohydrate diet is appropriate for all those having diabetes mellitus, young or old, no matter their ethncity. This report describes why and how it was developed in 1951. Its simplicity makes it adaptable to all ethnic diets.

  16. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  17. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  18. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  19. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Keiko; Inukai, Kouichi; Onuma, Hirohisa; Kudo, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tsugawa, Kazue; Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Kawakami, Hayato; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22), a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37) diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37) diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  20. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Handa

    Full Text Available We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22, a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37 diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37 diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1. Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  1. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  2. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Peters Sandra; LeBlanc Paul

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  3. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  4. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  5. The least-cost low-carbohydrate diet is expensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of operations research methods to study the minimum possible cost of a low-carbohydrate diet. The study compares this cost to the minimum cost of a diet with no limitation on carbohydrate. The rationale for this study is the popularity of the low-carbohydrate diets and their perceived high cost. The method used was an operations research approach to find a set of least cost diets, varying the required carbohydrate. This method was chosen to avoid potential concerns with real diets that may be nutritionally deficient or could be had for a lower cost. The major finding is that the cheapest possible low-carbohydrate diet costs about triple the cost of the cheapest diet with no constraint on carbohydrate. Furthermore, the minimum cost of a diet low in both carbohydrate and fat is 5 to 10 times the cost of the cheapest diet, depending on the relative amounts of these nutrients. As carbohydrate and fat are constrained, cost increases dramatically and nonlinearly. The study identifies which nutrients had the greatest effect on cost for a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

  6. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  7. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  8. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  9. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  10. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour...... fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society....

  11. Carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, are affected by chromic oxide inclusion in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, S Y; Liang, H S

    1995-04-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to study the influence of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus. Two levels of chromic oxide (0.5 and 2%) were each incorporated into diets containing glucose or starch. Chromic oxide was added at 0 or 8 wk. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish weighing 1.11 +/- 0.05 g. Fish fed the starch diet had greater (P protein efficiency ratio, protein deposition and digestibility of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and dry matter than fish fed the glucose diet irrespective of the time and level of chromic oxide supplementation. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein deposition than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide. The ingredient digestibility estimated using 0.5% chromic oxide as the marker was greater than that estimated with 2% chromic oxide. Higher phosphofructokinase and lower glucose-6-phosphatase activity was found in fish fed the starch diet than in fish fed the glucose diet regardless of the time and level of chromic oxide inclusion. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher phosphofructokinase activity and lower tissue chromium concentration than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide irrespective of chromic oxide inclusion time. These data suggest that the level of chromic oxide in the diet alters glucose utilization by tilapia and affects nutrient digestibility by tilapia. The time of chromic oxide inclusion had no effect on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility.

  12. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, M.; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  13. Nutritional and metabolic responses in common dentex (Dentex dentex) fed on different types and levels of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; Cardenete, Gabriel; Morales, Amalia E; Hidalgo, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the capacity of common dentex (Dentex dentex) to efficiently use dietary carbohydrates. So, the effects of different type and levels of carbohydrates on growth performance, feed utilization, fish composition, plasma metabolites and key metabolic pathways in liver and white muscle of common dentex are presented. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22 MJ kg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types, pregelatinized starch (PS), dextrin (Dx) and maltodextrin (Mx), and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates. Growth performance was not significantly influenced by treatments. The best feed utilization was observed in 18% Mx group. Higher hepatic lipid content was found in fish fed lower dietary carbohydrate levels. PS induced higher liver and white muscle hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities compared to the lower values observed for Mx. Malic enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver and white muscle were lower in Mx group. The influence of dietary carbohydrates source was more noticeable than those induced by the carbohydrate level, when glycolysis and lipogenesis pathways were considered. Common dentex is able to use properly dietary carbohydrates, although optimal dietary inclusion levels are below 24%. The greater protein-sparing effect was promoted by the less complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin) and the best feed utilization indices were obtained at intermediate levels of inclusion (18%).

  14. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  15. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed.

  16. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  17. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You probably have also heard talk about the glycemic index. The glycemic index classifies carbohydrate-containing foods according to their potential ... sugar level. Weight-loss diets based on the glycemic index typically recommend limiting foods that are higher on ...

  18. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  19. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely.

  20. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  1. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  3. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abo OMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding different dietary fat supplements in the finisher rations of Baladi rabbits, including sesame oil (SO, olive oil sediments (OOS, and poultry grease (PG, in comparison to the traditional oil supplement, the soybean soap stock oil (SS, on growth performance, blood lipid profile, dressing percentage and carcass cut, and meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC and cell forming unit (CFU. A total of 48 Baladi rabbits were used, with individual body weights (BW of 519 ± 22 g at the beginning of the experiment. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12, and those in each group were individually fed cereal grain-soybean meal (SBM with a fixed amount (i.e. 30 g/kg dry matter (DM of oil, being either soybean oil (SOY, olive oil sediments (OOS, recycled restaurant oil (RRO, or poultry grease (PG. All rations were isonitrogenous and contained iso-metabolizable energy (ME. At the end of the 44 day feeding trial, all animals were slaughtered. Rabbits fed a SOY supplemented diet consumed more (P < 0.05 feed than those fed the OOS, RRO, or PG supplemented diets. However, rabbits fed the SOY had a better (P < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than rabbits fed the OOS, PG, or RRO diets. Oil source had no effect on carcass components weights. Liver was heavier (P < 0.05 in rabbits fed the SOY supplemented diet. However, the RRO fed rabbits had heavier (P < 0.05 small intestine, large intestine and cecum. In conclusion, the positive effects of the tested oil supplements (i.e. RRO, OOS, PG on the studied performance and carcass traits is encouraging, but more investigation is needed to identify the optimal levels for these supplements in various diets of local rabbits.

  4. Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Lars; Thomsen, L.E.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    . Methods and Results: Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to describe differences in the total colonic microbiota as well as in the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. in pigs fed with a fructan-rich diet and a diet containing resistant carbohydrates. The fructan-rich diet...... has previously been shown to prevent swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The T-RFLP profiling, 16S rRNA gene cloning and in situ hybridization showed that the pigs fed with the fructan-rich diet had a higher proportion of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum...

  5. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  6. Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalifa, A; Mathew, T C; Al-Zaid, N S; Mathew, E; Dashti, H

    2011-11-01

    Diabetes continues to be an overwhelmingly prevalent endocrine disorder that leads to several micro- and macrocomplications. It has been widely accepted that changes in dietary habits could induce or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is shown that low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) is effective in the amelioration of many of the deleterious consequences of diabetes. However, its role in preventing the onset of diabetes is not understood. Therefore, this study is focused on the effect of LCKD in preventing the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ) in rats by biochemical and histological methods. Forty-two Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD), and high carbohydrate diet (HCD). Specific diets ad libitum were given to each group of animals for a period of 8 weeks. Each group was further subdivided into normal control, sham control and diabetic groups. Animals in the diabetic group were given a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg). All the animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the injection of STZ. Daily measurements of food and water intake as well as weekly measurement of body weight were taken during the whole 12 weeks of the experiment. After injecting with STZ, the blood glucose level of all the groups increased significantly except for the group fed on LCKD (p value<0.01). Also, food intake, water intake and urine output were significantly increased in all groups except for the LCKD group (p value<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in the weight gain of the animals that were fed on a LCKD as compared to other groups (p value<0.05). Although, substantial decrease in the number of β cells was noticed in diabetic rats, there were no change in the number of β cells in the LCKD treated diabetic animals as compared to LCKD control group. The results presented in this study, therefore, suggests that LCKD prevents

  7. Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Ruskin

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regimen that forces ketone-based rather than glucose-based cellular metabolism. Clinically, maintenance on a ketogenic diet has been proven effective in treating pediatric epilepsy and type II diabetes, and recent basic research provides evidence that ketogenic strategies offer promise in reducing brain injury. Cellular mechanisms hypothesized to be mobilized by ketone metabolism and underlying the success of ketogenic diet therapy, such as reduced reactive oxygen species and increased central adenosine, suggest that the ketolytic metabolism induced by the diet could reduce pain and inflammation. To test the effects of a ketone-based metabolism on pain and inflammation directly, we fed juvenile and adult rats a control diet (standard rodent chow or ketogenic diet (79% fat ad libitum for 3-4 weeks. We then quantified hindpaw thermal nociception as a pain measure and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced local hindpaw swelling and plasma extravasation (fluid movement from the vasculature as inflammation measures. Independent of age, maintenance on a ketogenic diet reduced the peripheral inflammatory response significantly as measured by paw swelling and plasma extravasation. The ketogenic diet also induced significant thermal hypoalgesia independent of age, shown by increased hindpaw withdrawal latency in the hotplate nociception test. Anti-inflammatory and hypoalgesic diet effects were generally more robust in juveniles. The ketogenic diet elevated plasma ketones similarly in both age groups, but caused slowed body growth only in juveniles. These data suggest that applying a ketogenic diet or exploiting cellular mechanisms associated with ketone-based metabolism offers new therapeutic opportunities for controlling pain and peripheral inflammation, and that such a metabolic strategy may offer significant benefits for children and adults.

  8. Mangiferin stimulates carbohydrate oxidation and protects against metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apontes, Pasha; Liu, Zhongbo; Su, Kai; Benard, Outhiriaradjou; Youn, Dou Y; Li, Xisong; Li, Wei; Mirza, Raihan H; Bastie, Claire C; Jelicks, Linda A; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Sauve, Anthony A; Chi, Yuling

    2014-11-01

    Excessive dietary fat intake causes systemic metabolic toxicity, manifested in weight gain, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. In addition, carbohydrate utilization as a fuel is substantially inhibited. Correction or reversal of these effects during high-fat diet (HFD) intake is of exceptional interest in light of widespread occurrence of diet-associated metabolic disorders in global human populations. Here we report that mangiferin (MGF), a natural compound (the predominant constituent of Mangifera indica extract from the plant that produces mango), protected against HFD-induced weight gain, increased aerobic mitochondrial capacity and thermogenesis, and improved glucose and insulin profiles. To obtain mechanistic insight into the basis for these effects, we determined that mice exposed to an HFD combined with MGF exhibited a substantial shift in respiratory quotient from fatty acid toward carbohydrate utilization. MGF treatment significantly increased glucose oxidation in muscle of HFD-fed mice without changing fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that MGF redirects fuel utilization toward carbohydrates. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, MGF increased glucose and pyruvate oxidation and ATP production without affecting fatty acid oxidation, confirming in vivo and ex vivo effects. Furthermore, MGF inhibited anaerobic metabolism of pyruvate to lactate but enhanced pyruvate oxidation. A key target of MGF appears to be pyruvate dehydrogenase, determined to be activated by MGF in a variety of assays. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of activation of carbohydrate utilization in correction of metabolic syndrome and highlight the potential of MGF to serve as a model compound that can elicit fuel-switching effects.

  9. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet would lead to decreased glucose uptake and impaired muscle glycogen breakdown during exercise compared with ingestion of a carbohydrate diet all along. We studied 13 untrained men; 7 consumed a high...... +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  10. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  11. Diet structure, butyric acid, and fermentable carbohydrates influence growth performance, gut morphology, and cecal fermentation characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisrani, S N; van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    An experiment with 288 male (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that a coarse diet supplemented with butyric acid (BA) and fermentable carbohydrates (FC) improves performance of broilers with a poorly digestible protein source. The interaction effects of diet structure (fine or coarse), FC supplementation (with or without), and BA supplementation (with or without) in a poorly digestible diet based on rapeseed meal (RSM) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2×2×2) dietary treatments. The coarseness of the diet affected feed intake (FI) (Pcarbohydrate supplementation did not influence growth performance, gut development, or contents of total BCFA and total biogenic amines in the cecal digesta (P>0.05). Supplementation with FC, however, decreased the cecal concentration of spermine by approximately 31% compared with broilers fed diets without FC (P=0.002). In conclusion, feeding a coarse diet supplemented with BA improved performance of broilers fed a diet containing a poorly digestible protein source. The negative effects of a poorly digestible protein source can thus be partly counterbalanced by coarse grinding and BA supplementation in the diet.

  12. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  13. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  14. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  15. Low-carbohydrate diet combined with SGLT2 inhibitor for refractory hyperglycemia caused by insulin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Riyoko; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Abiru, Norio; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet is effective to improve hyperglycemia via insulin-independent actions. We report here that a low-carbohydrate diet combined with an SGLT2 inhibitor was effective and safe to treat refractory hyperglycemia in the perioperative period in a type 2 diabetes patient complicated with a high titer of insulin antibodies.

  16. Spermatogenesis in bald eagles experimentally fed a diet containing DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  18. Resolution of Severe Ulcerative Colitis with the Specific Carbohydrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit N. Khandalavala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old female of Asian origin was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC after initial gastrointestinal symptoms of abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She had a relatively benign course over the subsequent 12 years. In 2009, she had increased left-sided abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea and progressive weight loss, due to a severe exacerbation. In spite of a variety of standard treatments, her condition continued to decline with a significant impact on normal life and functioning. In December of 2010, repeat colonoscopy and microscopy confirmed pancolitis, without diverticulitis. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD was initiated due to failure of conventional therapies. Following this highly restricted diet, within a period of 3-6 months, improvement was noted, and within a year, no abdominal pain or diarrhea were present, and she returned to her baseline functioning and career. Two years later, repeat colonoscopy showed resolution of the pancolitis, confirmed with microscopic evaluation. Successful use of the SCD in children with UC has been documented. We describe previously unreported, highly beneficial results with both symptomatic and clinical improvement and complete remission of UC in an adult female with the SCD.

  19. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  20. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  1. Gastrointestinal responses of rats fed on white and wholemeal breads: complex carbohydrate digestibility and the influence of dietary fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, F B; Mathers, J C

    1993-03-01

    To obtain quantitative information on the digestibility of the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) fraction of white and wholemeal breads, rats were fed on diets in which freeze-dried bread (white, wholemeal or mixtures of the two) provided all the complex carbohydrates. In a second experiment the possibility that dietary fat concentration might influence NSP digestibility was tested by feeding diets containing 30 or 170 g maize oil/kg and either white or wholemeal bread. Multiple linear regression analysis provided little evidence of associative effects of dietary components on NSP digestibility and in the two experiments digestibilities of NSP for white and wholemeal breads were 0.77-0.82 and 0.47-0.52 respectively. Xylose- and arabinose-containing polymers were better digested than was cellulose for both breads. Replacing white by wholemeal bread markedly increased the molar proportion of butyrate in caecal volatile fatty acids at the expense of acetate. This was associated with greater flows of organic matter to the large bowel (LB) and a reduction in caecal transit time (Expt 2). There was little detectable effect of dietary maize oil concentration on NSP digestibility or on LB fermentation. All breads contained some starch resistant to pancreatic alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) without previous treatment with dimethyl sulphoxide. The digestibility of this starch fraction was not significantly different from 1.0 for all diets except that containing wholemeal bread and the higher maize oil concentration where the apparent digestibility was 0.89.

  2. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  3. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  4. Carbohydrates and Endothelial Function: Is a Low-Carbohydrate Diet or a Low-Glycemic Index Diet Favourable for Vascular Health?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endot...

  5. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  6. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  7. A randomized, crossover comparison of daily carbohydrate limits using the modified Atkins diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Turner, Zahava; Bluml, Renee M; Pyzik, Paula L; Vining, Eileen P G

    2007-05-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a dietary therapy for intractable epilepsy that mimics the ketogenic diet, yet does not restrict protein, calories, and fluids. The ideal starting carbohydrate limit is unknown. Twenty children with intractable epilepsy were randomized to either 10 or 20 g of carbohydrates per day for the initial 3 months of the modified Atkins diet, and then crossed over to the opposite amount. A significantly higher likelihood of >50% seizure reduction was noted for children started on 10 g of carbohydrate per day at 3 months: 60% versus 10% (P=0.03). Most parents reported no change in seizure frequency or ketosis between groups, but improved tolerability with 20 g per day. A starting carbohydrate limit of 10 g per day for children starting the modified Atkins diet may be ideal, with a planned increase to a more tolerable 20 g per day after 3 months.

  8. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P efficiency of energy retention as fat (P efficiency, however, should be viewed with caution because it is related to visceral fat deposition, a nonedible tissue.

  9. Adaptive changes in amino acid metabolism permit normal longevity in mice consuming a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Nicholas; Melman, Tamar; Pecherer, Jordan M; Pissios, Pavlos; Flier, Jeffrey S; Cantley, Lewis C; Locasale, Jason W; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Ingestion of very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) is associated with weight loss, lowering of glucose and insulin levels and improved systemic insulin sensitivity. However, the beneficial effects of long-term feeding have been the subject of debate. We therefore studied the effects of lifelong consumption of this diet in mice. Complete metabolic analyses were performed after 8 and 80weeks on the diet. In addition we performed a serum metabolomic analysis and examined hepatic gene expression. Lifelong consumption of KD had no effect on morbidity or mortality (KD vs. Chow, 676 vs. 630days) despite hepatic steatosis and inflammation in KD mice. The KD fed mice lost weight initially as previously reported (Kennnedy et al., 2007) and remained lighter and had less fat mass; KD consuming mice had higher levels of energy expenditure, improved glucose homeostasis and higher circulating levels of β-hydroxybutyrate and triglycerides than chow-fed controls. Hepatic expression of the critical metabolic regulators including fibroblast growth factor 21 were also higher in KD-fed mice while expression levels of lipogenic enzymes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 was reduced. Metabolomic analysis revealed compensatory changes in amino acid metabolism, primarily involving down-regulation of catabolic processes, demonstrating that mice eating KD can shift amino acid metabolism to conserve amino acid levels. Long-term KD feeding caused profound and persistent metabolic changes, the majority of which are seen as health promoting, and had no adverse effects on survival in mice.

  10. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  11. Evaluation of fermentable oligosaccharides in diets fed to dogs in comparison to fiber standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelbos, I S; Fastinger, N D; Fahey, G C

    2007-11-01

    Blends of fermentable oligosaccharides in combination with nonfermentable fiber, cellulose, were evaluated for their ability to serve as dietary fibers in dog foods. Using a 6 x 6 Latin square design, 6 diets were evaluated that contained either no supplemental fiber, beet pulp, cellulose, or blends of cellulose, fructooligosaccharides, and yeast cell wall added at 2.5% of the diet. Six ileal-cannulated dogs were fed 175 g of their assigned diet twice daily. Chromic oxide served as a digestibility marker. Nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial populations, fermentative end products, and immunological indices were measured. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lowest (P fiber had greater (P fiber. Lactobacilli concentrations tended to be greater (P fiber compared with the cellulose treatment. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli concentrations were similar for the beet pulp treatment compared with the fermentable oligosaccharide blends. Total fecal short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater for the beet pulp treatment (P fiber had greater (P pulp as a fiber source. Therefore, blends of these carbohydrates could be useful substitutes for beet pulp in dog foods.

  12. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  13. Low-carbohydrate diets affect energy balance and fuel homeostasis differentially in lean and obese rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morens, C.; Sirot, V.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with increased prevalence of overweight people in affluent societies are individuals trying to lose weight, often using low-carbohydrate diets. Nevertheless, long-term metabolic consequences of those diets, usually high in (saturated) fat, remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-

  14. Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Westman Eric C; Kraft Bryan D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We report the unexpected resolution of longstanding schizophrenic symptoms after starting a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet. After a review of the literature, possible reasons for this include the metabolic consequences from the elimination of gluten from the diet, and the modulation of the disease of schizophrenia at the cellular level.

  15. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  16. The influence of low versus high carbohydrate diet on a 45-min strenuous cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Troup, John P; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 +/- 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1-3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4-6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the H-CHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.

  17. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Kim, Sarah; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Phinney, Stephen D; Goldman, Veronica; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Cox, Rachel M; Moran, Patricia; Hecht, Fredrick M

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%). We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16). We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04). Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03); 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05). The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09). Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.

  18. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Saslow

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%. We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18 or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16. We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04. Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03; 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05. The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09. Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.

  19. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  20. Fad diets and obesity--Part III: a rapid review of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2004-10-01

    Low-carbohydrate books continue to be some of the biggest selling publications in the United States. However, what are the similarities and differences between some of the most popular books? This overview of what some of these books advocate or discourage is important to better facilitate the discussion between the health professional and the patient interested in some of these methods. Regardless of the low-carbohydrate diet discussed with patients and whether or not health professionals agree or disagree with this approach, it is imperative that health professionals at least learn the basics of some of the more popular diets to facilitate better communication between the practitioner and patient.

  1. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases...

  2. A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Suélem A; dos Santos, Maísa P; Przygodda, Franciele; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Magalhães, Diego A; Bezerra, Kalinne S; Colodel, Edson M; Flouris, Andreas D; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Kawashita, Nair H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thermogenesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats submitted to low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and the involvement of adrenergic stimulation in this process. Male rats (~100 g) were submitted to LPHC (6%-protein; 74%-carbohydrate) or control (C; 17%-protein; 63%-carbohydrate) isocaloric diets for 15 days. The IBAT temperature was evaluated in the rats before and after the administration of noradrenaline (NA) (20 µg 100 g b w(-1) min(-1)). The expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other proteins involved in the regulation of UCP1 expression were determined by Western blot (Student's t test, P ≤ 0.05). The LPHC diet promoted a 1.1 °C increase in the basal temperature of IBAT when compared with the basal temperature in the IBAT of the C group. NA administration promoted a 0.3 °C increase in basal temperature in the IBAT of the C rats and a 0.5 °C increase in the IBAT of the LPHC group. The level of UCP1 increased 60% in the IBAT of LPHC-fed rats, and among the proteins involved in its expression, such as β3-AR and α1-AR, there was a 40% increase in the levels of p38-MAPK and a 30% decrease in CREB when compared to the C rats. The higher sympathetic flux to IBAT, which is a consequence of the administration of the LPHC diet to rats, activates thermogenesis and increases the expression of UCP1 in the tissue. Our results suggest that the increase in UCP1 content may occur via p38 MAPK and ATF2.

  3. Performance of feedlot lambs fed palm kernel cake-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição dos Santos, Rozilda; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Leite, Gilmara Pinto; Araújo, Marcio Yuri de Souza

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-four castrated male lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 0.35 kg were randomly assigned to five treatments that consisted of different levels of palm kernel cake in the diet (0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 % on a DM basis) in order to evaluate the effects on intake, digestibility, empty body weight, and body gain composition. The intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) presented with a decreasing linear effect. However, the intakes of EE and NDF presented with increased linear results as the palm kernel cake was added to the concentrate. There was a quadratic effect for the digestibility coefficient of all nutrients, except for NFC. The palm kernel cake had a decreasing linear effect on final body weight, empty body weight, and the average daily gain of the animals that were fed increased levels of palm kernel cake. The inclusion of palm kernel cake as a partial substitute for concentrate decreases the intake of the majority of nutrients, except for EE and NDF, and consequently, causes deleterious effects on the nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs that are fed a 50:50 roughage/concentrate ratio.

  4. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  5. The Effects of the Combination of a Refined Carbohydrate Diet and Exposure to Hyperoxia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicia Pedreira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease with genetic, social, and environmental influences. This study aims at analyzing the effects of the combination of a refined carbohydrate diet and exposure to hyperoxia on the pulmonary oxidative and inflammatory response in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG, hyperoxia group (HG, refined carbohydrate diet group (RCDG, and refined carbohydrate diet + hyperoxia group (RCDHG. The experimental diet was composed of 10% sugar, 45% standard diet, and 45% sweet condensed milk. For 24 hours, the HG and RCDHG were exposed to hyperoxia and the CG and RCDG to ambient air. After the exposures were completed, the animals were euthanized, and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lungs were collected for analyses. The HG showed higher levels of interferon-γ in adipose tissue as compared to other groups and higher levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the CG and RCDHG. SOD and CAT activities in the pulmonary parenchyma decreased in the RCDHG as compared to the CG. There was an increase of lipid peroxidation in the HG, RCDG, and RCDHG as compared to the CG. A refined carbohydrate diet combined with hyperoxia promoted inflammation and redox imbalance in adult mice.

