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Sample records for carbenicillin

  1. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to carbenicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevic, D J; Matsen, J M

    1974-05-01

    One hundred and seventy-one strains of anaerobes were tested for susceptibility to carbenicillin by using agar dilution, broth dilution, and two disk diffusion methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 67% of 51 strains of Bacteroides fragilis, 7 of 9 strains of Bacteroides melaninogenicus, and all of 8 strains of Eubacterium was 100 mug or less per ml. The MICs of the remaining anaerobes were 50 mug or less per ml. The broth dilution results were felt to be the most accurate of the four methods utilized. PMID:4462461

  2. Structure of CARB-4 and AER-1 CarbenicillinHydrolyzing β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Sanschagrin, François; Bejaoui, Noureddine; Levesque, Roger C.

    1998-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of blaCARB-4 encoding CARB-4 and deduced a polypeptide of 288 amino acids. The gene was characterized as a variant of group 2c carbenicillin-hydrolyzing β-lactamases such as PSE-4, PSE-1, and CARB-3. The level of DNA homology between the bla genes for these β-lactamases varied from 98.7 to 99.9%, while that between these genes and blaCARB-4 encoding CARB-4 was 86.3%. The blaCARB-4 gene was acquired from some other source because it has a G+C content of 3...

  3. Characterization and Nucleotide Sequence of CARB-6, a New Carbenicillin-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase from Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Choury, Danièle; Aubert, Gérald; Szajnert, Marie-France; Azibi, Kemal; Delpech, Marc; Paul, Gérard

    1999-01-01

    A clinical strain of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 isolated in France produced a new β-lactamase with a pI of 5.35. The purified enzyme, with a molecular mass of 33,000 Da, was characterized. Its kinetic constants show it to be a carbenicillin-hydrolyzing enzyme comparable to the five previously reported CARB β-lactamases and to SAR-1, another carbenicillin-hydrolyzing β-lactamase that has a pI of 4.9 and that is produced by a V. cholerae strain from Tanzania. This β-lactamase is designated...

  4. A response regulator from a soil metagenome enhances resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic carbenicillin in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather K Allen

    Full Text Available Functional metagenomic analysis of soil metagenomes is a method for uncovering as-yet unidentified mechanisms for antibiotic resistance. Here we report an unconventional mode by which a response regulator derived from a soil metagenome confers resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic carbenicillin in Escherichia coli. A recombinant clone (βlr16 harboring a 5,169 bp DNA insert was selected from a metagenomic library previously constructed from a remote Alaskan soil. The βlr16 clone conferred specific resistance to carbenicillin, with limited increases in resistance to other tested antibiotics, including other β-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, fusidic acid, and gentamicin. Resistance was more pronounced at 24°C than at 37°C. Zone-of-inhibition assays suggested that the mechanism of carbenicillin resistance was not due to antibiotic inactivation. The DNA insert did not encode any genes known to confer antibiotic resistance, but did have two putative open reading frames (ORFs that were annotated as a metallopeptidase and a two-component response regulator. Transposon mutagenesis and subcloning of the two ORFs followed by phenotypic assays showed that the response regulator gene was necessary and sufficient to confer the resistance phenotype. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that the response regulator suppressed expression of the ompF porin gene, independently of the small RNA regulator micF, and enhanced expression of the acrD, mdtA, and mdtB efflux pump genes. This work demonstrates that antibiotic resistance can be achieved by the modulation of gene regulation by heterologous DNA. Functional analyses such as these can be important for making discoveries in antibiotic resistance gene biology and ecology.

  5. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of a carbenicillin-hydrolyzing penicillinase gene from Proteus mirabilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Y.; Tsukamoto, K; Sawai, T

    1991-01-01

    The structural gene of a carbenicillinase was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Proteus mirabilis GN79. This gene codes for a protein of 270 amino acids. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with those of known beta-lactamases revealed that the enzyme is a novel class A beta-lactamase with a unique conserved triad, RTG. By using a DNA fragment of the structural gene, a lack of cross hybridization was confirmed between the DNA probe and total DNAs from natural isolates of P. mirabilis, sugges...

  6. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars associated with tropical seafood of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2009-06-01

    A total of 256 Salmonella strains consisting of 29 Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood of Cochin (India) were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary medicines as therapeutic agents. The 10 most predominant Salmonella serovars in seafood were also characterized for presence of plasmids using the alkaline lysis method. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies highlighted a comparatively high resistance in Salmonella isolates to sulfamethizol and carbenicillin, and moderate resistance to nalidixic acid and oxytetracycline. Nevertheless, antimicrobial resistance was not observed against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and kanamycin in different Salmonella serovars. Fifty percent of the Salmonella isolates, comprising 16 Salmonella serovars, were resistant to sulfamethizol followed by 39% resistant to carbenicillin and 14% resistant to oxytetracycline. Multidrug resistance was detected in 39.4%, 14.4%, 12.1%, and 1.5% of Salmonella isolates towards two drugs (sulfamethizol and carbenicillin), three drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, and oxytetracycline), four drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, and nalidixic acid), and five drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin), respectively. Plasmid profiling highlighted the presence of nine plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars and plasmids that were not detected in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden, Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Bareilly, Salmonella Irumu, Salmonella Ohio, Salmonella Oslo, and Salmonella Typhi isolated from seafood. PMID:19422307

  7. Model suicide vector for containment of genetically engineered microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A K; Perlin, M H; Atlas, R M

    1988-01-01

    A model suicide vector (pBAP19h), designed for the potential containment of genetically engineered microorganisms, was made by constructing a plasmid with the hok gene, which codes for a lethal polypeptide, under the control of the lac promoter. The vector plasmid also codes for carbenicillin resistance. In the absence of carbenicillin, induction of the hok gene in vitro caused elimination of all detectable cells containing the suicide vector; pBAP19h-free cells of the culture survived and gr...

  8. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M.

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotra...

  9. Stability of antibiotics and amino acids in two synthetic L-amino acid solutions commonly used for total parenteral nutrition in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1978-01-01

    The stability and interaction at 29 degrees C of ampicillin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and polymyxin B were examined in a common electrolyte solution, invertose darrow, and in two synthetic l-amino acid solutions, one commercial (vamin with fructose; Vitrum) and the other a neonatal preparation...

  10. New, simple medium for selective, differential recovery of Klebsiella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás, J. M.; Ciurana, B; Jofre, J T

    1986-01-01

    A highly selective, differential medium for the enumeration and isolation of Klebsiella spp. was developed. With pure cultures, 100% recovery of Klebsiella spp. was observed. Recovery of Klebsiella spp. on MacConkey-inositol-potassium tellurite (MCIK) agar was as good as or better than on MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin agar either with pure cultures or environmental samples. Recovery and percent colony confirmation with MCIK agar were greater and easier to obtain than for other proposed Kle...

  11. Contributions of the AmpC β-Lactamase and the AcrAB Multidrug Efflux System in Intrinsic Resistance of Escherichia coli K-12 to β-Lactams

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzariol, Annarita; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    The roles of the AmpC chromosomal β-lactamase and the AcrAB efflux system in levels of intrinsic resistance and susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactams were studied with a set of isogenic strains. MICs of ureidopenicillins, carbenicillin, oxacillin, and cloxacillin were drastically reduced by the inactivation of AcrAB, whereas those of the earlier cephalosporins were affected mostly by the loss of AmpC β-lactamase.

  12. Antibacterial activity of ceftizoxime, a beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporin.

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, K P; Neu, H C

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ceftizoxime was compared with that of other beta-lactam antibiotics against 538 isolates. Ceftizoxime was the most active agent tested against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella, inhibiting 80% at 0.025 microgram/ml. It was more active than cefotaxime against Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes. Ceftizoxime was more active than cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, and carbenicillin against Proteus mirabilis and indole-positive Proteus. It inhibited 97% of multiresistan...

  13. In vitro evaluation of Ro 13-9904.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkle, A M; Bodey, G P

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a new investigational cephalosporin, Ro 13-9904, was compared with those of four cephalosporins (cephalothin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, and moxalactam), five semisynthetic penicillins (mezlocillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and azlocillin), and the aminoglycoside tobramycin. Ro 13-9904 inhibited 75% of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae at a concentration of 6.25 micrograms/ml, including Enterobacter spp., Serratia marcescens, and indole-positive Proteus...

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of cefotaxime, a new cephalosporin.

    OpenAIRE

    Masuyoshi, S; Arai, S; Miyamoto, M; Mitsuhashi, S

    1980-01-01

    Cefotaxime, a new semisynthetic cephalosporin derivative, showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against clinically isolated strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This cephalosporin was slightly less active than cefazolin against Staphylococcus aureus but 4 to 300 times as active as carbenicillin against gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens. Cefotaxime was the most active compoun...

  15. In vitro activities of moxalactam and cefotaxime against aerobic gram-negative bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J H; Crawford, S. A.; Alexander, G A

    1980-01-01

    The in vitro activities of two new beta-lactam antibiotics, moxalactam disodium (LY 127935) and cefotaxime (HR-756), were compared with cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefuroxime, cephalothin, and, in some instances, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and amikacin against aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Test isolates included normally cephalosporin-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. and a variety of nonfermentative or oxidase-positive bacteria. Both moxalactam and cefotaxime demo...

  16. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Yamabe, S; Acar, J F

    1986-01-01

    YTR 830, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, combined with amoxicillin or carbenicillin, showed a synergistic effect similar to that observed with clavulanic acid, and generally better than that with sulbactam, against strains harboring chromosome-encoded penicillinases and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases or plasmid-determined beta-lactamases. With ampicillin, YTR 830 showed the best synergistic activity of the inhibitors against Proteus morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae and...

  17. Versatile cloning vector for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, D O; Hollinger, M F; Tindol, M B

    1981-01-01

    A pBR322:RSF1010 composite plasmid, constructed in vitro, was used as a cloning vector in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This nonamplifiable plasmid, pMW79, has a molecular weight of 8.4 X 10(6) and exists as a multicopy plasmid in both P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. In P. aeruginosa strain PAO2003, pMW79 conferred resistance to carbenicillin and tetracycline. Characterization of pMW79 with restriction enzymes revealed that four enzymes (BamHI, SalI, HindIII, and HpaI) cleaved the plasmid at un...

