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Sample records for carbazones

  1. Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Diaryl Carbazones using Microwave Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lei; PAN Feng; WANG Yu-lu

    2004-01-01

    Diaryl carbazone is an important organic analytical reagent normally prepared by the oxidation of diaryl carbazine, but in literatures' methods, the yields were low and the procedures were trouble1,2. Recently, our laboratory reported some new methods for the preparation of diaryl carbazone from diaryl carbazine3,4. Generally, these methods have drawbacks such as tedious operation3, using large amounts of volatile and poisonous solvent which will pollute the environment inevitably3, long reaction time and complicated oxidation system4. In continuation of our studies on the synthesis of azo compounds, we decided to develop a new method to overcome the limitation.As we know, the application of microwave techniques for organic synthesis has attracted considerable interests in recent years5. Using microwave technology can enhance the selectivity and reactivity, increase the chemical yields and shorten the reaction time6. It has been widely used in a variety of organic reactions7,8. However, the synthesis of diaryl carbazones using microwave has not been reported so far.In this paper, a rapid and efficient synthesis of diaryl carbazones with NaBrO3/H2SO4 as oxidation system using microwave technology is reported for the first time. By this method, in short time (0.5 rmin), we have synthesized ten diaryl carbazones in good yields.In the oxidation study, we found that the acidic condition is necessary in these reactions.This method only needs cheap and easily available oxidants, simple instruments and easy work-up.In conclusion, It is a facile and rapid method for the preparation of diaryl carbazones from diaryl carbazines with NaBrO3/H2SO4.

  2. Ferrocene-1-carbaldehyde thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Vikneswaran, M. R.; Siang Guan Teoh; Chin Sing Yeap; Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C7H8N3S)], consists of two crystallographically independent molecules, A and B. The cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings in both molecules adopt an eclipsed conformation and are parallel to each other, forming dihedral angles of 2.5 (3) and 1.1 (3)°, respectively. The mean plane of the semicarbazone group is coplanar with the attached Cp ring in molecule A, whereas it is twisted away in molecule B. In the crystal structu...

  3. 4-Methyl­benzaldehyde thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Geng, Hao; Zhuang, Ling-hua; Wang, Guo-wei

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C9H11N3S, was prepared by reacting 4-methyl­benzaldehyde with thio­semicarbazide. An intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond helps to establish the observed mol­ecular conformation. The crystal packing is realized by inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds.

  4. 2-Benzoyl-4-chloro­aniline thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Katlen C. T. Bandeira; Leandro Bresolin; Lehmann, Ueslei Z.; Priscilla J. Zambiazi; Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H13ClN4S, obtained from a reaction of 2-benzoyl-4-chloro­aniline with thio­semicarbazide in ethanol, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 81.31 (13)°. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked by three N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric rings with set-graph motif R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(18), and resulting in the formation of a two-dimensional network lying parallel to (010).

  5. 4-Cyano­benzaldehyde thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, De-Hong; Zhang, You-Hong; Li, Zhu-Feng; Li, Yong-Hua

    2008-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C9H8N4S, adopts an E configuration about both the C=N and C—NH bonds. In the crystal structure, adjacent mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, forming chains running parallel to the b axis.

  6. 3-Methoxy­benzaldehyde thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Lin-Ping; Zhuang, Ling-hua; Wang, Guo-wei

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C9H11N3OS, was prepared by the reaction of 3-methoxy­benzaldehyde and thio­semicarbazide. The benzyl­idene ring and the thio­semicarbazone fragment are slightly twisted, making a dihedral angle of 14.1 (1)°. A weak intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond may influence the conformation of the mol­ecule. Inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds build up a three-dimensional network.

  7. 3,4-Dihydroxy­benzaldehyde thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kong Wai; Farina, Yang; Ng, Chew Hee; Maah, Mohd Jamil; Ng, Seik Weng

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H9N3O2S, contains three independent mol­ecules which are stacked approximately over each other. In the crystal structure, centrosymmetric pairs of mol­ecules are formed through inter­molecular hydr­oxy–hydr­oxy O—H⋯O and hydr­oxy–sulfur O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds which are, in turn, linked into a two-dimensional network by N—H⋯O(hydr­oxy) hydrogen bonds.