  6. The Effects of the Combination of a Refined Carbohydrate Diet and Exposure to Hyperoxia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nicia Pedreira; Campos, Keila Karine Duarte; Pena, Karina Braga; Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease with genetic, social, and environmental influences. This study aims at analyzing the effects of the combination of a refined carbohydrate diet and exposure to hyperoxia on the pulmonary oxidative and inflammatory response in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG), hyperoxia group (HG), refined carbohydrate diet group (RCDG), and refined carbohydrate diet + hyperoxia group (RCDHG). The experimental diet was composed of 10% sugar, 45% standard diet, and 45% sweet condensed milk. For 24 hours, the HG and RCDHG were exposed to hyperoxia and the CG and RCDG to ambient air. After the exposures were completed, the animals were euthanized, and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lungs were collected for analyses. The HG showed higher levels of interferon-γ in adipose tissue as compared to other groups and higher levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the CG and RCDHG. SOD and CAT activities in the pulmonary parenchyma decreased in the RCDHG as compared to the CG. There was an increase of lipid peroxidation in the HG, RCDG, and RCDHG as compared to the CG. A refined carbohydrate diet combined with hyperoxia promoted inflammation and redox imbalance in adult mice. PMID:28018521

  7. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  8. Hormonal imbalance and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism associated with chronic feeding of high sucrose low magnesium diet in weanling male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Meenakshi; Mehra, Pranav; Bansal, Devi Dayal

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to determine chronic effect of high sucrose low magnesium (HSLM) diet in weanling rats on plasma thyroid profile, catecholamines and activities of key hepatic glycolytic, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Compared to control diet fed group, significantly elevated levels of plasma triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) and activity of hepatic glycolytic (hexokinase and glucokinase), and gluconeogenic (glucose-6-phosphatase) enzymes were observed in high sucrose and low magnesium fed groups. However, HSLM diet had an additive effect on all these three parameters. The study thus, assumes significance as it shows that hormonal imbalance and disorders in carbohydrate metabolism at an early stage of development can be due to dietary modification or due to deficiency of key element magnesium.

  9. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  10. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; PDiet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  11. Growth performance, diet nutrient digestibility, and bone mineralization in weaned pigs fed pelleted diets containing thermostable phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, J L; Landero, J L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T

    2013-02-01

    Traditional supplemental dietary phytase loses activity during steam pelleting. The thermal tolerance and bioefficacy of a phytase product with a thermoprotective coating [coated phytase (C-phytase)] was compared in mash and pelleted diets to a traditional, uncoated phytase (U-phytase) added to a negative control (NC) diet, formulated with reduced dietary Ca and P, and compared with a corn-soybean meal based positive control (POC) diet. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and third metacarpal bone characteristics were response variables. Weaned pigs (n = 56; 8.20 ± 0.5 kg initial BW; 28 d of age) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets for 21 d. The diets were 1) POC mash, 2) NC mash, 3) NC pelleted at 90°C, 4) NC mash + 500 U/kg U-phytase, 5) NC mash + 500 U/kg C-phytase, 6) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 80°C, and 7) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 90°C. The POC and NC diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isolysinic. The content of Ca and available P was 1.01 and 0.40% and 0.83 and 0.22% in the POC and NC diets, respectively. Pig BW and feed intake were measured on d 7, 14, and 21, and feces were collected for 2 d. On d 21, pigs were killed and ileal digesta and the third metacarpal bone collected. Pigs fed POC had greater (P pigs fed NC. Pelleting the NC diet did not improve performance, nutrient digestibility, or P use. Adding the U-phytase to NC mash diet increased (P pigs fed NC. Pigs fed C-phytase in NC mash diets had increased (P pigs fed NC but not different than pigs fed U-phytase NC mash diets. Pigs fed pelleted NC diet with C-phytase had a greater (P pigs fed mash NC diet with C-phytase but had similar growth performance, AID of CP and AA, and bone mineralization to pigs fed U-phytase. In conclusion, release and bioefficacy of phytase after pelleting was not affected by the thermal protective coating.

  12. Effects of bixin in high-fat diet-fed-induced fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez; Rita Valadez Romero

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-obesity activity of bixin (BIX) on C57BL/6J mice which were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to determine the mechanism of this effect. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were separately fed a high-calorie diet or a normal diet for 8 weeks, then they were treated with BIX for another 13 weeks. After administration for 13 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Body adiposity, serum lipid level, and insulin resistance were evaluated. In addition, a histological assay of pancreas and liver, an evaluation of the inhibitory properties on pancreatic lipase, and a-amylase were conducted. Results: Administration of BIX significantly decreased the body weight gain, adipocyte size, fat pad weights, hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, reduced liver weight exhibited decreased serum leptin levels, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hepatic fatty acid synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity. However, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels were increased in hepatic tissue. BIX also decreased lipid and carbohydrates absorption due to inhibition of pancreatic lipase and a-amylase. Long term supplementation of BIX significantly decreased hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and glucose level. Decreased levels of hepatic steatosis and the islets of Langerhans appeared less shrunken in HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: The antiobesity effect of BIX appears to be associated at least in part, to its inhibitory effect on lipids and carbohydrate digestion enzymes such as pancreatic lipase, a-glucosidase, and a-amylase. The results suggested that BIX also act as an antioxidant and may treat visceral obesity normalizing glucose levels, improving insulin resistance and increasing energy expenditure. Therefore, achiote which has a main component, the carotenoid BIX, could be a viable food for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  13. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  14. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  15. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  16. Low-carbohydrate diets, dietary approaches to stop hypertension-style diets, and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter C; Holmes, Michelle D

    2011-09-15

    The authors prospectively examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, overall, animal-based, and vegetable-based low-carbohydrate-diet scores, and major plant food groups and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in 86,621 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Diet scores were calculated by using data from up to 7 food frequency questionnaires, with follow-up from 1980 to 2006. The authors ascertained 5,522 incident cases of breast cancer, including 3,314 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cancers and 826 estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cancers. After adjustment for potential confounders, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score was associated with a lower risk of ER- cancer (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.64, 1.01; P trend = 0.02). However, this was largely explained by higher intakes of fruits and vegetables. The authors also observed an inverse association between risk of ER- cancer and the vegetable-based, low-carbohydrate-diet score (corresponding relative risk = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 1.01; P trend = 0.03). High total fruit and low-protein vegetable intakes were associated with a lower risk of ER- cancer (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.90; P trend = 0.005). No association was found between ER+ tumors and fruit and vegetable intakes. A diet high in fruits and vegetables, such as one represented by the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, was associated with a lower risk of ER- breast cancer. In addition, a diet high in plant protein and fat and moderate in carbohydrate content was associated with a lower risk of ER- cancer.

  17. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  18. Low-Carbohydrate Diet Impairs the Effect of Glucagon in the Treatment of Insulin-Induced Mild Hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Schmidt, Signe; Damm-Frydenberg, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the ability of glucagon to restore plasma glucose (PG) after mild hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes on an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) versus a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten patients with insulin pump-treated type...

  19. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Mavropoulos John C; Yancy William S; Westman Eric C; Marquart Megan; McDuffie Jennifer R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were ra...

  20. Arguments for a lower carbohydrate-higher fat diet in patients with a short small bowel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Short small bowel patients suffer from malabsorption due to a strongly reduced small bowel surface. These patients usually get a high caloric high carbohydrate-low fat diet at oral or enteral feeding. At several points our studies demonstrate that the effect of this formula is doubtful. In these pat

  1. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2002-01-01

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by infus

  2. Perfil de ácidos graxos e conteúdo de ácido linoléico conjugado no leite de vacas alimentadas com a combinação de óleo de soja e fontes de carboidratos na dieta Milk fatty acid profile and milk conjugated linoleic acid content of dairy cows fed diets with different carbohydrate sources with or without soybean oil supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-08-01

    evaluate the effect of different diets on milk fatty acid (FA profile and milk CLA content. Cows were fed concentrate containing corn (CR, wheat bran (WB, or dried citrus pulp (CP supplemented or not with soybean oil. Chromatographic analysis showed a FA recovery greater than 95%. With the exception of milk content of trans-10 C18:1 and proportions of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-11 C18:1 on total milk trans- C18:1, the interaction soybean oil x carbohydrate source was not significant for the remaining measured variables. Overall, carbohydrate source did not affect the milk FA profile or CLA content in this trial. Supplementation with soybean oil increased unsaturated FA by 35% and decreased saturated FA by 14%, mainly short chain FA (9.66 vs. 7.59 g/100 g and medium chain FA (51.80 vs. 40.86 g/100 g. Soybean oil increased long chain FA (32.17 vs. 46.47 g/100 g, mainly C18:0 (9.44 vs. 13.63 g/100 g, C18:1 (20.28 vs. 29.74 g/100 g and C18:2 (2.16 vs. 2.92 g/100 g. Feeding soybean oil increased the concentration of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 CLA by 230% (0.46 vs. 1.06 g/100 g. In addition, the content of cis and trans-C18:1isomers was also increased. Although the trans-11 C18:1 isomer was the most important, concentration of trans-10 C18:1 increased from 0.28 to 1.11 g/100g in oil supplemented-diets being affected by the carbohydrate source. Milk from cows fed CR, WB, and CP showed similar content of trans-10 C18:1. However, in diets with oil supplementation both CR and WB resulted in greater content of trans-10 C18:1 than CP diet suggesting different biohydrogenation pathways.

  3. COMPENSATORY GROWTH IN MOZAMBIQUE TILAPIA (Oreochromis mossambicus, FED A SUB-OPTIMAL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, held in 30%o seawater and at 29-30 °C, were divided into four groups (n = 50/group in replicate, and given one of four feed cycles: 1 control, with continuous feedind, 2 5:5, 3 10:10 and 4 15:15, wherein fish were subjected to starvation and subsequent refeeding cycles of 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. All animals were fed a commercial diet containing 18.4% protein, 6.7% lipid, 58.6% carbohydrate and 7.2% ash, over a 60 day trial period. Growth compensation was observed in the feed cycled groups as increased (P < 0.03 weight specific growth rates during refeeding. However, feed cycled groups were unable to achieve the weghts of control fish. Starvation reduced (P<0.01 haematocrit values when compared to control levels and, in the 15:15 cycled groups, elevated the testicular index (P < 0.02. The results are considered with respect to the commercial application of compensatory growth during production of tilapia.

  4. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet on atherosclerotic plaque phenotype in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice: FT-IR and Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, T P; Marzec, K M; Chlopicki, S; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, I; Moszkowski, T; Kostogrys, R B; Baranska, M

    2015-09-22

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet displays pro-atherogenic effects, however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, with the use of vibrational imaging, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (RS) spectroscopies, we characterize biochemical content of plaques in Brachiocephalic Arteries (BCA) from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet as compared to control, recomended by American Institute of Nutrition, AIN diet. FT-IR images were taken from 6-10 sections of BCA from each mice and were complemented with RS measurements with higher spatial resolution of chosen areas of plaque sections. In aortic plaques from LCHP fed ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, the content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased, while that of proteins was decreased as evidenced by global FT-IR analysis. High resolution imaging by RS identified necrotic core/foam cells, lipids (including cholesterol crystals), calcium mineralization and fibrous cap. The decreased relative thickness of the outer fibrous cap and the presence of buried caps were prominent features of the plaques in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet. In conclusion, FT-IR and Raman-based imaging provided a complementary insight into the biochemical composition of the plaque suggesting that LCHP diet increased plaque cholesterol and cholesterol esters contents of atherosclerotic plaque, supporting the cholesterol-driven pathogenesis of LCHP-induced atherogenesis.

  5. Adherence to a low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diet differs by insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, A D; Otten, J J; Hekler, E B; Gardner, C D

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows diminished weight loss success in insulin-resistant (IR) women assigned to a low-fat (LF) diet compared to those assigned to a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. These secondary analyses examined the relationship between insulin-resistance status and dietary adherence to either a LF-diet or LC-diet among 81 free-living, overweight/obese women [age = 41.9 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI) = 32.6 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)]. This study found differential adherence by insulin-resistance status only to a LF-diet, not a LC-diet. IR participants were less likely to adhere and lose weight on a LF-diet compared to insulin-sensitive (IS) participants assigned to the same diet. There were no significant differences between IR and IS participants assigned to LC-diet in relative adherence or weight loss. These results suggest that insulin resistance status may affect dietary adherence to weight loss diets, resulting in higher recidivism and diminished weight loss success of IR participants advised to follow LF-diets for weight loss.

  6. Response of C57Bl/6 mice to a carbohydrate-free diet

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    Borghjid Saihan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High fat feeding in rodents generally leads to obesity and insulin resistance whereas in humans this is only seen if dietary carbohydrate is also high, the result of the anabolic effect of poor regulation of glucose and insulin. A previous study of C57Bl/6 mice (Kennedy AR, et al.: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007 262 E1724-1739 appeared to show the kind of beneficial effects of calorie restriction that is seen in humans but that diet was unusually low in protein (5%. In the current study, we tested a zero-carbohydrate diet that had a higher protein content (20%. Mice on the zero-carbohydrate diet, despite similar caloric intake, consistently gained more weight than animals consuming standard chow, attaining a dramatic difference by week 16 (46.1 ± 1.38 g vs. 30.4 ± 1.00 g for the chow group. Consistent with the obese phenotype, experimental mice had fatty livers and hearts as well as large fat deposits in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, and showed impaired glucose clearance after intraperitoneal injection. In sum, the response of mice to a carbohydrate-free diet was greater weight gain and metabolic disruptions in distinction to the response in humans where low carbohydrate diets cause greater weight loss than isocaloric controls. The results suggest that rodent models of obesity may be most valuable in the understanding of how metabolic mechanisms can work in ways different from the effect in humans.

  7. Response of C57Bl/6 mice to a carbohydrate-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghjid, Saihan; Feinman, Richard David

    2012-07-28

    High fat feeding in rodents generally leads to obesity and insulin resistance whereas in humans this is only seen if dietary carbohydrate is also high, the result of the anabolic effect of poor regulation of glucose and insulin. A previous study of C57Bl/6 mice (Kennedy AR, et al.: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007) 262 E1724-1739) appeared to show the kind of beneficial effects of calorie restriction that is seen in humans but that diet was unusually low in protein (5%). In the current study, we tested a zero-carbohydrate diet that had a higher protein content (20%). Mice on the zero-carbohydrate diet, despite similar caloric intake, consistently gained more weight than animals consuming standard chow, attaining a dramatic difference by week 16 (46.1 ± 1.38 g vs. 30.4 ± 1.00 g for the chow group). Consistent with the obese phenotype, experimental mice had fatty livers and hearts as well as large fat deposits in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, and showed impaired glucose clearance after intraperitoneal injection. In sum, the response of mice to a carbohydrate-free diet was greater weight gain and metabolic disruptions in distinction to the response in humans where low carbohydrate diets cause greater weight loss than isocaloric controls. The results suggest that rodent models of obesity may be most valuable in the understanding of how metabolic mechanisms can work in ways different from the effect in humans.

  8. Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Feinman, Richard D; Volk, Brittanie M; Freidenreich, Daniel; Quann, Erin; Ballard, Kevin; Puglisi, Michael J; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Douglas M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2010-10-01

    We recently showed that a hypocaloric carbohydrate restricted diet (CRD) had two striking effects: (1) a reduction in plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) despite higher intake than a low fat diet, and (2) a decrease in inflammation despite a significant increase in arachidonic acid (ARA). Here we extend these findings in 8 weight stable men who were fed two 6-week CRD (12%en carbohydrate) varying in quality of fat. One CRD emphasized SFA (CRD-SFA, 86 g/d SFA) and the other, unsaturated fat (CRD-UFA, 47 g SFA/d). All foods were provided to subjects. Both CRD decreased serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin, and increased LDL-C particle size. The CRD-UFA significantly decreased plasma TAG SFA (27.48 ± 2.89 mol%) compared to baseline (31.06 ± 4.26 mol%). Plasma TAG SFA, however, remained unchanged in the CRD-SFA (33.14 ± 3.49 mol%) despite a doubling in SFA intake. Both CRD significantly reduced plasma palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) indicating decreased de novo lipogenesis. CRD-SFA significantly increased plasma phospholipid ARA content, while CRD-UFA significantly increased EPA and DHA. Urine 8-iso PGF(2α), a free radical-catalyzed product of ARA, was significantly lower than baseline following CRD-UFA (-32%). There was a significant inverse correlation between changes in urine 8-iso PGF(2α) and PL ARA on both CRD (r = -0.82 CRD-SFA; r = -0.62 CRD-UFA). These findings are consistent with the concept that dietary saturated fat is efficiently metabolized in the presence of low carbohydrate, and that a CRD results in better preservation of plasma ARA.

  9. Meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets with Bacillus subtilis and malic acid additives

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    Martin Král

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  10. Efficiency of manganese absorption in chicks fed corn-soy and casein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.

  11. Glycemic index and glycemic load of carbohydrates in the diabetes diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate; Barclay, Alan; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy is the first line of treatment for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and plays an essential part in the management of type 1 diabetes. Although traditionally advice was focused on carbohydrate quantification, it is now clear that both the amount and type of carbohydrate are important in predicting an individual's glycemic response to a meal. Diets based on carbohydrate foods that are more slowly digested, absorbed, and metabolized (i.e., low glycemic index [GI] diets) have been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas intervention studies have shown improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin concentrations in people with diabetes following a low GI diet. Research also suggests that low GI diets may assist with weight management through effects on satiety and fuel partitioning. These findings, together with the fact that there are no demonstrated negative effects of a low GI diet, suggest that the GI should be an important consideration in the dietary management and prevention of diabetes.

  12. Effects of a short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jason C; Wood, Richard J; Davidson, Patrick W; Collins, Sean M; Matthews, Tracey D; Gregory, Sara M; Paolone, Vincent J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of switching from a habitual diet to a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) on strength and power performance in trained men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Subjects performed handgrip dynamometry, vertical jump, 1RM bench press and back squat, maximum-repetition bench press, and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic cycling test after consuming a habitual diet (40.7% carbohydrate, 22.2% protein, and 34.4% fat) for 7 days and again after following a CRD (5.4% carbohydrate, 35.1% protein, and 53.6% fat) for 7 days. Before both testing sessions, body weight and composition were examined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Three 2 × 2 multiple analyses of variance were used to compare performance variables between the habitual diet and CRD. Subjects consumed significantly fewer (p diet (2,537.43 ± 99.5). Body mass decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Despite a reduction in body mass, strength and power outputs were maintained for men and women during the CRD. These findings may have implications for sports that use weight classes, and in which strength and power are determinants of success. A CRD may be an alternative method for short-term weight loss without compromising strength and power outputs. The use of a 7-day CRD could replace weight loss methods employing severe dehydration before competition.

  13. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

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    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  14. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio JS; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. METHODS: We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student’s t-test. Statistical significance was set at P diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions. PMID:27298559

  15. Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce, and pellets provide a healthy diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightsmith, Donald J

    2012-09-01

    Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.

  16. Feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing mulberry hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed with diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% of mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty four Ile de France lambs, non castrated, with 25 kg of body weight and four months old, confined, in a completely randomized design, were used. The feeding daily time (242.01 minutes, rumination (435.48 minutes and leisure (762.50 minutes, the numbers of cakes ruminated per day (658.36 and the time spent per cake (40.03 sec were not affected (P>0.05 by different levels of hay in mulberry concentrate. The dry matter voluntary intake (1.258 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber intake (0.302 kg/day, as well as the efficiency of dry matter intake and rumination (316.24 and 173.54 g/h, respectively and efficiency of neutral detergent fiber intake and rumination (75.89 and 41.68 g/h, respectively were similar in all treatments. The ruminating chew expressed in hour/day (11.29 and the number of chews expressed per cake (72.65 and per day (47.638.06, as well as the number and the feeding time (22.02 meals and 11.23 min/meal, rumination (25.95 ruminations and 17.29 min/rumination and idle (41.81 idle and 18.30 min/idle time, were also not affected (P>0.05. The inclusion of mulberry hay did not change the rumination expressed in g of DM and NDF/cake (1.91 and 0.46, respectively and min/kg of DM and NDF (361.51 and 1.505.78, respectively, as well as the total chew expressed in min/kg of DM and NDF (563.70 and 2.347.19, respectively. The use of mulberry hay partially replacing the concentrated, does not change the feeding behavior of feedlot lambs.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in the medical school biochemistry curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Makowske, Mary

    2003-09-01

    One of Robert Atkins contributions was to define a diet strategy in terms of an underlying metabolic principle ("the science behind Atkins"). The essential feature is that, by reducing insulin fluxes, lipids are funnelled away from storage and oxidized. Ketosis can be used as an indicator of lipolysis. A metabolic advantage is also proposed: controlled carbohydrates leads to greater weight loss per calorie than other diets. Although the Atkins diet and its scientific rationale are intended for a popular audience, the overall features are consistent with current metabolic ideas. We have used the Atkins controlled-carbohydrate diet as a focal point for teaching nutrition and metabolism in the first-year medical school curriculum. By presenting metabolism in the context of the current epidemic of obesity and of metabolic syndrome and related disorders, we provide direct application of the study of metabolic pathways, a subject not traditionally considered by medical students to be highly relevant to medical practice. We present here a summary of the metabolic basis of the Atkins diet as we teach it to medical students. We also discuss a proposed mechanism for metabolic advantage that is consistent with current ideas and that further brings out ideas in metabolism for students. The topics that are developed include the role of insulin and glucagon in lipolysis, control of lipoprotein lipase, the glucose-glycogen-gluconeogenesis interrelations, carbohydrate-protein interactions and ketosis. In essence, the approach is to expand the traditional feed-fast (post-absorptive) cycles to include the effect of low-carbohydrate meals: the disease states studied are generalized from traditional study of diabetes to include obesity and metabolic syndrome. The ideal diet for weight loss and treatment of metabolic syndrome, if it exists, remains to be determined, but presenting metabolism in the context of questions raised by the Atkins regimen prepares future physicians for

  18. In utero and postnatal exposure to a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet leads to differences in adipose tissue mRNA expression and blood metabolites in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Liu, Kari J; Keel, Tonya L; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34.3 % crude protein (CP), 19.2 % fat and 30.8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52.9 % CP, 23.5 % fat and 10.8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.

  19. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  20. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication.

  1. Self-selected unrefined and refined carbohydrate diets do not affect metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhaus, A; Chantelau, E

    1988-03-01

    This study investigated whether unrefined or refined carbohydrate diets have any effect on metabolic control and on insulin requirement in near-normoglycaemic Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic out-patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Two females and 8 males (aged 27 +/- 9 years; diabetes duration 13 +/- 8 years; duration of insulin pump therapy 22 +/- 5 months; means +/- SD) participated in a randomised cross-over study with two 6-week periods on self-selected refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets respectively. As a result, energy intake differed between the experimental diets (2372 +/- 669 kcal/day on unrefined diet vs 2757 +/- 654 kcal/day on refined diet, p = 0.04), as did the fibre intake (18 +/- 5 g/day with the refined carbohydrate diet vs 35 +/- 13 g/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, p = 0.02). The composition of nutrients was approximately 40% carbohydrate, 45% fat, and 13% protein with both diets. Body weight, HbA1c, daily mean blood glucose (7.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) and serum lipids remained virtually unchanged during the entire study. Insulin requirement varied between 40.1 +/- 7.9 U/day with the unrefined carbohydrate diet, and 42.5 +/- 10.1 U/day with the refined carbohydrate diet (NS). Thus, neither the refined nor the unrefined carbohydrate diet affected insulin requirement and metabolic control in these near-normoglycaemic, normolipaemic, non-obese, insulin-pump-treated Type 1 diabetic patients.

  2. Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on renal function: a meta-analysis of over 1000 individuals from nine randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyabu, Chikako; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Fukuda, Takuya; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to clarify the effect of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on renal function in overweight and obese individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Literature searches were performed using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library until December 2015. We selected articles that reported human studies from their inception until December 2015 in English using the following searching terms: 'Low carbohydrate diet' AND ('Clinical trial' OR 'Clinical study' OR 'Clinical investigation' OR 'Observational study' OR 'Cohort study'). We compared the effects of LCD on renal function, defined as change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), assessed in randomised-controlled trials. We calculated the mean change in eGFR and the mean change in standard deviations by eGFR or creatinine clearance, and compared the mean change in eGFR and standard deviations in LCD with those in the control diet using fixed-effects models. We selected nine randomised controlled trials including 1687 participants (861 were fed LCD and 826 were fed the control diet). The mean change in eGFR in the LCD group was -4·7 to 24·0 ml/min per 1·73 m2 and that in the control diet group was -4·1 to 10·8 ml/min per 1·73 m2. The mean change in eGFR in the LCD group was greater than that in the control diet (0·13 ml/min per 1·73 m2; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·26). In the present meta-analysis, we identified that the increase in eGFR was greater in LCD compared with the control diet in overweight and obese individuals without CKD.