  18. Influence of antibiotics on indirect organogenesis of Teak

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Vagner Tambarussi; Marcelo Rogalski; Fábio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira; Gilvano Ebling Brondani; Valentina de Fátima De Martin; Helaine Carrer

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium is the largest method employed to transform woody plants. The bacterium is required to introduce the transgene into the plant nuclear genome. After transferring T-DNA to the plant cell, the bacteria affect plant growth negatively and have to be eliminated from plant tissue culture medium through the use of antibiotics. The effect of different antibiotics (timentin, cefotaxime and carbenicillin) on in vitro shoot regeneration of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) was compared in hypoco...

  19. 96-well RNA In Situ Hybridization Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project ### 1. Materials **1.1. Probe Preparation** **1.1.1. Cell Inoculation** 1. 96-well, deep square-well round bottom plate (E&K; Scientific Ritter Riplate). - Super Broth (SB: 10 gm 4-Morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 20 gm Bacto Yeast Extract, 30 gm Tryptone Peptone/L). - Antibiotic (80 µg/ml final concentration Carbenicillin- for pFLC-I or pBS SK, 80 µg/ml chloramphenicol for pOT2 or pOTB7). - Multichannel pipette (Brand)...

  20. Malignant external otitis: long-term (months) antimicrobial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, M.; Aber, R.C.; Conner, G.H.; Baum, S.

    1982-04-01

    Since Chandler's initial report in 1968 on malignant external otitis (MEO), this entity has been recognized in its earlier stages with increasing frequency. As a result of this, the availability of new antimicrobial agents, and the judicious use of surgery, there has been an improvement in the results of therapy. There remains, however, a subgroup of patients who continue to experience a significant mortality from this infection. A review and selected discussion of our experience with MEO from 1976 to 1979 is presented. Six patients have been diagnosed and successfully treated for MEO. They presented with problems ranging from severe otalgia to multiple cranial neuropathy. For the most part, therapy consisted of the now standard aminoglycoside and carbenicillin combination. Two of the patients were in the high mortality risk group. One of these patients developed an osteomyelitis which extended across the skull base resulting in bilateral cranial neuropathies. His therapy included surgery as well as long-term (months) outpatient treatment with tobramycin and carbenicillin with an excellent result. The second patient was treated similarly. The efficacy of this approach is discussed as well as the usefulness of radionuclide bone scanning in assessing the course and therapy of patients with MEO.

  1. Effects of Combined Treatment with Sansanmycin and Macrolides on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Formation of Biofilm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE LI; YUN-YING XIE; RU-XIAN CHEN; HONG-ZHANG XU; GUO-JI ZHANG; JIN-ZHE LI; XIAO-MIAN LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of combined treatment with sansanmycin and macrolides on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and formation of biofilm. Methods Micro-dilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of sansanmycin, gentamycin, carbenicillin, polymyxin B, roxithromycin, piperacillin, and tazobactam. PA1 and PA27853 biofilms were observed under optical microscope after staining and under SEM after treatment with sansanmycin at different dosages and combined treatment with sansanmycin and roxithromycin. Viable bacteria in PA1 and PA27853 biofilms were counted after treatment with sansanmycin at different dosages or combined treatment with sansanmycin and roxithromycin. Results The MIC of sansanmycin was lower than that of gentamycin and polymyxin B, but was higher than that of carbenicillin. Roxithromycin enhanced the penetration of sansanmycin to PA1 and PA27853 strains through biofilms. PA1 and PA27853 biofilms were gradually cleared with the increased dosages of sansanmycin or with the combined sansanmycin and roxithromycin. Conclusion Sub-MIC levels of roxithromycin and sansanmycin substantially inhibit the generation of biofilms and proliferation of bacteria. Therefore, combined antibiotics can be used in treatment of intractable bacterial infection.

  2. Malignant external otitis: long-term (months) antimicrobial therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Chandler's initial report in 1968 on malignant external otitis (MEO), this entity has been recognized in its earlier stages with increasing frequency. As a result of this, the availability of new antimicrobial agents, and the judicious use of surgery, there has been an improvement in the results of therapy. There remains, however, a subgroup of patients who continue to experience a significant mortality from this infection. A review and selected discussion of our experience with MEO from 1976 to 1979 is presented. Six patients have been diagnosed and successfully treated for MEO. They presented with problems ranging from severe otalgia to multiple cranial neuropathy. For the most part, therapy consisted of the now standard aminoglycoside and carbenicillin combination. Two of the patients were in the high mortality risk group. One of these patients developed an osteomyelitis which extended across the skull base resulting in bilateral cranial neuropathies. His therapy included surgery as well as long-term (months) outpatient treatment with tobramycin and carbenicillin with an excellent result. The second patient was treated similarly. The efficacy of this approach is discussed as well as the usefulness of radionuclide bone scanning in assessing the course and therapy of patients with MEO

  3. Serotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in Bulgaria using the Lányi-Bergan combined scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, P

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in hospitals in Bulgaria were serotyped according to the combined scheme of Lányi and Bergan, supplemented by Akatova and Smirnova and Homma, using agglutinating O-antisera prepared in the National Institute of Hygiene, Budapest. The most frequently encountered serogroup is O2 (29%) followed by O11 (28.5%), O6, O3, O10 etc. The results were compared with those obtained by using Difco antisera prepared according to Liu et al., and showed 96.5% coincidence. The strains were phage typed according to the scheme of Meitert and tested for antibiotic resistance to aminoglycosides (gentamicin, carbenicillin, tobramycin and amikacin). Phage groups 3 (3a and 3(3)) and 1 (1a) predominated. The strains exhibited sensitivity to amikacin (99%) and frequent resistance to gentamicin (45.8%, carbenicillin (40%) and tobramycin (28%). Subdivision of the serogroups into phage and resisto-types contributes to analysis of nosocomial infections. PMID:3115050

  4. Influence of antibiotics on indirect organogenesis of Teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Vagner Tambarussi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium is the largest method employed to transform woody plants. The bacterium is required to introduce the transgene into the plant nuclear genome. After transferring T-DNA to the plant cell, the bacteria affect plant growth negatively and have to be eliminated from plant tissue culture medium through the use of antibiotics. The effect of different antibiotics (timentin, cefotaxime and carbenicillin on in vitro shoot regeneration of teak (Tectona grandis L. f. was compared in hypocotyl, mature cotyledon and cotyledonary segments explants. Timentin and cefotaxime (100-300 mg l-1 did not affect shoot regeneration and the number of shoots per explant. Moreover, at these concentrations, the two antibiotics seem to stimulate shoot regeneration. Carbenicillin at a dosage of 300 mg l-1 as well as cefotaxime and timentin at a dosage of 500 mg l-1 induced abundant calli formation and inhibited regeneration. Our data show that cefotaxime and timentin (300 mg l-1 can be harmless to teak regeneration and can be used as bactericide agents during Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Tectona grandis. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of antibiotic degradation on plant morphogenesis and its effect on regeneration from different explants.

  5. Effects of some beta lactam antibiotics on (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding to intact human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borst, S.E.; Hui, K.K.; Conolly, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    Several antibiotics have been reported to cause a bleeding diathesis in man, characterized by reduced platelet aggregation. The authors investigated the effects of several of the penicillins and of moxalactam on the binding of (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine to intact human platelets. The (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding met the criteria for interaction at an alpha2 adrenergic binding site and showed low interindividual variability. Penicillin G, ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin and moxalactam all inhibited (/sup 3/H)-methyl-yohimbine binding, but at concentrations far in excess of clinically achievable plasma levels. They conclude that these compounds exert their antiplatelet effects by a mechanism other than competitive inhibition of catecholamine binding.

  6. Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... synthesis was restricted to a narrow band in the part of the biofilm adjacent to the source of oxygen. The zone of active GFP expression was approximately 60 Am wide in colony biofilms and 30 Am wide in flow cell biofilms. The region of the biofilm in which cells were capable of elongation was mapped by...... treating colony biofilms with carbenicillin, which blocks cell division, and then measuring individual cell lengths by transmission electron microscopy. Cell elongation was localized at the air interface of the biofilm. The heterogeneous anabolic patterns measured inside these biofilms were likely a result...

  7. Antibacterial Activities of Neolignans Isolated from the Seed Endotheliums of Trewia nudiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGuo-Hong; ZHAOPei-Ji; SHENYue-Mao; ZHANGKe-Qin

    2004-01-01

    Five neolignans including four new ones were obtained from the seed endotheliums of Trewia nudiflora L. Their structures were determined to be 9'-methyl americanol A(1), 9'-methyl isoamericanol A(2), 9'-ethyl americanol A(3), 9'-butyl americanol A(4), and americanin (5). Two acetylated products 3,4-diacetyl americanin (5a) and 3,4,9-triacetyl americanin (5b) had been prepared from compound 5. All of these compounds were investigated on antibacterial assays when carbenicillin sodium, streptomycin sulfate and rifampicin were used as positive controls. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50μg/mL and 100μg/mE respectively, but 5a and 5b did not exhibit antibacterial activity at 200μg/disk.

  8. Study of Pseudomonas Aeroginosa resistance to Penicillines, Cephalosporins and Aminoglycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleknezhad P

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy and prophylaxy in infectious diseases, from hygienic and economical point of view, are very important. Infections caused by pseudomonas aeroginosa were particularly severe, with high mortality rates. In the recent years pseudomonas aeroginosa continued to cause the most severe, life-thereating infections in burned patients, in spite of the introduction of a wide variety of antibiotics advised specifically for their anti pseudomonal activity. The aim of this study, in which many cases of ps.aeroginosa infections are assessed is to identify the drug resistance of this bacteria to penicillines, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides by antibiotic sensitivity test (disk ager diffusion. Results as percent of resistance to each antibiotic were 89% to carbenicillin, 55% to piperacillin, 89% to mezlocillin, 89.5% to ticarcillin+clavulonic acid, 85% to ceftriaxone, 95% to tobramycin, 5% of all isolates were not sensitive to any antibiotics.

  9. A rapid method for the determination of microbial susceptibility using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M.; Weinstein, L.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was optimized for pure bacteria in broth in order to evaluate if changes in bacterial ATP content could be used as a rapid measure of antibiotic effect on microorganisms. Broth cultures of log phase bacteria were incubated at 310 K (37 C) for 2.5 hours at antimicrobial concentrations which resulted in the best discrimination between sensitive and resistant strains. Eighty-seven strains of 11 bacterial species were studied for their susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, Penicillin G, nafcillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, and chloramplenicol. The major advantage of the ATP system over existing methods of rapid microbial susceptibility testing is that the assay can be made specific for bacterial ATP.