  8. 1-(Thio­phen-2-yl)ethanone thio­semi­carbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Gaye, Papa Aly; Sy, Adama; Sarr, Aminata Diassé; Gaye, Mohamed; Besnard, Celine

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C7H9N3S2, crystallizes with two unique mol­ecules in the unit cell, both present as thio­semicarbazide tautomers. The mol­ecules differ principally in the dihedral angles between the thio­phene ring planes and the planes through the non-H atoms of the hydrazinecarbothio­amide units, viz. 9.80 (8)° for one mol­ecule and 19.37 (7)° for the other. The hydrazinecarbothio­amide units are reasonably planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.001Å for each of the mol­ecules. In the crys...

  9. Novel “turn on” fluorescent sensors based on anthracene and carbazone units for Cu (II) ion in CH{sub 3}CN–H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Serkan, E-mail: serdemir82@gmail.com; Malkondu, Sait

    2015-02-15

    Two novel anthracene-based receptors containing Schiff base and urea groups (AOC and ATC) were synthesized in one step and full characterized. The optical properties of receptors AOC and ATC towards metal ions were investigated by UV–visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that both receptors AOC and ATC show highly selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} over other 17 metal ions in CH{sub 3}CN–H{sub 2}O (9/1, v/v). - Highlights: • Novel fluorescent sensors based on anthracene and carbazide AOC and ATC were synthesized. • The optical properties of AOC and ATC were observed by UV–visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. • AOC and ATC showed highly selective and sensitive to Cu{sup 2+} over other 17 metal ions.

  10. Evaluation of efficacy and effect of application timing of a new herbicide, a.i. propoxy-carbazone + iodosulfuron + mefenpyr on Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, A; Filì, V; Crescenzi, A

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed from February to May 2010 by Bioagritest according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), in the land of Altamura (BA), in the core of Murgia, Apulia Region (Italy). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and effect of two different application times of the herbicide SIT90 (propoxycarbazone + iodosulfuron + mefenpyr) on Triticum durum for weeds' control. Sit90 was applied alone or in combination with the herbicide Dicuran (a.i. chlortolorun) in early post-emergence, and in late post emergence once more alone or in combination with the adjuvant Biopower or with the commercial formulate Atlantis WG (mesosulfuron+ iodosulfuron+ mefenpyr) + Biopower. T. durum cultivar was "Iride". The study has given sufficient results on the use of SIT90, in the conditions foreseen by the protocol and in consideration of the present weeds, which represented the species mostly diffused in the Murgia, mainly Avena ludoviciana and Papaver rhoaes. Treatments with the SIT90 alone (even in combination with Chortoluron), applied in early or in late post-emergence, were very ineffective on grass weeds and dicotyledonous, highlighting the importance of the adjuvant Biopower to enhance the expression of the herbicide. In fact, the presence of the adjuvant allowed the expression of a clear and good overall herbicide activity of SIT90 for the control of P. rhoaes and other dicotyledonous, but also a discrete activity against grasses. More reliable was the treatment with SIT90 mixed with Atlantis, against the entire community of grass weeds and on F. officinalis. The performance of all the treatments was insufficient on P. rhoaes, because of the clear resistance shown by the weed.

  11. Crystal structure of a new monoclinic polymorph of 2,4-di­hydroxy­benzaldehyde 4-methyl­thio­semi­carbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, M. A.; Hussein, Mouayed A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C9H11N3O2S, is a second monoclinic (P21/c) polymorph of the previously reported Cc form [Tan et al. (2008b ▸). Acta Cryst. E64, o2224]. The mol­ecule is non-planar, with the dihedral angle between the N3CS residue (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0816 Å) and the benzene ring being 21.36 (4)°. The conformation about the C=N bond [1.292 (2) Å] is E, the two N-bound H atoms are anti, and the inner hy­droxy O-bound and outer amide N-bound H atoms form intra­molecular hydrogen bonds to the imine N atom. Crucially, the H atom of the outer hy­droxy group is approximately syn to the H atom of the benzene C atom connecting the two C atoms bearing the hy­droxy substituents. This arrangement enables the formation of supra­molecular tubes aligned along [010] and sustained by N—H⋯O, O—H⋯S and N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds; the tubes pack with no specific inter­actions between them. While the mol­ecular structure in the Cc form is comparable, the H atom of the outer hy­droxy group is approximately anti, rather than syn. This different orientation leads to the formation a three-dimensional architecture based on N—H⋯O and O—H⋯S hydrogen bonds. PMID:25705451