  3. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet alters myocardial oxidative stress and impairs recovery of cardiac function after ischemia and reperfusion in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lloyd, Steven G

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with elevated risk of heart disease. A solid understanding of the safety and potential adverse effects of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HFLCD) similar to that used by humans for weight loss on the heart is crucial. High fat intake is known to promote increases in reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. We hypothesized that there would be adverse effects of HFLCD on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through enhancing oxidative stress injury and impairing mitochondrial biogenesis in a nongenetic, diet-induced rat model of obesity. To test the hypothesis, 250-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an obesity-promoting diet for 7 weeks to induce obesity, then switched to HFLCD or a low-fat control diet for 2 weeks. Isolated hearts underwent global low flow ischemia for 60 minutes and reperfusion for 60 minutes. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet resulted in greater weight gain and lower myocardial glycogen, plasma adiponectin, and insulin. Myocardial antioxidant gene transcript and protein expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced in HFLCD, along with increased oxidative gene NADPH oxidase-4 transcript and xanthine oxidase activity, and a 37% increase in nitrated protein (nitrotyrosine) in HFLCD hearts. The cardiac expression of key mitochondrial regulatory factors such as nuclear respiratory factor-1 and transcription factor A-mitochondrial were inhibited and myocardial mitochondrial DNA copy number decreased. The cardiac expression of adiponectin and its receptors was down-regulated in HFLCD. High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet impaired recovery of left ventricular rate-pressure product after ischemia/reperfusion and led to 3.5-fold increased injury as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. In conclusion, HFLCD leads to increased ischemic myocardial injury and impaired recovery of function after reperfusion and was associated with attenuation of mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced oxidative stress in obese rats

  4. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  5. A whey-supplemented, high-protein diet versus a high-carbohydrate diet: effects on endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2006-02-01

    This study compared a training diet recommended for endurance athletes (H-CHO) with an isoenergetic high protein (whey supplemented), moderate carbohydrate (H-Pro) diet on endurance cycling performance. Over two separate 7-d periods subjects (n = 7) ingested either H-CHO (7.9 +/- 1.9 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) carbohydrate; 1.2 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) fat; 1.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) protein) or H-Pro (4.9 +/- 1.8 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 1.3 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 3.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) diet in a randomized, balanced order. On day 8 subjects cycled (self-paced) for a body weight dependent (60 kJ/bm) amount of work. No differences occurred between energy intake (P = 0.422) or fat intake (P = 0.390) during the two dietary conditions. Performance was significantly (P = 0.010) impaired following H-Pro (153 +/- 36) compared with H-CHO (127 +/- 34 min). No differences between treatments were observed for physiological measures taken during the performance trials. These results indicate an ergolytic effect of a 7-d high protein diet on self-paced endurance cycling performance.

  6. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Morris, E Matthew; Kearney, Monica L; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Thyfault, John P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ∼27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p hepatic TAG secretion rate was ∼39% lower (p Hepatic TAG content was ∼2-fold higher (p profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression.

  7. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides.

  8. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006 separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  9. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-06-21

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  10. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Phinney, Stephen D; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Puglisi, Michael J; Kraemer, William J; Bibus, Doug M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Feinman, Richard D

    2009-04-01

    We recently proposed that the biological markers improved by carbohydrate restriction were precisely those that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and that the common thread was regulation of insulin as a control element. We specifically tested the idea with a 12-week study comparing two hypocaloric diets (approximately 1,500 kcal): a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = 12:59:28) and a low-fat diet (LFD) (56:24:20) in 40 subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. Despite a threefold higher intake of dietary saturated fat during the CRD, saturated fatty acids in TAG and cholesteryl ester were significantly decreased, as was palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), an endogenous marker of lipogenesis, compared to subjects consuming the LFD. Serum retinol binding protein 4 has been linked to insulin-resistant states, and only the CRD decreased this marker (-20%). The findings provide support for unifying the disparate markers of MetS and for the proposed intimate connection with dietary carbohydrate. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.

  11. Effect of diets with different content of starch and protein fed to dairy cows in early lactation on milk yield and traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the effect on milk yield and its traits of 2 different levels of fermentable carbohydrates (LS: 25.5%, and HS: 29.5% DM combined with 2 protein levels (LP: 15.5% and HP: 16.5% DM, 4 Italian Friesian dairy cows in early lactation housed in a tied stall were used. The experimental diets were obtained adjusting in 4 supplements the proportion of high energy fibrous (beet pulp, soybean hull or starchy (corn meal feeds and of meal protein more (soybean meal or less (Soy-Pass®: xylose-treated soybean meal degradable. The highest DMI was observed in HSHP which showed also a low content of NDF. Milk yield resulted over 45 kg/d throughout the study and higher when HSHP diet was fed (46.1 kg. Milk fat was always at high level and the lowest value (3.89% with HSHP and the highest (4.08% with LSLP were observed. The diets did not modified milk protein (their average levels resulted of 3.25% and lactose content. Milk acidity and renneting traits were higher when HSLP was fed, and resulted at adequate levels when all the diets were fed. When the diets for dairy cow are formulated to cover the animal requirements and respect their digestion physiology, it is possible to reach high milk yield level and maintaining, at the same time, a high milk quality .

  12. [Quality of carbohydrates in the diet and their effect on metabolic control of type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincheira, Daniela; Morgado, Romina; Alviña, Marcela; Vega, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the parameters of metabolic control and quality of carbohydrates (CHO) of the diet in individuals with type 2 diabetes, controlled with diet and/or Metformin. In 108 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years, glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) between 6% and 10%, without sulfonylureas or insulin theraphy; were examined through two separate surveys of 24-hour recall. The CHO intake, GI, GL of diet was analyzed. Values of HbA1c were collected from medical records. Data was tabulated in SPSS version 17 software. The Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the degree of association between variables, considering significant at p diet and HbA1c levels in the individuals. In conclusion the study showed that the quality of CHO, mainly GI, are strongly associated with metabolic control of DM 2.

  13. Fad diets and obesity--Part II: An introduction to the theory behind low-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A

    2004-06-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets are not only highly popular but also controversial. The theory or general concept behind the low-carbohydrate dietary approach needs to receive more attention to provide more objectivity to this discussion. The theory or concept that actually has some evidence currently lies in the values of the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL). Basically, the higher the GI, the greater the glucose response. However, the GI system that was originally proffered in 1981 comes with one apparent limitation in that some foods or beverages need to be obtained in enormous amounts in order to observe such a glucose change. Therefore, the newer concept of GL (derived from the GI) is based on a more moderate-portion size and the resultant glucose change with some of the higher GI foods or beverages actually demonstrating a low GL. These and other limitations and some advantages of low-carbohydrate diets with an emphasis of what an actual GI or GL means are discussed.

  14. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Sisley, Stephanie; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-12-01

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimulate diet intake during late pregnancy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet from Day 1 of pregnancy. On Day 21, 0.5 μg ghrelin was given into the third ventricle (ICV). Diet and water intake at 30, 60, and 120 min after ICV injection was measured. Hypothalami were dissected and analyzed for expression of genes related to appetite regulation (Npy, Agrp, Pomc and Cart) and phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC proteins (downstream proteins of ghrelin receptor activation). Results include: In response to ICV injection of ghrelin, (1) diet intake was significantly lower in LP compared to CT rats; (2) water intake was not affected in LP rats; (3) expression of Npy and Agrp, but not Pomc and Cart, were higher in the hypothalamus of LP compared to CT rats; (4) the abundance of phosphorylated AMPK and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK, but not the abundance of total AMPK, were lower in LP compared to CT rats; (5) the abundance of phosphorylated ACC, but not total ACC, was lower in LP rats. These findings suggest that blunted ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus of pregnant rats fed a LP diet leads to reduced diet intake and exacerbates gestational protein insufficiency.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Fukuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5, or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10 for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

  16. Effect of lignin on oxidative stress in chickens fed a diet contaminated with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Bořutová, Radka; Faix, Stefan; Plachá, Iveta; Cobanová, Klaudia; Košíková, Božena; Leng, L'ubomír

    2012-03-01

    The effect of lignin supplementation to a diet contaminated with zearalenone (ZEA) on antioxidant status was studied in female chickens of the ISA BROWN laying strain. From the day of hatching to 2 weeks of age, four groups of chickens were fed the same uncontaminated control diet. After 14 days, Group 1 (control) continued to receive the uncontaminated diet, while Group 2 was fed an identical diet enriched with 0.5% chemically modified lignin. Simultaneously, chickens of Group 3 were switched to a diet contaminated with 7.9 mg/kg ZEA and those of Group 4 to an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin. At 6 weeks of age blood and tissue samples were collected. Feeding of a diet contaminated with a high level of ZEA resulted in elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the duodenal mucosa and kidney tissues, and an increased γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in the plasma, indicative of oxidative stress. In the liver tissue, no mycotoxin-induced response in GPx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities occurred, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was even reduced. Neither the plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol nor the activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and GPx in blood were affected in birds fed the contaminated diet. The only effect of lignin supplemented to the contaminated feed was that it prevented the increase of GPx activity in the duodenal mucosa as an indicator of oxidative stress.

  17. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  18. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  19. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  20. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Souza, Gabriel Inacio de Morais Honorato de [UNIFESP; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santos, Bruno dos [UNIFESP; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu [UNIFESP; Pinto Neto, Nelson Inacio [UNIFESP; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Esposito, Elisa; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do [UNIFESP; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Oyama, Lila Missae [UNIFESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.Methods: Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 ...

  1. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to study the influence of six sources of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) on the mucous layer in the colon of rats. The NDC sources used were as follows: cellulose (C); pectin (P); inulin; resistant starch (RS); barley hulls. The diets contained 108-140g NDC/kg DM...... of the hindgut and, within compartments, the MUC genes may be regulated differently. In conclusion, a diet providing a large pool of SCFA with a low proportion of butyrate in the colon stimulates the formation of a thick mucous layer, which probably benefits intestinal health........ A fibre-free (FF) diet served as a control. The diets were fed to forty-eight rats for 34-41d. The thickness of the total mucous layer in the colon was increased (Pdiet. In the colon, positive correlations were observed between the total...

  2. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Similar to the response observed for H(2)S, feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean S(2-) by 64% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Although these studies did not show beneficial effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal pH, VFA, or H(2)S

  3. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  5. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  6. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (low-fat diet (diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  7. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  8. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  9. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  10. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet.

  11. Anaerobic facultative bacteria isolated from the gut of rabbits fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, F; Zirletta, G; Gualterio, L; Massa, S; Trovatelli, L D

    1992-11-01

    Anaerobic facultative bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of conventional rabbits fed three different diets (standard pellet, hay and pellet/hay mixture) were enumerated in brain heart infusion agar. Colony counts recovered from homogenized samples of small intestine, caecum and rectum differed with reference to the diet given. Among anaerobic groups, identified from rabbit fed pellet/hay mixture, Enterococci (E. faecalis, E. avium, E. faecium and E. durans) represented the predominant flora. Enterobacters (E. cloacae and E. aerogenes) accounted for about 10 to 25% of the bacteria in the rectum and colon respectively, whereas Staphylococci (S. intermedius, S. epidermidis and S. lentus) represented 11% of the bacteria isolated from colon.

  12. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon Excretion and Losses in Growing Pigs Fed Danish or Asian Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, T K V; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets.......The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....

  13. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  14. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  15. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y

    2006-01-01

    Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.

  16. Onset of Ulcerative Colitis during a Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diet and Treatment with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet.A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease.This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.

  17. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  18. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  19. Performance of weaned piglets fed diets containing spray dried plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Enrique Lemos Budinõ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spray dried plasma (SDP on the performance and incidence of diarrhea in early weaned piglets. Fifty-six piglets from the same lineage, with an approximate live weight of 3.87 ± 0.65 kg and approximate age of 14 days, were used. Four levels of inclusion of SDP in the piglet diets were tested during two consecutive periods, 14 to 28 days of age (period 1 and 29 to 42 days of age (period 2. The levels of SDP used were 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% for period 1 and 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% for period 2. During period 3 (42 to 56 days of age, all piglets received a diet without SDP. For performance evaluation, the piglets were weighed fortnightly and on the last day of the trial when the age of the batch was 56 days. Daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, and feed conversion were analyzed. No significant difference (P<0.05 in feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion was observed between treatments. The inclusion of SDP in the diet did not influence the performance of early weaned piglets

  20. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  1. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD.

  2. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  3. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The li...

  4. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.

  5. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  6. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T. G.; Miller, G.W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...

  7. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  8. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  9. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  10. Global study of microbial communites in tilipia gut fed sludge-infused diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to examine the impact of microbial diversity in feed on gut communities of fish. To do so, tilapia larvae were fed three experimental diets incorporated with sludge produced under either aerobic, methanogenic or denitrifying conditions. Microbial diversity between differ...

  11. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  12. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  13. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  14. Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

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    Hrabě de Angelis Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP, as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. Methods Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA or a fat-rich (HF diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. Conclusion The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric

  15. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-08-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.

  16. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P DNC (P DNC diet resulted in linear (P DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase supplementation improves digestibility and retention of P and N, thus reducing manure P excretion without any negative effect on pig performance.

  17. Growth performance, carcass yield and intestinal microflora populations of broilers fed diets containing thepax and yogurt

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    A Boostani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.

  18. Growth and development time of subtropical Cladocera Diaphanosoma birgei Korinek, 1981 fed with different microalgal diets

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    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the growth performance of Diaphanosoma birgei fed with two Chlorophyceae algae, Ankistrodesmus gracilis and Haematococcus pluvialis using monoalgal diets and simpler mixed diets. D. birgei was daily fed on four treatments: 1 100% Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Ag; 2 100% Haematoccocus pluvialis (Hp; 3 25% A. gracilis + 75% H. pluvialis (Ag-25+Hp-75 and 4 75% A. gracilis + 25% H. pluvialis (Ag-75+Hp-25. The fecundity curve of D. birgei showed that the mixed feed Ag-25+Hp-75 and temperature 24±2°C triggered fast fecundity at approximately two days. The fecundity was low when based only on H. pluvialis (Hp, albeit with greater longevity (19 days and a higher number of broods (8. D. birgei fed on Ag and Ag-75+Hp-25 diets in this experiment sustained higher growth rate and higher lipid content in these treatments. The present study showed that A. gracilis diet and mixed microalgae diets tested were able to support the egg production and development of D. birgei.

  19. Haematology and melanoma crophage centers of Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with propolis

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    Jerko Ledic-Neto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis on hematology and number and area of melanomacrophage centers in spleen and kidney of tilapia. After acclimation, fish (24.7 ± 7.4 gmean weight were distributed in 6 tanks 100 L, 6 fish per tank, in triplicate, at a temperature 24.0 ± 2.8oC, with two treatments: Fish fed 2% propolis supplemented diet and fish fed non-supplemented diet. To monitor the evolution of the effects, two samples were collected: half of the fish from each treatment were used after 15 days and the other half after 21, composing two feeding times. After each feeding time, blood, spleen and kidney were collected. After twenty one days feeding on 2% propolis supplemented diet, fish showed a lower number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes and an increase in the total erythrocytes number. Fish fed supplemented diet presented an increased number of melanomacrophage centers. We observed hemosiderin in all spleen samples. Kidney showed no significant difference on the presence of melanomacrophage centers containing hemosiderin. Despite these changes, the fish health status was not affected. The results showed that propolis supplementation in the diet ofNile tilapia may be physiologically feasible.

  20. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism.

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    Westman, Eric C; Feinman, Richard D; Mavropoulos, John C; Vernon, Mary C; Volek, Jeff S; Wortman, James A; Yancy, William S; Phinney, Stephen D

    2007-08-01

    The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is carbohydrate restriction. Recent studies show that, under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitum-fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  2. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

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    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  3. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

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    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  4. Obesogenic diets have deleterious effects on fat deposits irrespective of the nature of dietary carbohydrates in a Yucatan minipig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Melissa; Val-Laillet, David; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri

    2016-09-01

    The effects of digestible carbohydrates, fructose in particular, on the development of metabolic disturbances remain controversial. We explored the effects of prolonged consumption of high-fat diets differing in their carbohydrate source on fat deposits in the adult Yucatan minipig. Eighteen minipigs underwent computed tomographic imaging and blood sampling before and after 8 weeks of three isocaloric high-fat diets with different carbohydrate sources (20% by weight for starch in the control diet, glucose or fructose, n=6 per diet). Body adiposity, liver volume, and fat content were estimated from computed tomographic images (n=18). Liver volume and lipid content were also measured post mortem (n=12). We hypothesized that the quantity and the spatial distribution of fat deposits in the adipose tissue or in the liver would be altered by the nature of the carbohydrate present in the obesogenic diet. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure, body weight (from 26±4 to 58±3 kg), total body adiposity (from 38±1 to 47±1%; P<.0001), liver volume (from 1156±31 to 1486±66 mL; P<.0001), plasma insulin (from 10±1 to 14±2 mIU/L; P=.001), triacylglycerol (from 318±37 to 466±33 mg/L; P=.005), and free-fatty acids (from 196±60 to 396±59 μmol/L; P=.0001) increased irrespective of the carbohydrate type. Similarly, the carbohydrate type did not induce changes in the spatial repartition of the adipose tissue. Divergent results were obtained for fat deposits in the liver depending on the investigation method. In conclusion, obesogenic diets alter adipose tissue fat deposits and the metabolic profile independently of the nature of dietary carbohydrates.

  5. Digestion, growth performance and caecal fermentation in growing rabbits fed diets containing foliage of browse trees

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    S.H. Abu Hafsa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dried foliage (leaves and petioles of Acacia saligna, Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera on the performance, digestibility, N utilisation, caecal fermentation and microbial profiles in New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. One hundred weaned male NZW rabbits weighing 819.2±16.6 g and aged 35±1 d were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 rabbits each. Rabbits were fed on pelleted diets containing 70% concentrate mixture and 30% Egyptian berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum hay (Control diet or one of the other 3 experimental diets, where 50% of berseem hay was replaced with A. saligna (AS, L. leucocephala (LL or M. oleifera (MO. Compared to Control diet, decreases in dry matter (DM; P=0.004, organic matter (P=0.028, crude protein (CP; P=0.001, neutral detergent fibre (P=0.033 and acid detergent fibre (P=0.011 digestibility were observed with the AS diet. However, DM and CP digestibility were increased by 3% with the MO diet, and N utilisation was decreased (P<0.05 with AS. Rabbits fed AS and LL diets showed decreased (P=0.001 average daily gain by 39 and 7%, respectively vs. Control. Feed conversion was similar in Control and MO rabbits, whereas rabbits fed AS diet ate up to 45% more feed (P=0.002 than Control rabbits to gain one kg of body weight. Caecal ammonia-N was increased (P=0.002 with LL, while acetic acid was decreased (P=0.001 with AS diet vs. other treatments. Caecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria counts were decreased with MO by about 44 and 51%, respectively, vs. Control. In conclusion, under the study conditions, tree foliage from M. oleifera and L. leucocephala are suitable fibrous ingredients to be included up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing rabbits, and can safely replace 50% of berseem hay in diets of NZW rabbits without any adverse effect on their growth performance. Foliage from M. oleifera had a better potential as a feed for rabbits than that from L

  6. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

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    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  7. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

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    Shakir D. AlSharari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4, Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3, caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21 and Interleukin-3 (IL-3 in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  8. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, R B A; Berndt, A; Gerrits, W J J; Dijkstra, J; van Zijderveld, S M; Newbold, J R; Perdok, H B

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated and 10 intact steers, in a cross-over design. The animals were blocked according to BW and presence or absence of rumen cannula and randomly allocated to either the nitrate diet (22 g nitrate/kg DM) or the control diet made isonitrogenous by the addition of urea. The diets consisted of freshly chopped sugarcane and concentrate (60:40 on DM basis), fed as a mixed ration. A 16-d adaptation period was used to allow the rumen microbes to adapt to dietary nitrate. Methane emission was measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique. Dry matter intake (P = 0.09) tended to be less when nitrate was present in the diet compared with the control, 6.60 and 7.05 kg/d DMI, respectively. The daily methane production was reduced (P Methane emission per kilogram DMI was 27% less (P methane/kg DMI) than on the control diet (18.2 g methane/kg DMI). Methane losses as a fraction of gross energy intake (GEI) were less (P methane production by 87% of the theoretical potential. The rumen fluid ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N()) concentration was significantly greater (P methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane based diet.

  9. Fecundity and egg hatchability of Dastarcus helophoroides adults fed on different types of artificial diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-juan Li; Guang-ping Dong; Li Yang; Wan-lin Guo

    2015-01-01

    Both fecundities and egg hatchabilities were compared among three populations of Dastarcus helop-horoides Fairmaire adults (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) fed on three types of artificial diets (Diet of formula 1 com-posed of silkworm pupa powder, dried yeast powder, sucrose, peptone, egg yolk powder and poplar branch powder. Diet of formula 2 composed of silkworm pupa powder, dried yeast powder, sucrose, egg yolk powder, poplar branch powder, cricket powder, benzoic acid and distilled water. Diet of formula 3 composed of pine bark powder and Monochamus alternatus larva powder). for 90 days. The three diets showed no significant difference regarding the average number of eggs deposited by all D. helophoroides females (16622.3–23874.7);the average number of eggs per female (1278.6–1836.5); and the average number of eggs per female per day (14.2–20.4). The number of eggs one cluster contained mainly (82.06–82.66%) lied in 1–100 eggs, and the average number of eggs per cluster ranged from 61.7 to 63.1. In the first 10-day period, the number of eggs deposited by all females fed on formula 1 was significantly larger than that on formula 3. The eggs deposited in the last four 10-day periods were more than in the former five 10-day periods, on formula 3. There were no significant differences in hatchability of total eggs among the three artificial diets, and the average corrected egg hatchability ranged from 82.85 to 84.78%. No significant differences in the adult mortality and mean weight gain of D. helophoroides were found after feeding on three artificial diets. Our results suggest that D. helophoroides adults were not specialized on the diet, and the diet types might have little effect on fecundity and egg hatchability in D. helophoroides, as long as sufficient nutrition was supplied.

  10. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  11. Comparison of Serum Adiponectin in Smoke-induced Pulmonary Emphysema Rats Fed Different Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Ying Wang; Hu Liu; Li-Juan Ma; Jian-Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Smoking and body mass index (BMI) are the key risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Adiponectin with both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties is a vital modulator of inflammatory processes,which is expressed in epithelial cells in the airway in COPD-emphysema.The aim of this study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in rats,which were fed different diets.Methods:Seventy-six adult (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats (average weight 220 ± 20 g) were exposed to smoke or smoke-free room atmosphere and fed different diets (regular,high-fat,or low-fat diets) for 6 months.The rats were randomly divided into six groups.They are nonsmoke-exposed regular diet (n 10),nonsmoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),nonsmoke-exposed low-fat diet (n =14),smoke-exposed regular diet (n = 10),smoke-exposed high-fat diet (n =14),and smoke-exposed low-fat diet groups (n =14).A full 23 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on smoke exposure and different rearing methods.Serum adiponectin and inflammatory cytokines were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum adiponectin levels in rats fed low-fat and regular diets exposed to smoke exposure were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to room air while serum adiponectin levels of fat-rich diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower than that of rats exposed to room air.Compared with regular diet or low-fat diet group,serum adiponectin levels in high-fat diet rats exposed to tobacco smoke were lower (t =6.932,11.026;all P < 0.001).BMI was inversely correlated with serum adiponectin levels (r =-0.751,P =0.012).Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE) levels in rats exposed to low-fat or fat-rich diets were remarkably higher than that of rats exposed to normal diets (IL-6,t =4.196,3.480;P < 0.01,P =0.001;TNF-α,t =4

  12. Performance, abdominal fat deposition and bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing different lipid sources

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    A Potença

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.

  13. Longevity and reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) fed different natural diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, James D; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti J

    2002-10-01

    The longevity and reproductive success of newly emerged, unfed adult Aethina tumida Murray assigned different diets (control = unfed; honey-pollen; honey; pollen; empty brood comb; bee brood; fresh Kei apples; and rotten Kei apples) were determined. Longevity in honey-fed small hive beetle adults (average maximum: 167 d) was significantly higher than on other diets. Small hive beetles fed empty brood comb lived significantly longer (average maximum: 49.8 d) than unfed beetles (average maximum: 9.6 d). Small hive beetle offspring were produced on honey-pollen, pollen, bee brood, fresh Kei apples, and rotten Kei apples but not on honey alone, empty brood comb, or in control treatments. The highest reproductive success occurred in pollen fed adults (1773.8 +/- 294.4 larvae per three mating pairs of adults). The data also show that A. tumida can reproduce on fruits alone, indicating that they are facultative parasites. The pupation success and sex ratio of small hive beetle offspring were also analyzed. Larvae fed pollen, honey-pollen, or brood had significantly higher pupation success rates of 0.64, 0.73, and 0.65 respectively than on the other diets. Sex ratios of emerging adults fed diets of pollen or brood as larvae were significantly skewed toward females. Because small hive beetle longevity and overall reproductive success was highest on foodstuffs located in honey bee colonies, A. tumida are efficient at causing large-scale damage to colonies of honey bees resulting in economic injury for the beekeeper. Practical considerations for the control of A. tumida are briefly discussed.