  10. Suppression of damping-off in maize seedlings by Pseudomonas corrugata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A; Palni, L M; Hebbar, K P

    2001-01-01

    Two strains of Pseudomonas corrugata, (1 and 7), isolated from subtropical and temperate soils in Sikkim Himalaya, respectively, were subjected to Petri-dish as well as plant-based bioassay to examine their potential for disease suppression against three major pathogens of maize. A mixture of Pythium ultimum, P. arrhenomanes and Fusarium graminearum was introduced in the soil; maize seed inoculated with one of the two strains of Pseudomonas corrugata (1 or 7) were sown in pots containing such soil. The bacterial inoculation resulted in significant disease suppression as well as growth promotion of seedlings. The bacterial strains were also evaluated for their intrinsic antibiotic resistance against a range of concentrations of ten antibiotics. While the bacteria were found to be sensitive to gentamycin and rifampicin, they exhibited resistance against ampicillin, carbenicillin and penicillin, even at high concentrations. PMID:11572460

  11. Results of Antibiotic Sensitivity Tests of Bacteria Causing Acute Otitis Media

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    M Khajeh Karameddini

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In a period of 12 months 241 children (2-12 years old with Otitis Media were examined. 98 bacteria were isolated from Otitis Media discharge and tested for sensitivity against 13 generic antibiotics. The disk-agar diffusion and macrodilution both methods were used for these tests. Staphylococcus aureus had the highest and streptococcus pneumonia the lowest rate of occurrence. Otitis Media cases caused by merely a single bacterium were 12 fold more than those caused by two bacteria and 4 fold more than those caused by more than two bacteria. The antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin and amikacin was higher than that of other antibiotics in disk-agar diffusion method. The MIC rates of cefoperazone against four most frequently encountered bacteria were higher than that of Mezlocillin.

  12. Infrared and Raman microspectroscopy of foreign materials in tissue specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.

    2005-05-01

    Infrared and Raman spectra of materials found in tissue specimens submitted for histopathologic diagnosis have been recorded. These foreign materials range in size from approximately 5 to 50 μm, and the vibrational spectra have been used to identify them. Examples include cholesterol and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in an implant case, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in a pilonidal cyst, and carbenicillin in a skin biopsy. In some instances, either the infrared or Raman spectra were sufficient to make a definitive identification, while in other cases both were necessary. Because some of the samples fluoresced with visible excitation at 532 nm, FT-Raman spectra with 1064-nm excitation were also recorded. The flexibility of sampling for vibrational microspectroscopy and the value of the recorded data in assisting pathologists render medical diagnoses in the examples cited and other cases are discussed.

  13. Comparative study of human intestinal and hepatic esterases as related to enzymatic properties and hydrolizing activity for ester-type drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Morikawa, M; Tsuboi, M; Ito, Y; Sugiura, M

    1980-08-01

    In attempts to determine the exact role of intestinal esterase in the body, we purified esterases from human intestinal mucosa and liver, and compared the enzymatic properties and substrate specificities with those of purified esterases. Esterase from human liver was purified 58-fold, by treatment with butanol, DE-52 and DEAE Sephadex A-50 column chromatographies, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and isoelectric focusing. The purified preparation showed a single band by polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of intestinal and hepatic esterases were determined to be 53,000-55,000 and 180,000, respectively, by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The activity of the purified intestinal and hepatic esterases was strongly inhibited by diethyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and was not inhibited by eserine sulfate and p-chloromercuribenzoate. Moreover, the purified esterases hydrolyzed ester-type drugs such as aspirin, clofibrate, indanyl carbenicillin and procaine. Hepatic esterase had properties similar to those of intestinal esterase with respect to the sensitivity to organophosphate and the substrate specificity. However, the two purified esterases differed in properties such as molecular weight, isoelectric point, thermostability and optimal pH. PMID:7206363

  14. Commonly prescribed β-lactam antibiotics induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress in culture at physiologically relevant concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eKintner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other β-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (called aberrant bodies or AB characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations.

  15. A Highly Sensitive Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Method for the Determination of Penicillin Antibiotics with Potassium Ferricyanide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hui; LIU Zhong-Fang; LIU Shao-Pu; KONG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Heated in a boiling water bath, penicillin antibiotics such as amoxicillin, ampicillin, sodium cloxacillin, sodium carbenicillin and sodium benzylpenicillin could react with K3[Fe(CN)6] to form combined products in a dilute HCl medium.As a result, resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity was enhanced greatly and new RRS spectra appeared.The maximum scattering wavelengths of the five combined products are all located at 330 nm.The scattered intensity increments (△I) of the combined products are directly proportional to the concentrations of the antibiotics in a certain range.The methods exhibit high sensitivity, and the detection limits for the five penicillin antibiotics are between 4.61 and 5.62 ng·mL-1.The spectral characteristics of RRS and the optimum reaction conditions were investigated.The mechanism of reaction and the reasons for the enhancement of resonance light scattering were discussed.The effects of coexisting substances have been examined, and the results indicated that the method had a good selectivity.It can be applied to the determination of penicillin antibiotics in capsule, tablet, human serum and urine samples.

  16. Electronic structure and physicochemical properties of selected penicillins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Ruiz, Juan F. Sánchez; Raya, A.; Esquivel, Rodolfo O.

    Traditionally, penicillins have been used as antibacterial agents due to their characteristics and widespread applications with few collateral effects, which have motivated several theoretical and experimental studies. Despite the latter, their mechanism of biological action has not been completely elucidated. We present a theoretical study at the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory of a selected group of penicillins such as the penicillin-G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, and carbenicillin molecules, to systematically determine the electron structure of full ?-lactam antibiotics. Our results allow us to analyze the electronic properties of the pharmacophore group, the aminoacyl side-chain, and the influence of the substituents (R and X) attached to the aminoacyl side-chain at 6? (in contrast with previous studies focused at the 3? substituents), and to corroborate the results of previous studies performed at the semiempirical level, solely on the ?-lactam ring of penicillins. Besides, several density descriptors are determined with the purpose of analyzing their link to the antibacterial activity of these penicillin compounds. Our results for the atomic charges (fitted to the electrostatic potential), the bond orders, and several global reactivity descriptors, such as the dipole moments, ionization potential, hardness, and the electrophilicity index, led us to characterize: the active sites, the effect of the electron-attracting substituent properties and their physicochemical features, which altogether, might be important to understand the biological activity of these type of molecules.

  17. Physiological Function of Rac Prophage During Biofilm Formation and Regulation of Rac Excision in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Yangmei; Guo, Yunxue; Zeng, Zhenshun; Li, Baiyuan; Wood, Thomas K; Cai, Xingsheng; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2015-01-01

    Rac or rac-like prophage harbors many genes with important physiological functions, while it remains excision-proficient in several bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. Here, we found that rac excision is induced during biofilm formation, and the isogenic stain without rac is more motile and forms more biofilms in nutrient-rich medium at early stages in E. coli K-12. Additionally, the presence of rac genes increases cell lysis during biofilm development. In most E. coli strains, rac is integrated into the ttcA gene which encodes a tRNA-thioltransferase. Rac excision in E. coli K-12 leads to a functional change of TtcA, which results in reduced fitness in the presence of carbenicillin. Additionally, we demonstrate that YdaQ (renamed as XisR) is the excisionase of rac in E. coli K-12, and that rac excision is induced by the stationary sigma factor RpoS through inducing xisR expression. Taken together, our results reveal that upon rac integration, not only are new genes introduced into the host, but also there is a functional change in a host enzyme. Hence, rac excision is tightly regulated by host factors to control its stability in the host genome under different stress conditions. PMID:26530864

  18. Genetic Profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Iranian Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Using RAPD-PCR and PFGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Eftekhar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPseudomonas aeruginosa is the most important cause of chronic lung infections and death in patients with cystic fibrosis. Determining the distribution of specific strains within patient populations is important in order to examine the epidemiology of the disease and the possibility of cross infection among patients. Materials and MethodsForty six Iranian patients with cystic fibrosis were studied for colonization with P. aeruginosa. Colony phenotype was recorded and antibiotic susceptibility to 11 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion method. Genetic fingerprinting was carried out by RAPD–PCR and by PFGE.ResultsForty five P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from 31 patients including sequential cultures from 9 subjects. The rate of colonization increased with age. All isolates were susceptible to tobramycin and ciprofloxacin, 97.8% were sensitive to amikacin and piperacillin, 93.3% to gentamycin, 91.1% to ticarcillin, 86.7% to colistin, 80% to carbenicillin, 48.9% to cefotaxime, 26.7% to imipenem and 11.1% to ceftazidime. Genetic fingerprinting showed similar distribution profiles for RAPD-PCR and PFGE and the majority of the isolates had unique fingerprints. ConclusionNo relationship was observed between the obtained genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility profiles and common predominant virulent clones were not found among the isolates.

  19. Occurrence of antibiotic and metal resistance in bacteria from organs of river fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial populations in some organs, viz., liver, spleen, kidney, gill, and arborescent organ of the catfish Clarias batrachus were enumerated followed by determination of resistance for antibiotics and metals. The total viable counts in these organs, observed, were 2.24x104, 2.08x104, 1.44x104, 1.23x104, and 6.40x103 colony-forming units/mL, respectively. The random bacterial isolates from these fish organs showed resistance in decreasing order for colistin (98%), ampicillin (82%), gentamycin (34%), carbenicillin (28%), tetracyline (20%), streptomycin (12%), and ciprofloxacin (02%). Most of the isolates exhibited an increasing order of tolerance for the metals (μg/mL) copper (100), lead (200), manganese (400), cadmium (200), and chromium (50), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from <50 to 1600 μg/mL. These observations indicate that the significant occurrence of bacterial population in organs of fish with high incidence of resistance for antibiotics and metals may pose risk to fish fauna and public health

  20. Initial identification and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of Salmonella sp.isolated from poultry products in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WF Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to isolate and to verify the sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of strains of Salmonella sp. isolated from poultry products in the state of Ceara, Brazil. A total number of 114 samples was collected from 63 broiler carcasses derived from two processing plants and two supermarkets, and 51 excreta samples were collected in broiler farms located in the state of Ceara, which used three live production stages. Each excreta sample consisted of a fresh excreta pool from 100 birds. Samples were submitted to microbiological analyses, and the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. No Salmonella was isolated from excreta samples, while broiler carcass samples showed a high contamination rate of11.8%. Three serotypes were identified: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 50%; Salmonella enterica serovar Panama 33%, and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, 17%. As to the susceptibility tests to antimicrobial agents, 100% of the isolated Salmonella strains showed resistance to Ampicillin and Tetracycline, and sensitivity to Gentamycin, Netilmycin, Carbenicillin, Chloramphenicol.

  1. The Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated from Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ranjbar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered as the most common bacterial infectious disease seen among the pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial uropathogens isolated from the pediatric patients with urinary tract infections."nMethods: This descriptive study was conducted in Children Medial Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2006 to Feb 2007. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were obtained from the patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by standard biochemical and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI guidelines."nResults: From 14199 urine specimens, 16.2% had positive results for bacterial cultures. Nine hundred twenty one strains were identified as Escherichia coli; 412 as Klebsiella spp., 285 as Coagulase negative Staphylocococci, 202 as Enterococcus spp., 158 as Pseudomonas spp., and 83 as Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli isolates showed high resistance to carbenicillin (68%, ampicillin (96%, trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazol (70% and kanamycin (65%. More than 30% of isolates of Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. have shown high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics."nConclusion: Our findings reinforce the need for ongoing investigation to show trends in antibiotic resistance, which can help to prescribing of antibiotics in clinics.

  2. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  3. Aeromonas spp.: An emerging nosocomial pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyam Batra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp.

  4. Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genes associated with antibiotic susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic infections in humans and these infections are difficult to treat due to the bacteria’s high-level of intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibiotics. To address this problem, it is crucial to investigate the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in this organism. In this study, a P. aeruginosa transposon insertion library of 17000 clones was constructed and screened for altered susceptibility to seven antibiotics. Colonies grown on agar plates con- taining antibiotics at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and those unable to grow at ? MIC were collected. The transposon-disrupted genes in 43 confirmed mutants that showed at least a three-fold increase or a two-fold decrease in suscep- tibility to at least one antibiotic were determined by semi-random PCR and subsequent sequencing analysis. In addition to nine genes known to be associated with antibiotic resistance, including mexI, mexB and mexR, 24 new antibiotic resis- tance-associated genes were identified, including a fimbrial biogenesis gene pilY1 whose disruption resulted in a 128-fold in- crease in the MIC of carbenicillin. Twelve of the 43 genes identified were of unknown function. These genes could serve as targets to control or reverse antibiotic resistance in this important human pathogen.

  5. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry cv. Camarosa by a Dual Plasmid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haddadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100% of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24 produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86% in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  6. Prevalence and distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in finfish from Cochin (south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammanamveetil A.M. Hatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Finfish samples obtained from four retail outlets in Cochin between June 2009 and June 2010 were investigated for the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A total of 182 samples were collected and suspect isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests and were further confirmed by a species-specific tlh gene. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 45.1% of samples, with demersal fish being more affected than pelagic species. The bacterium was isolated more frequently from the skin and gills of pelagic fish, while the intestine yielded greater numbers of V. parahaemolyticus in demersal fish. The highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was recorded against ampicillin and streptomycin, followed by carbenicillin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin, colistin and amoxycillin; the lowest was against nalidixic acid, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent among isolates. Although only a fraction of strains are pathogenic for humans, the time-temperature abuse in markets provides ample scope for these strains to multiply to dangerous levels. The multidrug resistant nature of the strains adds to the gravity of the problem. High V. parahaemolyticus incidence rates in market finfish samples from areas in and around Cochin clearly indicates that control measures should be adopted to reduce post-harvest contamination in seafood and time-temperature abuse in markets to diminish the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection associated with seafood destined for human consumption.

  7. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  8. A real time S1 assay at neutral pH based on graphene oxide quenched fluorescence probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As the extracellular nuclease of Aspergillus, S1 nuclease can split single and double-stranded DNA into oligo- or mononucleotides, while preferentially digests single-stranded nucleic acids. Furthermore, the existence of S1 can be the standard to identify Aspergillus and used to evaluate the severity of Aspergillosis. Herein, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensing platform for S1 assay was developed based on the S1-induced DNA strand scission and the difference in affinity of graphene oxide (GO for single-stranded DNA containing different bases. This platform was applied to monitor S1 activity and study the kinetics in real time. Results indicated that the detection limit is 0.5 U/mL. The Km and kcat at 45 °C, are 1.4 ± 0.12 μM and 0.6 min−1, respectively. Moreover, by monitoring the effect of chemical drugs on S1 activity, we found that 2 mM of erythromycin, sodium penicillin, carbenicillin disodium and ampicillin can inhibit S1 activity about 8%, 60%, 61% and 66%, respectively, while gentamycin sulfate is a stimulator. Overall, the assay platform based on graphene oxide quenched fluorescence probe is successfully constructed to study the enzymatic activity of S1 and used for screening antibiotics.

  9. [Sensitivity of clinical strains of facultatively anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobial drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, L G; Iskhakova, Kh I

    1988-02-01

    Six hundred and sixty five samples of clinical materials from patients with various pyoinflammatory diseases were tested for obligatory anaerobes. Anaerobes were detected in 148 samples which amounted to 22.3 per cent of the total number of the samples and to 33.2 per cent of the samples with microbial growth. A total of 171 strains of obligatory anaerobes were isolated. Among them 58.5, 24.5, 16.4 and 0.6 per cent were nonsporulating gramnegative bacilli, grampositive cocci, grampositive bacilli and gramnegative cocci respectively. Sensitivity of the isolated anaerobes was tested with the disk diffusion method. The most active drugs against the tested strains were: nitroxoline, rifampicin, metronidasole, erythromycin, carbenicillin and cefotaxim (4.2, 4.5, 9.3, 10.6, 11.5 and 11.7 per cent of the resistant strains respectively). Gentamicin, polymyxin M, novobiocin and cefazoline were the least active drugs (94.6, 78.9, 65.4 and 50.0 per cent of the resistant strains respectively). Metronidasole, levomycetin, nitroxolin, rifampicin and furazolidone showed the highest activity against bacteroids of the fragilis group (0, 0, 0, 8 and 12.5 per cent of the resistant strains respectively) while gentamicin, polymyxin M, cefazolin, oxacillin, novobiocin and penicillin showed the lowest activity (100, 100, 100, 100, 87.0 and 66.7 per cent of the resistant strains respectively). PMID:3377601

  10. Resistance pattern of clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus against five groups of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the samples received in pathology laboratory, Pakistan institute of Medical Science, Islamabad, 5069 samples had bacterial growth, among these 2580 (51%) samples were Gram-positive cocci and 1688 were Staphylococcus aureus during a period of two years. Out of these Gram-positive cocci 56% were resistant to penicillin group, 27% were resistant to cephalosporin group, 22% were resistant to aminoglycoside group 15% were resistant to quinolone group and 31% were resistant to other antibiotics (cotrimaxazole, erythromycin, aztreonam, vancomycin, nitrofurantion and meropenam). Antibio-grams of Gram-positive cocci were determined against various antibiotics by disc diffusion method. The rate of resistance to most of the antibiotics such as ampicillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, penicillin, cephradine, cefotaxime, erythromycin, ceclor, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cotrimexazole (septran), gentamicin, meropenem, ceftazidime, erythromycin, tobramycin, enoxacin was higher when tested against the isolates collected from pus as compared to those from blood and urine. Antibiotic resistant strains were more prevalent in pus samples than other clinical isolates (blood and urine). The randomly selected 155 strains of Staphylococcus aureus when tested against five groups of antibiotics showed resistance rate against ampicillin (92%), cephradine (92%), cephradine (60%), and gentamicin (58%). However intermediate resistance was found in case of vancomicin (38%), in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. (author)

  11. ISPpu22, a novel insertion sequence in the oprD porin gene of a carbapen- em-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from a burn patient in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The oprD mutation and AmpC overproduction are the main mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to carbapenems such as imipenem and meropenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated intrinsic resistance to carbapenems including mutation of oprD and AmpC overproduction in a carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from a burn patient by phenotypic and molecular methods.Results: In our study, the carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolate was resistant to imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, carbenicillin, aztreonam and ciprofloxacin but was susceptible to ceftazidime and polymyxin B. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem, meropenem and ceftazidime were 64 μg/ml, 16 μg/ml and 2μg/ml, respectively. The isolate was ESBLs and AmpC overproducer. No carbapenemase activity was detected by Modified Hodge test (MHT. This isolate was carrying only blaOXA-10. PCR amplification and sequencing of oprD performed on isolate resulted in PCR product of 2647bp. Sequence analysis of the 2647bp product revealed insertion of a sequence of 1232 bp at position 8 in coding region of oprD.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, oprD mutation and AmpC overproduction can cause the main mechanism of resistance of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems.Keywords: ISPpu22, oprD, AmpC, Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa

  12. Recycling Antibiotics into GUMBOS: A New Combination Strategy to Combat Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria

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    Marsha R. Cole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and β-lactam antibiotics, GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective β-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.

  13. COAGULASE POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI RESISTANCE TO BETALACTAM ANTIBIOTICS: USING IODOMETRIC AND ACIDOMETRIC ASSAY – 1999

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    A TAVAKOLI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is very important to know the resistant bacteria to common used antibiotics in our community. Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the main cause of infection in infectious disease. This study was done to demonstrate the pattern of resistance to batalactamase antibiotics among staphiococci. Methods. During a period of five month, 38 coagulase positive staphylococcus isolates were identified from various clinical specimens from 600 patients at the AI-Zahra university hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Results. Betalactamase production assays using rapid acidometric and iodometric tests showed that 78.9 percent and 73.6 percent of isolates were positive, respectively. The differnce in determination rate between acidometric and iodometric tests was not statistically significant. Moreover the acidometric test was cheaper and more easy to perform than iodometric test. In vitro sensitivity testing using the disc diffusion method showed that all of isolates were resistant to carbenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, while 7.9 percent and 13.2 percent were resistant to cefazolin and cephalexin, respectively. Discussion. We recommend use of cefazolin, cephalexin and oxacillin for treatment of patients with staphylococcus infections.

  14. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran from 2011-2012

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    Jalal Mardaneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, glucose-nonfermenting aerobic bacterium. It is widespread in natural environments and it is an opportunistic pathogen for humans that can lead to a broad spectrum of disease such as urinary, burn, respiratory infections, and septicemia. The aim of this study was to determe antibiotic resistance profile of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 111 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: The more P. aeruginosa strains were from wound specimens (48.6%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest anti-Pseudomonas activity (78.3%. Isolates demonstrated resistance to beta-lactam antimicrobials such as antipseudomonal penicillins, including piperacillin and carbenicillin. Conclusion: The spread of these bacteria in hospital personnel and wet areas could be a suitable reservoir of resistance genes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile and the effect of hospital equipment and personnel in the dissemination route of resistance genes.

  15. Meropenem as an Alternative Antibiotic Agent for Suppression of Agrobacterium in Genetic Transformation of Orchid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ying; Niimi Yoshiyuki; HU Shang-lian

    2006-01-01

    A case of Meropenem as a novel antibacterial agent to suppress and eliminate Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of orchid protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) has been reported in this article. The in vitro activities of meropenem and four comparator antibacterial agents against three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, LBA4404, EHA101, and GV3101, were assessed. In addition, the effect of meropenem on the growth of Dendrobium phalaenopsis PLBs was determined. Compared with other commonly used antibiotics (including ampicillin,carbenicillin, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone), meropenem showed the highest activity in suppressing all tested A.tumefaciens strains (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 0.5 mg L-1, which is equal to minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]). Meropenem, at all tested concentrations, except for 10 mg L-1 concentration, had little negative effect on the growth of orchid tissues. The A. tumefaciens strain EHA101 in genetic transformation with vector pIG121Hm in infected PLBs of the orchid was visually undetectable after a two-month subculture in 1/2 MS medium with 50 mg L-1 meropenem and 25 mg L-1 hygromacin. The expression and incorporation of the transgenes were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Meropenem may be an alternative antibiotic for the effective suppression of A. tumefaciens in genetic transformation.

  16. Effective Antibiotics against ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in HLB-Affected Citrus Plants Identified via the Graft-Based Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles A.; Doud, Melissa S.; Yang, Chuanyu; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB), caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA) demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application. PMID:25372135

  17. Biochemical synthesis of silver nanoprticles using filamentous fungi Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) and its efficacy against A-549 lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Bin; Dash, Gouri Kumar; Ansari, Mohammed Tahir; Nanda, Anima

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesis of silver and other metallic nanoparticles is one of the emerging research area in the field of science and technology due to their potentiality, especially in the field of nano-biotechnology and biomedical sciences in order to develop nanomedicine. In our present study, Penicillium decumbens (MTCC-2494) was brought from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) Chandigarh and employed for extracellular biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Ag-NPs formation was appeared with a dark brown color inside the conical flask. Characterization of Ag-NPs were done by UV-Spectrophotometric analysis which showed absorption peak at 430 nm determines the presence of nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis, showed amines and amides are the possible proteins involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles as capping agent. Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) confirmed the particle are spherical, size was around 30 to 60 nm and also the roughness of nanoparticles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed the topology of the nanoparticles and were spherical in shape. The biosynthesis process was found fast, ecofriendly and cost effective. Nano-silver particle was found to have a broad antimicrobial activity and also it showed good enhancement of antimicrobial activity of Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, Cefixime, Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Sparfloxacin in a synergistic mode. These Ag-NPs showed good anti-cancer activity at 80 μg·mL(-1)upon 24 hours of incubation and toxicity increases upon 48 hours of incubation against A-549 human lung cancer cell line and the synergistic formulation of the antibiotic with the synthesized nanoparticles was found more effective against the pathogenic bacteria studied. PMID:27608951

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and analysis of plasmid profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from human, animal and plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Ajetunmobi, Olabayo; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah; Odutayo, Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) constitute a major public health threat globally. Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most studied MDROs however there is paucity of information regarding the susceptibility of its animal and plants isolates to antipseudomonas drug in Nigeria. From a total of 252 samples consisting of plants, animals and clinical samples, 54, 24 and 22 P. aeruginosa were isolated from vegetables, animals and clinical sources respectively. All the isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the 100 P. aeruginosa isolates against 7 antipseudomonal drugs was carried out by disk diffusion method, the phenotypic detection of ESBL was done by double disk synergy test (DDST) while plasmid extraction on 20 selected isolates based on their resistance to 2 or more classes of antibiotics was carried out by alkaline lysis method and analysed with Lambda DNA/Hind lll marker respectively. The AST results revealed highest resistance of 91 and 55 % to ceftazidime and carbenicillin respectively while highest susceptibilities of 99 % for piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem were recorded in overall assay. Fifteen out of 100 isolates specifically (10) from vegetables, (3) clinical and (2) poultry isolates showed synergy towards the beta-lactamase inhibitor indicating production of ESBL by DDST method. Detection of plasmids was among vegetable (n = 4), poultry (n = 4), cow (n = 3) and clinical isolates (n = 1). Plasmid profile for the selected isolates revealed 6 of the strains had one plasmids each while 5 strains possessed 2-4 plasmids and 1 strain had 5 plasmids. The sizes of the plasmid range from Plants and animal isolates of P. aeruginosa harbouring multiple mechanisms of resistance is of concern due to the danger it poses on the public health. PMID:27610300

  19. Pyocyanin stimulates quorum sensing-mediated tolerance to oxidative stress and increases persister cell populations in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2014-08-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are nosocomial pathogens with overlapping sites of infection. This work reports that the two can coexist stably in mixed-culture biofilms. In a study intended to improve our understanding of the mechanism of their coexistence, it was found that pyocyanin, produced by P. aeruginosa that generally eliminates competition from other pathogens, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. baumannii cells, which in response showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in production of enzymes, specifically, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This work shows for the first time that the expression of catalase and SOD is under the control of a quorum-sensing system in A. baumannii. In support of this observation, a quorum-sensing mutant of A. baumannii (abaI::Km) was found to be sensitive to pyocyanin compared to its wild type and showed significantly (P ≤ 0.001) lower levels of the antioxidant enzymes, which increased on addition of 5 μM N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. Likewise, in wild-type A. baumannii, there was a significant (P quencher of quorum sensing. In the presence of amikacin and carbenicillin, A. baumannii formed 0.07 and 0.02% persister cells, which increased 4- and 3-fold, respectively, in the presence of pyocyanin. These findings show that pyocyanin induces a protective mechanism in A. baumannii against oxidative stress and also increases its persistence against antibiotics which could be of clinical significance in the case of coinfections with A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. PMID:24891106

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of the VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, N; Caravelli, B; Docquier, J D; Galleni, M; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G; Rossolini, G M

    2000-11-01

    VIM-1 is a new group 3 metallo-beta-lactamase recently detected in carbapenem-resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Mediterranean area. In this work, VIM-1 was purified from an Escherichia coli strain carrying the cloned bla(VIM-1) gene by means of an anion-exchange chromatography step followed by a gel permeation chromatography step. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 26 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an acidic pI of 5.1 in analytical isoelectric focusing. Amino-terminal sequencing showed that mature VIM-1 results from the removal of a 26-amino-acid signal peptide from the precursor. VIM-1 hydrolyzes a broad array of beta-lactam compounds, including penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and mechanism-based serine-beta-lactamase inactivators. Only monobactams escape hydrolysis. The highest catalytic constant/K(m) ratios (>10(6) M(-1). s(-1)) were observed with carbenicillin, azlocillin, some cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefepime, and cefpirome), imipenem, and biapenem. Kinetic parameters showed remarkable variability with different beta-lactams and also within the various penam, cephem, and carbapenem compounds, resulting in no clear preference of the enzyme for any of these beta-lactam subfamilies. Significant differences were observed with some substrates between the kinetic parameters of VIM-1 and those of other metallo-beta-lactamases. Inactivation assays carried out with various chelating agents (EDTA, 1,10-o-phenanthroline, and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) indicated that formation of a ternary enzyme-metal-chelator complex precedes metal removal from the zinc center of the protein and revealed notable differences in the inactivation parameters of VIM-1 with different agents. PMID:11036013

  1. Frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in burn wound infections and their resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estahbanati, Hamid Karimi; Kashani, Parnian Pour; Ghanaatpisheh, Fahimeh

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a prominent role as an etiological agent involved in serious infections in burned patients. In this study P. aeruginosa infections were analyzed at the Motahari Burn Center in Tehran (from 22 December 1998 to April 1999) to estimate their frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and serotypes. One hundred and eighty-four positive cultures and 205 bacterial strains were isolated among swabs or biopsy specimens during the study period. Pseudomonas was found to be the most common (57%) followed by Acinetobacter (17%), Escherichia coli (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (8%) and other organisms (6%). The frequency of P. aeruginosa resistance to gentamicin, ceftizoxime, carbenicillin, cephalothin and ceftazidime was over 90%. The antibiotics to which P. aeruginosa was most sensitive were amikacin and tetracyclin. The "O" serotypes isolated from the 117 Pseudomona aeroginosa isolates were serotypes O:2, O:5, O:6, O:8, O:11, O:12 and O:16. The most common serotype was O:6 (20/17%) followed by O:11 (18/15%) and O:5 (14/12%). The serotype most resistant was O:16 (8%) and the most sensitive was O:8 (2%). Since treatment of infection with available antibiotics according to the results attained proved to be difficult, prevention of infection in the burned patients is considered as an appropriate means of conquering overcoming infection problems. The sum of frequencies of serotypes O:6, O:11, O:5 and O:16 was more than 60%, therefore vaccination of burn patients with polyvalent antiserum to these serotypes could possibly produce immunity in more than half of the burned patients. PMID:12052372

  2. Nitrincola lacisaponensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from an alkaline, saline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu, Pedro A; Shukla, Sanjay K; Conradt, Jennifer; Márquez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Maglia, Anne; Peyton, Brent M; Pinkart, Holly C; Mormile, Melanie R

    2005-11-01

    A novel alkaliphilic bacterium, strain 4CAT, was isolated from decomposing wood taken from the shore of Soap Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in Grant County, WA, USA. Cells of the isolate were Gram-negative, asporogenous, short, motile rods that utilized only a limited range of organic acids as sole carbon and energy sources. In addition to oxygen, the strain possessed the ability to reduce in the presence of acetate. Strain 4CAT was oxidase- and catalase-positive; it degraded Tween 60, but not DNA, urea, gelatin or starch. It grew at pH values from 7.5 to 11.0, with optimum growth occurring at pH 9.0, and growth was observed in NaCl concentrations of 0.2-1.3 M, with optimum growth at 0.8 M NaCl. The optimum temperature for growth was 37 degrees C. Strain 4CAT was resistant to erythromycin, bacitracin, novobiocin, polymyxin B, neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, carbenicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline, and was susceptible to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and penicillin. The isolate's 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it belonged to the gamma-Proteobacteria, showing 90-94 % similarity to its closest relatives. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic inferences placed strain 4CAT within a novel lineage related to the marine bacterial genera Neptunomonas and Marinobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 47.4 mol%. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characterization, it was concluded that strain 4CAT should be placed in a separate taxon as a novel genus and species, with the proposed name Nitrincola lacisaponensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is 4CAT (=ATCC BAA-920T=DSM 16316T). PMID:16280482

  3. In vitro activity of cefoperazone-sulbactam combination against gram negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, N; Gyawali, N; Gurung, R; Bhattarai, N R; Baral, R; Khanal, B; Shrestha, S; Amatya, R; Bhattacharya, S K

    2012-03-01

    Cefoperazone is a â-lactam antimicrobial and Sulbactam is an irreversible â-lactamase inhibitor. The objective of this study was to know the susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacilli (GNB) towards cefoperazone-sulbactum. All GNB isolated from different clinical samples during the period of May, 2010 to Aug, 2010 were tested for susceptibility to cefoperazone-sulbactum, meropenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloromphenicol, cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, carbenicillin and piperacillin using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing method. The susceptibilities were recorded according to CLSI guidelines. A total of 406 GNB were isolated (urine: 66.7%, pus: 19.2%, and blood: 7.9%). Escherichia coli (54.4%) was most frequently isolated organisms followed by Acinetobacter species (17.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.1%) and Pseudomonas species (6.1%). Overall, 11.8% of isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam. Frequencies of isolates showing resistance to meropenem and amikacin were 14.7% and 26.25% respectively. Only 3.9% of Escherichia coli isolates showed resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam. For other organisms, their lowest frequency ranging from 0-20%, exhibited resistance to meropenem. In Pseudomonas spp, in-vitro activity of amikacin was also better as only 11.1% isolates showed resistance to it. This study demonstrated the in-vitro synergistic effect of cefoperazonerazone-sulbactam and meropenem having good activity against GNB compared to the activity of other commonly tested antimicrobials. Cefoperazone-sulbactam can be recommended for the clinical practice against GNB exhibiting resistant to other antimicrobials as it is cheaper alternative to meropenem. Our results also focused on the continuous surveillance of the trends and features of resistance of common antimicrobials. PMID:23441486

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Isolated from Patient with Burn Wound Infection in Guilan,Iran

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    Iraj Nikokar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains a major problem in burn patients. The main objective of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and frequency of class 1 integrons among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with burn wound infections in a new Burn Centre in Guilan, Iran.Materials and Methods: The bacterial isolates were collected from 182 patients with burn wound infections and P. aeruginosa species were identified by standard bacteriological methods. The drug susceptibility test, using 11 antimicrobial agents, was performed for all the isolates via agar disk diffusion method. PCR was carried out for the detection of integrons.Results: Out of a total of 182 hospitalized patients in the burn center assessed, 86 (47% found to have P. aeruginosa in their isolates. Resistance rates to various antibiotics were as follows: cloxacillin (91.8%, cotrimoxazole (86%, cephazolin (83.7%, carbenicillin (74.4%, piperacillin (69.9%, ceftazidime (68.8%, ciprofloxacin (66.3%, tobramycin (58.2%, amikacin (48.8% and gentamicin (37.2%, while the most effective antibiotic was imipenem with a resistance rate of 23.3%. Thirty nine (45.3% isolates were detected as multi-drug resistant. The PCR results showed that 37 (43% P. aeruginosa isolates and 27 (69.2% multi-drug resistant strains harbored class 1 integrons. A significant correlation was obtained between the presence of integrons and resistance against imipenem, ceftazidime, piperacillin and ciprofloxacin (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Optimization of using antimicrobial agents and control of infection is recommended to prevent the increasing population of drug resistant organisms in the new burn centre setting in this study. Furthermore, the high frequency of class 1 integrons among multi-drug resistant strains might be responsible for dissemination of antibiotic resistance gene.

  5. Association of plasmid typing to biotyping and antibiotyping in the characterization of outbreaks by Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak at an University Hospital, from April to September, in 1994, sixteen strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated from patients and one strain from an enteral solution. We afterwards analyzed the outbreak by means of plasmid typing, antibiotic resistance typing and biotyping. Two main plasmid profiles were identified. Twelve strains belonged to biotype 2, and five to biotype 19. Susceptibility to amikacin and to carbenicillin allowed classification of the strains into two groups. The results show that association of those three typing methods allowed the differentiation of what was at first considered as a single outbreak into two apparently unrelated outbreaks.Durante um surto ocorrido de abril a setembro de 1994 em um Hospital Universitário, dezesseis cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii foram isoladas de pacientes e uma de solução enteral. Nós posteriormente analizamos as cepas isoladas durante o surto pelos seguintes métodos de tipagem : perfil de DNA plasmidial, perfil de antibiograma e biotipagem. Dois padrões de tipagem foram identificados pela análise do perfil plasmidial. Doze cepas foram caracterizadas como sendo do biotipo 2, e cinco do biotipo 19. O padrão de sensibilidade a amicacina e a carbenicilina possibilitou a classificação das cepas em dois grupos. Os resultados demonstraram que estes três métodos de tipagem associados possibilitaram a diferenciação do que primeiramente foi considerado como um único surto, em dois surtos aparentemente não relacionados.

  6. Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility of Uropathogens in Patients from a Rural Environment, Tamilnadu

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    Maripandi Arjunan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs in human, rural environment cause significant morbidity due to insanitary condition, lack of knowledge of personal hygiene, lack of patient’s compliance and economic burden. In our study, the bacterial etiologies and the resistance patterns found in human with serious UTIs and selecting optimal antimicrobial therapy. Approach: A total of 105 patients first morning mid stream urine samples, culture was done by the calibrated loop technique delivering 0.001 mL of urine plated on Cystine-Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar, MacConkey agar and Blood agar medium (Hi Media, India for isolation of uropathogens. All pathogens were analyzed for drug susceptibility by disk diffusion method. Results: More than 50% of them were confirmed to have UTI bacteriological positive. Women and man especially in the age group of 20-29 had higher incidence of bacterial infection. A total of 58 isolates seven different uropathogens were identified among the Escherichia coli (31% was dominant pathogens followed by Citrobacter spp., (20% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.24%. In all uropathogens antibiotics susceptibility the more active agents were norfloxacin (87.93%, ciprofloxacin (70.68%, gentamicin (70.68%, nalidixic acid (68.96%, nitrofurantoine (60.34% and tetracycline (60.34% and less active in ampicillin (8.62%, rifampicin (37.93% and carbenicillin (41.37%. Conclusion: Among commonly used antimicrobial agents for the treatment of UTI, there is a trend towards increasing resistance to ampicillin and a persistently low resistance rate to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be consider for treatment.

  7. Virulence of Vibrio harveyi responsible for the "Bright-red" Syndrome in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo; del Rio-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2012-03-01

    Vibrio harveyi (Vh) CAIM 1792 strain was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei affected with "Bright-red" Syndrome (BRS). The strain grew in 1-10% NaCl, at 15-35°C and was resistant to ampicillin (10 μg), carbenicillin (100 μg) and oxytetracycline (30 μg). The lowest MIC was for enrofloxacine (0.5 μgml(-1)). The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and the extracellular products (ECPs) of Vh CAIM 1792 grown at 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% NaCl were evaluated. Adherence ability, enzymatic activities and siderophore production of bacterial cell was tested. The ECPs exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as gelatinase, amylase, lipase, phospholipase and caseinase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on HELA cell line at 6 and 24 h. Challenges using 10(3) CFU g(-1) caused opacity at the site of injection and over 80% shrimp mortality before 24 h p.i. (post-injection). Mortality caused by the ECPs was higher than mortalities with bacteria, especially in the first hours p.i. Bacteria were re-isolated from hemolymph samples of moribund shrimp and identified as Vh CAIM 1792 by rep-PCR. Histological analysis of shrimp L. vannamei injected with Vh CAIM 1792 revealed generalized necrosis involving skeletal muscle (MU) at the injection site, the lymphoid organ (LO), heart and connective tissues. Melanization within the MU at the site of injection was also observed as well as hemocytic nodules within the hearth and MU at 168 h p.i. LO was the target organ of BRS. Necrosis of the MU at the injection site was the main difference in comparison to other shrimp vibriosis. PMID:22306693

  8. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive

  9. Effective antibiotics against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in HLB-affected citrus plants identified via the graft-based evaluation.

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    Muqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Citrus huanglongbing (HLB, caused by three species of fastidious, phloem-limited 'Candidatus Liberibacter', is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. To date, there is no established cure for this century-old and yet, newly emerging disease. As a potential control strategy for citrus HLB, 31 antibiotics were screened for effectiveness and phytotoxicity using the optimized graft-based screening system with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las-infected citrus scions. Actidione and Oxytetracycline were the most phytotoxic to citrus with less than 10% of scions surviving and growing; therefore, this data was not used in additional analyses. Results of principal component (PCA and hierarchical clustering analyses (HCA demonstrated that 29 antibiotics were clustered into 3 groups: highly effective, partly effective, and not effective. In spite of different modes of actions, a number of antibiotics such as, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Penicillin, Cefalexin, Rifampicin and Sulfadimethoxine were all highly effective in eliminating or suppressing Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus indicated by both the lowest Las infection rate and titers of the treated scions and inoculated rootstock. The non-effective group, including 11 antibiotics alone with three controls, such as Amikacin, Cinoxacin, Gentamicin, Kasugamycin, Lincomycin, Neomycin, Polymixin B and Tobramycin, did not eliminate or suppress Las in the tested concentrations, resulting in plants with increased titers of Las. The other 12 antibiotics partly eliminated or suppressed Las in the treated and graft-inoculated plants. The effective and non-phytotoxic antibiotics could be potential candidates for control of citrus HLB, either for the rescue of infected citrus germplasm or for restricted field application.

  10. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV, thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy

  11. Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Lim, Swee Hua Erin; Hu, Cai Ping; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2013-06-15

    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. PMID:23537749

  12. Prevalence of ESBLs genes among multidrug-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahcheraghi, Freshteh; Nikbin, Vajiheh-Sadat; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2009-03-01

    Drug susceptibility testing and PCR assay were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of genes encoding five different extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs) (PER, VEB, SHV, GES, and TEM) among 600 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured from patients at two hospitals in Tehran. Susceptibility of isolates to 12 different antibiotics was tested using disk diffusion method. The MICs for ceftazidime and imipenem were also determined using microbroth dilution assay. Isolates showing MICs >or=16 for ceftazidime were subjected to PCR targeting bla(SHV), bla(PER), bla(GES), bla(VEB), and bla(TEM) genes that encode ESBL. The rates of resistance were as follows: tetracycline (92%), carbenicillin (62%), cefotaxime (56%), ceftriaxon (53%), piperacilin (46%), gentamicin (31%), piperacilin/tazobactam (28%), ceftazidime (25%), amikacin (23%), ciprofloxacin (19.5%), and imipenem (6%). Thirty-nine percent of isolates (n = 234) showed MICs >or=16 microg/ml for ceftazidime, and 5.45% showed MICs >or=16 microg/ml for imepenem. The imipenem-resistant isolates showed high rate of susceptibility to colistin (89%) and polymixin B (95.5%). The frequency of bla(VEB), bla(SHV), bla(PER), bla(GES), and bla(TEM) among the ESBL isolates (MIC >or=16) were 24%, 22%, 17%, 0%, and 9%, respectively. Isolates containing bla(VEB) were resistant to almost all tested antibiotics except imepenem. This is the first report on the existence of bla(VEB), and bla(PER) in Iran. Colistin and polymixin B are highly potent against the imipenem-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa. PMID:19265477

  13. Study on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Pepper with Barnase and Cre Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan-xu; YU Yi-xun; LEI Jian-jun; CHEN Guo-ju; CAO Bi-hao

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to control plant fertility by cell lethal gene Barnase expressing at specific developmental stage and in specific tissue of male organ under the control of Cre/lox system, for heterosis breeding of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Chili pepper inbred lines (A, D, E, and I) were transformed with Cre gene and Barnase gene situated between loxp, separately, by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. In this study, we had established a high transformation system by extensive study of affecting factors including genotype, selection of marker, and lethal dose. Cotyledon with petiole from 9-11-day-old seeding was pre-cultured on media MR [MB (MS mineral+vitamine B5)+BA (6-Benzyladenine) 5.0 mg L-1 +IAA (indoleacetic acid) 1.0 mg L-1 +GA3 (gibberellic acid) 1.0 mg L-1 + sucrose 3% +agar 6.5 g L-1] for 2 d. The explants were infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens when their OD600 (optical density at 600 nm) reached 0.6-0.9. After co-cultured for 4-5 d on media MC [MB + BA 5.0 mg L-1 + IAA 1.0 mg L-1 + GA3 1.0 mg L-1 + sucrose 3% + agar 6.5 g L-1 + AS (acetosyringone)200 μmol L-1], these cotyledons with petiole were cultured on selective differentiation medium in the media MT [MB medium supplemented with BA [5.0 mg L-1 + IAA 1.0 mg L-1 + GA3 1.0 mg L-1 + AgNO3 5.0 mg L-1 + CW (coconut water) 5% +Km (kanamycin) 65 mg L-1 + Cb (carbenicillin) 500 mg L-1 + 3% sucrose + agar 6.5 g L-1]. The Kmr (kanamycin resistant) bud rosettes were elongated on selective elongation medium and rooted on rooting medium. PCR and Southern blotting analysis of Kmr plantlet indicated that the foreign genes had been integrated into the genome of pepper. The transgenic plants with Cre gene developed well, blossomed out, and set fruit normally. The transgenic plants with Barnase gene grew well with normal appearance of flower, but they showed different fertility from complete sterility, partial sterility to complete fertility, and similar results were obtained from in vitro pollen

  14. Effects of HERBA CISTANCHES on the Ability of Resistance Exercise-induced Fatigue in Rats and Free Radical in Brain Tissue%肉苁蓉对大鼠抗运动性疲劳能力及脑自由基的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高占友; 周海涛; 林强

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The sterile and normal growth explants from feijoa was obtained for its rapid multiplication. [Method] The experiment in the preparation of the feijoa explants from different tissues treated with different disinfection methods and different pre-culture medium was carried out so that the appropriate condition was selected. [ Result] It was the best method that the new branch of feijoa being taken as explants was pre-cultured in 1/2MS medium containing carbenicillin, streptomycin sulfate, DTT and Vc for 21 days after it was disinfected with 0. 1% mercuric chloride for 4 minutes. [ Conclusion] The technical basis of the rapid propagation of feijoa was provided through the obtaining of health explants.%[目的]研究肉苁蓉对大鼠抗运动性疲劳能力及脑自由基的影响,为其抗运动性疲劳功效的应用提供理论依据.[方法]适应饲养4d后,将大鼠随机分为4组(n=15):静止灌服水组(C组)、静止灌服肉苁蓉组(M组)、运动灌服水组(T组)、运动灌服肉苁蓉组(TM组).训练28 d后,测定各组大鼠体重、力竭游泳时间及脑组织线粒体中MDA、SOD、GSH-Px含量,观察肉苁蓉对运动大鼠抗疲劳能力及脑自由基的影响.[结果]M组、C组大鼠体重间无显著差异,T组大鼠体重小于C组大鼠(P<0.01),TM组大鼠体重小于M组大鼠(P<0.05);TM组力竭游泳时间长于T组(P<0.01);TM组MDA含量明显低于T组(P<0.O1),SOD、GSH-Px 活性明显高于T组(P<0.01).[结论]肉苁蓉能延缓大鼠运动性疲劳的产生并抑制大强度力竭运动造成的大鼠脑组织脂质过氧化的程度和线粒体氧化损伤.

  15. MARCADORES DE PATOGENICIDADE EM Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS DO RIO DE JANEIRO Genetic markers of pathogenicity in Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 isolated from healthy pigs from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C. A. Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a caracterização genotípica e fenotípica de fatores de patogenicidade em 16 amostras de Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isoladas de suínos sadios do Rio de Janeiro. Foi observado que apenas 6 cepas possuíam o plasmídio de virulência, pYV (+ 70 kb e apresentavam dependência ao cálcio no meio MOX a 37C. Um plasmídio críptico de cerca de 8,6 kb foi encontrado em uma cepa. Doze cepas revelaram sensibilidade à pesticina enquanto que apenas três se revelaram capazes de hidrolisar a esculina. Através de PCR com "primers" específicos, foi constatada a presença dos genes ail em 14 cepas, irp2, em 1 cepa e a ausência de psaA em todas as cepas analisadas. Quanto aos quimioterápicos, a quase totalidade das cepas mostrou-se ao mesmo tempo resistente à ampicilina e carbenicilina e sensível ao sulfazotrin e à cefoxitina. As respostas foram variadas frente ao cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina e ácido nalidíxo.Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, isolated from pigs from Rio de Janeiro, have been analyzed for genetic and phenotypic markers of pathogenicity. It was observed that only 6 strains harbored the pYV (+70 kb plasmid and one strain harbored a small cryptic plasmid of about 8.6 kb. Accordingly only strains harboring pYV were calcium dependent in the MOX medium at 370C. Twelve strains showed pesticin sensitivity and the esculin reaction was negative in 13 strains. PCR analysis of pathogenicity genes using specific primers showed the presence of the ail gene in 14 strains, the irp2 gene in one and the psaA in none. Most of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, although they were susceptible to sulfazotrin and cefoxitin. For chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid the results varied among the strains.

  16. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined. Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7% than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequently from well water (38.2% than chlorinated supplies (23.0%. A. hydrophilia was the most dominant species isolated from different kinds of samples (13.4%. Whereas A. sobria and A. caviae were isolated in much lower rates 4.7 and 2.1% respectively. There was significant association between the isolation of Aeromonas species from all animal faeces and its presence in drinking water. All isolated strains were examined for the characteristics that are reputed to have roles in pathogenicity. The data reported in this study indicates that the distributions of virulence factors, that regulate the pathogenicity of Aeromonads, are different in clinical and enviromental samples. Aeromonas isolates exhibited multi-drug resistanc amoxicillin, carbenicillin and ampicillin. The most potent antibiotics against Aeromonas species isolated in this study were ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime. Essential oils have been tested for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Clove, Olive and Peppermint oil exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all strains used in this study, showed a zone of inhibition ranging from 10.00±0.8 to 14.82±0.41 mm in diameter. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for selected oils ranged from 12.8 to 25.6 mg mL-1. Treatment of mice with essential oil for 15 days led to enhance antibody levels in all treated groups and significant clearance of A. hydrophilia from animals. The treated animals had

  17. PATTERNS AND THEIR DRUG RESISTANCE OF CLINICAL ISOLATED BACTERIA IN HYDROTHORAX-PERITONEUM SAMPLES%胸腔积液和腹腔积液感染菌谱与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕惠娟; 邢志广; 苏莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the bacteriological feature and drug-fast of bacteria in hydrothorax -peritoneum.[Methods]Bacteria culture and drug-sensitive test in hydrolhorax-peritoneum preparation collected from 2007.1 to 2009.10, and retrospective analysis was conducted for them.[Results](1) The hydrothorax-peritoneum preparation was conducted for 1531 cases, the bacteria culture positive were 251 cases with the positive rate of 16.4%.301 strains pathogenic bacteria were found, including P.aesuginosa, S.aurus, S.epidermidis and E.coli.(2) The composition of G+ coccus and G- bacillus were almost equivalent in hydrothorax.G- bacilluss' percentage was high (64.1%) in hydroperitoneum.(3) Four pathogenic bacteria showed drug-fast to Streptomycin, Gentamycin, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin and Clindamycin, but was sensitive to Imipenem, Sulperazon and Mezlac- illin.The others were drug fast against clinical isolates at different degree.[Conclusion]The bacteriological examination of hydrothorax-peritoneum must be done.Selecting bacteria- sensitive drug has an important value to diagnosing and treating infection of thoracic and abdominal cavity.%[目的]探讨胸腔积液和腹腔积液标本感染菌谱及对临床常用抗生素的耐药性.[方法]对2007年1月~2009年10月临床送检的胸腔积液、腹腔积液标本的细菌学和药敏试验资料进行回顾性分析.[结果](1)1531例胸腔积液和腹腔积液标本细菌学阳性251例(16.4%),检出病原菌301株,以铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌最多见.(2)胸腔积液标本G+球菌与G-杆菌构成比接近,腹腔积液标本G+杆菌占优势(64.1%).(3)4种主要病原菌对链霉素、庆大霉素、氨苄西林、羧苄西林、克林霉素耐药,亚胺培南、舒普深、美洛西林则显示敏感,其他抗菌药物呈现不同程度的耐药.[结论]加强胸腔积液和腹腔积液标本的细菌学检查,依据药敏试验合理使用抗菌药

  18. Effects of Antibiotics on In Vitro Leaves Regeneration of Apple%抗生素对苹果离体叶片再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅琴; 程和禾; 李玉生; 陈龙; 赵艳华; 吴永杰

    2012-01-01

    In vitro young leaves of apple varieties Malus Dornestica cv. Changhong and M. Domestica cv. Jishen were selected as the materials and cultured on the base medium of MS + TDZ 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0. 5 mg/L containing different concentrations of kanamycin (Kan, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 rag/L), cefotaxime (Cef, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L) or carbenicillin (Carb, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L) . After dark culture for 14 days, the leaves were cultured under the light, and the effects of different concentrations of Kan, Cef and Carb on the regeneration of in vitro leaves were analyzed 30 days later. The results showed that 600 mg/L Cef and 400 mg/L Carb could inhibit the regeneration of in vitro leaves, and the inhabitation Carb was stronger. Changhong was very sensitive to Kan, the regeneration could be significantly inhibited at a dose of 10 mg/L, and none adventitious bud was obtained at a dose of 20 mg/L. Using the high-frequency regeneration system of apple in vitro Leaves as the gene transformation receptor system, the suitable selection concentration for kanamycin should be 20 mg/L.%以昌红和姬神2个苹果品种无菌苗的离体幼叶为试材,分别接种在附加不同浓度卡那霉素(Kan,0、5、10、15、20、30、40和50mg/L)、头孢霉素(Cef,100、200、400和600mg/L)和羧苄青霉素(Carb,100、200、400和600mg/L)的MS+TDZ1.0mg/L+NAA0.5mg/L培养基上,暗培养14d后转移到光下培养,30d后进行再生指标统计,分析不同浓度Kan、Cef和carb对苹果离体叶片不定芽再生的影响。结果表明:Cef浓度为600mg/L、Carb浓度为400mg/L时完全抑制供试品种叶片的再生,Carb对昌红和姬神离体叶片抑制再生的作用比Cef强烈;昌红苹果对Kan非常敏感,Kan浓度为10mg/L时即能极显著抑制不定芽的再生,浓度为20mg/L时不定芽白化而不能正常生长。以苹果离体叶片的高频再生系统作为基因转化

  19. 农杆菌介导转化法构建转CTV-cp的枳壳植株%Plant Regeneration from Agobacterium-mediated CTV-cp Gene Transformation of Poncirus trifoliata Raf.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红; 韩美丽; 李耿光

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To lay a foundation for the resistant breding, the anti-virus CTV-cp gene was transformed into the epicotyles mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Poncirus trifoliata. Method:The explants used for the genetic transformation were the epicotyls from P.trifoliata.The Agrobacterum tumefaciens strain was EHA101 containing vector plasmid pGA482GG.The coat protein gene (CTV-cp gene),GUS gene and NPT II gene were introduced into the transformation plasmid.Results:Ceftaxime used as antibiotics was better than carbenicillin. The concentration was 300 mg*L-1;The selection pressure for kanamycin was 50 mg*L-1;70.0% of the resistant plants were GUS-positive; extra gene was proved to be in P.trifoliata plant by southern blot examination. Conclusion:An effective genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefacines,which harbours a CTV-cp gene, has been developed in P.trifoliata.Transgenic CTV-cp plants were obtained.%目的:采用农杆菌介导法,将能抑制病毒侵染的外壳蛋白基因转入枳壳,为通过基因转化进行枳壳的抗病育种提供依据和方法。方法:以枳壳实生苗上胚轴为材料,农杆菌菌株为EHA101,含有质粒载体pGA482GG。质粒上插入了35 s启动子驱动的外源目的基因——柑桔衰退病病毒外壳蛋白基因(CTV-cp)及GUS,NPTⅡ基因。结果:枳壳转化试验中,抗菌素采用头孢霉素较好,浓度为300 mg*L-1;以卡那霉素作为选择试剂,浓度为50 mg*L-1;转化获得的抗性植株,GUS检测结果,70.0%的植株呈阳性反应;Southern 杂交分析(Southern blot)鉴定证明外壳蛋白基因已整合到枳壳植株的核基因组中。结论:通过农杆菌介导的转化法,成功地获得了转外壳蛋白基因的枳壳植株。

  20. 氨苄青霉素单克隆抗体及其与青霉素类抗生素交叉反应性%Anti-ampicillin Monoclonal Antibodies and Their Cross-reactivity to Penicillin Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青梅; 刘庆堂; 王寅彪; 柴书军; 王自良; 郭军庆; 职爱民; 孟红丽; 张改平

    2011-01-01

    Ampicillin ( Amp) was coupled to carrier proteins of bovine serum albumin ( BSA ) and ovalbumin (OVA) to synthetize immunogen BSA-Amp and detection antigen OVA-Amp. Four hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for Amp were established by immunizing BALB/c mice with BSA-Amp u-sing hybridoma technology. The antibody titers of mAb ascites (1G7, 2A11, 2D10 and 3F6) were determined as 1:2.56×107, 1:1.28×107, 1 :5.12 × 106 and 1:5.12 × 106 in ELISA, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Amp were 10.22, 3.58, 4.03,4.95 ng/mL in the inhibitive ELISA, respectively. The Amp mAbs showed significant cross-reactivity to the penicillin antibiotics of carbenicillin (1G7, 2A11, 2D10 and 3F6 ) , penicillin G (1G7 and 3F6) , and amoxicillin (1G7) , whereas no obvious cross-reactivity to dicloxacillin or clox-acillin was found.%以戊二醛法将氨苄青霉素(Ampicillin,Amp)偶联于牛血清白蛋白(BSA)和卵清白蛋白(OVA),合成免疫抗原BSA-Amp和检测抗原0VA-Amp,并进行了鉴定;用BSA-Amp免疫BALB/c小鼠,应用杂交瘤技术建立了4株分泌抗Amp单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株.ELISA和竞争ELISA结果显示,单克隆抗体1G7、2A11、2D10和3F6的腹水抗体效价分别为1:2.56×107、1:1.28×107、1:5.12 ×106和1:5.12×106,Amp的半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为10.22,3.58,4.03,4.95 ng/mL.Amp单克隆抗体与羧苄青霉素(1G7、2A11、2D10和3F6)、青霉素G(1G7和3F6)、阿莫西林(1G7)等青霉素类抗生素存在显著的交叉反应,而与双氯霉素和邻氯霉素未见明显交叉反应.

  1. Establishment and Optimization of Puna Chicory Genetic Transformation System with Agrobacterium-mediated Method%农杆菌介导普那菊苣遗传转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 程林梅; 杜建中; 李贵全; 孙毅

    2011-01-01

    -culture time of explants with Agrobacterium. Tu-mefaciens were 2- 3 days. The infection time was 8 minutes and Kanamycin concentration used for selecting positive regenerated buds was 60 mg ? L-1. Effects of acetosyringone (AS) and ultrasonication on the rate of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were also investigated. Results showed that acetosyringone of 200 μmol ? L-1 was the optimum concentration for enhancing Agrobacterium transformation efficiency, and ultrasonication treatment of 200 W and negative pressure of 20 times also improved the transformation rate. The maximum kanamycin concentration for wild type Puna chicory survival was 26 mg ? L-1 ; and the suitable concentration of Cefazolin sodium, cefotaxime sodium, carbenicillin and Benzylpenicillin for inducing callus formation and bud differentiation were 500 ~ 1000, 500 ~ 1000, 300 and 40 ~ 60 mg ? L-1 , respectively. The vacuolar Na+/H+ exchanger gene (TaNHX2) was introduced into the chicory cultivar, and 28 transgenic plants were obtained by PCR detection and Southern blot analysis.

  2. Distribution of virulence factors in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheal piglets and their antibacterial resistance%腹泻仔猪病原性大肠埃希菌毒力因子分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 姜中其; 虞惠贞; 吴永福; 蒋明君

    2013-01-01

    positive (F4+ and F41+ ) amounted to 7.26% (9/124).EAST1,PAA and AIDA-I were detected for the first time in the region.EAST1 turned out to be as high as 19.68% (24/124) of the isolates,whereas only 4.84% (6/124) and 2.42% (3/124) of the isolates harbored PAA and AIDA-I,respectively.Isolates were highly resistant to oxacillin (100%),co-trimoxazole (97.6%),rifampicin (97.6%),doxycycline (96%),carbenicillin (93.5%),ampicillin (93.5%) and amoxicillin (93.5%).In addition,streptomycin showed serious cross-resistance with ampicillin (75.45%),enrofloxacin (65.45%),gentamicin (78.18%),doxycycline (96%) and florfenicol (50.91%).Besides,all isolates were multi-drug resistant among them,the majority were resistant to 14-16 antibacterial agents (43.31%).Moreover,virulence factor eae was found to be corrected with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (P = 0.046) and doxycycline (P = 0.020) resistance,respectively.Similarly,there was a significant correction between EAST1 and polymyxin B (P = 0.004),EAST1 and chloramphenicol (P = 0.013),respectively. This investigation demonstrated that prevalent virulence factors had largely changed compared with previous studies,and resistance was still on the increase,furthermore,there existed a correlation between them.Further research is required to better understand the complicated virulence factors,bacterial resistance and its subtle correction.%为了探索仔猪大肠埃希菌性腹泻的发病机制、大肠埃希菌毒力因子变迁以及与耐药性可能存在的关系,在直肠棉拭采集浙江省规模猪场腹泻仔猪病料,经细菌分离纯化、形态学结合PCR鉴定以及小鼠致病性试验得到124株病原性大肠埃希菌基础上,应用PCR分析其毒力因子,采用K-B法及耐药性专用软件Whonet测定并分析其对抗菌药物的耐药性,最后,通过Logistic分析分离株毒力因子与耐药性的相关性.结果表明:菌毛阳性分离株(F4+和F41+)占总菌株数的7.26%(9/124),首次检测到毒力因子EAST1