  12. Crystal structure of 4-hy­droxy-3-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde 4-methyl­thio­semi­carbazone methanol monosolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriano Bof; Beck, Johannes; Landvogt, Christian; Feitosa, Bárbara Regina Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the title solvate, C15H15N3O2S·CH3OH, the thio­semicarbazone mol­ecule is approximately planar; the maximum deviation from the mean plane is 0.4659 (14) Å and the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 9.83 (8)°. This conformation is supported by an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, the thio­semicarbazone mol­ecules are linked into dimers by pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, thereby generating R 2 2(8) loops. The methanol solvent mol­ecule bonds to the thio­semicarbazone mol­ecule through a bifurcated O—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bond and also accepts an O—H⋯O link from the thio­semicarbazone mol­ecule. Together, these links generate a three-dimensional network. PMID:25995922

  13. {sup 64} Cu-pyruvaldehide-bis-(N{sup 4} methyl-thio semi-carbazone) - Cu-PTSM as brain tracer for positron emission tomography; Cu-piruvaldehido-bis-(N{sup 4} metiltiosemicarbazona) o Cu-PSTM como trazador cerebral para tomografia por emision de positrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles, M.G.; Lago Fernandez, J.L.; Casale, G.A.; Torres, E.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    Synthesis of Pyruvaldehide-bis-(N{sup 4}-methyl-thio semicarbazone) PTSM used for medical investigation and diagnosis has been carried out in our Radiopharmaceutical Division in Centro Atomico Ezeiza. PTSM has been obtained introducing modifications to a previous synthesis published by H.G. Petering TLC, HPLC and IR, UV spectrum controls have been performed. Cu-64 can be obtained by the Cu-63 (n, {gamma}) and Zn-64 (n,p) reactions. This last reaction has been chosen for the production in the RA-3 reactor since it leads to Cu-64 of high specific activity. Two different assays have been performed to obtain the chelate PTSM-Cu-64. The first one has beer carried out by buffering the Cu-64 solution to pH 3-4; adding the PTSM solution in ethanol. The second assay has been carried out by buffering the Cu-64 solution with sodium acetate 3 M and adding 100 {mu}l of PTSM solution in ethanol. The chelate thus obtained is purified in Sepak C-18. Radiochemical purity has been tested by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution studies have been carried on NIH mice and Wistar rats showing a brain uptake of 4%, 30 minutes after injection. Thus, FTMS-Cu-64 proves to be a good brain diagnosis agent. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Oxo-halogen complexes of molybdenum (V) with bioactive polyfunctional organic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work dedicated to systematization of synthesized by author coordinated compounds of molybdenum with aminoacetic, asparaginic, glutamic, n-aminobenzoic acids, 1-methyl-2-imidazole, thio-semi-carbazone, thia-dia-zole and its derivatives each of which has from 2 till 5 potentially donor atom

  15. Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for 19F magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Sun, Y.; Kootala, S.; Hilborn, J.; Heerschap, A.; Ossipov, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 19F labeled injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel that can be monitored by both 1H and 19F MR imaging. The HA based hydrogel formed via carbazone reaction can be obtained within a minute by simple mixing of HA-carbazate and HA-aldehyde derivatized polymers. 19F contrast agent was l

  16. Rhodamine B degradation and reactive oxygen species generation by a ZnSe-graphene/TiO2 sonocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhu; Sun-Bok Jo; Shu Ye; Kefayat Ullah; Won-Chun Oh

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnSe-graphene/TiO2 was synthesized by a hydrothermal-assisted approach. ZnSe-graphene/TiO2 exhibited favorable adsorption of rhodamine B, a wide wavelength absorption range, and efficient charge separation. Reactive oxygen species were generated by the oxidation of 1,5-diphenyl carbazide to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone. The sonocatalytic reaction mechanism was pro-posed. These findings potentially broaden the applications of sonocatalytic technologies.

  17. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO2 and reduced to graphite to determine 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  18. FT-IR, FT-Raman and Computational Study of Ethyl Methyl Ketone Semicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Binil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of ethyl methyl ketone semicarbazone were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using HF/6-31G*, B3PW91/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* basis and compared with experimental data. The first hyperpolarizability, infrared intensities and Raman activities are reported. The calculated first hyperpolarizability is comparable with the reported values of similar derivatives and is an attractive object for future studies of non-linear optics. The extended π-electron delocalization over the carbazone moiety is responsible for the nonlinearity of the molecule. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. The red shift of the NH stretching wavenumber in the infrared spectrum from the computed wavenumber indicates the weakening of the NH bond resulting in proton transfer to the neighboring oxygen atom.