  14. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  15. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Local Turkey Poults Fed Diets Containing Two Varieties of Sorghum

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    E.B. Etuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These studies were conducted to determine the effects of two varieties of sorghum, Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400 on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of local turkey breeds, reared in Nigeria. Two hundred and sixteen poults were divided into 9 treatment groups of 24 each, which were further replicated thrice and fed starter diets containing Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400. Similar (P > 0.05 RBC and PCV values were obtained with the two diets. Samsorg 17 fed poults produced lower, though not significantly (P > 0.05 serum albumin, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, chloride, ALP, SGPT and SGOT values than those on ICSV 400 diet. Higher RBC, MCHC, MCH, MCV and PCV values were observed with Samsorg 17 fed turkeys than those on ICSV 400 diets. Serum glucose and creatinine decreased and SGOT increased with dietary sorghum. Similar (p > 0.05 Hb, WBC, MCHC, MCV and PCV values were obtained in all groups. Values of serum biochemical indices assayed except urea, calcium, potassium and chloride showed no significant (p > 0.05 differences among the treatment groups. It was therefore concluded that Samsorg 17 and ICSV 400 sorghum varieties could sustain local turkey production without any on toward effects on their haematological and serum biochemical indices.

  16. Digestible lysine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed arginine-tolysine-balanced diets

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    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the digestible lysine requirements of Nile tilapia fingerlings. Fish (n = 300; average initial weight = 1.44 g were distributed 15 300-L aquariums, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replicates, and fed extruded diets containing 11.3, 13.7, 16.1, 18.4 or 20.8 g/kg of digestible lysine. The arginine:lysine ratio was maintained at 1.3:1. All fish were fed diets containing 281 g/kg of digestible protein and 3,372 kcal digestible energy/kg, hand-fed until apparent satiation. There was no effect of the dietary lysine levels on survival rate, or protein and ash body rates. With increasing levels of lysine in the diet, a quadratic effect on weight gain, feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, protein deposition rate, deposition rate of fat, body moisture and body lipids was observed, where the best values of the variables were estimated at 15.96, 16.4, 14.35, 15.21, 15.87, 15.21 and 16.29 g/kg of lysine, respectively. The digestible lysine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings is 15.21 g/kg (5.41 g/100 g of digestible protein, in diets balanced for the arginine:lysine ratio.

  17. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  18. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  19. Nephrocalcinosis in Female Rats Fed Diets Containing Either Pectin or Cellulose

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    Ahmed Alhaidary

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is evidence that the type of fiber influences the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats, but the effect of pectin was unknown. Approach: The effects of dietary pectin and cellulose on kidney calcification were studied in female rats. The diets used contained either 0.4-0.6% phosphorus and either cellulose (10%, w/w or pectin. The purified diets used were balanced for residual calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the fiber preparations. Results: Increasing the phosphorus concentration of the diet from 0.4-0.6% caused massive nephrocalcinosis in rats fed the cellulose diets. Pectin (10%, w/w versus cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus significantly increased calcium and phosphorus concentrations in kidney. When compared with cellulose, pectin did not influence the apparent absorption of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Urinary concentrations of calcium and magnesium were not affected by pectin feeding, but those of phosphorus were increased. When pectin was given with the diet containing 0.6% phosphorus, its nephrocalcinogenic action as compared with cellulose was not observed. Conclusion: Pectin instead of cellulose in diets containing 0.4% phosphorus induced nephrocalcinosis in female rats. The effect of pectin may be explained by an increase in urinary phosphorus concentration. The lack of nephrocalcinogenic action of pectin in a diet with 0.6% phosphorus indicates that the nephrocalcinosis-inducing effect of high phosphorus intake had overruled any effect of fiber type.

  20. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

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    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  1. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  2. A study of fluctuations in Escherichia coli sensitivity patterns from pigs fed a halquinol supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, R F; Forster, T C; Jones, G T; Pickles, R W

    1981-03-01

    Escherichia coli isolated from pigs fed on a medicated diet containing 120 p.p.m. halquinol did not develop any resistance to this addition over a 6-week period. Sensitivity patterns of the E. coli isolates to eight antimicrobial substances, although fluctuating slightly during the test period (but no more than a control group), did not significantly alter. However, the patterns did change significantly when for 17 days after the completion of the halquinol trial the pigs were fed a normal commercial ration medicated with a commonly used feed additive containing chlortetracycline hydrochloride, procaine penicillin and sulphadimidine.

  3. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72 ± 1.8 kg of body weight, 58 to 60 d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21 d of the first trial and 10 of 14 d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  4. Plasma glucose response and glycemic indices in pigs fed diets differing in in vitro hydrolysis indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, G; Gallo, A; Masoero, F

    2012-07-01

    Different dietary starch sources can have a great impact in determining starch digestion potential, thus influencing the postprandial blood glucose response. Our objectives were to define: (i) the incremental plasma glucose response in pigs fed diets containing various sources of starch differing in in vitro digestion patterns, (ii) the in vivo glycemic index (GI) values for the same diets, (iii) the possible relationship between in vitro and in vivo data. Diets, formulated with 70% of starch from five heterogeneous sources, were characterized in depth by using two distinct in vitro evaluations. The first one was based on the Englyst-assay for nutritional classification of starch fractions, whereas the second one was based on a time-course multi-enzymatic assay up to 180 min from which the hydrolysis indices (HIs) were calculated and used as a link between the physicochemical properties of starch from diets and the in vivo responses. For the in vivo study, five jugular-catheterized pigs (35.3 ± 1.1 kg body weight) were fed one of the five diets for 6-day periods in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. On day 5, blood was collected for 8 h postprandially for evaluating glucose appearance. On day 6, blood was collected for 3 h postprandially for the estimation of the GI. Starchy diets differed for rapidly digestible starch (from 8.6% to 79.8% of total starch (TS)) and resistant starch contents (from 72.5% to 4.5% of TS). Wide between-diets variations were recorded for all the kinetic parameters and for the HI calculated from the in vitro digestion curves (P < 0.05). On the basis of the obtained HI, diets contained starch with a very low to a very high in vitro digestion potential (ranging from 26.7% to 100.0%; P < 0.05). The glucose response differed among diets (P < 0.05), with marked differences between 15 and 120 min postprandial. Overall, the ranking of incremental glucose appearance among diets agreed with their in vitro HI classification: high HI diets increased

  5. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  6. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues.

  7. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Wallace; Anderson, William H K; Albers, David R; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Langhorst, Marsha L; Hung, Shao-Ching; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Young, Scott A

    2011-10-26

    In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground pizza (PZ), pound cake (PC), or hamburger and fries (BF) supplemented with dietary fiber from either HPMC or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for 3 weeks. We observed greater excretion of SATs and TRANS by both diets supplemented with HPMC or MCC as compared to the feed. SAT, TRANS, and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) contents of feces of the PZ diet supplemented with HPMC were 5-8 times higher than diets supplemented with MCC and tended to be higher in the PC- and BF-HPMC supplemented diets as well. We also observed significant increases in fecal excretion of bile acids (2.6-3-fold; P fat excretion in a biased manner with preferential fecal excretion of both TRANS and SAT in hamsters fed fast food diets.

  8. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  9. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  10. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  11. Immune Response and Pasteurella Resistance in Rabbits Fed Diets Containing Various Amounts of Black Cumin Seeds

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    Nabiela M. El Bagir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The consumption of black cumin (Nigella sativa seed has immunomodulatory and anti-bacterial activity, but in rabbits this had not yet been tested. Approach: In the present studies, rabbits were fed diets without or with black cumin seed and antibody production, phagocytotic activity, hypersensitivity and resistance against Pasteurellosis were assessed. Results: Feeding black cumin seed significantly increased serum concentrations of antibodies in response to intramusculary injected serum bovine albumin. Blood derived from rabbits fed the diets containing either 15 or 20% black cumin seed significantly reduced the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep-blood agar plates. Skin thickness as index of hypersensitivity towards tuberculin was significantly reduced at 48 h after intradermal injection of the agent. Ingestion of black cumin seed significantly extended survival time after intraperitoneal administration of Pasteurella multocida. Conclusion: The feeding of black cumin seed to rabbits stimulated their immune system, but did not enhance inflammation.

  12. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  13. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  14. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  15. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  16. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  17. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  19. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  20. Growth and survival of endangered angelwing clam, Pholas orientalis fed different algal diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirley M. Golez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mature angelwing clam, Pholas orientalis were collected from the wild and transported tothe laboratory for broodstock development. They were fed with mixed algal cultures of Isochrysisgalbana, Chaetoceros sp., and Tetraselmis sp. for a period of two months and a half to determine theeffects of these algal cultures on growth and survival of the broodstock. Growth in terms of length wasnot significantly different among the treatment groups, whereas, there was significant reduction in theweight of the clams in the group fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros sp., andTetraselmis sp. Survival of the clams decreased after two months of feeding with algal diets, withsignificant mortality observed in groups fed with a mixture of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis sp. aswell as with the mixture of the three microalgae. All the water quality parameters in the rearing tankswere within the optimum levels required for optimum growth of the clams. These results showed thatmixed algal diets for broodstock development in angelwing clam have no direct effect on growth butmoderate effect on survival. Future studies are aimed towards determining other factors that willcontribute to better growth and survival of angelwing clam broodstock in captivity as well as for thesearch of alternative algal diets for angelwing broodstock, particularly by exploring the microalgae thatare found in their natural habitat.

  1. Proteomic analysis of mice fed methionine and choline deficient diet reveals marker proteins associated with steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Lee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the progression of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis are yet to be elucidated. To identify the proteins involved in the development of liver tissue inflammation, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Mice fed a methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD developed hepatic steatosis characterized by increased free fatty acid (FFA and triglyceride levels as well as alpha-SMA. Two-dimensional proteomic analysis revealed that the change from the normal diet to the MCD diet affected the expressions of 50 proteins. The most-pronounced changes were observed in the expression of proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in NASH model animals. Peroxiredoxin (Prx is the most interesting among the modulated proteins identified in this study. In particular, cross-regulated Prx1 and Prx6 are likely to participate in cellular defense against the development of hepatitis. Thus, these Prx isoforms may be a useful new marker for early stage steatohepatitis. Moreover, curcumin treatment results in alleviation of the severity of hepatic inflammation in steatohepatitis. Notably, curcumin administration in MCD-fed mice dramatically reduced CYP2E1 as well as Prx1 expression, while upregulating Prx6 expression. These findings suggest that curcumin may have a protective role against MCD fed-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles.

  3. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  4. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  5. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  6. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM

  7. Effects of tallow on the energy metabolism of wethers fed barley finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M L; Westberg, H H; Parish, S M

    2001-07-01

    A balance trial was conducted to titrate the effects of tallow on the energy metabolism of wethers fed barley finishing diets. Six dietary levels of tallow (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10%) in a barley finishing diet were fed to six crossbred wethers (35+/-1.1 kg) in a randomized complete block design. Diets were 73% barley, 10% tallow and(or) bentonite, 10% alfalfa pellets, and 7% supplement. There was no effect of tallow level on OM intake (1,103.1+/-51 g/d), OM digestibility (84+/-0.9%), GE digestibility (83+/-1.1%), or cell solubles digestibility (84.2+/-1.2%). The level of tallow quadratically decreased ADF digestibility (P tallow increased. Numbers of ruminal protozoa (Entodinium spp. and Polyplastron sp.) decreased linearly (P tallow. The energy value of tallow (calculated by difference) was low. The total-tract fatty acid digestibility of tallow was calculated by linear regression, without intercept, after accounting for the fatty acids digested from the base diet (0% tallow fed to a wether in a period). Fatty acids of the same carbon length were pooled for the regression analysis. All linear regressions were significant (P tallow level on fatty acid digestibility. Lauric acid had low digestibility. The high digestibility of all C16 (89%) and C18 (104%) fatty acids suggests an effect of tallow on endogenous and microbial fatty acid excretion. Fatty acid digestibility was probably a minor contributor to the low energy content of tallow, calculated by difference, in these diets.

  8. Effect of intermittent supplementation with selenate on selenium status of rats fed selenium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2005-12-01

    To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status.

  9. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, M; Gräbner, M; Nürnberg, G; Bellmann, O; Hennig, U; Rehfeldt, C; Metges, C C

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate maternal nutrition during gestation may cause an adverse environment for the fetus leading to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) systems later in life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of diets with low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios on cortisol concentrations of pregnant gilts as well as the long-term effects on the function of the HPA and SAM axes in their offspring. Throughout gestation, 33 German Landrace gilts were fed high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%), or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein diets, which were made isocaloric by adjusting the carbohydrate content. The salivary cortisol concentrations of the sows were measured in the course of the gestation period. The offspring were cross-fostered, and the plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations of the offspring were determined on postnatal d (PND) 1 and 27 and under specific challenging conditions: after weaning (PND 29) and after ACTH and insulin challenges (PND 68 and 70, respectively). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and neurotransmitter concentrations were measured in stress-related brain regions, and histological analyses of the adrenal were performed. Maternal salivary cortisol concentrations increased throughout gestation (P pigs show a considerable plasticity to cope with maternal malnutrition.

  10. Muscle ceramide content is similar after 3 weeks’ consumption of fat or carbohydrate diet in a crossover design in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Tobin, L.; Drachmann, Tue

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of prolonged adaptation to fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on muscle ceramide in type 2 diabetes patients, using a longitudinal crossover study. Eleven type 2 diabetes patients consumed isocaloric fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet for 3 weeks in random order...

  11. Combined use of ionophore and virginiamycin for finishing Nellore steers fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoracyr José Costa Nuñez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zebu cattle fed high concentrate diets may present inconsistent performance due to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, like acidosis. The isolated use of ionophores and virginiamycin in high grain diets can improve animal performance and reduce the incidence of such disorders, but recent studies suggested that their combination may have an additive effect. Thus, 72 Nellore steers, 389 ± 15 kg initial body weight (BW, were confined and fed for 79 days to evaluate the combination of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance and carcass traits. Animals were allocated to a randomized complete block design by BW, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two concentrate levels (73 and 91 % and two virginiamycin levels (0 and 15 mg kg-1, and salinomycin (13 mg kg-1 included in all diets. The interaction was not significant (p > 0.05. Dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, gain-to-feed ratio (G:F, starch consumed, and fecal starch content were higher (p 0.05 between treatments. Starch consumed and estimated dietary net energy for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg were higher (p < 0.05 for virginiamycin-treated animals, with no substantial effects on carcass traits. The inclusion of virginiamycin in finishing diets containing salinomycin reduced DMI while maintaining ADG and improving NEm and NEg, suggesting an additive effect of virginiamycin and ionophores, but without affecting carcass quality.

  12. Performance and Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Finisher FedMoringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obakanurhe Oghenebrorhie; Okpara Oghenesuvwe

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects ofMoringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the performance and haematology of broiler finisher using 120 Cobb chicks of 4 weeks old broiler chicks. The birds were assigned randomly into four dietary treatments containing MOLM at 0, 6%, 8%, and 10% (treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4) inclusion levels, respectively, in a complete randomized design experiment. The effect of the dietary treatments on the growth performance and blood parameters of the broiler finisher was determined. MOLM at a rate of 6% (T2), 8% (T3), and 10% (T4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3.2%, 5.6% and 8.6% of the crude protein (CP) of the control diet. The daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MOLM diets were higher (p0.05) among treatments. The results indicated that at 10% in the diets of broiler finisher chick, MOLM could be substituted with expensive conventional protein sources without any deleterious effects on performance and blood parameters of broiler finisher chicken.

  13. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  14. Lipid composition of liver in rats fed diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodžić Aida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition on the fatty-acid composition and lipid content in rat’s liver. During four weeks of the experiment 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 individuals each (eight individuals of both sexes and fed a commercial feed mixture for rats (group C or diet containing 70% commercial mixture for rats and 30% freshly cooked egg yolks from laying hens fed diets with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Dietary supplementation with egg yolks significantly increased the hepatic cholesterol pool in rats, regardless of the type of fat in the diet of laying hens from which the eggs originated. The content of α-linolenic acid in the liver of male rats in group P was 4-6 times higher compared to males in the other groups. Liver lipids and their fatty-acid composition differ by both, sex and dietary modified egg yolk composition in rats.

  15. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  16. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  17. Growth performance of weanling Wistar rats fed on accessions of cooked Colocasia esculenta-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewu, Muinat N; Yakubu, Toyin M; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    The growth performance of weanling albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) maintained on different accessions (offspring of a variety that was planted/collected at a specific location and time but differing in certain morphologic characteristics) of cooked Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)-based diets (UFCe1-UFCe7) for 28 days was investigated. Proximate analysis of the formulated diets revealed that UFCe3, UFCe4, UFCe5, UFCe6, and UFCe7 had significantly (Pesculenta had higher ash contents. Similarly, all the accessions of the C. esculenta-based diet had lower crude lipid content, whereas UFCe3-UFCe7 had significantly lower protein content. Although the crude fiber content was significantly higher in UFCe2, UFCe4, and UFCe5, only UFCe3 had significantly higher carbohydrate content among all the accessions of C. esculenta-based diets. UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 increased the average weekly water intake, feed consumption, total body weight, liver-body weight ratio, and kidney-body weight ratio of the animals; UFCe3 and UFCe7 decreased these measures. Overall, UFCe1, UFCe2, UFCe4, UFCe5, and UFCe6 are recommended as diets with promise to enhance growth performance in the animals.

  18. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  19. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  20. Hepatic stereology of schistosomiasis mansoni infected-mice fed a high-fat diet

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    Renata Heisler Neves

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets induce weight gain and fatty liver in wild-type mice. Schistosomiasis mansoni infection also promotes hepatic injury. This study was designed to quantify hepatic alterations in schistosomiasis mansoni-infected mice fed a high fat-rich chow compared to mice fed a standard rodent chow, using stereology. Female SW mice fed each either high-fat diet (29% lipids or standard chow (12% lipids over 8 months, and then were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Four experimental groups were studied: infected mice fed a high-fat diet (IHFC or standard chow (ISC, uninfected mice fed a high-fat diet (HFC or standard chow (SC. Mice were sacrificed during early infection (9 weeks from exposure. The following hepatic biometry and the stereology parameters were determined: volume density (hepatocytes [h], sinusoids [s], steatosis [st] and hepatic fibrosis [hf]; numerical density (hepatocyte nuclei - Nv[h]; absolute number of total hepatocyte N[h], normal hepatocyte N[nh], and binucleated hepatocyte N[bh], percentage of normal hepatocyte P[nh] and binucleated hepatocyte P[bh]. IHFC and HFC groups exhibited TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and body mass significantly greater (p < 0.05 than control group. No significant differences were found regards liver volume (p = 0.07. Significant differences were observed regards P[nh] (p = 0.0045, P[bh] (p = 0.0045, Nv[h] (p = 0.0006, N[h] (p = 0.0125, N[bh] (p = 0.0164 and N[nh] (p = 0.0078. IHFC mice group presented 29% of binucleated hepatocytes compared to HFC group (19%, ISC group (17% and SC (6%. Volume density was significantly different between groups: Vv[h] (p = 0.0052, Vv[s] (p = 0.0025, Vv[st] (p = 0.0004, and Vv[hf] (p = 0.0007. In conclusion, schistosomiasis mansoni infection with concurrent high-fat diet promotes intensive quantitative changes in hepatic structure, contributing to an increasing on hepatic regeneration.

  1. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (Pdiet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (Pgoats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  3. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

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    Graciene Conceição Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.

  4. Insights into Broilers' Gut Microbiota Fed with Phosphorus, Calcium, and Phytase Supplemented Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda-Molina, Daniel; Vital, Marius; Sommerfeld, Vera; Rodehutscord, Markus; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia

    2016-01-01

    Phytase supplementation in broiler diets is a common practice to improve phosphorus (P) availability and to reduce P loss by excretion. An enhanced P availability, and its concomitant supplementation with calcium (Ca), can affect the structure of the microbial community in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Here, we aim to distinguish the effects of mineral P, Ca, and phytase on the composition of microbial communities present in the content and the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. Significant differences were observed between digesta and mucosa samples for the GIT sections studied (p = 0.001). The analyses of 56 individual birds showed a high microbial composition variability within the replicates of the same diet. The average similarity within replicates of digesta and mucosa samples across all diets ranged from 29 to 82% in crop, 19–49% in ileum, and 17–39% in caeca. Broilers fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca had the lowest body weight gain and feed conversion values while diets supplemented with P showed the best performance results. An effect of each diet on crop mucosa samples was observed, however, similar results were not obtained from digesta samples. Microbial communities colonizing the ileum mucosa samples were affected by P supplementation. Caeca-derived samples showed the highest microbial diversity when compared to the other GIT sections and the most prominent phylotypes were related to genus Faecalibacterium and Pseudoflavonifractor, known for their influence on gut health and as butyrate producers. Lower microbial diversity in crop digesta was linked to lower growth performance of birds fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca. Each diet affected microbial communities within individual sections, however, no diet showed a comprehensive effect across all GIT sections, which can primarily be attributed to the great variability among replicates. The substantial community differences between digesta

  5. Cardiovascular and hormonal aspects of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Sharman, Matthew J

    2004-11-01

    In recent years, restriction of carbohydrate intake for weight loss has become widespread. Our research group began studying physiological responses to very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) in the late 1990s because we felt there was a significant void in the literature and limited understanding of metabolic responses to VLCKDs. This launched us into a line of research examining the physiological effects of VLCKDs. In this paper, we briefly overview nine studies we have published on isoenergetic and hypoenergetic VLCKDs in men and women. These studies have focused on blood lipid responses to VLCKDs, but we have also addressed changes in body weight, body composition, and hormones. Compared with low-fat diets, short-term VLCKDs consistently result in improvements in fat loss, fasting and postprandial triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, the distribution of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol subclasses, and insulin resistance. These are the key metabolic abnormalities of metabolic syndrome, a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. There is substantial variability in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol responses to VLCKD. The factors responsible for this variability are not known, and studies designed to identify methods to predict blood lipid responses to VLCKD and other dietary approaches represent critical areas for nutrition researchers. Further research is warranted to validate the physiological effects of VLCKD over longer periods of time, including studies that modify the quality of macronutrients (i.e., the type of fat and protein) and the interaction with other interventions (e.g., exercise, dietary supplements, drugs).

  6. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Mark P.; Dykes, Nick R.; Owen, Elliot J.; Mears, Stephen A.; Rollo, Ian; James, Lewis J.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years) completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min) of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA) before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202). Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122) was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297) or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172) for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state. PMID:28067762

  7. Lipid profiles of rats fed with diets supplemented with vitamins niacin and pyridoxine

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    Magna da Glória Lameiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Supplements containing the vitamins niacin (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 can promote the reduction of total cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. In this study, the effects of diets supplemented with niacin (B3 and pyridoxine (B6 on the hepatic and serum lipid profiles of Wistar rats were assessed. The diets were prepared with combinations of three concentrations of niacin (3, 4 and 5 g/kg and pyridoxine (6, 12 and 18 mg/kg and one with neither vitamin. The animals were divided into eleven experimental groups of six animals per group, and nine groups were fed on a standard diet with 7.5% fat and vitamin supplementation. Another group was fed with 7.5% fat without vitamin supplements. A control group received the standard diet (AIN-93M without modifications (4% fat. The weight gain, food intake, serum and hepatic total cholesterol, serum cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL, and VLDL, serum and hepatic triacylglycerols and hepatic and fecal lipid contents were measured after 30 days. The diet with the highest concentration of niacin and lowest concentration of pyridoxine had the lowest level of total hepatic cholesterol. Hepatic triacylglycerols were reduced by the highest concentration of niacin (5 g/kg, and this reduction was enhanced by increasing the pyridoxine concentration. The diets supplemented with niacin and pyridoxine reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triacylglycerols and hepatic lipids. These effects on the lipid profile varied with the concentrations of the two vitamins and the interactions between them.

  8. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level.

