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Sample records for carbocysteine

  1. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

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    S. EL QOUATLI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  2. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    OpenAIRE

    S. EL QOUATLI; R. T. NGONO; R. NAJIH; A. CHTAINI

    2012-01-01

    A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  3. Antioxidant Carbocysteine Treatment in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Kang Wu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of carbocysteine in OSAS patients.A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with 1500 mg carbocysteine daily, and the other was treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP at night. Before treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment, all patients underwent polysomnography and completed questionnaires. Treatment compliance was compared between the two groups. Plasma was collected for various biochemical analyses. Endothelial function was assessed with ultrasound in the carbocysteine group.The proportion of patients who fulfilled the criteria for good compliance was higher in the carbocysteine group (n = 17 than in the CPAP group (n = 11; 100% vs. 64.7%. Compared with baseline values, the carbocysteine group showed significant improvement in their Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (10.18 ± 4.28 vs. 6.82 ± 3.66; P ≤ 0.01, apnea-hypopnea index (55.34 ± 25.03 vs. 47.56 ± 27.32; P ≤ 0.01, time and percentage of 90% oxygen desaturation (12.66 (2.81; 50.01 vs. 8.9 (1.41; 39.71; P ≤ 0.01, and lowest oxygen saturation level (65.88 ± 14.86 vs. 70.41 ± 14.34; P ≤ 0.01. Similar changes were also observed in the CPAP group. The CPAP group also showed a decreased oxygen desaturation index and a significant increase in the mean oxygen saturation after treatment, but these increases were not observed in the carbocysteine group. Snoring volume parameters, such as the power spectral density, were significantly reduced in both groups after the treatments. The plasma malondialdehyde level decreased and the superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide levels increased in both groups. The endothelin-1 level decreased in the CPAP group but did not significantly change in the carbocysteine group. Ultrasonography showed that the intima-media thickness decreased (0.71 ± 0.15 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15; P ≤ 0.05 but that flow

  4. Respiratory paradoxical adverse drug reactions associated with acetylcysteine and carbocysteine systemic use in paediatric patients: a national survey.

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    Pauline Mallet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. DESIGN: The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. SETTING: Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. PATIENTS: The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. RESULTS: The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27, worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35, dyspnoea (n = 18, cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11, and bronchospasm (n = 1. Fifty-one (86% children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. CONCLUSION: Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence.

  5. The dissolution of urinary mucus after cystoplasty.

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    Gillon, G; Mundy, A R

    1989-04-01

    Three agents have been tested for mucolytic activity to prevent or treat difficulties in bladder emptying following augmentation and substitution cystoplasty, particularly in patients emptying by intermittent self-catheterisation. Carbocysteine produced precipitation of mucus, which was found not to be helpful. N-acetylcysteine and urea both dissolved mucus, but urea proved to be more effective.

  6. Development and validation of a stability indicating method for S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation products in oral syrup formulation.

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    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; De Filippis, Piero; Curcuruto, Ornella; Repeto, Paolo; Roveda, Davide; Hartenstein, Matthew; Adams, Erwin; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2015-11-10

    A stability-indicating method for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation impurities in Exputex® 250mg/5mL syrup was developed in anion-exchange liquid chromatography mode. A forced degradation study supported the method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Aqueous solutions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and syrup samples at different pH-values were stress-tested in different thermal, light exposure and headspace conditions. One degradation product was detected in thermal stress studies at 60°C and 80°C in the pH range 5.0-7.0 and was identified by mass spectrometry as 5-oxo-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (lactam of carbocysteine). A second degradation product was only generated in moderately strong oxidizing conditions (0.5% H2O2 aqueous solution) and was identified as S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine-(R/S)-sulphoxide (carbocysteine sulphoxide). The method was developed on a Zorbax SAX column, in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of 200mM phosphate solution at pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) and UV detection was performed at a wavelength of 205nm. The method was linear for carbocysteine (R>0.9982) over a concentration range of 2.5-50μg/mL and 0.4-0.6mg/mL. Linearity for the impurities was shown from the LOQ to 50μg/mL. Specificity was verified and accuracy demonstrated for the active ingredient and its degradation products in syrup samples at 3 levels around their respective specification limits. Repeatability, intermediate precision and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on three commercial batches, analyzed in triplicate by two operators at both the transferring and the receiving site and demonstrated a successful method transfer to the manufacturing quality control laboratory. PMID:26159351

  7. Mucoactive therapy in COPD.

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    Decramer, M; Janssens, W

    2010-06-01

    It has been shown that mucus hypersecretion is associated with greater susceptibility for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), excess forced expiratory volume in 1 s decline, hospitalisations and excess mortality. The effects of mucoactive drugs on outcomes have been reviewed in several meta-analyses, the largest one including 26 studies. 21 studies were performed in patients with chronic bronchitis and five in patients with COPD. The majority of these trials were performed with N-acetylcysteine (n = 13) and carbocysteine (n = 3). Overall, there was a significant reduction in exacerbations (0.05 per patient per month) and the number of days with disability (0.56 days per patient per month). Mucolytics were well tolerated and the number of adverse events was lower than with placebo (odds ratio 0.78). In the largest and best designed study with N-acetylcysteine in 523 patients with COPD, the reduction in exacerbations was only observed in patients not taking inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, a 374 mL reduction in functional residual capacity was found. A recent large study (n = 709) with high-dose carbocysteine (1,500 mg·day⁻¹) demonstrated a significant effect on exacerbations (25% reduction) and also reported an improvement in health-related quality of life (-4.06 units in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). It is unclear what the mechanisms underlying these effects may be and which phenotypes benefit from this treatment. On the basis of this evidence mucoactive drugs may deserve consideration in the long-term treatment of COPD.

  8. Mucoactive therapy in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decramer, M; Janssens, W

    2010-06-01

    It has been shown that mucus hypersecretion is associated with greater susceptibility for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), excess forced expiratory volume in 1 s decline, hospitalisations and excess mortality. The effects of mucoactive drugs on outcomes have been reviewed in several meta-analyses, the largest one including 26 studies. 21 studies were performed in patients with chronic bronchitis and five in patients with COPD. The majority of these trials were performed with N-acetylcysteine (n = 13) and carbocysteine (n = 3). Overall, there was a significant reduction in exacerbations (0.05 per patient per month) and the number of days with disability (0.56 days per patient per month). Mucolytics were well tolerated and the number of adverse events was lower than with placebo (odds ratio 0.78). In the largest and best designed study with N-acetylcysteine in 523 patients with COPD, the reduction in exacerbations was only observed in patients not taking inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, a 374 mL reduction in functional residual capacity was found. A recent large study (n = 709) with high-dose carbocysteine (1,500 mg·day⁻¹) demonstrated a significant effect on exacerbations (25% reduction) and also reported an improvement in health-related quality of life (-4.06 units in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). It is unclear what the mechanisms underlying these effects may be and which phenotypes benefit from this treatment. On the basis of this evidence mucoactive drugs may deserve consideration in the long-term treatment of COPD. PMID:20956182