  19. Synthesis of novel coumarin appended bis(formylpyrazole) derivatives: Studies on their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamallu, Renuka; Srinivasan, Bharath; Ningappa, Mylarappa B; Kariyappa, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel coumarin pyrazole hybrids of biological interest were synthesized from the hydrazones, carbazones and thiocarbazones via Vilsmeier Haack formylation reaction. These intermediates and formyl pyrazoles were evaluated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the series, compounds 6g and 6h showed excellent antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal strains and compounds 7g, 7h were found to be potent antioxidant agents in both DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Further, detailed quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis indicated the molecular parameters that contribute to increased potency of inhibition. The above findings would further encourage our understanding in employing coumarin pyrazole hybrids as potential antibiotic agents for treating infections caused by pathogenic microbes and fungi. Further, it also paves the way for exploration of these compounds as potential therapeutic agents to treat conditions arising because of excessive oxidative damage.

  20. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabi, Ali; Dalirandeh, Zeinab [Department of Chemistry, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rad, Ali Shokuhi, E-mail: a.shokuhi@qaemshahriau.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    A new method has been developed for the separation/preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions using diphenyl carbazone/sodium dodecyl sulfate immobilized on magnetic nanoparticle Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as a new sorbent SPE and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Various influencing parameters on the separation and preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions such as, pH value, amount of nanoparticles, amount of diphenyl carbazone, condition of eluting solution, the effects of matrix ions were examined. The cadmium ions can be eluted from the modified magnetic nanoparticle using 1 mol L{sup −1} HCl as a desorption reagent. The detection limit of this method for cadmium was 3.71 ng ml{sup −1} and the R.S.D. was 0.503% (n=6). The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of sorbents and a high concentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, green tea, rice, tobacco, carrot, lettuce, ginseng, spice, tap water, river water, sea water with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • MNPs method is economical, simple, rapid and sensitive for trace analysis of Cd. • High preconcentration factor was obtained easily through this method. • A detection limit at ng mL{sup −1} level was achieved with 100.0 mL of sample. • This method provides good repeatability and extraction efficiency in a short time.

  1. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed for the separation/preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions using diphenyl carbazone/sodium dodecyl sulfate immobilized on magnetic nanoparticle Fe3O4 as a new sorbent SPE and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Various influencing parameters on the separation and preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions such as, pH value, amount of nanoparticles, amount of diphenyl carbazone, condition of eluting solution, the effects of matrix ions were examined. The cadmium ions can be eluted from the modified magnetic nanoparticle using 1 mol L−1 HCl as a desorption reagent. The detection limit of this method for cadmium was 3.71 ng ml−1 and the R.S.D. was 0.503% (n=6). The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of sorbents and a high concentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, green tea, rice, tobacco, carrot, lettuce, ginseng, spice, tap water, river water, sea water with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • MNPs method is economical, simple, rapid and sensitive for trace analysis of Cd. • High preconcentration factor was obtained easily through this method. • A detection limit at ng mL−1 level was achieved with 100.0 mL of sample. • This method provides good repeatability and extraction efficiency in a short time

  2. Confirmation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generated in the presence of TiO2 supported on AC under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohong; Yu, Fengyang; Huang, Lirong; Jiatieli, Jianaerguli; Li, Yuanyuan; Song, Lijun; Yu, Ning; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-08-15

    In order to study the degradation mechanism of technology of microwave (MW) combined with TiO2 supported on activated carbon (TiO2/AC), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was explored through oxidation of 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). Furthermore, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), Mannitol (MT) and Vitamin C (VC) were used as radical scavengers to confirm the generation of the hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH). In addition, the influence of some parameters such as TiO2 mass ratio content, irradiation time, material dose, DPCI concentration and MW power on the determination of (•)OH were examined. The results showed that the (•)OH could be generated under MW combined with loaded TiO2/AC. Also, anatase TiO2/AC can generate more (•)OH radicals than rutile TiO2/AC under MW irradiation. This work would provide new mechanistic insights on the enhanced degradation effect of organic pollutants in water using the supported TiO2/AC coupled with MW technology.