  9. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  10. Diet and the Role of Altered Carbohydrate Absorption in the Treatment of Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

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    Thomas MS Wolever

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract has no clear role in the pathophysiology of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, but it may be an appropriate site for therapeutic intervention, specifically changes in diet, meal frequency and medications. Studies suggest that for patients with NIDDM, a calorie-restricted, high carbohydrate diet low in fat and rich in fibre may improve glycemic control, mitigate the risk of atherosclerosis and retard such diabetic complications as nephropathy and retinopathy. Increased meal frequency slows the rate of carbohydrate absorption, flattens blood insulin responses and reduces serum cholesterol. New therapeutic interventions, such as soluble fibre, low glycemic index foods or alpha glucosidase inhibitors, can further slow carbohydrate absorption and thus reduce secondary risks from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

  11. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk...

  12. A low-carbohydrate diet may prevent end-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes. A case report

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    Westerlund Per

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An obese patient with type 2 diabetes whose diet was changed from the recommended high-carbohydrate, low-fat type to a low-carbohydrate diet showed a significant reduction in bodyweight, improved glycemic control and a reversal of a six year long decline of renal function. The reversal of the renal function was likely caused by both improved glycemic control and elimination of the patient's obesity. Insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes patients usually leads to weight increase which may cause further injury to the kidney. Although other unknown metabolic mechanisms cannot be excluded, it is likely that the obesity caused by the combination of high-carbohydrate diet and insulin in this case contributed to the patient's deteriorating kidney function. In such patients, where control of bodyweight and hyperglycemia is vital, a trial with a low-carbohydrate diet may be appropriate to avoid the risk of adding obesity-associated renal failure to already failing kidneys.

  13. Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Na, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Ma, G.S.; Yang, X.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population. Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed. High fat-low carbohyd

  14. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2015-11-01

    To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease.One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, Salazar-Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention.Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; -9.3 [-10.6, -8.0] kg) and blood pressure (-6 [-9, -4]/-6[-8, -5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [-1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC -4 [-6, -2], HC -2 [-3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC --2.4 [-6, 1.2], HC -1.8 [-5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30-300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks.Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese adults with T2DM and no preexisting kidney disease.

  15. Effect of wheat forage maturity and preservation method on forage chemical composition and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Gray, H C; Smith, J L; Gunter, S A

    2009-12-01

    Three 2.4-ha wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields were used to test the effects of maturity at harvest (boot vs. dough) and preservation method (hay vs. silage) on forage yield, chemical composition, and animal performance when fed in mixed diets. Forages were incorporated into 4 diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with hominy feed, soybean hulls, and cottonseed meal as the primary concentrate ingredients. In Exp. 1 diets contained 20% wheat forage (DM basis) and were fed to 96 beef calves (n = 48 steers and 48 heifers; initial BW 229 +/- 6.0 kg) in 12 mixed-sex pens. In Exp. 2 diets contained 40% wheat forage (DM basis) and were fed to beef steers (n = 48; initial BW 198 +/- 6.8 kg) in 12 pens. These diets were also individually fed to 32 calves (Exp. 1, n = 16, BW = 187 +/- 9.4 kg; Exp. 2, n = 16 calves, BW = 160 +/- 8.2 kg) to determine DM and NDF digestibility and gastrointestinal tract passage kinetics. Advanced maturity increased (P or= 0.22) NDF, ADF, or TDN concentrations. Maturity at harvest, preservation method, or their interaction did not affect (P >or= 0.15) ADG when wheat forage was fed as 20 or 40% of the diet. When calves were fed the 40% wheat forage diets, maturity at harvest did not affect (P >or= 0.27) DMI or G:F. Calves fed 40% hay diets consumed more (P = 0.04) feed DM as a percentage of BW than calves fed silage diets, but tended (P = 0.09) to be less efficient. With 20 or 40% wheat forage diets, there were no differences (P >or= 0.13) in passage rate, ruminal retention time, or fecal output due to maturity or preservation method. Digestibility of DM tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for silage than hay diets when fed in 20% wheat forage diets. Dry matter and NDF digestibility of 40% boot-stage wheat forage diets were greater (P wheat forage.

  16. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

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    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  17. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  18. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P < 0.001). Plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations of S rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P < 0.001) and did not exhibit the expected calciuric response to salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  19. Effects of soy components on blood and liver lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of soy protein, isoflavone, and saponin on liver and blood lipid in rats that consumed high-cholesterol diets.METHODS: High-cholesterol diets (1%) with or without soy material were fed to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 wk. Blood lipids, liver lipids, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. The in vitro bile acid-binding ability of soy materials was analyzed.RESULTS: The results of in vitro studies showed that soy protein isolate had a significantly higher bile acid-binding ability (8.4±0.8%) than soy saponin (3.1±0.7%) and isoflavone (1.3±0.4%, P<0.05). On the other hand, at the end of the experimental period, rats that consumed soy protein diets had lower GOT and GPT levels than rats that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets.Rats that consumed soy protein also had lower total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver than those that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed the soy protein diet containing both saponin and isoflavone had lower hepatic TC level than those that consumed the soy protein diet without isoflavone alone.The effect of different types of proteins on triglyceride was not significant.CONCLUSION: Consumption of soy provided benefits to control lipid levels under high-cholesterol dieting conditions in this rat model of hypercholesterolemia. The major component that reduced hepatic TC was not saponin, but possibly isoflavone.

  20. Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2008-12-01

    the other hand was affected by diet treatments. But, both CP mulberry and rice bran had high degradability (>80% after 24 hs incubation in all diet treatments. It is concluded that the three diets of this study were capable of creating the optimum condition for rumen fermentation. Supplementation of mulberry or urea-rice bran mixture had similar effect on protein degradability of rice bran. On the other hand, the rate of protein degradability of mulberry was reduced when it was incubated in the rumen of sheep fed urea rice bran mix supplement.

  1. Haemolymph glucose concentrations of juvenile rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, feeding on different carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, C A; Marsden, I D; Davison, W; Taylor, H H

    2005-02-01

    Postprandial changes in haemolymph glucose concentration ([Glc]H) were measured in 4-day-fasted juvenile intermoult spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, provided with meals composed of glycogen, maltose, sucrose, glucose, or fructose in a gelatine base, or with gels of the algal glycans agar, alginate and carrageenan. Baseline [Glc]H was 0.61+/-0.02 mmol L(-1). After consumption of glycogen, maltose or sucrose, [Glc]H approximately doubled, peaked after 3 h and returned to baseline between 12 and 24 h. Glucose and fructose meals were followed by periods of sustained hyperglycaemia lasting more than 24 h (peaking at approximately 2.5 times baseline at 6 and 3 h respectively). Suggested explanations for augmented hyperglycaemic responses to glucose and fructose are: 1) these monosaccharides by-passed contact digestion and absorption in the R-cells of the digestive gland, directing them away from storage and toward transepithelial scavenging routes; or 2) glucose and fructose directly elicited release of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone via a chemosensory reflex. Agar and alginate induced significant postprandial glycaemic responses, consistent with reports of carbohydrases in this species and indicating their potential for inclusion in artificial diets as both binders and energy sources. Carrageenan, a highly sulphated galactan, did not produce a glycaemic response. The measurement of glycaemic responses is a quick method of obtaining nutritional information on carbohydrates considered for inclusion in formulated diets prior to lengthy growth trials.

  2. ECONOMICS AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT LAMBS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT AGROINDUSTRY RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of agroindustry residues in finishing lambs in feedlot. Twelve non-castrated male Texel lambs were randomly distributed in the treatments composed of different residues at 30% of dry matter of the total diet, as follows: soybean hulls, broken rice or malt powder from a brewery. The lambs were confined  for 70 days and slaughtered at approximately 40 kg body weight. In the economic analysis of the diet, we considered the market prices in the study region for the diet ingredients and weight of lambs. The intake of non-structural carbohydrate was higher (P<0.01 in lambs on the treatment with broken rice. There was no difference between treatments in dry matter consumption. Daily weight gain and total weight gain were higher (P<0.05 in lambs receiving broken rice. Profit was higher (P<0.01 when malt powder from a brewery was used (R$ 1.89/kg of live weight gain compared with soybean hulls (R$ 0.96/kg of live weight gain or broken rice (R$ 1.15/kg of live weight gain. The use of malt powder from a brewery provides lower cost of the diet when compared to use of soybean hulls or broken rice, proving to be a good alternative for finishing lambs in feedlot. Keywords: animal production; intake; sheep; weight gain.

  3. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed with diets containing cassava peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Santos Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming is designated to economic exploitation, and dry matter intake is the most important factor that influences the performance of animal, thus seeking alternative foods. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inclusion levels of cassava peel on intake, digestibility and performance of feedlot lambs. We used 32 crossbred lambs Santa Inês uncastrated, mean body weight of 21 ± 1.5 kg. Treatments were arranged in a randomized design to animals, with inclusion levels of cassava peel (0, 10, 20, 30% in the diet dry matter and forage cassava leaf hay. During 70 days, there have been weighing the food provided, leftovers, and animals, and feces collection. The intake of dry matter (DMI, organic matter (OMI, crude protein (CPI, ether extract (EEI, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDIap, total carbohydrates (CTI, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFCI, total digestible nutrients (TDNI, as well as DMI and NDFap/kgCP, DMI and NDFIap/PC0.75 levels have not been affected by the inclusion of cassava peel. Similar results for DM digestibility, NDF, CP, MO, CT and the TDN. DEE had a growing linear effect whereas DNFC presented a quadratic effect. Average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion (FC, initial body weight (BWinitial, final body weight (BWfinal, warm carcass weight (WCW and warm carcass yield (WCR showed no changes. It is concluded that the peel cassava may be included in diet until 30%, without change dry matter intake and animal performance.

  4. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  5. Effect of diet quality on survival and reproduction of adult Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Lee, Chow-Yang; Jaal, Zairi

    2014-07-01

    The survival and reproduction of the beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis on diets that differed in macronutrient composition were investigated in the laboratory. The sex organs of females fed each test diet were dissected to evaluate the ovarian development over time. Adults fed on a carbohydrate-rich diet lived longer than adults fed the other diets, but this diet provided insufficient nutrients for reproduction. Females fed on a protein-rich diet had high fecundity; however, the mean longevity of reproductive adult P. fuscipes significantly was shortened by 20-30 d compared with longevity of 60-70 d for adults fed a carbohydrate-rich diet. In contrast, adults that were provided lipid-rich diet had low survival and fecundity. Overall, the development ofprevitellogenic follicles was significantly affected by diet regime and days since starting a particular diet. The follicle size of females given protein-rich diet increased 0.5-fold 2 wk after beginning the diet. In contrast, the development of the follicles was slow in females given the carbohydrate-rich diet and the follicles degenerated in females given the lipid-rich diet. In terms of ovarian maturation, females fed on a protein-rich diet contained mostly vitellogenic and chorionated follicles. In contrast, the ovarioles of females on the carbohydrate-rich diet were largely occupied with previtellogenic and vitellogenic follicles, whereas for a lipid-rich diet, the follicles remained at the previtellogenic stage throughout the experiment.

  6. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  7. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  8. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  10. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  11. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dansen, O.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Jacobs, M.P.T.; Everts, H.; Doorn, van D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1

  12. Weight gain induced by an isocaloric pair-fed high fat diet: a nutriepigenetic study on FASN and NDUFB6 gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Almudena; Martínez, J Alfredo; García-Díaz, Diego F; Paternain, Laura; Marti, Amelia; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that dietary macronutrient distribution plays an important role in insulin regulation, a risk factor associated to obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to obesity onset by affecting the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, we investigated in rats the metabolic effects of two pair-fed isocaloric diets: control (rich in carbohydrates) and high fat diet (rich in fat; HFD). Compared to controls, HFD induced higher weight gain and adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by a slight increase in adiponectin levels and liver steatosis. Epididymal adipose tissue expression of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1β-subcomplex 6 (NDUFB6) were significantly reduced in HFD group. These variations in mRNA levels were accompanied by changes in the methylation patterns of several CpG islands located in the promoter region of these genes. However, no correlations were found between gene expression and the methylation status. These results suggest that high fat intake produces overweighted rats independently of total energy intake. These diets could also induce some epigenetic changes in the promoters of key genes that could influence gene expression and may be behind metabolic alterations.

  13. The Nitrogen Utilization in Sheep Fed Only Grass Diets in Either the Fresh or Dried Form

    OpenAIRE

    藤原, 勉

    1980-01-01

    In order to investigate the nitrogen utilization of grass diet in sheep, the present experiment was carried out using wethers fed only the fresh grass or hay prepared from the same origin. The results obtained were as follows ;13;1) The digestibilities of crude protein were almost the same in sheep after feedings of fresh grass and hay. The retained nitrogen per kg of metabolic body size was calculated as 0.30 and 0.25 g in feedings of fresh grass and hay, and these figures were corresponded ...

  14. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (Pspermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  15. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    Bedwal S; Prasad S; Nair N; Saini M; Bedwal R

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 pro...

  16. Fatty acids and oxidative stability of meat from lambs fed carob-containing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravador, Rufielyn S; Luciano, Giuseppe; Jongberg, Sisse; Bognanno, Matteo; Scerra, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N; Priolo, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Male Comisana lambs were individually stalled and, for 56 days, were fed concentrates with 60% barley (n = 8 lambs), or concentrates in which barley was partially replaced by 24% or 35% carob pulp (n = 9 lambs in each group). The intramuscular fatty acids were analyzed and the color stability, lipid and protein oxidation were measured in fresh meat overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film at 0, 3 or 6 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. Carob pulp increased the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle, including the rumenic acid (P carob in lamb diet could increase PUFA in muscle without compromising meat oxidative stability.

  17. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  18. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  19. The Utilization of Indigofera sp as the sole foliage in goat diets supplemented with high carbohydrate or high protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera sp is a tree leguminous forage species known to be adaptable to the drought climate and saline soil and so it has potential as alternative feed resource to support the ruminant animal production. This study aimed to study the responses of goats fed Indigofera sp as the sole foliages in their diets. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred goats (6 months of age;16 ± 2,1 kg BW were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing fresh or wilted leaves of Indigifera sp. as the sole foliages and supplemented with high carbohydrate (HCC or protein (HPCconcentrates. Consumable parts i.e. leaves and twigs of about 8 to 10 months of age of Indigofera sp. were harvested by hand plucking every day in the morning. The experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design. The ruminal pH ranged from 6.14-6.85 and were not affected (P > 0.05 by wilting nor by the type of concentrates. Wilting did not affect (P > 0.05 the concentration of ruminal NH3-N, but it was significantly higher (P 0.05. Goats in the HCC group,however,numerically have higher total VFA concentration (178.5-183.75 mmol L-1 than those in the HPC group (142.21-174.64 mmol L-1. The apparent digestibility coeficients of DM, OM, CP and energy of the diet were not different (P > 0.05 when contained wilted or fresh Indigofera foliage. Significant increases (P 0.05 among dietary treatments, but the ADG of goats in the HCC group (60-63 g d-1 were significantly lower (P 0.05. BUN was not affected by wilting process, but providing high protein concentrates significantly (P < 0.05 increased the BUN concentration. It is concluded that foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as the sole forage in intensive production of goats. Wilting the foliage prior to feeding seemed to be unnecessary, since this process does not improve the animal productivity in term of daily gain and efficiency of feed utilization.

  20. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  1. Antiobesity effect of Bauhinia variegata bark extract on female rats fed on hypercaloric diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Balamurugan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the antiobesity effect of methanolic extract of stem and root barks of Bauhinia variegata Linn in female rats fed with hypercaloric diet. Obesity was induced by administration of hypercaloric diet for 40 days. The plant extract (at the tested doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited a significant hypolipidemic effect and thus reduced the obesity. The body weight and feed intake was reduced significantly. Treatment of obese animals with the methanolic extract of B. variegata exhibited an increased brain serotonin level and high density lipoprotein with a concomitant decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipo protein. Thus the study indicates that the antiobesity activity of methanolic extract of B. variegata could be attributed to the presence of β-sitosterol in the stems and the tendency of the extract to reduce lipid profile and elicit the brain serotonin level.

  2. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

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    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  3. NITROGEN BALANCE AND RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN GOATS FED DIETS CONTAINING SOAKED AND ROASTED MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna Pruriens

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    M. R. MBEWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soaking and roasting velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens on nitrogen utilization and rumen microbial protein synthesis in goats was investigated. Sixteen goats were randomly assigned to four diets in a completely randomized design. Goats were fed a basal diet of Cynodon dactylon hay plus 30% soaked (treatment 1, 30% roasted (treatment 2 and 30% untreated velvet bean (treatment 3. The control diet had 100% hay (treatment 4. Animals were given experimental diets over 14 days following a 7-day adjustment period. Feed, refusals, urine and faecal samples were collected daily from individual goats for determination of nitrogen, nitrogen intake, utilization and allantoin in faeces and urine. Microbial protein yield was estimated from the allantoin. Data were analysed using PROC General Linear Model of Statistical Analysis Software. Goats fed a diet with soaked beans had significantly higher (P0.05 from that of goats fed untreated beans. Microbial protein synthesis was highest for diets with soaked beans although this was non-significantly different (P>0.05 from diets with roasted and untreated beans. All diets containing velvet beans, processed or not, contributed to significantly higher (P<0.05 microbial protein yield than diets with hay only. In terms of nitrogen balance, soaking can be recommended as an appropriate processing method for velvet beans for goat feeding. However, for microbial protein yield, processing method was not statistically important and the bean could be used untreated producing the same results.

  4. EFFECTS OF LYSINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MINERAL RETENTION OF BROILER CHICKENS FED RAW BENNE SEED BASED DIETS

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    A. M. Akanji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of raw benne seed (RBS, Sesamum indicum with or without lysine supplementation on the performance characteristics and mineral retention of broiler chickens. The feeding trial lasted for 56 days. One hundred and forty unsexed day old  broiler chicks (Marshall strain were used for the study. RBS was incorporated into the diets at 15% and 30% levels and  supplemented with  0%, 0.25% and 0.5% of lysine, respectively. Average  weekly feed intake in birds fed the control diet and 15% RBS based diet supplemented with 0.25 % and 0.5% lysine were not significantly different, but significantly (P<0.05 higher than those fed other diets. Feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P<0.05 reduced in birds fed 30% RBS with or without lysine supplementation. At 0.25% and 0.5% lysine supplementation, significant (P<0.05 increases were obtained in the retention of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and iron in birds fed 15% RBS based diets, but markedly reduced in those fed 30% RBS  based diets. The reductions in the performance characteristics of the birds fed 30% RBS diets with or without lysine can be attributed to interactions in the toxic effects of the higher intakes anti-nutritional factors like tannin, oxalate and phytate.  In conclusion,  the response indices were better enhanced when 15% RBS supplemented with 0.5% lysine was fed to the birds.

  5. Dyslipidemia and vascular dysfunction in diabetic pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J L; Stoops, J D; Parker, J L; Laughlin, M H; Weisman, G A; Sturek, M

    1999-12-01

    Diabetic patients typically have not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia. Study of the pathogenic components of the diabetic milieu and mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis is hindered by inadequate animal models. A potentially suitable animal model for human diabetic dyslipidemia is the pig, because it carries a large fraction of total cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), similar to humans. In this study, male Sinclair miniature pigs were made diabetic by destroying the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas with alloxan and then were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for comparison with pigs fed a nondiabetic high fat and high cholesterol diet and control pigs. Diabetic pigs exhibited hyperglycemia, but plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and transaminase levels were in the normal range, indicating no adverse effects on kidney and liver function. The lipoprotein profile in diabetic pigs was similar to that found in human diabetic patients and was characterized by hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold increase versus control and high fat-fed pigs) and a profound shift of cholesterol distribution into the LDL fraction (81%) versus the distribution in high fat-fed (64%) and control (57%) pigs. LDL particles were lipid-enriched and more heterogeneous in diabetic pigs. Apolipoprotein B was distributed among a much broader spectrum of LDL particles, and apolipoprotein E was partially redistributed from high-density lipoprotein to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in diabetic pigs. There was little change in apolipoprotein A-I distribution. Diabetic pigs showed several early signs of excess vascular disease. In diabetic pigs, 75% of the coronary artery segments showed contractile oscillations in response to prostaglandin F(2alpha) compared with 25% in high fat-fed pigs and 10% in control pigs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of brachial arteries was nearly abolished in diabetic pigs but unchanged in high fat-fed versus control pigs. Carotid

  6. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen.

  7. Downregulation of cellular protective factors of rumen epithelium in goats fed high energy diet.

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    Manfred Hollmann

    Full Text Available Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants.

  8. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

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    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  9. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

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    Eveline A Martens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight. DESIGN: Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En% from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En% diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention. RESULTS: IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11% compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%, which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  10. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol.

  11. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  12. Litter characteristics and pododermatitis incidence in broilers fed a sorghum-based diet

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    CMC Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of footpad dermatitis and quality of broilers litter fed with sorghum grain and diets based in corn. It was used 544 male and female chicks, distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications. The chicken feed was formulated and produced from corn, soybean meal and sorghum grain. In the formulation were kept constant levels of energy and protein in accordance with the following treatments: A. Control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. Grain sorghum (Whole Sorghum + soybean meal. At 35 and 42 days were evaluated mineral matter (A %, calcium (Ca%, phosphorus (P%, pH and dry matter (DM % of the poultry litter. To evaluate the footpad dermatitis were evaluated eight feet per treatment by visual analysis. At 35 and 42 days of age DM % MM (%, Ca (% P (% and pH of poultry litter no difference (p>0.05 was found between the treatments and the type of ingredient in the birds' diet is not related (p>0.05 with the incidence of footpad dermatitis. The incidence of footpad dermatitis and the quality of the litter weren't influenced by the type of the ingredient used in diet.

  13. Modeling Energy Dynamics in Mice with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Fed High Calorie Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Nichole D; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective studies show that lean mass or strength is positively associated with metabolic health. Mice deficient in myostatin, a growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, have increased muscle and body weights and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Their leanness is often attributed to higher energy expenditure in the face of normal food intake. However, even obese animals have an increase in energy expenditure compared to normal weight animals suggesting this is an incomplete explanation. We have previously developed a computational model to estimate energy output, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient from food intake and body composition measurements to more accurately account for changes in body composition in rodents over time. Here we use this approach to understand the dynamic changes in energy output, intake, fat oxidation and respiratory quotient in muscular mice carrying a dominant negative activin receptor IIB expressed specifically in muscle. We found that muscular mice had higher food intake and higher energy output when fed either chow or a high-fat diet for 15 weeks compared to WT mice. Transgenic mice also matched their rate of fat oxidation to the rate of fat consumed better than WT mice. Surprisingly, when given a choice between high-fat diet and Ensure® drink, transgenic mice consumed relatively more calories from Ensure® than from the high-fat diet despite similar caloric intake to WT mice. When switching back and forth between diets, transgenic mice adjusted their intake more rapidly than WT to restore normal caloric intake. Our results show that mice with myostatin inhibition in muscle are better at adjusting energy intake and output on diets of different macronutrient composition than WT mice to maintain energy balance and resist weight gain.

  14. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Venable, John; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  15. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longhou; Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Pattison, Jennifer; Deer, Elena; Sayaphupha, Tiffany; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model has been developed to study early events of atherogenesis. This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals. Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and of various lysophosphatidylcholines were also significantly elevated. Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages. Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation. The TLR4 deficiency in murine macrophages prevented their activation with zebrafish lipoproteins. Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL. These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis. PMID:20710028

  16. Ecologically Valid Carbohydrate Intake during Soccer-Specific Exercise Does Not Affect Running Performance in a Fed State

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    Mark P. Funnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202. Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122 was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297 or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172 for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001 at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.

  17. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.

  18. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  19. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  20. Live performance and processing yields of broilers fed diets with tiamulin and salinomycin combinations

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    SL Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.

  1. Brain lipids in rats fed a diet supplemented with hen eggs of modified lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodžić Aida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to research the impact of a diet supplemented with egg yolks of modified content, having in mind the type of fat added to the laying hens diet, on the brain lipids and their fatty acid composition in rats. During four weeks of the experiment, 64 Wistar rats, divided into four groups of 16 animals each (eight animals of both sexes, were fed the commercial rat feed (group C, or the feed that contained 70% of the commercial rat feed and 30% of freshly boiled yolks from the eggs originating from laying hens fed with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Concentration and content of total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as the fatty-acid composition of the total brain lipids were determined in the lipid extracts of the rats brains. Under unfavourable conditions, which in our case could be high dietary intake of the total fat due to egg yolk addition, the amount of total fat in the brain tissue or the mass of the organ itself can be changed. Applied dietary treatments could also influence the level of de novo synthesis of total cholesterol in the rat brain. High dietary fat intake, as well as the fat quality regarding its fatty acid composition, appear to be able to significantly influence the fatty acid profile of the total brain lipids in adult rats, whereas the level and quality of the changes also depend on sex.

  2. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  3. Hepcidin expression in the liver of rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Natsumi; Kotani, Megumi; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2011-10-01

    Mg deficiency accelerates Fe accumulation in the liver, which may induce various metabolic disturbances. In the present study, we examined the gene expression of Hepcidin, a peptide hormone produced in the liver to regulate intestinal Fe absorption negatively, in Mg-deficient rats. Although liver Fe concentration was significantly higher in rats fed an Mg-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in rats fed a control diet, Hepcidin expression in the liver was comparable between the dietary groups. Previous studies revealed that Fe overload up-regulated Hepcidin expression through transcriptional activation by Fe-induced bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) 6, a growth/differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β family, in the liver. Mg deficiency up-regulated the expression of Bmp6 but did not affect the expression of inhibition of DNA binding 1, a sensitive Bmp-responsive gene. In addition, the expression of Bmp receptors such as activin receptor-like kinase 2 (Alk2), activin receptor type IIA (Actr2a), activin receptor type IIB (Actr2b) and Bmp type II receptor (Bmpr2) was lower in the liver of Mg-deficient rats than in that of control rats. The present study indicates that accumulation of hepatic Fe by Mg deficiency is a stimulant inducing Bmp6 expression but not Hepcidin expression by blunting Bmp signalling possibly resulting from down-regulation of the receptor expression. Unresponsive Hepcidin expression may have a role in Mg deficiency-induced changes related to increased liver Fe.

  4. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rozilda da Conceição Dos; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; Lima, Elizanne de Moura; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de

    2016-11-17

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16 ± 0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (Pkernel inclusion in the diet. There was not difference (P>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (P0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (Pkernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (P=0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  5. Influence of dietary carnitine in growing sheep fed diets containing non-protein nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, A M.; Fernandez, J M.; White, T W.; Bunting, L D.; Gentry, L R.; Lovejoy, J C.; Owen, K Q.

    2001-04-01

    The influence of supplemental L-carnitine was investigated in growing sheep fed rations containing non-protein nitrogen (NPN). The experiment was conducted as a randomized block design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Lambs (77.4kg BW, n=24) were fed a total mixed ration (12.1-13.6% CP) with two levels of L-carnitine (0 or 250ppm) and two levels of NPN (urea contributing 0 or 50% of total dietary N) for a 50-day period. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, and 3h post-feeding, and ruminal fluid samples were collected at 1h post-feeding, during days 1, 8, 29, and 50 of the experiment. Average daily gain (121 versus 214g) was lower (P0.10) from the control group. Plasma urea N levels in both OULT 1 and OULT 2 were lower (P<0.0001) in the NPN and NPN with L-carnitine groups compared with the control and L-carnitine groups. In the present experiment, production and plasma criteria were affected by NPN incorporation in the diets. Production criteria were not affected by inclusion of L-carnitine in the diet, however, L-carnitine reduced experimentally induced hyperammonemia by day 50 of the trial.

  6. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  7. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  8. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  9. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    . A fishmeal-based diet served as control against three test diets in which 30 % of each of the oilseed by-products was included. Diets were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish (similar to 1 kg bulk weight) for the digestibility trials which spanned a total of 9 days. The partial inclusion...... of oilseed meals did not significantly affect apparent protein digestibility, although lipid, ash and dry matter digestibilities were significantly affected (p Fish fed the soybean meal diets significantly reduced their feed intake and showed lower growth and feed utilization efficiencies over...... the trial period. The inclusions of the plant proteins caused a reduction in ammonia excretion rates with the palm kernel meal diet recording the lowest mean excretion rates of 117 mg kg(-1) day(-1) which was twofold lower than the highest mean daily ammonia excretion rate of the fish group fed the fishmeal...

  10. Kinematic gait analysis and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet supplemented with zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Kii; Matsushima, Yuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Abiko, Keima; Kamada, Toshihiko; Sato, Kan

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated how supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trace minerals (zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt) affected kinematic gait parameters and lactation performance. Eight Holstein cows were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet, or control diet supplemented with trace minerals) in a two-period crossover design. Kinematic gait parameters were calculated by using image analysis software. Compared to cows fed the control diet, cows that received the trace mineral-supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased walking and stepping rates, and had a shorter stance duration. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows fed the trace mineral-supplemented diet compared with control groups. The plasma manganese concentration was not different in control and experimental cows. In contrast, cobalt was only detected in the plasma of cows fed the supplemented diet. These results provide the first evidence that trace mineral supplementation of the diet of dairy cows affects locomotion, and that the associated gait changes can be detected by using kinematic gait analysis. Moreover, trace mineral supplementation improved milk production and only minimally altered blood and physiological parameters in dairy cows.

  11. Changes in the small intestine of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Neves, Renata Heisler; de Oliveira, Albanita Viana; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2012-05-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet modifies both the morphology of the small intestine and experimentally tested effects of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, whether a schistosomiasis infection associated with a high-fat diet causes injury to the small intestine has never been investigated. Mice were fed either a high-fat or a standard-fat diet for 6 months and were then infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Physical characteristics of the intestinal tissue (mucosal thickness, small intestinal villi length and height, and abundance of goblet cells and enterocytes on the villous surface) and the distribution of granulomas along the intestinal segments and their developmental stage were measured at the time of sacrifice (9 or 17 weeks post-infection). The group fed a high-fat diet exhibited different granuloma stages, whereas the control group possessed only exudative granulomas. The chronically infected mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher granuloma and egg numbers than the acutely infected group. Exudative, exudative/exudative-productive and exudative-productive granulomas were present irrespective of diet. Computer-aided morphometric analysis confirmed that villus length, villus width, muscular height and submucosal height of the duodenal and jejunal segments were affected by diet and infection. In conclusion, a high-fat diet and infection had a significant impact on the small intestine morphology and morphometry among the animals tested.

  12. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid was least in sows on the control diet and greatest in sows on the potato diet, whereas sows on the pectin and sugar beet diets were intermediate (P fiber diets. In spite of the found effects on plasma metabolites, the applied level of fiber in the diet of restrictedly fed sows did not reduce their feeding

  13. NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND RESISTANCE OF Litopenaeus vannamei FED WITH NUCLEOTIDE, β-GLUCAN, AND PROTAGEN DIETS

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    Henky Manoppo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the nonspecific immune response and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen diets. Shrimp juveniles with an average weight of 5.39±0.56 g were reared in glass aquaria at a density of 15 shrimps/aquarium. Shrimps were fed three times a day for four weeks at a feeding rate of 3%/bw/day. Treatment diets consisted of A: basal diet (without immunostimulant, B: β–glucan, C: protagen, and D: nucleotide, each with three replicates. At the end of feeding period, the shrimps were intramuscularly injected with Vibrio harveyi 0.1 x 106 cfu.shrimp-1. Total haemocyte count (THC of shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet was significantly different compared to that of control shrimp (p=0.01, but not different compared to shrimp fed with protagen-diet. PO activity also increased significantly in shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet (p=0.02. β–glucan diet could also increase THC and PO activity, but compared to the control, the increase was not significantly different. Overall, PO activity of shrimp fed with nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen diets was high (>0.35. Oral administration of nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen for four consecutive weeks significantly increased resistance of shrimp to disease (<0.01 where the highest resistance rate was observed on shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet. Growth of shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet was significantly different compared to that of control shrimp (p<0.01, as well as to β–glucan, and protagen-treated shrimp. As a conclusion, supplementation of nucleotide into shrimp pellet enhanced nonspecific immune response and growth performance better than β-glucan, and protagen.

  14. Rats Fed Diets with Different Energy Contribution from Fat Do Not Differ in Adiposity

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    Alexander D. Miras

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether rats reaching the same body mass, having been fed either a low-fat (LFD or a high-fat diet (HFD, differ in white adipose tissue (WAT deposition. Methods: In experiment 1, 22 Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were divided into 11 rats with body mass below the batch median and fed a HFD, and 11 above the median and fed a LFD. In experiment 2, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age and starting body mass were randomised to either a HFD or LFD. When all groups reached similar final body mass, WAT was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, dissection, and plasma leptin. Results: In experiment 1, both groups reached similar final body mass at the same age; in experiment 2 the HFD group reached similar final body mass earlier than the LFD group. There were no significant differences in WAT as assessed by MRI or leptin between the HFD and LFD groups in both experiments. Dissection revealed a trend for higher retroperitoneal and epididymal adiposity in the HFD groups in both experiments. Conclusions: We conclude that at similar body mass, adiposity is independent of the macronutrient composition of the feeding regimen used to achieve it.

  15. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  16. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence.

  17. Measuring residual feed intake in dairy heifers fed an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cube diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J

    2012-03-01

    Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all Pdry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait.

  18. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  19. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p < 0.01). ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p < 0.01), whilst other parameters remained statistically unaltered. Meanwhile, ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p < 0.05) and pathological gradation of ballooning degeneration in hepatocytes (p < 0.05). After taking ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p < 0.01), but other lipid parameters had no significant change. Discussion and conclusion The study indicates that ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  20. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  1. Serotonin Deficiency Rescues Lactation on Day 1 in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Allan S.; Perez, Paola K.; Streckenbach, Liana J.; Olson, Jake M.; Cook, Mark E.; Hernandez, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an inflammatory state associated with delayed lactogenesis stage II and altered mammary gland morphology. Serotonin mediates inflammation and mammary gland involution. The objective of this study was to determine if a genetic deficiency of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral serotonin synthesis, would result in an improved ability to lactate in dams fed a high fat diet. Twenty-six female mice were fed a high (HFD) or low fat (LFD) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Fourteen mice were genetically deficient for Tph1 (Tph1-/-), and twelve were wild type. Milk yield, pup mortality, and dam weights were recorded and milk samples were collected. On day 10 of lactation, dams were sacrificed and mammary glands were harvested for RT-PCR and histological evaluation. HFD dams weighed more than LFD dams at the onset of lactation. WT HFD dams were unable to lactate on day 1 of lactation and exhibited increased pup mortality relative to all other treatments, including Tph1-/- HFD dams. mRNA expression of immune markers C-X-C motif chemokine 5 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were elevated in WT HFD mammary glands. Mammary gland histology showed a reduced number of alveoli in WT compared to Tph1-/- dams, regardless of diet, and the alveoli of HFD dams were smaller than those of LFD dams. Finally, fatty acid profile in milk was dynamic in both early and peak lactation, with reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids on day 10 of lactation in the HFD groups. Administration of a HFD to C57BL/6 dams produced an obese phenotype in the mammary gland, which was alleviated by a genetic deficiency of Tph1. Serotonin may modulate the effects of obesity on the mammary gland, potentially contributing to the delayed onset of lactogenesis seen in obese women. PMID:27603698

  2. Evaluation of behaviour in stabled draught horse foals fed diets with two protein levels.

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    Sartori, C; Guzzo, N; Normando, S; Bailoni, L; Mantovani, R

    2017-01-01

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the behaviour of Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) foals reared in semi-covered stables and fed two isoenergetic total mixed rations with different dietary protein levels (13.2% and 10.6% of CP on dry matter). The study was prompted by the restrictions for nitrate emissions in farms of the European Nitrate Directive. One suggested solution is to reduce dietary protein while maintaining normal performance and welfare, but there is a lack of literature in studies of horses. The behaviours of 20 foals of 437±60 kg of BW, aged 379±37 days and stabled in four pens by sex (S) and diet (D) were video recorded and analysed to build a suitable ethogram including 18 behaviours in six categories: ingestion, resting, maintenance, movement, social activities, other. The percentage of the daily time spent in each behavioural category and single behaviours was analysed via a single traits GLM including S, D and their interaction. Daily activity was consistent with existing literature: foals spent about 33% of the day in ingestion activities and 41% in resting, whereas social interactions constituted 8% of the time and individual maintenance <2%. Concerning diet, foals fed high protein spent more time in movement (19.62±0.73% of day v. 10.45±0.73% in low-protein (LP) foals; P⩽0.001), whereas the LP group increased resting (43.42±1.12% v. 38.02±1.12%; P⩽0.001). No stereotypies were found, and daily activity followed the typical values for draught breeds for foals in both dietary groups, a result that suggests the maintenance of well-being after dietary protein reduction. This result, together with the findings of a companion study showing no changes in growth performances of foals, showed that a reduction of CP in foal diet is reconcilable with the maintenance of performance and welfare.

  3. Growth, Feed Utilization and Haematology of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell,1822 Fingerlings Fed Diets Containing Different Levels of Vitamin C

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    M. A. Adewolu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In an effort to increase growth, improve feed utilization, reduce stress and prevent certain diseases, a 14 week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of dietary vitamin C (ascorbic acid on growth, feed utilization and hematological changes in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Approach: Diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 100, 150, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg L-ascorbic acid kg-1 of feed contributing 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% to the formulated diets respectively. Fish of mean weight 10.12±0.7 g were fed on experimental diets in triplicate groups. Weight gain of fish fed diet with 0% of vitamin C were significantly (p0.05 differences in weight gain among the fish fed diets containing 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% of vitamin C. Generally, fish fed vitamin C supplemented diets showed better growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency compared with those without vitamin C supplementation. Results: The results of hematological analyses of fish showed that red blood cell, white blood cell, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were not significantly (p>0.05 affected by vitamin C supplemented diets. Fish fed the vitamin C-free diet begin to show deficiency signs such as erratic swimming, flashing, skin darkening and reduced growth at 12 weeks of feeding trial. Conclusion: This study indicated that 50 mg kg-1 of ascorbic acid is sufficient to prevent C. gariepinus fingerlings from developing clinical symptoms relating to vitamin C deficiency. A mega dose of 1500 mg kg-1 of ascorbic acid gave maximum growth performance and feed utilization efficiency.

  4. Isoleucine requirement of 80- to 120-kilogram barrows fed corn-soybean meal or corn-blood cell diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D W; Southern, L L; Kerr, B J; Bidner, T D

    2005-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to validate an Ile-deficient diet and determine the Ile requirement of 80- to 120-kg barrows. Experiment 1 had five replications, and Exp. 2 through 6 had four replications per treatment; all pen replicates had four crossbred barrows each (initial BW were 93, 83, 85, 81, 81, and 88 kg, respectively). All dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (C-SBM) or a corn-5% blood cell (BC) diet with or without 0.26% supplemental Ile (C-BC or C-BC+Ile) in a 28-d growth assay. On d 14, pigs receiving the C-BC diet were taken off experiment as a result of a severe decrease in ADFI. Growth performance did not differ for pigs fed C-SBM or C-BC + Ile (P = 0.36) over the 28-d experiment. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.24, 0.26, 0.28, 0.30, or 0.32% true ileal digestible (TD) Ile for 7 d in an attempt to estimate the Ile requirement using plasma urea N (PUN) as the response variable. Because of incremental increases in ADFI as TD Ile increased, PUN could not be used to estimate the Ile requirement. In Exp. 3, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.28, 0.30, 0.32, 0.34, or 0.36% TD Ile. Daily gain, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P kilograms of lean increased linearly (P kilograms of lean is not < 0.34% in a C-BC diet, but may be as low as 0.24% in a C-SBM diet.

  5. Immunosuppression in mice fed on diets containing beluga whale blubber from the St Lawrence estuary and the Arctic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, M; Dégas, V; Colborn, T; Omara, F O; Denizeau, F; Potworowski, E F; Brousseau, P

    2000-03-15

    In order to assess the immunotoxic potential of naturally relevant mixtures of PCBs and other organohalogens, C57Bl/6 mice were fed on diets in which lipids were replaced by blubber of beluga whales from the highly contaminated population of the Saint-Lawrence River, and the less contaminated population from the Arctic. Different ratios of blubber from both sources were mixed in order to allow a dose-response study. Mice were fed for a period of 90 days at the end of which their immunological status was monitored. For general parameters such as body weight, weight of the spleen and the thymus no significant effect of diets were observed. The immunological endpoints such as the blastic transformation of splenocytes and the spleen NK cell activity were not significantly affected by any of the diets compared to control diets. While the different cell subpopulations of peripheral blood and thymus were not affected by the diets, a significant decrease was noted in the CD8+ T cell population in the spleen of mice fed with most of the diets containing beluga blubber. Moreover, the ability of splenic cells to elicit humoral response against sheep red blood cells as well as the potential of peritoneal macrophages to perform phagocytosis were suppressed by all diets containing beluga blubbers. In summary, there was no differences between the groups fed with a blubber diet with low and high organochlorine contamination. However, a clear immunosuppression was demonstrated when these groups were compared to the group fed with beef oil. Despite the fact that we cannot exclude a possible contribution of the fatty acid composition of the beluga blubber to the immunosupression, these results suggest the sensitivity of mouse immune system towards organohalogens, and point out the toxic potential of contaminant mixtures as found in the less contaminated Arctic population.

  6. Effect of Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions in growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F X; Fernández, B; Viñas, M; Lizardo, R; Brufau, J; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; Awati, A

    2017-02-01

    A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

  7. Digestibility and retention of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing inorganic or organic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Ma, Y L; Zhao, J M; Vazquez-Añón, M; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the retention rate of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in pigs fed either inorganic or organic sources of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 2 types of diets (corn grits-based or corn-soybean meal [SBM]-based diets) and 3 micromineral treatments (basal micromineral premix [BMM], inorganic micromineral premix [IMM], and organic micromineral premix [OMM]). The BMM contained no added Zn, Cu, Mn, or Fe; the IMM microminerals were provided as sulfates of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe at 40, 50, 20, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The OMM contained the same levels of the 4 microminerals as IMM, but Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in this premix were provided by Zn(2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid [HMTBa])2, Cu(HMTBa)2, Mn(HMTBa)2, and FeGly, respectively. Forty-eight barrows (initial BW: 31.1 ± 4.2 kg) were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to the corn grits diet with BMM for 2 wk. All pigs were then moved to metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 treatment diets with 8 replicates per diet. Fecal and urine samples were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. Compared with corn grits diets, pigs fed corn-SBM diets had greater (P diet improved (P diets (interaction, P diet increased (P diet. Supplementation of OMM also increased (P diets. Results indicate that Zn(HMTBa)2 has greater digestibility and Cu(HMTBa)2 and Mn(HMTBa)2 have greater digestibility and retention rates compared with their inorganic sulfates, if included in a corn-SBM diet. Supplementation of organic microminerals also improves the digestibility of P in a corn-SBM diet.

  8. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

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    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  9. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-30

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera.

  10. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera. PMID:28134261

  11. Improvement of sheep welfare and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds

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    Antonia Zarrilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and milk production responses of 45 lactating Comisana sheeps (4th- 5th parity, divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 subject each, were used to evaluate the effects of two different levels of partial substitution of a complete feed with hydroponically germinating seeds. Germinated oat was employed after 7 days of hydroponic growth. The three groups received the following diets: Control group (T received only complete feed. The other 2 groups were fed on diet containing different levels of hydroponically germinating oat (1,5 kg – group A; 3 kg – group B. All the subjects have shown to accept the diets because the per capita ration was always completely consumed. In the second month, the A and B groups showed lower average values of cortisol (P<0.01 and a statistically significant increase in milk production as compared to T (P<0.05 and P<0.001. The obtained data induced to conclude that integration with hydroponically germinating oat in partial substitution of the complete feed does not modify biochemical and hematological parameters and seems to produce an improvement in animal welfare and production of milk.

  12. Progressive adaptation of hepatic ketogenesis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Nishanth E; Satapati, Santhosh; Fu, Xiaorong; He, TianTeng; Mehdibeigi, Roshi; Spring-Robinson, Chandra; Duarte, Joao; Potthoff, Matthew J; Browning, Jeffrey D; Burgess, Shawn C

    2010-06-01

    Hepatic ketogenesis provides a vital systemic fuel during fasting because ketone bodies are oxidized by most peripheral tissues and, unlike glucose, can be synthesized from fatty acids via mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Since dysfunctional mitochondrial fat oxidation may be a cofactor in insulin-resistant tissue, the objective of this study was to determine whether diet-induced insulin resistance in mice results in impaired in vivo hepatic fat oxidation secondary to defects in ketogenesis. Ketone turnover (micromol/min) in the conscious and unrestrained mouse was responsive to induction and diminution of hepatic fat oxidation, as indicated by an eightfold rise during the fed (0.50+/-0.1)-to-fasted (3.8+/-0.2) transition and a dramatic blunting of fasting ketone turnover in PPARalpha(-/-) mice (1.0+/-0.1). C57BL/6 mice made obese and insulin resistant by high-fat feeding for 8 wk had normal expression of genes that regulate hepatic fat oxidation, whereas 16 wk on the diet induced expression of these genes and stimulated the function of hepatic mitochondrial fat oxidation, as indicated by a 40% induction of fasting ketogenesis and a twofold rise in short-chain acylcarnitines. Together, these findings indicate a progressive adaptation of hepatic ketogenesis during high-fat feeding, resulting in increased hepatic fat oxidation after 16 wk of a high-fat diet. We conclude that mitochondrial fat oxidation is stimulated rather than impaired during the initiation of hepatic insulin resistance in mice.

  13. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  14. Steroid balance and tissue cholesterol accumulation in germfree and conventional rats fed diets containing saturated and polyunsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, T F

    1974-11-01

    Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.

  15. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Wittert, Gary A.; Brinkworth, Grant D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease. One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m2)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft–Gault, Salazar–Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention. Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; −9.3 [−10.6, −8.0] kg) and blood pressure (−6 [−9, −4]/−6[−8, −5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [−1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC −4 [−6, −2], HC −2 [−3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m2) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC −−2.4 [−6, 1.2], HC −1.8 [−5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30–300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks. Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese

  16. Characterization of protected designation of origin Italian meat products obtained from heavy pigs fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Gallo, A; Faeti, V; Della Casa, G

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of protected designation of origin (PDO) Parma ham and Piacentina neck obtained from heavy pigs (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White) fed barley-based diets. Four diets were tested: 1) a corn-based diet (control), 2) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety (Cometa), 3) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety (Astartis), and 4) the control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety (Alamo). All the meat products were analyzed for physicochemical and color parameters. The dry-cured hams and necks were also evaluated for sensory properties. The data of physicochemical, color, and sensory parameters were separately analyzed by multivariate factor analysis, and interpretation of each extracted factor was based on specific original variables loading on each one. The meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets differed from those obtained from the control pigs on the PUFA factors characterized by C18:2-6 and omega-3:omega-6 ratio. In particular, the meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets had a lower content of C18:2-6 and a higher omega-3:omega-6 ratio ( diets had subcutaneous fat (SC) with a lower iodine number and a higher SFA level compared with those produced from the control pigs ( diets. The hams from barrows differed from those obtained from gilts on the lean properties factor describing properties related to aspect and odor of dry-cured hams. Indeed, the hams from barrows were depreciated compared with the hams from gilts for minor intensity, brightness, and uniformity of the lean, pinkish intermuscular fat and cured odor. In conclusion, barley could be used as a replacement for corn in heavy pig diets for the production of PDO Italian products without negative effects on the physicochemical, color, or sensory characteristics of meat products.