  3. Detection of oxygen species generated by WO3 modification fullerene/TiO2 in the degradation of 1,5-diphenyl carbazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species were detected through oxidation reaction from DPCI to DPCO. • Generated reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radicals can be analysed by DPCI degradation. • C60 have good effect in photo/ultrasonic degradation process. • Enhanced adsorption capacity can increase the degradation effect. • Photocatalytic activity attributed to photo-absorption effect by C60 and cooperative effect of WO3 and TiO2. - Abstract: In the present work, powders with different relative mole ratios of WO3-fullerene/TiO2 were irradiated by visible light and ultrasonic. The composite obtained was characterized by BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis analysis. A methylene blue (MB) solution under visible light and ultrasonic irradiation was used to determine the catalytic activity. The generation of reactive oxygen species were detected through the oxidation reaction from 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). Finally, we performed experiments to find the optimum relative mole ratio of fullerene for the degradation of MB

  4. Confirmation of hydroxyl radicals ({sup •} OH) generated in the presence of TiO{sub 2} supported on AC under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhaohong, E-mail: lnuhjhx@163.com [School of Environmental Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Yu, Fengyang; Huang, Lirong; Jiatieli, Jianaerguli; Li, Yuanyuan; Song, Lijun [School of Environmental Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Yu, Ning [Experiment Center of Environmental Monitoring of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110161 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Generation of {sup •} OH in MW integrated with loaded TiO{sub 2}/AC system was confirmed. • Confirmation of {sup •} OH was conducted using radical scavenger such as BHT, MT and VC. • More {sup •} OH was formed using anatase TiO{sub 2}/AC than rutile TiO{sub 2}/AC under MW irradiation. • Effect of mass ratio, irradiation time, catalyst dose and DPCI on {sup •} OH was studied. - Abstract: In order to study the degradation mechanism of technology of microwave (MW) combined with TiO{sub 2} supported on activated carbon (TiO{sub 2}/AC), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was explored through oxidation of 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). Furthermore, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), Mannitol (MT) and Vitamin C (VC) were used as radical scavengers to confirm the generation of the hydroxyl radicals ({sup •} OH). In addition, the influence of some parameters such as TiO{sub 2} mass ratio content, irradiation time, material dose, DPCI concentration and MW power on the determination of {sup •} OH were examined. The results showed that the {sup •} OH could be generated under MW combined with loaded TiO{sub 2}/AC. Also, anatase TiO{sub 2}/AC can generate more {sup •} OH radicals than rutile TiO{sub 2}/AC under MW irradiation. This work would provide new mechanistic insights on the enhanced degradation effect of organic pollutants in water using the supported TiO{sub 2}/AC coupled with MW technology.

  5. Dose escalation to high-risk sub-volumes based on non-invasive imaging of hypoxia and glycolytic activity in canine solid tumors: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycolytic activity and hypoxia are associated with poor prognosis and radiation resistance. Including both the tumor uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the proposed hypoxia tracer copper(II)diacetyl-bis(N4)-methylsemithio-carbazone (Cu-ATSM) in targeted therapy planning may therefore lead to improved tumor control. In this study we analyzed the overlap between sub-volumes of FDG and hypoxia assessed by the uptake of 64Cu-ATSM in canine solid tumors, and evaluated the possibilities for dose redistribution within the gross tumor volume (GTV). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans of five spontaneous canine solid tumors were included. FDG-PET/CT was obtained at day 1, 64Cu-ATSM at day 2 and 3 (3 and 24 h pi.). GTV was delineated and CT images were co-registered. Sub-volumes for 3 h and 24 h 64Cu-ATSM (Cu3 and Cu24) were defined by a threshold based method. FDG sub-volumes were delineated at 40% (FDG40) and 50% (FDG50) of SUVmax. The size of sub-volumes, intersection and biological target volume (BTV) were measured in a treatment planning software. By varying the average dose prescription to the tumor from 66 to 85 Gy, the possible dose boost (DB) was calculated for the three scenarios that the optimal target for the boost was one, the union or the intersection of the FDG and 64Cu-ATSM sub-volumes. The potential boost volumes represented a fairly large fraction of the total GTV: Cu3 49.8% (26.8-72.5%), Cu24 28.1% (2.4-54.3%), FDG40 45.2% (10.1-75.2%), and FDG50 32.5% (2.6-68.1%). A BTV including the union (∪) of Cu3 and FDG would involve boosting to a larger fraction of the GTV, in the case of Cu3∪FDG40 63.5% (51.8-83.8) and Cu3∪FDG50 48.1% (43.7-80.8). The union allowed only a very limited DB whereas the intersection allowed a substantial dose escalation. FDG and 64Cu-ATSM sub-volumes were only partly overlapping, suggesting that the tracers offer complementing information on tumor physiology. Targeting the