  17. Estimation of the leucine and histidine requirements for piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, A G; Kluge, H; Mielenz, N; Corrent, E; Bartelt, J; Stangl, G I

    2016-11-01

    Reduction of the CP content in the diets of piglets requires supplementation with crystalline essential amino acids (AA). Data on the leucine (Leu) and histidine (His) requirements of young pigs fed low-CP diets are limited and have primarily been obtained from nonlinear models. However, these models do not consider the possible decline in appetite and growth that can occur when pigs are fed excessive amounts of AA such as Leu. Therefore, two dose-response studies were conducted to estimate the standardised ileal digestible (SID) Leu : lysine (Lys) and His : Lys required to optimise the growth performance of young pigs. In both studies, the average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) were determined during a 6-week period. To ensure that the diets had sub-limiting Lys levels, a preliminary Lys dose-response study was conducted. In the Leu study, 60 35-day-old piglets of both sexes were randomly assigned to one of five treatments and fed a low-CP diet (15%) with SID Leu : Lys levels of 83%, 94%, 104%, 115% or 125%. The His study used 120 31-day-old piglets of both sexes, which were allotted to one of five treatments and fed a low-CP diet (14%) with SID His : Lys levels of 22%, 26%, 30%, 34% or 38%. Linear broken-line, curvilinear-plateau and quadratic-function models were used for estimations of SID Leu : Lys and SID His : Lys. The minimum SID Leu : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was, on average, 101% based on the linear broken-line and curvilinear-plateau models. Using the quadratic-function model, the minimum SID Leu : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was 108%. Data obtained from the quadratic-function analysis further showed that a ±10% deviation from the identified Leu requirement was accompanied by a small decline in the ADG (-3%). The minimum SID His : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was 27% and 28% using the linear broken-line and curvilinear-plateau models

  18. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-07-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (676 +/- 57 kg of body weight; 121 +/- 17 d-in-milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of 4 sources of carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation, and microbial N flow to the duodenum. Four cows in one of the Latin squares were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae. Diets contained (DM basis) 50% forage in combinations of alfalfa hay and barley silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate portion of the diets contained barley, corn, wheat, or oats grain as the primary source of carbohydrate. Intake of DM ranged from 24.0 to 26.2 kg/d, and it tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet; consequently, milk yield tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet. Cows fed the barley- or wheat-based diets had a lower milk fat content compared with those fed the corn-based diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were largely unaffected by the source of dietary carbohydrate, with similar ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations for the first 6 h after the morning feeding. Dietary treatment did not affect total tract apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber; however, total tract apparent digestibility of starch in cows fed the oats-based diet was higher compared with those fed the corn-and wheat-based diets. Nitrogen that was used for productive purposes (i.e., N secreted in milk + N apparently retained by the cow) tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with cows fed the barley-, corn-, or oats-based diets. Urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion was similar in cows fed the barley-, corn-, and wheat-based diets; however, purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed the barley-based diet compared with those fed the oats-based diet. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was

  19. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects ofCocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Opeyemi Oreofe Akindele; Yinusa Raji

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects ofCocos nucifera (C. nucifera) water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water),C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater), high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet) and high fat diet +C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet). All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-wayANOVA andP Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P Conclusions:C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  20. Effects of L-Carnitine and Cinnamon Extract Treatment on Lens Crystallins of Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Mahfouz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rats fed high dietary fructose are documented to form an acquired model of insulin resistance; the present study aims to investigate possible changes in lens crystallins of rats fed high fructose diet and the effects of administration of each exogenous L-Carnitine (CA and Cinnamon Extract (CE on protein glycation, oxidative stress and redox homeostasis in this rat model. Approach: A total number of 60 male Wister rats of body weight 120-160 g were divided into 4 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 received control diet, while groups 2, 3 and 4: rats received high fructose diet (60g/100 g diet. After 2 weeks from fructose feeding, animals of group 3 were treated with L-carnitine (300 mg g-1 body weight/day i.p., while animals of group 4 were treated with cinnamon extract (0.5 mL/rat/day orally. At the end of experimental period (30 days, serum levels of glucose and insulin were determined. Lenses of each animal were dissected; molecular weights of crystalline, oxidative stress markers, early glycation of lens proteins and carbonyl group were assayed. Results: A significant decline in antioxidants and increase in lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and protein glycation were observed in lens samples obtained from fructose-fed rats. Administration of each CA and CE to fructose-fed rats significantly attenuated oxidative damage and protein glycation and returned levels of antioxidants to near those in control group. Chromatographic analysis of lens crystalline of rats fed high fructose diet showed diffused peaks, indicating crystalline aggregation. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that dietary fructose disturbs lens integrity and administration of L-carnitine or cinnamon extract may safeguard the lens by minimizing the protein aggregation, preventing glycation and oxidative stress in animals fed high fructose diet. L-carnitine has more potent effects than CE in this animal model.

  1. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  2. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  3. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  4. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein

    Full Text Available Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese.Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients.Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966-2014.Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day.Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase.1797 patients were included from 17 trials with 99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%.Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported.This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.

  5. Reproductive system impairment of mice fed diets containing beluga whale blubber from the St Lawrence estuary and arctic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Sylvia; Mendoza, Luz Tavera; Fournier, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Dégas, V

    2003-06-13

    The toxic potential of naturally relevant mixtures of PCBs and other organohalogens on the reproductive system of C57Bl/6 female mice was assessed. Mice were fed diets in which lipids were replaced by blubber of beluga whales from a highly contaminated population of the Saint Lawrence River, and a less contaminated population from the Arctic Ocean. Ratios of blubber from both sources were mixed in order to perform a dose-response study. Control mice were fed diets for 90 d in which fat was replaced by corn oil or beef tallow. There were no significant effects of diets on body, liver, spleen or thymus weights. Similarly ovulation occurred in all control and experimental groups. However, Graafian follicles from ovaries of mice fed contaminated diets showed abnormal development of oocytes. Cumulus granulosa cells bind normally to the oocyte prior to ovulation and are essential for sperm penetration and fertilization. These cells were absent in both Graafian follicles and ovulated oocytes in the oviduct of all groups fed contaminated diets. Oviducts of these mice revealed evidence of epithelial degeneration. These results suggest the female mouse reproductive system is sensitive to organohalogens and illustrate the toxic potential of contaminant mixtures as found in the less contaminated Arctic population.

  6. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  7. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP, and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8% obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7±0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE, P<0.0001 combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA significantly decreased (−166.2±47.6 μmol/L, P=0.001 and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA increased (0.15±0.06 mmol/L, P=0.004 after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA, visceral fat area (VFA, and LFP were −66.5±7.9 cm2, −35.3±3.9 cm2, and −16.4±2.4%, respectively (all P values P<0.0001. HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI increased (all P values P<0.001. Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation.

  8. Eggs modulate the inflammatory response to carbohydrate restricted diets in overweight men

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    Volek Jeff S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD. Methods Twenty eight overweight men [body mass index (BMI 26–37 kg/m2] aged 40–70 y consumed an ad libitum CRD (% energy from CHO:fat:protein = 17:57:26 for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume eggs (EGG, n = 15 (640 mg additional cholesterol/day provided by eggs or placebo (SUB, n = 13 (no additional dietary cholesterol. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention to assess plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin and markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1. Results Body weight, percent total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P Conclusion A CRD with daily intake of eggs decreased plasma CRP and increased plasma adiponectin compared to a CRD without eggs. These findings indicate that eggs make a significant contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of CRD, possibly due to the presence of cholesterol, which increases HDL-C and to the antioxidant lutein which modulates certain inflammatory responses.

  9. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  10. Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels in rainbow trout fed a complete plant ingredient based diet and the effect of supplemental di-calcium phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Mariojouls, C.; Godin, S.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Geurden, I.; Surget, A.; Bouyssiere, B.; Kaushik, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels and utilisation of minerals in rainbow trout fed complete plant ingredient based diets with or without supplemental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) were studied over an 8 week period. Three diets were used: diet M was FM and fish oil (FO) based diet (control

  11. Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Engstrom, M; Azem, E; Bradford, B J

    2014-07-01

    .12) or sucrose (1.60 ± 0.12) treatment, but the combination of the 2 resulted in feed efficiency similar to the control treatment (both 1.50 ± 0.12). The inclusion of amylase or sucrose did not affect DMI, productivity, or feed efficiency in mid-lactation cows fed low-starch, high-fiber diets.

  12. The Antibody and Organ Immune Responses of Broiler Starter Fed Diets with Graded Levels of Digestible Lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. A. Mulyantini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate broiler immune responses during the starter phase to graded levels of digestible lysine. This experiment used 175 mixed sex broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age. Seven chicks were selected and allocated to each floor pens. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included the following levels of digestible lysine: 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0 and 14.0 g/kg diet. Supplemental synthetic L-Lysine-HCl which was considered to be 100% digestible was added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. At 21 days of age, two chickens from each pen with body weights close to the pen mean were selected for evaluation of immunological variables. Immune organs (spleen and bursa, cellular immune response (skin test, and antibody production against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV were determined. Blood samples (plasma were taken from the same birds to determine antibody titer against IBV. The birds were euthanized, and immune organs (spleen and bursa were removed, and weighed individually. The results showed that spleen and bursa weight of birds fed diet containing 6.0 g/kg digestible lysine was significantly lower than those given diet containing 10 to 14 g/kg of digestible lysine. Toe web thickness of chickens fed diet containing 6.0 g/kg digestible lysine was significantly lower than the birds fed diets containing 14 g/kg digestible lysine. In conclusion, diet containing 8.0 g/kg appeared to have greatest potential to modulate immune response among other levels. However increasing levels of lysine did not have significant effect on antibody production.

  13. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow...

  14. Chronic administration of grape-seed polyphenols attenuates the development of hypertension and improves other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in cafeteria diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Zara; Margalef, Maria; Bravo, Francisca I; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard (STD) or CAF diets for 12 weeks. The CAF diet-fed rats were administered different doses of a low-molecular-weight grape-seed polyphenol extract (LM-GSPE) (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg per d) or vehicle daily, and the STD diet-fed rats were administered LM-GSPE (100 mg/kg per d) or vehicle using ten animals per group. Body weight (BW), waist perimeter (WP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) by the tail-cuff method were recorded weekly. The animals were housed in metabolic chambers every 2 weeks to estimate daily food and liquid intakes and to collect faeces and urine samples. The plasma lipid profile was analysed at time 0 and on the 4th, 7th, 10th and 12th weeks of the experiment. Moreover, plasma leptin was measured at the end of the experiment. Results demonstrated that LM-GSPE, when administered with the CAF diet, attenuated the increase in BP, BW, WP and improved lipid metabolism in these animals. However, although the 25- and 100-mg/kg per d doses were sufficient to produce beneficial effects on BP and lipid metabolism, a 200-mg/kg per d dose was necessary to have an effect on BW and WP. The present findings suggest that LM-GSPE is a good candidate for a BP-lowering agent that can also ameliorate other conditions associated with the MetS.

  15. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  16. Homeostasis of Retinol in Lecithin:retinol Acyltransferase Gene Knockout Mice Fed a High Retinol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Limin; Tang, Xiao-Han; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the retinoid levels and gene expression in various tissues after wild type (Wt) and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase knockout (LRAT−/−) mice were fed a high retinol diet (250 IU/gram). As compared to Wt, LRAT−/− mice exhibited a greater and faster increase in serum retinol concentration (mean±S.D., Wt, 1.3±0.2 µM to 1.5±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p>0.05; LRAT−/−, 1.3±0.2 µM to 2.2±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p

  17. Evaluation of yeast cell wall on the performance of broiles fed diets with or without mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Santin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the interactions between aflatoxin (500 or 250 ppb and ochratoxin (500 or 250 ppb, and the possible benefits of adding yeast cell wall to prevent the effects of these mycotoxins in broiler chickens. Relative organ weight gain and live performance were evaluated at 21 and 42 days of age. Results indicated that at the levels of mycotoxins included in the experimental diets, ochratoxin reduced feed intake and body weight gain, and aflatoxin only affect feed intake of 21-day-old birds. No interaction was observed between aflatoxin and ochratoxin at the levels used in experimental study. Yeast cell wall did not significantly reduced the deleterious effects of ochratoxins. No significant differences were observed in relative organ weight gain. Yeast cell wall improved feed conversion ratio when birds were fed either contaminated or non-contaminated feeds.

  18. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedwal S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid in presence of H 2 O 2 with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H 2 O 2 produced in two organs whereas significant (P< 0.01/0.001 increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  19. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  20. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids.

  1. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for fresh legumes in Exp. 1 (74 vs. 78%; P = 0.017) or hay in Exp. 2 (64 vs. 72%; P emissions from beef cattle fed at maintenance as compared with feeding either 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (fresh forages) or 100% alfalfa (hay). Feeding fresh legumes harvested between the late vegetative to early bud stage, compared with

  2. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

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    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  3. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  4. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

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    Fatima Kasbi Chadli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA supplemented high fat diet (HFD. Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group were studied for 20 weeks: 1 control diet: Control, 2 HFD group: HF and 3 HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA: HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05 increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01 and cholesterol (p<0.001 with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001. Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001 and cholesterol (p<0.001 related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05 compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05 compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05 compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05 and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05. A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  5. Mice that are fed a high-fat diet display increased hepcidin expression in adipose tissue.

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    Gotardo, Érica Martins Ferreira; dos Santos, Aline Noronha; Miyashiro, Renan Akira; Gambero, Sheley; Rocha, Thalita; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery that hepcidin is expressed in the adipose tissue of obese subjects, attention has been increasingly focused on alterations in iron homeostasis that are associated with adiposity. We examined the production of hepcidin, the expression of hepcidin-related genes and the iron content of the adipose tissue in obesity using Swiss mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice were maintained on a control diet or HFD for 12 or 24 wk, and body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. The expression of several genes (hepcidin, TfR1, TfR2, DMT1, FT-heavy, ferroportin, IRP-1, IRP-2 and HIF-1) and the protein expression of hepcidin and IL-6 were quantified. The iron level was assessed using a Prussian blue reaction in paraffin-embedded tissue. After 24 wk on the HFD, we observed increases in the levels of hepcidin in the serum and the visceral adipose tissue. The IL-6 levels also increased in the visceral adipose tissue. Adipocytes isolated from the visceral adipose tissues of lean and obese mice expressed hepcidin at comparable levels; however, isolated macrophages from the stromal vascular fraction expressed higher hepcidin levels. Adipose tissues from obese mice displayed increased tfR2 expression and the presence of iron. Our results indicate that IL-6 and iron may affect the signaling pathways governing hepcidin expression. Thus, the mice fed HFD for 24 wk represent a suitable model for the study of obesity-linked hepcidin alterations. In addition, hepcidin may play local roles in controlling iron availability and interfering with inflammation in adipose tissue.

  6. Allergic proctocolitis refractory to maternal hypoallergenic diet in exclusively breast-fed infants: a clinical observation

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    Frediani Simone

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic proctocolitis (APC in exclusively breast-fed infants is caused by food proteins, deriving from maternal diet, transferred through lactation. In most cases a maternal cow milk-free diet leads to a prompt resolution of rectal bleeding, while in some patients a multiple food allergy can occur. The aim of this study was to assess whether the atopy patch test (APT could be helpful to identify this subgroup of patients requiring to discontinue breast-feeding due to polisensitization. Additionally, we assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF when multiple food allergy is suspected. amino acid-based formula Methods We have prospectively enrolled 14 exclusively breast-fed infants with APC refractory to maternal allergen avoidance. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy with biopsies. Skin prick tests and serum specific IgE for common foods, together with APTs for common foods plus breast milk, were performed. After a 1 month therapy of an AAF all patients underwent a follow-up rectosigmoidoscopy. Results Prick tests and serum specific IgE were negative. APTs were positive in 100% infants, with a multiple positivity in 50%. Sensitization was found for breast milk in 100%, cow's milk (50%, soy (28%, egg (21%, rice (14%, wheat (7%. Follow-up rectosigmoidoscopy confirmed the remission of APC in all infants. Conclusions These data suggest that APT might become a useful tool to identify subgroups of infants with multiple gastrointestinal food allergy involving a delayed immunogenic mechanism, with the aim to avoid unnecessary maternal dietary restrictions before discontinuing breast-feeding.

  7. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  8. Maternal Dietary Vitamin D Does Not Program Systemic Inflammation and Bone Health in Adult Female Mice Fed an Obesogenic Diet

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    Christopher R. Villa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with systemic inflammation and impaired bone health. Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism, and has anti-inflammatory properties and epigenetic effects. We showed that exposure to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation beneficially programs serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and bone structure in male offspring fed an obesogenic diet. Here we assessed if this effect is also apparent in females. C57BL/6J dams were fed AIN93G diet with high (5000 IU/kg diet or low (25 IU/kg diet vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, female offspring remained on their respective vitamin D level or were switched and fed a high fat and sucrose diet (44.2% fat, 19.8% sucrose until age seven months when glucose response, adiposity, serum LPS, and bone mineral, trabecular and cortical structure, and biomechanical strength properties of femur and vertebra were assessed. There was no evidence for a programming effect of vitamin D for any outcomes. However, females exposed to a high vitamin D diet post-weaning had higher bone mineral content (p = 0.037 and density (p = 0.015 of lumbar vertebra. This post-weaning benefit suggests that in females, bone mineral accrual but not bone structure is compromised with low vitamin D status in utero until weaning in an obesogenic context.

  9. The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

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    Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P whole sorghum diets had increased (P whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.

  10. Role of a Bacillus subtilis direct-fed microbial on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation and bone mineralization in turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet

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    Juan D. Latorre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study conducted in our laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipase, protease, cellulase and xylanase in high NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch turkey poults in two independent experiments. In both experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON or a DFM treated diet (n = 25 birds/group. At ten days–of-age, all turkey poults from experiments 1 and 2 were weighted and 12 turkey poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to evaluate bacterial translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to evaluate viscosity. Additionally, in experiment 2 both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters. In both experiments, the TRT group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver as well as a reduced digesta viscosity when compared to the CON group (P<0.05. Turkey poults fed the Bacillus-DFM candidate had increased tibia diameter, breaking strength, ash content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared with CON turkey poults. In summary, turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by a reduction in bone mineralization; however these adverse effects can be prevented by the inclusion of selected a

  11. THE EFFECT OF SAUROPUS ANDROGYNUS LEAVES EXTRACT PLUS TURMERIC POWDER ON FAT DEPOSITION, CARCASS QUALITY AND BLOOD PROFILE IN BROILERS FED LOW PROTEIN DIETS

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    U. Santoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Sauropus androgynus leavesextract (SALE plus turmeric powder (TP on carcass quality and blood profile in broilers fed lowprotein diets. Sixty broilers aged 14 days were divided to 5 treatment groups as follows: 1 Broilers fed19% protein diet without SALE plus TP as control (P0; 2 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplementedto 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 0.5% TP (P1; 3 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 gSALE/kg diet plus 1% TP (P2; 4 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg dietplus 0.5% TP (P3 and; 5 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 1%TP (P4. Supplementation of SALE plus TP significantly affected body weight gain, feed intake, proteinintake, thigh meat haemorrhage and fat deposition (P<0.05. No significantly different was observed oncarcass odor, shank color, breast meat haemorrhage, leg and breast weight, meat cholesterol, fatty liverscore and tocixity (P>0.05. In conclusion suplementation of SALE plus TP had no beneficial effect onreducing fat deposition in broilers fed low protein diets, but it reduced blood uric acid but increasedblood glucose concentration.

  12. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation.

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    Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Bibus, Doug M; Kraemer, William J; Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome. We tested whether these components of metabolic syndrome, like dyslipidemia and glycemia, are responsive to carbohydrate restriction. Overweight men and women with atherogenic dyslipidemia consumed ad libitum diets very low in carbohydrate (VLCKD) (1504 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 12:59:28) or low in fat (LFD) (1478 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 56:24:20) for 12 weeks. In comparison to the LFD, the VLCKD resulted in an increased proportion of serum total n-6 PUFA, mainly attributed to a marked increase in arachidonate (20:4n-6), while its biosynthetic metabolic intermediates were decreased. The n-6/n-3 and arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio also increased sharply. Total saturated fatty acids and 16:1n-7 were consistently decreased following the VLCKD. Both diets significantly decreased the concentration of several serum inflammatory markers, but there was an overall greater anti-inflammatory effect associated with the VLCKD, as evidenced by greater decreases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, I-CAM, and PAI-1. Increased 20:4n-6 and the ratios of 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 and n-6/n-3 are commonly viewed as pro-inflammatory, but unexpectedly were consistently inversely associated with responses in inflammatory proteins. In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet.

  13. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

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    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  14. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

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    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  15. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

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    Claudia E. Lazarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective: To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design: Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA, serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER of the diets and femur weight (FW of the rats were evaluated. Results: During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9, which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001. Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001 compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions: In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets.

  16. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study

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    Hepburn Juanita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Because low carbohydrate diets have been shown to reduce insulin resistance, this pilot study investigated the six-month metabolic and endocrine effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD on overweight and obese women with PCOS. Results Eleven women with a body mass index >27 kg/m2 and a clinical diagnosis of PCOS were recruited from the community. They were instructed to limit their carbohydrate intake to 20 grams or less per day for 24 weeks. Participants returned every two weeks to an outpatient research clinic for measurements and reinforcement of dietary instruction. In the 5 women who completed the study, there were significant reductions from baseline to 24 weeks in body weight (-12%, percent free testosterone (-22%, LH/FSH ratio (-36%, and fasting insulin (-54%. There were non-significant decreases in insulin, glucose, testosterone, HgbA1c, triglyceride, and perceived body hair. Two women became pregnant despite previous infertility problems. Conclusion In this pilot study, a LCKD led to significant improvement in weight, percent free testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, and fasting insulin in women with obesity and PCOS over a 24 week period.

  17. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

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    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  18. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (p<0.05). To clarify the mechanism by which a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  19. Long-term effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA on milk quality and hepatic gene expression in lactating goats fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Dong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. RESULTS: Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.058, non-esterified fatty acid (p = 0.071, and glucose (p = 0.014 increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05 in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1β, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05 in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality.

  20. Low carbohydrate diets in family practice: what can we learn from an internet-based support group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Mary C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Active Low-Carber Forums (ALCF is an on-line support group started in 2000 which currently has more than 86,000 members. Data collected from posts to the forum and from an on-line survey were used to determine the behavior and attitudes of people on low carbohydrate diets. Members were asked to complete a voluntary 27-item questionnaire over the internet. Our major findings are as follows: survey respondents, like the membership at large, were mostly women and mostly significantly overweight, a significant number intending to and, in many cases, succeeding at losing more than 100 lbs. The great majority of members of ALCF identify themselves as following the Atkins diet or some variation of it. Although individual posts on the forum and in the narrative part of our survey are critical of professional help, we found that more than half of respondents saw a physician before or during dieting and, of those who did, about half received support from the physician. Another 28 % found the physician initially neutral but supportive after positive results were produced. Using the same criteria as the National Weight Registry (without follow-up – 30 lbs or more lost and maintained for more than one year – it was found that more than 1400 people had successfully used low carb methods. In terms of food consumed, the perception of more than half of respondents were that they ate less than before the diet and whereas high protein, high fat sources replaced carbohydrate to some extent, the major change indicated by survey-takers is a large increase in green vegetables and a large decrease in fruit intake. Government or health agencies were not sources of information for dieters in this group and a collection of narrative comments indicates a high level of satisfaction, indeed enthusiasm for low carbohydrate dieting. The results provide both a tabulation of the perceived behavior of a significant number of dieters using low carbohydrate

  1. Low carbohydrate diets in family practice: what can we learn from an internet-based support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Vernon, Mary C; Westman, Eric C

    2006-10-02

    The Active Low-Carber Forums (ALCF) is an on-line support group started in 2000 which currently has more than 86,000 members. Data collected from posts to the forum and from an on-line survey were used to determine the behavior and attitudes of people on low carbohydrate diets. Members were asked to complete a voluntary 27-item questionnaire over the internet. Our major findings are as follows: survey respondents, like the membership at large, were mostly women and mostly significantly overweight, a significant number intending to and, in many cases, succeeding at losing more than 100 lbs. The great majority of members of ALCF identify themselves as following the Atkins diet or some variation of it. Although individual posts on the forum and in the narrative part of our survey are critical of professional help, we found that more than half of respondents saw a physician before or during dieting and, of those who did, about half received support from the physician. Another 28 % found the physician initially neutral but supportive after positive results were produced. Using the same criteria as the National Weight Registry (without follow-up)--30 lbs or more lost and maintained for more than one year--it was found that more than 1400 people had successfully used low carb methods. In terms of food consumed, the perception of more than half of respondents were that they ate less than before the diet and whereas high protein, high fat sources replaced carbohydrate to some extent, the major change indicated by survey-takers is a large increase in green vegetables and a large decrease in fruit intake. Government or health agencies were not sources of information for dieters in this group and a collection of narrative comments indicates a high level of satisfaction, indeed enthusiasm for low carbohydrate dieting. The results provide both a tabulation of the perceived behavior of a significant number of dieters using low carbohydrate strategies as well as a collection of

  2. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WEANLING PIGS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH CHLOROACETIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. AMAECHI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chloroacetic acid on growth performance and heamatological parameters of weanling pigs. Thirty-six cross-bred weanling pigs (Landrace × Duroc were allotted randomly to four treatment groups, with three replicates of three weanling pigs in each group. Control (T1 weanling pigs were given a standard basal diet; Treatment 2, 3 and 4 were diets of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percents levels of inclusion of chloroacetic acid respectively. After six weeks, blood and intestinal samples were collected from one animal per replicate. Data on feed intake and weight gain were collected daily. Results showed that chloroacetic acid did improve the animal growth performance. There was a decrease in pH. There was significant differences (P<0.05 on white blood cell and mean corpuscular haemoglobin across the treatment. There was no significant difference (P<0.05 across the treatments on pack cell volume and red blood cell count. This study showed that chloroacetic acid influenced some haematological parameters, decreased the pH of the gastro-intestinal tract of the animals. Further studies will be needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects observed when chloroacetic acid is fed to weanling pigs.

  3. Performance of broilers fed digestible amino acids based diets obtained from cecectomized roosters and broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.

  4. Metabolic profile in growing buffalo heifers fed diet with different energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to verify the relation among the mediators and indicators of nutritional status like insulin, glucagon, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins in growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy density. 12 Murrah heifers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments (High, Group H; Low, Group L that differed in energetic levels (Group H: 5.8 UFL/d; Group L: 3.6 UFL/d. Every 30 days, for a total of five times, blood samples were collected at 08.00 h, before feeding, from the jugular vein in vacutainer tubes and analysed to determine metabolic profile. Data on haematic constants were analysed by ANOVA for repeated measures with treatment as the main factor. Low energy availability and low NSC reduced the glucose and insulin and increased glucagone and urea blood levels. The increase of NSC in the diet of group H during the experiment may caused a reduction of the fibre digestibility after the period of adaptation of the rumen microflora and, as a paradox effect, suffered for an energetic lack with a subsequent activation of lipolysis and mobilization of their body reserves. Liver and muscular synthesis increase in group with a high energy availability.

  5. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  6. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (Pbetaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (Pbetaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (Pbetaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  7. Effects of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts in high-fat diet-fed obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Kwang-Hyun; PARK, Young-mi; Moon, Dae-In; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Se-Chul; Lee, Kun-Hee; Seol, Su-Yeon; Park, Yong-Sik; Park, Jong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng and its extracts have been used as traditional medicines and functional foods in countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts (GS-E3D), and the effects of GS-E3D on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as on metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver in high-fat diet fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups: normal diet group, high fat diet-vehicle grou...

  8. Developmental programming of aortic and renal structure in offspring of rats fed fat-rich diets in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, James A.; Lakasing, Lorin; Taylor, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    programmes the development of increased blood pressure, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity and mesenteric artery endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. To further characterize the mechanism of hypertension in this model we have examined vascular and renal structure in adult offspring of Sprague......-Dawley rats fed a control diet (OC) or lard-rich diet (OHF) during pregnancy and suckling followed by a control diet post-weaning. To gain further insight, we assessed aortic reactivity and elasticity in an organ bath preparation and renal renin and Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Plasma aldosterone concentration...

  9. The association between cytokines and intestinal mucosal immunity among broilers fed on diets supplemented with fluorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Liu, Juan; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yubing

    2013-05-01

    Fluorine (F) bioaccumulation has been reported in the organs and tissues of organisms, including intestine. The intestinal mucosa is very important to the immune development. Meanwhile, cytokines are present in the normal intestinal mucosal and play an important role in the immune function. Thus, changes of the cytokine contents are related to the state of intestinal mucosal immunity. In this study, we investigated the changes in contents of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced by dietary high F in the mucosa of different parts of intestines (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 280 one-day-old healthy avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (F 22.6 mg/kg) or the same basal diet supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. The experimental data showed that the contents of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the intestinal mucosa were significantly decreased in the high F groups II and III when compared with those of the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800-1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced the contents of aforementioned cytokines in the intestinal mucosa of broilers, which could impact the function of intestinal mucosal immunity through the pathways that decreased the lymphocyte population and/or lymphocyte activation.

  10. Constitutive androstane receptor agonist, TCPOBOP, attenuates steatohepatitis in the methionine choline-deficient diet-fed mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) modulates steatohepatitis in the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed animal. METHODS: C57/BL6 wild-type mice were fed the MCD or standard diet for 2 wk and were treated with either the CAR agonist, TCPOBOP, or the CAR inverse agonist, androstanol. RESULTS: Expression of CYP2B10 and CYP3A11, known CAR target genes, increased 30-fold and 45-fold, respectively, in TCPOBOP-treated mice fed the MCD diet. TCPOBOP treatment reduced hepatic steatosis (44.6 ± 5.4% vs 30.4 ± 4.5%, P < 0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (48 ± 8 vs 20 ± 1 mg/Dl, P < 0.05) in MCD dietfed mice as compared with the standard diet-fed mice. This reduction in hepatic steatosis was accompanied by an increase in enzymes involved in fatty acid microsomal ω-oxidation and peroxisomal β-oxidation, namely CYP4A10, LPBE, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. The reduction in steatosis was also accompanied by a reduction in liver cell apoptosis and inflammation. In contrast, androstanol was without effect on any of the above parameters. CONCLUSION: CAR activation stimulates induction of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and ameliorates hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and inflammation.

  11. Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    study was conducted to compare growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fed graded levels of coffee pulp (CoP) and reared in aquaria or in pens. Diets contained 0, 130, 260 and 390 g kg-1 of oven-dried CoP. In aquaria, fish receiving increasing dietary CoP levels (from 0 to 390 g kg-1) show

  12. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. D

  13. Effects of supplemental enzymes on apparent nutrient digestibility in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Ekmann, Kim Schøn;

    2010-01-01

    on the effects of enzymes in fish feed apart from phytase. Phytase works by hydrolyzing phytic acid, and numerous studies have documented that phytase supplementation increases phosphorus availability in fish fed diets with high inclusion levels of plant proteins. Plant derived proteins are increasingly used...

  14. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  15. Extra dietary starch in late-pregnant sows fed a high fibre diet: effect on litter weight at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment with 141 multiparous pregnant sows was conducted to investigate whether the supply of glucogenic energy at the end of pregnancy may be insufficient for an optimal growth of the foetuses in sows that are fed a diet with a high level of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and low level of s

  16. Growth and survival of juvenile queen conch, Strombus gigas fed artificial diets containing varying levels of digestible protein and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture methods for queen conch, Strombus gigas, have been established for several decades. However, there is a need to improve husbandry techniques for the growout of juveniles. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and survival of juvenile queen conch fed artificial diets with incr...

  17. Impact of combined β-glucanase and xylanase enzymes on growth performance, nutrients utilization and gut microbiota in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, P M; Nandha, N K; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Khafipour, E

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements. On d 21, jejunal contents were collected for viscosity determination whereas ileal and cecal contents were obtained for microbial analysis by Illumina sequencing. Microbial data were analyzed using QIIME and PLS-DA whilst other data were analyzed using SAS. Birds fed wheat diets had higher (P diet whilst birds fed XB had better BWG (4%) and FCR (7%) than birds fed non-XB diets. Birds fed wheat diet had higher (P diet. XB reduced (P diet (-31%) than in corn-based diet (-10%). Birds fed wheat-based diet with XB had higher (3.5%) starch digestibility than birds fed this diet without XB. Janthinobacterium was associated with non-XB corn-based diet, whereas Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Acidovorax and Blautia were associated with XB corn-based diet in the ileum. A relatively similar microbiome clustering was observed in wheat-based treatments in the cecum. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations between selected ileal or cecal bacterial taxa and AMEn. Diet impacted growth performance but XB was efficacious across diet types, implying that degradation of dietary fibrous components by feed enzymes may stimulate performance in young birds. Data provided significant insight on ileal and cecal microbial profile associated with the dietary types and XB; however their functional roles require further investigations.

  18. Growth performance of 20- to 50-kilogram pigs fed low-crude-protein diets supplemented with histidine, cystine, glycine, glutamic acid, or arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the growth performance of grower pigs fed low-CP, corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) AA-supplemented diets with that of pigs fed a positive control (PC) C-SBM diet with no supplemental Lys. Five experiments were conducted with Yorkshire crossbred pigs, blocked by BW (average initial and final BW were 21 and 41 kg, respectively) and assigned within block to treatment. Each treatment was replicated 4 to 6 times with 4 or 5 pigs per replicate pen. Each experiment lasted 28 d and plasma urea N was determined at the start and end of each experiment. All diets were formulated to contain 0.83% standardized ileal digestible Lys. All the experiments contained PC and negative control (NC) diets. The PC diet contained 18% CP and was supplemented with only DL-Met. The NC diet contained 13% CP and was supplemented with L-Lys, DL-Met, L-Thr, and L-Trp. The NC + Ile + Val diet was supplemented with 0.10% Val + 0.06% Ile. The NC + Ile + Val diet was supplemented with either His (Exp. 1), Cys (Exp. 2), Gly (Exp. 2, 3, and 4), Glu (Exp. 3), Arg (Exp. 4), or combinations of Gly + Arg (Exp. 4 and 5) or Gly + Glu (Exp. 5). Treatment differences were considered significant at P < 0.10. In 3 of the 4 experiments that had PC and NC diets, pigs fed the NC diet had decreased ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the PC diet. The supplementation of Ile + Val to the NC diet restored ADG in 4 out of 5 experiments. However, G:F was less than in pigs fed the PC diet in 1 experiment and was intermediate between the NC and PC diets in 3 experiments. Pigs fed supplemental Ile + Val + His had decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed supplemental Cys to achieve 50:50 Met:Cys had decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed Ile + Val + 0.224% supplemental Gly had similar ADG, greater ADFI, and decreased G:F compared with pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed Ile + Val + 0.52% supplemental Gly had ADG and G:F similar to that of pigs fed the PC. Pigs fed

  19. The metabolic response to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Gannon, Mary C

    2006-02-01

    We recently reported that in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus, a 5-week diet of 20:30:50 carbohydrate-protein-fat ratio resulted in a dramatic decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose and total glycohemoglobin compared with a control diet of 55:15:30. Body weight, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum ketones were unchanged; insulin and nonesterified fatty acids were decreased. We now present data on other hormones and metabolites considered to be affected by dietary macronutrient changes. The test diet resulted in an elevated fasting plasma total insulin-like growth factor 1, but not growth hormone. Urinary aldosterone was unchanged; free cortisol was increased, although not statistically. Urinary pH and calcium were unchanged. Blood pressure, creatinine clearance, serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, thyroid hormones, and uric acid were unchanged. Serum creatinine was modestly increased. Plasma alpha-amino nitrogen and urea nitrogen were increased. Urea production rate was increased such that a new steady state was present. The calculated urea production rate accounted for 87% of protein ingested on the control diet, but only 67% on the test diet, suggesting net nitrogen retention on the latter. The lack of negative effects, improved glucose control, and a positive nitrogen balance suggest beneficial effects for subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus at risk for loss of lean body mass.

  20. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  1. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic profile in Chinese women: a randomised controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Chen, Xiafei; Tang, Lixin; Feng, Ying; Shai, Iris; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the potential adherence to and the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with a habitually high carbohydrate intake. In the present controlled feeding trial, fifty overweight or obese women (age 47·9 (sem 0·9) years; BMI 26·7 (sem 0·3) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to a LC non-energy-restricted diet (initial carbohydrate intake 20 g/d, with a 10 g increase weekly) or an energy-restricted (ER) diet (carbohydrate intake 156-205 g/d, ER to 5021 or 6276 kJ/d, 35% average energy reduction) for 12 weeks. Over the intervention period, the two diets had comparable compliance (96%) and self-reported acceptability. At week 12, carbohydrate intake in the LC and ER groups contributed to 36·1 and 51·1% of total energy, respectively (P diets showed similarly decreased mean body weight (LC - 5·27 (95% CI - 6·08, - 4·46) kg; ER - 5·09 (95% CI - 5·50, - 4·67) kg, P = 0·67) and percentage of fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (LC - 1·19 (95% CI - 1·88, - 0·50)%; ER - 1·56 (95% CI - 2·20, - 0·92)%, P = 0·42), participants in the LC group had greater reductions in the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·03) and also in the ratio of TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) than those in the ER group. The present 12-week diet trial suggested that both a LC non-energy-restricted diet and an ER diet were acceptable to Chinese women and both diets were equally effective in reducing weight and fat mass. Moreover, the LC diet showed beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.

  2. Changes in collagens and chondrocytes in the temporomandibular joint cartilage in growing rats fed a liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Hiroki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Domon, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Taihiko

    2015-11-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of growing rats fed a soft diet is reported to be smaller in size and to have thinner condyle and glenoid fossa cartilage than rats fed a solid diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a soft diet on the collagens and chondrocytes in the growing TMJ cartilage. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control group fed a solid diet and an experimental group fed a liquid diet for 1-8 weeks. After the experimental period, the TMJs were harvested and examined histologically, immunohistochemically for collagen types I, II, and X, and with transmission electron microscopy. The condylar cartilage in the experimental rats showed weak immunoreactions for three types of collagens compared with the controls. The ultrastructure had fewer fine collagen fibrils in the experimental rats compared with that of the controls. The glenoid fossa cartilage in the experimental rats showed narrower Alcian blue-positive areas than the control staining. The immunoreactions for three types of collagen in the experimental rats were also weaker than those of the controls. The chondrocytes in the experimental rats appeared dark, had extended thin cytoplasmic processes, and had formed gap junctions, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fine collagen fibrils, but thick bands of collagen fibrils were observed in the glenoid fossa of the experimental cartilage. The results of the present study showed that a liquid diet had deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of collagens and chondrocytes in the TMJ cartilage in growing rats.

  3. Effects of low-carbohydrate diet therapy in overweight subject with autoimmune thyroiditis: possible synergism with ChREBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Esposito,1,2 Jean Marc Lobaccaro,3 Maria Grazia Esposito,4 Vincenzo Monda,1 Antonietta Messina,1 Giuseppe Paolisso,5 Bruno Varriale,2 Marcellino Monda,1 Giovanni Messina1,6 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3UMR, Clermont Université, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Aubière Cedex, France; 4Complex Surgery Unit, Evangelic Hospital Villa Betania, 5Department of Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche, Neurologiche, Metaboliche e dell’Invecchiamento, Second University of Naples, Naples, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy Abstract: The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs in patients with high amounts of Abs. In a diet devoid of carbohydrates (bread, pasta, fruit, and rice, free from goitrogenic food, and based on body mass index, the distribution of body mass and intracellular and extracellular water conducted for 3 weeks gives the following results: patients treated as above showed a significant reduction of antithyroid (-40%, P<0.013, anti-microsomal (-57%, P<0.003, and anti-peroxidase (-44%, P<0,029 Abs. Untreated patients had a significant increase in antithyroid (+9%, P<0.017 and anti-microsomal (+30%, P<0.028 Abs. Even the level of anti-peroxidase Abs increased without reaching statistical significance (+16%, P>0064

  4. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    information about the relative contribution of different nutrients to the total heat production (HE; Tauson et al. 1997). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of different provision of protein and carbohydrate on the energy metabolism and substrate oxidation of mink kits between 6 and 12 weeks......The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  5. Pre- and post-weaning diet alters the faecal metagenome in the cat with differences vitamin and carbohydrate metabolism gene abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wayne; Moon, Christina D.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nick J.; Bermingham, Emma N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary format, and its role in pet nutrition, is of interest to pet food manufacturers and pet owners alike. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-weaning diets (kibbled or canned) on the composition and function of faecal microbiota in the domestic cat by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and gene taxonomic and functional assignment using MG-RAST. Post-weaning diet had a dramatic effect on community composition; 147 of the 195 bacterial species identified had significantly different mean relative abundances between kittens fed kibbled and canned diets. The kittens fed kibbled diets had relatively higher abundances of Lactobacillus (>100-fold), Bifidobacterium (>100-fold), and Collinsella (>9-fold) than kittens fed canned diets. There were relatively few differences in the predicted microbiome functions associated with the pre-weaning diet. Post-weaning diet affected the abundance of functional gene groups. Genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport, were significantly enriched in the metagenomes of kittens fed the canned diet. The impact of post-weaning diet on the metagenome in terms of vitamin biosynthesis functions suggests that modulation of the microbiome function through diet may be an important avenue for improving the nutrition of companion animals. PMID:27876765

  6. Fertility potential of rabbit bucks fed maize-based diets containing graded levels of fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Idahor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1-contaminated maize-based diets have been reported to be mycotoxic in animal species, yet more validated data and biomarkers are needed. In this study, Fumonisin B1 (FB1 infected yellow-maize was used to formulate Diets 1, 2 and 3, containing 1,700, 1,800 and 1,900µg FB1/kg diet, respectively. Sixty sexually matured bucks and does were used, but only the bucks were fed the FB1-contaminated diets for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the treated bucks were mated to the dry does that were fed FB1-free yellow maize-based diet. Effects on testis and live weight, feed utilisation, conception rate, embryo development and spermatozoa production per gram testis were monitored. Results indicated significant depression (P<0.05 in feed intake, from 546.77±12.09g/week in Diet 1 with the lowest FB1 concentration, to 509.84±21.98g/week in Diet 3 with the highest FB1 concentration in the diets. Weight gain was drastically reduced (P<0.05 from 34.13±9.32g/week in Diet 1 to 20.38±22.13g/week in Diet 3. Meanwhile, some of the untreated does were pregnant in all the treatments, indicating that FB1 concentration at 2.0mg/kg diet may not be spermaticidal and there were no abnormalities in the embryos. It was observed that the paired testis weight value in Diet 1 (3.06±0.31 was not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of Diet 3 (2.94±0.23. The testicular elements were distorted by the dietary FB1, but did not follow a definite pattern. Spermatozoa production per gram testis values (31.1 – 37.3 x 106 recorded were much higher than 24 x 106 for a healthy rabbit buck. Consequently, FB1 concentration < 2.0mg/kg diet may not affect the fertility potentials of bucks orally dosed for a relatively short period. This observation further elucidates earlier discoveries that FB1 is not a reproductive toxicant. Hence, the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a guideline of 2.0mg total fumonisins/kg diet, to be adopted with

  7. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  8. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  9. Iridoid enriched fraction from Ajuga iva reduce cholesterolemia, triacylglycerolemia and increase the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Marie A. Lacaille-Dubois; Josiane Prost; Sherazede Bouderbala; Malika Bouchenak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of iridoid (I) derived from lyophilized aqueous extract of Ajuga iva on serum HDL2 and HDL3 compositions and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, enzyme responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=24) weighing 120±5 g were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. After this phase, the hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats were divided into groups fed the same diet and received or...

  10. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( nutritional value of wheat middlings-based diets.

  11. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  12. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase.

  13. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  14. Available phosphorus requirement of sex-reversed red tilapia fed all-plant diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomnan Udom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum requirement of dietary phoshporus (P for sex-reversed red tilapia in glass aquaria (50x100x47cm. Six practical diets were formulated to contain graded levels (0.58, 0.66, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.82% of available P from all-plant raw ingredients and dicalcium phosphate (DCP. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 20 fish (initial body weight, 25.16g 0.13. Fish were fed twice daily (08:00 and 16:00 ad libitum for 8 weeks. Average body weight and weight gain significantly increased with increasing available P (P<0.05. The whole body composition analysis showed that lipid and protein as well as P contents in whole body, vertebrae ash and vertebrae p, were significantly affected by available P (P<0.05. The blood biochemistry analysis showed that serum P and serum alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the increase of dietary available P levels (P<0.05. Data for weight gain, FCR, whole body P, vertebrae ash, vertebrae P, muscle protein, muscle fat and visceral fat were subjected to regression analysis to determine effects of the dietary levels of available P on these responses. Employing quadratic non-linear regression model of the relationship between available dietary P and P in vertebrae and whole body to study the P requirement, it was found that available dietary P requirement for sex-reversed red tilapia from the current study were of 0.76 and 0.79%, respectively. Increasing the dietary available P to higher concentration appears to reduce muscle fat while muscle protein increases.

  15. Feeding behaviour, digestibility, energy balance and productive performance of lactating goats fed forage-based and forage-free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Six lactating Saanen goats have been used in a Latin Square design to evaluate a grass-based diet (G, a hay-based diet(H and a nonforage diet (NF. On dry matter, grass and hay contributed for 55% of the diets and had 13.7 and 16.1%CP, 55.4 and 49.4% NDF, 38.0 and 31.6% ADF, respectively. Diet NF had beet pulp, cracked carob beans and whole cottonseedas main ingredients, with more than 75% of the particles greater than 2 mm.Independently of the dietary treatment, the goats spent more time eating than ruminating. Diet NF proved to be effectivein stimulating chewing activity, despite a trend for a lower chewing activity for eating (178, 185, 125 min/kg DMIfor diets G, H and NF, respectively, but not for ruminating (84, 80, 80 min/kg DMI for diets G, H and NF, respectively.Feed intake did not differ among diets, while regarding digestibility diet NF had the highest values for DM (74.1%, OM(75.7% and non-fibrous carbohydrates (92.0%, but the lowest for ADF (44.5%. For treatments G, H and NF milk yieldswere 3011, 3688 and 3212 g/d (P2.96% (Pml, PC18:0, C18:1 and C18:3 in comparison to the other two diets. No difference among treatments was recorded for CLA.Intake energy was digested to a lesser extent for diet G (68.9, 70.0, 72.7%, Pquality forage. Urinary energy losses reflected the corresponding protein contents of the diets, while no difference wasrecorded for methane production. ME resulted higher for diet NF (60.0, 60.7, 65.1% of the intake energy, Pheat production and milk energy yield were similar in the three treatments. Diet NF had a higher ME content (11.13,11.26, 11.93 MJ/kg DM, P0.69 and NEl (7.20, 7.93, 8.30 MJ/kg DM.It is concluded from the study that a nonforage diet with an adequate amount of structured fibre could substitute a rationbased on poor quality forage in lactating goats; however, good forage seems to enhance milk performance to a greaterextent.

  16. Enhanced immune response and resistance to white tail disease in chitin-diet fed freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Naveen Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is one of the natural biopolymer found abundantly in the shells of crustaceans, insects and in cell walls of fungi. In this study, we determined the effect of dietary administration of 0.5, 0.75 and 1% chitin on the immune response and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, challenged against Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV and extra small virus (XSV. We observed a significantly enhanced immune response, indicated as higher prophenoloxidase activity and respiratory burst of hemocytes, in 0.75% chitin-diet fed prawns compared to the chitin-free-diet fed prawns. Importantly, the relative percent survival (RPS following challenge with white muscle disease (WTD viruses was found relatively high in M. rosenbergii fed with diet containing 0.75% chitin (63.16%, suggesting an increased resistance to disease susceptibility. These results indicate that the incorporation of chitin in prawn diet would be beneficial in stimulating the immune response and thereby developing resistance against diseases.

  17. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-03-17

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  18. Postnatal exposure to a high-carbohydrate diet interferes epigenetically with thyroid hormone receptor induction of the adult male rat skeletal muscle glucose transporter isoform 4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh; Patel, Mulchand S; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-10-01

    Early life nutritional intervention causes adult-onset insulin resistance and obesity in rats. Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), in turn, transcriptionally enhances skeletal muscle Glut4 expression. We tested the hypothesis that reduced circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 concentrations encountered in postnatal (PN4-PN24) high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula-fed versus the mother-fed controls (MF) would epigenetically interfere with TR induction of adult (100 days) male rat skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, thereby providing a molecular mechanism mediating insulin resistance. We observed increased DNA methylation of the CpG island with enhanced recruitment of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and MeCP2 in the glut4 promoter region along with reduced acetylation of histone (H)2A.Z and H4 particularly at the H4.lysine (K)16 residue, which was predominantly mediated by histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). This was followed by enhanced recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1β to the glut4 promoter with increased Suv39H1 methylase concentrations. These changes reduced TR binding of the T3 response element of the glut4 gene (TREs; -473 to -450 bp) detected qualitatively in vivo (electromobility shift assay) and quantified ex vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation). In addition, the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator and CREB-binding protein to the glut4 promoter-protein complex was reduced. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction between TR and CBP to be reduced and HDAC4 to be enhanced in HC versus MF groups. These molecular changes were associated with diminished skeletal muscle Glut4 mRNA and protein concentrations. We conclude that early postnatal exposure to HC diet epigenetically reduced TR induction of adult male skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, uncovering novel molecular mechanisms contributing to adult insulin resistance and obesity.

  19. Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Warner, D.; Hatew, Bayissa; Klop, G.; Podesta, S.C.; Lingen, van H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and determined whether recent prediction equations for methane, based on a wide variety of diets, are applicable to grass- and grass silage-based diets. Dat

  20. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed

  1. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Wei Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results: No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions: Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling.

  2. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.

  3. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD in rats. The prescriptions—Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi—were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats.

  4. Intestinal bacterial community and growth performance of chickens fed diets containing antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment.