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Sample records for carbazoles

  1. Syntheses of light emitting poly(N-aryl-2,7-carbazole)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent remarkable development of poly(2,7-carbazole)s and copolymers including a carbazolyl unit have demonstrated that they are one of key conjugated polymer materials for optoelectronic applications. This short review reports recent progress made in synthesis and characterization of poly(N-aryl-2,7-carbazole)s for application of light emitting diode. Main strategy and remaining challenges in the development of reliable emitting materials for devices of organic light emitting diodes are discussed

  2. Synthesis of Benzo[a]carbazoles and an Indolo[2,3-a]carbazole from 3-Aryltetramic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truax, Nathanyal J; Banales Mejia, Fernando; Kwansare, Deborah O; Lafferty, Megan M; Kean, Maeve H; Pelkey, Erin T

    2016-08-01

    A simple and flexible approach to 3-pyrrolin-2-one fused carbazoles is disclosed. The key step involves the BF3-mediated electrophilic substitution of indoles with N-alkyl-substituted 3-aryltetramic acids, which provides access to indole-substituted 3-pyrrolin-2-ones. Scholl-type oxidative cyclizations of these materials led to the formation of the corresponding 3-pyrrolin-2-one-fused benzo[a]carbazoles and indolo[2,3-a]carbazoles. This work represents the first synthesis of the benzo[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazol-3(8H)-one ring system, while the indolo[2,3-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazol-5-one ring system is found in a number of biologically active compounds including the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine. PMID:27391374

  3. A New Binary Carbazole Alkaloid from Murraya koenigii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new binary carbazole alkaloid, 8, 8"-biskoenigine (1), along with its monomer,kocnigine, was isolated from the dried leaves of Murraya koenigii collected in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province. The structure of 1 was established by spectroscopic methods.

  4. A convenient preparation of 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile and 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Weselinski, Lukasz Jan

    2014-01-23

    A catalytic, high yielding and scalable procedure for the synthesis of 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile has been developed. Subsequent hydrolysis of the dinitrile in the presence of a catalytic copper species (i.e., CuI) yields 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid. Both compounds are versatile and fine-tunable organic building blocks and therefore offer potential in material science, medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  5. Carbazole degradation in the soil microcosm by tropical bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef B. Salam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonassp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg, 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments.

  6. Synthesis of new heteroaryldi(diindolyl)methanes: Colorimetric detection of DNA by di(diindolylmethyl)carbazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramu Meesala; Rajagopal Nagarajan

    2009-03-01

    We have synthesized di(diindolylmethyl)carbazoles and di(diindolylmethyl)pyrroles by the reaction of substituted indoles with the corresponding carbazole and pyrroledicarboxaldehydes by employing a new catalyst PPh3.CF3SO3H. We have also demonstrated the utility of di(diindolylmethyl) carbazole derivatives for the colourimetric and fluorometric detection of DNA.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbazole-Linked Porphyrin Tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Michelin, Clément; Bucher, Léo; Desbois, Nicolas; Gros, Claude P; Piant, Sébastien; Bolze, Frédéric; Fang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Kadish, Karl M

    2015-08-17

    Herein the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, two-photon absorption and electrochemical properties of 3,6-disubstituted carbazole tweezers is reported. A dimer resulting from a Glaser homocoupling was isolated during a Sonogashira coupling reaction between a diethynyl-carbazole spacer and a 5-bromo-triarylporphyrin and the properties of this original compound were compared with the 3,6-disubstituted carbazole bisporphyrin tweezers. The dyads reported herein present a two-photon absorption maximum at 920 nm with two-photon absorption cross-section in the 1200 GM range. Despite a strong linear absorption in the Soret region and moderate fluorescence quantum yield, they both lead to a high brightness reaching 30 000 M(-1)  cm(-1) . PMID:26177731

  8. Crystal structure of 9-butyl-3-(9-butyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl-9H-carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stalindurai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title carbazole derivative, C32H32N2, the molecule resides on a crystallographic twofold axis, which runs through the central C—C bond. The carbazole ring system is almost planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.041 (1 Å for one of the ring-junction C atoms. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...π interactions only, which form a C(7 chain-like arrangement along [110] in the unit cell.

  9. Synthesis and characterizations of carbazole-isoindigo-carbazole oligomers for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Song-Mi; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2016-08-01

    6,6‧-Dibromo-N,N‧-(2-octyldodecanyl)isoindigo was coupled to either 4-(N-carbazolyl)phenyl boronic acid or 9-phenyl-9H-carbazole-3-boronic acid to give two different conjugated molecules of P-II-P and C-II-C, respectively. The optical band gap/HOMO levels of P-II-P and C-II-C were 1.90/-5.60 eV and 1.85/-5.39 eV, respectively. Based on the experimental and calculation data, C-II-C is more highly conjugated than P-II-P. The performances of C-II-C-based photovoltaic devices were better than those of P-II-P-based devices, with the best power conversion efficiency of 0.44%.

  10. 9-Hexyl-3-iodo-9H-carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qian Geng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C18H20IN, the tricyclic carbazole system is essentially planar with the two outer rings forming a dihedral angle of 0.43 (8°. The crystal packing exhibits no short intermolecular contacts.

  11. 9-Ethyl-3,6-diformyl-9H-carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jie Wang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C16H13NO2, was determined as a part of a project on the synthesis of new compounds which can make two-photon absorptions. In the crystal structure, both aldehyde groups are located within the carbazole plane. One of these groups is disordered and was refined using a split model with site-occupation factors for each position of 0.5.

  12. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  13. 76 FR 24855 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004). On January 28... order. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative...

  14. 75 FR 27815 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... (74 FR 56663) and determined on February 5, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR 14468... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-437 and 731-TA-1060 and 1061 (Review) Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From... on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  15. 9-[4-(Azidomethylphenyl]-9H-carbazole-3-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramathilagam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound C20H13N5, the dihedral angle between the carbazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.027 Å and the pendant benzene ring is 55.08 (6°. One of the azide N atoms is disordered over two positions in a 0.65 (2:0.35 (2 ratio. In the crystal, aromatic π–π stacking is observed [minimum centroid–centroid separation = 3.6499 (13 Å] as well as inversion-dimers connected by pairs of weak C—H...π interactions.

  16. Copper catalyzed synthesis of quinolinopyrano[2,3-]carbazole derivatives via Povarov reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subburethinam Ramesh; Rajagopal Nagarajan

    2014-07-01

    An efficient procedure for the synthesis of pyranocarbazole derivatives using copper catalysed Povarov reaction between aromatic amines and -propargyl carbazole carboxaldehyde has been developed. Ionic liquid is found to be a good solvent medium.

  17. Synthesis of Carbazole Alkaloids by Ring-Closing Metathesis and Ring Rearrangement-Aromatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Kalyan; Mandal, Tirtha; Das, Joydeb; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2015-12-21

    Aprocess for the assembly of carbazole alkaloids has been developed on the basis of ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and ringrearrangement-aromatization (RRA) as the key steps. This method is based on allyl Grignard addition to isatin derivatives to provide smooth access to 2,2-diallyl 3-oxindole derivatives through a 1,2-allyl shift. The diallyl derivatives were used as RCM precursors to afford a novel class of spirocyclopentene-3-oxindole derivatives, which underwent a novel RRA reaction to afford carbazole derivatives. The synthetic sequence to carbazoles was shortened by combining the RCM and RRA steps in an orthogonal tandem catalytic process. The utility of this methodology was further demonstrated by the straightforward synthesis of carbazole alkaloids, including amukonal derivative, girinimbilol, heptaphylline, and bis(2-hydroxy-3-methylcarbazole). PMID:26768698

  18. Synthesis of Novel Derivatives of Carbazole-Thiophene, Their Electronic Properties, and Computational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Damit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbazole-thiophene dimers, P1–P9, were synthesized using Suzuki-Miyaura and Ullmann coupling reactions. In P1–P9, carbazole-thiophenes were linked at the N-9 position for different core groups via biphenyl, dimethylbiphenyl, and phenyl. Electronic properties were evaluated by UV-Vis, cyclic voltammogram, and theoretical calculations. Particularly, the effects of conjugation connectivity on photophysical and electrochemical properties, as well as the correlation between carbazole-thiophene and the core, were studied. Carbazole connecting with thiophenes at the 3,6-positions and the phenyl group as a core group leads to increased stabilization of HOMO and LUMO energy levels where the bandgap (ΔE is significantly reduced.

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of two dyads consisted of tetrathiafulvalene and carbazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqiao LAI; Yibo LIU; Meijiang LI; Yongjia SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Two donor-o-acceptor molecules containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and carbazole moieties were synthesized by the reaction of 9-(4-bromo-butyl)-carbazole (1) with 2,6-bis(hexylthio)-3-(2-cyanoethylthio)-7-(methylthio)-tetrathiafulvalene (2) or 2,6-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-3,7-bis(methylthio)tetrathiafulvalene (3) in the presence of CsOH · H2O, respectively. The structures of the molecules were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and elemental analyses. They showed negligible intramolecular charge-transfer interaction in their ground states as indicated by their UV-Vis spectroscopics and cyclic voltammetry results. Compared with carbazole, their fluorescence was strongly quenched, which implied that a photo induced electron transfer (PET) interaction between TTF and carbazole moieties occurred.

  20. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H Amination of Tetrahydrofuran with Indole/Carbazole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingjing; Choy, Pui Ying; Fu, Wai Chung; Fan, Baomin; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2015-11-01

    A simple α-C-H amination of cyclic ether with indole/carbazole derivatives has been accomplished by employing copper(II) chloride/bipy as the catalyst system. In the presence of the di-tert-butyl peroxide oxidant, cyclic ethers such as tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, and tetrahydropyran successfully undergo C-H/N-H cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) with various carbazole or indole derivatives in good-to-excellent yields. PMID:26485515

  2. Research on polyfluorene derivatives end-capped by N-hexyl-carbazole and benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copolymers of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (DOF) and 2-thienyl-benzothiadiazole (DBT) were synthesized by Suzuki reaction and end-capped by N-hexyl-carbazole and benzene, which were abbreviated as PDOF-DBT-Cz and PDOF-DBT-B, respectively. The photophysical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the copolymers were studied. The results indicated that replacement of N-hexyl-carbazole as end-capping group of PDOF-DBT can vary light color and improve luminescence efficiency.

  3. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  4. Multifunctional oligoetherols and polyurethane foams with carbazole ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubczak Renata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method of preparation of multifunctional oligoetherols containing carbazole ring is presented. The oligoetherols were obtained in the reaction of 9-(2,3-epoxypropylcarbazole with sorbitol and oxiranes like ethylene and propylene oxide. The structure of obtained oligoetherols was determined by IR, H-NMR and MALDI-ToF spectroscopies. Physical properties of the products render them good candidates for preparing polyurethane foams. The foams were obtained and their properties were examined. It has been found that the foams are rigid at room temperature and their apparent density was 50–70 kg/m3. The water uptake was low, maximum to 6.5 mass%. Obtained foams have high thermal resistance. Dynamic thermal analysis of these foams showed that 5% mass loss was initiated at 250–300°C, while temperature of 50% mass loss was 370–404°C. Concomitantly the increase of compression strength was observed.

  5. 75 FR 29718 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009); See also Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India, 74 FR 56663 (November 2, 2009). \\1\\ On December 29, 2004, the Department... 2010). See also Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from China and India; Determinations, 75 FR 27815 (May...

  6. 4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-carbazol-3-yl)benzene-sulfonamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kaspar Gothardt; Ulven, Trond; Bond, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C(19)H(19)FN(2)O(2)S, the hydrogenated six-membered ring of the carbazole unit adopts a half-chair conformation and the plane of the fluoro-phenyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 41.5 (1)° with respect to the carbazole mean plane. The crystal structure is segregated into lay...

  7. 75 FR 26716 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final... FR 977 (January 7, 2010). This administrative review covers the period January 1, 2007 through... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India....

  8. 75 FR 23239 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on CVP 23 from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68038 (December 22, 2009... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

  9. Carbazole-containing light- emitting polymers: Properties of excited states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A series of light-emitting conjugated polymers alternatively involving carbazole and bivinylene arylene moieties in the main chain were synthesized via Wittig-Horner type copolymerization. The photoinduced charge transfer process relating to these polymers was investigated by using the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy. The interaction between excited copolymers and C60 in benzene solution was studied. The fluorescence quenching can be well described by the "sphere-of-action" mechanism. It is believed that two basic steps are involved in the quenching process, i.e. the diffusion of excitation within the conjugated polymers and the dissociation of the exctions trapped by fullerene. The radius of the sphere-of-action can be related to the excitation diffusion length, which depends on the lifetime of the exciton. The dynamic fluorescence quenching of the copolymers by another quencher, 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) was also surveyed. Copolymers with different chain conformations show different temperature effects in the dynamic quenching. A planar conformation is beneficial for the quenching via bimolecular collision.

  10. Fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled complexes of carbazole and mono-atomic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled complexes of carbazole and one molecule of methyl, deuterated methyl, ethyl and propyl (propanol-1 and propanol-2) alcohols are analyzed. Shifts of the fluorescence excitation spectra of complexes relative to the frequency of a pure electron transition of unbound carbazole are determined. They are formed owing to the hydrogen bonds of the N-H groups of carbazole with the OH-group of alcohols. The frequencies of stretching vibrations of hydrogen groups with various alcohols vary within the range 150-157 cm-1, whereas for the deformation ones the frequencies fall in the interval 21-22.9 cm-1. The belonging of complexes to rotational conformers is determined through the shape of the rotational contours of bands of their pure electronic and electron-vibration transitions. Equilibrium configurations of complexes in the ground state are calculated (authors)

  11. Charge photogeneration and transport in side-chain carbazole polymers and co-polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2011-07-01

    The photoconductivity, hole mobility and charge photogeneration efficiency of a series of side-chain carbazole homopolymers and copolymers (with azo side-chains) have been investigated. Cyclic voltammetry measurement of frontier orbitals energies show that the HOMO energy is determined by the nature and the position of attachment of the linker between the main chain and the carbazole, the azo-moiety being not relevant in this respect. Hole mobility is not influenced by the HOMO energy but seems to depend on the degree of conformational mobility of the side-chains, reaching values of the order of 10-3cm2V-1s-1 in the best cases. The HOMO energy is instead extremely important when considering photogeneration efficiency, that can change by 10 orders of magnitude depending on the density of the carbazole side-chains in co-polymers and on the linker nature and attachment position. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbo, John; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Pfister, Gerd; Nguyen, Nghia; Schroll, Reiner; Munch, Jean Charles; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated carbazoles have recently been detected in soil and water samples, but their environmental effects and fate are unknown. Eighty-four soil samples obtained from a site with no recorded history of pollution were used to assess the persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil under controlled conditions for 15 months. Soil samples were divided into two temperature conditions, 15 and 20 °C, both under fluctuating soil moisture conditions comprising 19 and 44 drying-rewetting cycles, respectively. This was characterized by natural water loss by evaporation and rewetting to -15 kPa. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleanup were performed after incubation. Identification and quantification were done using high-resolution gas chromatogram/mass spectrometer (HRGC/MS), while dioxin-like toxicity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in H4IIA rat hepatoma cells assay and multidimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (mQSAR) modelling. Carbazole, 3-chlorocarbazole and 3,6-dichlorocarbazole were detected including trichlorocarbazole not previously reported in soils. Carbazole and 3-chlorocarbazole showed significant dissipation at 15 °C but not at 20 °C incubating conditions indicating that low temperature could be suitable for dissipation of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles. 3,6-Dichlorocarbazole was resistant at both conditions. Trichlorocarbazole however exhibited a tendency to increase in concentration with time. 3-Chlorocarbazole, 3,6-dibromocarbazole and selected soil extracts exhibited EROD activity. Dioxin-like toxicity did not decrease significantly with time, whereas the sum chlorocarbazole toxic equivalence concentrations (∑TEQ) did not contribute significantly to the soil assay dioxin-like toxicity equivalent concentrations (TCDD-EQ). Carbazole and chlorocarbazoles are persistent with the latter also toxic in natural conditions. PMID:25142342

  13. A New Maleamide Bridged Carbazole Chromogenic-sensor Based on Proton Transfer Signaling Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-hong; LIN Hai; SHAO Jie; LIN Hua-kuan

    2008-01-01

    A Maleamide bridged carbazole receptor was designed and synthesized, the interactions between the receptor and anions, such as Ac-, H2PO4-, OH-, F-, Cl-, Br- and I- in DMSO were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR titration. The results of UV-Vis spectral studies indicate that interactions existed between receptor and anions, which induced remarkable color changes. The 1H NMR titration indicated amide moiety of the receptor was deprontonated first when a small quantity of anions such as Ac-, H2PO4-, F- were added; however, the carbazole N-H was gradually deprontonated upon the addition of anions.

  14. Multi-residue determination of polyhalogenated carbazoles in aquatic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Moore, Jeremy; Guo, Jiehong; Li, An; Grasman, Keith; Choy, Steven; Chen, Da

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies have discovered a number of polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCZs) in aquatic sediments and soil. These substances are attracting emerging concern due to their environmental presence, persistence, and potential dioxin-like activities. In response to the increasing interests in these chemicals, the present study aimed to develop an efficient and sensitive analytical methodology for quantitative determination of environmentally relevant PHCZs in aquatic sediments. The developed method employed time- and solvent-saving extraction and cleanup procedures and utilized gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for separation and determination of PHCZ analytes. PHCZs substituted with bromine atom(s) (except for 3-bromocarbazole) or a combination of bromine and chlorine atoms were analyzed by GC-MS in the electron-capture negative ionization (ECNI) mode, whereas congeners substituted with chlorine atoms as well as 3-bromocarbazole were analyzed in electron impact (EI) ionization mode. The developed method demonstrated negligible matrix effects, satisfactory and stable recoveries, and low method limits of quantification (0.11-0.53 ng/g dry weight (dw)) of target analytes. Using this method, we successfully determined a number of PHCZs in surface sediments from the Saginaw River system (Michigan, USA) and the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron, with the summed concentrations of PHCZ congeners ranging up to 46.3 ng/g dw. Given that further investigations are needed to better elucidate the sources, environmental behavior, fate, and toxicity of PHCZs, highly sensitive and efficient analytical methodologies would be essentially needed to fill in these knowledge gaps. PMID:26818240

  15. Controlled electropolymerisation of a carbazole-functionalised iron porphyrin electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xinming; Salmi, Zakaria; Lillethorup, Mie; Bjerglund Pedersen, Emil; Robert, Marc; Pedersen, Steen U.; Skrydstrup, Troels; Daasbjerg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Using a one-step electropolymerisation procedure, CO2 absorbing microporous carbazole-functionalised films of iron porphyrins are prepared in a controlled manner. The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 for these films is investigated to elucidate their efficiency and the origin of their ultimate...

  16. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68038... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). The Department intends to issue...

  17. 75 FR 34699 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 62743 (December 1, 2009). On December 31... Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010). Rescission of Countervailing Duty... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing...

  18. 75 FR 977 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Pigment 23 from India, 69 FR 77995 (December 29, 2004) (CVP-23 Order). On December 1, 2008, the Department... Pigment 23 from India, 69 FR 67321 (November 17, 2004), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR at 67321....

  19. 75 FR 25209 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... in Part, and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010... Review, 75 FR 10759 (March 9, 2010). In this notice we indicated that we would be conducting the changed... International Trade Administration A-533-838 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission...

  20. 75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    .... See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December... Pigment 23 from China and India; Determinations, 75 FR 27815 (May 18, 2010). Scope of the Order The... (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009). As...

  1. 75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 977 (January 7, 2010... Administrative Review, 75 FR 26716 (May 12, 2010). Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by this order is... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

  2. Quantitative determination of ultra-trace carbazoles in sediments in the coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ling; Xie, Zhiyong; Wolschke, Hendrik; Gandrass, Juergen; Kötke, Danijela; Winkelmann, Magnus; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    Carbazole and some of its derivatives may possess dioxin-like toxicity and could be persistent in the environment, but information on their distribution and environmental fate is limited. This study developed and validated an ultra-trace targeted-analysis method for the determination of carbazole, 1,2-benzocarbazole, and 13 halogenated carbazoles in sediments from the river, coast, and North Sea. An 8-g sediment sample was extracted using accelerated solvent extraction combined with in-cell cleanup and analyzed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was sensitive and reliable with method detection limits ranging from 4.54 to 52.9 pg/g, and most of the quantification biases and relative standard deviations were 75%, while those of 3,6-dibromo-, 1-bromo-3,6-dichloro-, and 1,8-dibromo-3,6-dichlorocarbazole were approximately 50%. Brominated carbazoles occurred more frequently in marine than river-influenced sediments, which could indicate halogenation after discharge into the river. This is the first study regarding these substances in coastal environments without apparent contamination history. The ubiquity and bioaccumulative potential of these substances needs to be considered. PMID:26919804

  3. A novel synthesis of 4-toluene 9H-carbazole-9-carbodithioate, electropolymerization and impedance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ates

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel synthesis of 4-toluene 9H-carbazole-9-carbodithioate (TCzC was chemically synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR spectroscopies. Specific (Csp and double layer capacitances (Cdl of the electro-coated poly(carbazole and poly(TCzC films were obtained on glassy carbon electrode (GCE by impedimetric method with DC potential from –0.1 to +1.0 V by increasing potential of 0.2 V. The polymers were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform infrared reflectance-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR, Atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The use of additional variable (DC potential helped to disambiguate the equivalent circuit model of R(C(R(Q(RW(CR. Simulation results were compared with experimental data. In this study, substituted group effects of CS2 and tosyl on carbazole polymer were investigated by EIS technique. CS2 group together with tosyl group in the structure of carbazole decreased the specific capacitance value (Csp = 0.43 mF•cm–2 compared to PCz (Csp = 1.44 mF•cm–2. Electropolymerization formation was seriously affected by substituted groups of CS2 and tosyl on conjugation system because of the electron donor and acceptor ability.

  4. New electroluminescent carbazole-containing conjugated polymer: synthesis, photophysics, and electroluminescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrová, Věra; Ulbricht, C.; Dzhabarov, Vagif; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Egbe, D. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 24 (2014), s. 6220-6226. ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/0827; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbazole-containing conjugated polymer * synthesis * photophysics and electroluminescence Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2014

  5. Synthesis of Dendrimer Containing Carbazole Unit as a Core Chromophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for the synthesis of Frechet-type dendrimers having a carbazole unit at core, which will be soluble in common organic solvents and easily spin-coated with high quality optical thin films

  6. Synthesis of Dendrimer Containing Carbazole Unit as a Core Chromophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Choul; Lee, Jae Wook [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sungho [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    for the synthesis of Frechet-type dendrimers having a carbazole unit at core, which will be soluble in common organic solvents and easily spin-coated with high quality optical thin films.

  7. Efficient synthesis of N-alkyl-2,7-dihalocarbazoles by simultaneous carbazole ring closure and N-alkylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výprachtický, Drahomír; Kmínek, Ivan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 25 (2012), s. 5075-5080. ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA ČR GAP106/12/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbazole ring closure * carbazole alkylation * heterocycles Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  8. Molecular Recognition of the Antiretroviral Drug Abacavir: Towards the Development of a Novel Carbazole-Based Fluorosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Idzik, Krzysztof Ryszard; Cywinski, Piotr J.; Cranfield, Charles G.; Mohr, Gerhard J.; Beckert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Due to their optical and electro-conductive attributes, carbazole derivatives are interesting materials for a large range of biosensor applications. In this study, we present the synthesis routes and fluorescence evaluation of newly designed carbazole fluorosensors that, by modification with uracil, have a special affinity for antiretroviral drugs via either Watson–Crick or Hoogsteen base pairing. To an N-octylcarbazole-uracil compound, four different groups were attached, namely thiophene, f...

  9. 3-Bromomethyl-4-methoxy-2-(2-nitrophenyl-9-phenylsulfonyl-9H-carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H19BrN2O5S, the carbazole tricycle is essentially planar, with the largest deviation being 0.126 (3 Å for the C atom connected to the nitrophenyl group. The carbazole moiety is almost orthogonal to the benzene rings of the adjacent phenylsulfonyl and nitrophenyl groups, making dihedral angles of 85.43 (15 and 88.62 (12°, respectively. The molecular conformation is stabilized by two C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the sulfone group, which form similar six-membered rings. In the crystal, molecules symmetrically related by a glide plane are linked in C(6 chains parallel to [001] by C—H...O hydrogen bonds formed with the participation of the nitro group. The chains are reinforced by additional C—H...π interactions.

  10. Crystal structure of dimethyl 9H-carbazole-2,7-di-carb-oxy-late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, Ryan L; Golen, James A; Rheingold, Arnold L; Manke, David R

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C16H13NO4, the carbazole ring system is almost planar with non-H atoms possessing a mean deviation from planarity of 0.037 Å. The two ester groups are orientated trans to one another and tilted slightly from the mean plane of the carbazole ring system, making dihedral angles of 8.12 (6) and 8.21 (5)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked by parallel slipped π-π inter-actions, forming slabs propagating along the b-axis direction [inter-centroid distance = 3.6042 (8) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3437 (5) Å, slippage = 1.345 Å]. PMID:26594478

  11. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) from murraya koenigii (rutaceae) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    B. Dineshkumar; Analava Mitra; Manjunatha Mahadevappa

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves (Rutaceae) are used traditionally in Indian Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid from Murraya koenigii leaves) on blood glucose and serum lipid profiles on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (45mg/kg). Mahanimbine (50 and 100mg/kg) were administrated as a single dose per week t...

  12. Electrochemical impedance of poly(9-tosyl-9H-carbazole-co-pyrrole) electrocoated carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Impedance study of poly(9-tosyl-9H-carbazole-co-pyrrole) electrocoated carbon fiber. → Copolymer of 9-tosyl-9H-carbazole and pyrrole were electrocoated on carbon fiber. → Impedance spectroscopy and circuit models of poly(9-tosyl-9H-carbazole-co-pyrrole). - Abstract: In this paper, copolymer of 9-tosyl-9H-carbazole (TCz) and pyrrole (Py) comonomers were electrochemically deposited onto carbon fiber micro electrode (CFME) as an active electrode material. An electrochemical impedance study on the prepared electrodes is reported. Poly(TCz-co-Py)/CFME is characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared reflectance-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Capacitive behaviors of modified CFMEs were defined via Nyquist, Bode-magnitude and Bode-phase plots. An examination is made of which equivalent circuits of R(C(R(Q(RW)))) and R(C(R(Q(RW))))(CR) used for modeling the system. The effect of monomer ratio (mole fraction, XTCz = nTCz/nTCz + nPy) on the formation of copolymer is reported in 0.1 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4)/acetonitrile (ACN) solution. The inclusion of TCz in the copolymer structure was also confirmed by FTIR-ATR, SEM, and CV measurements. The highest low frequency capacitance (CLF = 22.7 for R(C(R(Q(RW)))) and CLF = 22.6 mF cm-2 for R(C(R(Q(RW))))(CR)) were obtained for XTCz = 0.91.

  13. Ruthenium(II) dendrimers containing carbazole-based chromophores as branches

    OpenAIRE

    McClenaghan, ND; Passalacqua, R; Loiseau, F; Campagna, S; Verheyde, B; Hameurlaine, Ahmed; Dehaen, Wim

    2003-01-01

    Three new luminescent and redox-active Ru(II) complexes containing novel dendritic polypyridine ligands have been synthesized, and their absorption spectra, luminescence properties (both at room temperature in fluid solution and at 77 K in rigid matrix), and redox behavior have been investigated. The dendritic ligands are made of 1,10-phenanthroline coordinating subunits and of carbazole groups as branching sites, The first and second generation species of this novel class of dendritic ligand...

  14. N-Alkyl Carbazole Derivatives as New Tools for Alzheimer’s Disease: Preliminary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Saturnino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive and age-related neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain cells and is the most common form of “dementia”, because of the cognitive detriment which takes place. Neuronal disruption represents its major feature, due to the cytosolic accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ which leads to senile plaques formation and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Many studies have focused on the design and therapeutic use of new molecules able to inhibit Aβ aggregation. In this context, we evaluated the ability of two recently synthesized series of N-alkyl carbazole derivatives to increase the Aβ soluble forms, through molecular docking simulations and in vitro experiments. Our data evidenced that two carbazole derivatives, the most active, adopt distinct binding modes involving key residues for Aβ fibrillization. They exhibit a good interfering activity on Aβ aggregation in mouse (N2a cells, stably expressing wild-type human amyloid precursor protein (APP 695. These preliminary results are promising and we are confident that the N-alkyl carbazole derivatives may encourage next future studies needed for enlarging the knowledge about the AD disease approach.

  15. Carbazole-based sensitizers for potential application to dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Duvva; Ravi Kumar Kanaparthi; Jaipal Kandhadi; Gabriele Marotta; Paolo Salvatori; Filippo De Angelis; Lingamallu Giribabu

    2015-03-01

    Two push-pull molecules employing carbazole and alkyl thiophene (CAR-THIOHX) or carbazole and triphenylamine (CAR-TPA) as donor moieties, with the cyanoacrylic group as the acceptor, have been designed and synthesized by simple organic transformations. Photophysical and electrochemical studies revealed the potential of these two systems in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Under standard irradiation conditions, CAR-TPA and CAR-THIOHX exhibited 2.12 and 1.83% of overall power conversion efficiencies respectively. The moderate photovoltaic efficiency of the sensitizers has been attributed to the poor light absorption of the sensitizers in the visible region. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have shown a strong intramolecular charge transfer character, with the HOMOs of both the sensitizers exclusively localized on the corresponding donor moieties and LUMOs on the cyanoacrylic acid acceptor. On the other hand, the calculated high dihedral angle between the carbazole donor and the phenyl bridge for these sensitizers impedes the conjugation along the dyes backbone, and thus leads to less extended and intense absorption spectra in the visible region.

  16. Mechanistic studies of thioxanthone–carbazole as a one-component type II photoinitiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanistic study concerning photoinitiated free radical polymerization using Thioxanthone–Carbazole (TX–Cz) as a one-component Type II photoinitiator was performed. TX–Cz presented visible initiator characteristics with absorptions at 434 and 414 nm where the molar absorption coefficients were 2014 and 1754 L mol−1 cm−1, respectively. Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy, as well as laser flash photolysis was employed to study the photophysical properties of TX–Cz. In addition, photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) showed that TX–Cz is efficient photoinitiator. To explain the initiation mechanism of TX–Cz, fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectra of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were also taken to see whether the initiator covalently bonded to the polymer. The postulated mechanism is based on inter- molecular reaction of the triplet, 3(TX–Cz)⁎ with the carbazole moiety at ground state, TX–Cz. The photoinitiation efficiency of TX–Cz during gelation of multifunctional acrylates was also investigated by Photo-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (Photo-DSC) technique and high polymerization rates were obtained. -- Highlights: • Thioxanthone–Carbazole was used as visible light photoinitiator for radical polymerization of meth(acrylates). • The detailed photophysical properties of TX–Cz was reported. • Fluorescence quantum yield, phosphorescence lifetime , triplet energy and triplet lifetime were determined. • Photo-DSC was used to follow photopolymerizatin kinetics of acrylates

  17. Mechanistic studies of thioxanthone–carbazole as a one-component type II photoinitiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, Nurcan; Karaca Balta, Demet; Ocal, Nuket; Arsu, Nergis, E-mail: nergisarsu@gmail.com

    2014-02-15

    A mechanistic study concerning photoinitiated free radical polymerization using Thioxanthone–Carbazole (TX–Cz) as a one-component Type II photoinitiator was performed. TX–Cz presented visible initiator characteristics with absorptions at 434 and 414 nm where the molar absorption coefficients were 2014 and 1754 L mol{sup −1} cm{sup −1}, respectively. Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy, as well as laser flash photolysis was employed to study the photophysical properties of TX–Cz. In addition, photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) showed that TX–Cz is efficient photoinitiator. To explain the initiation mechanism of TX–Cz, fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectra of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were also taken to see whether the initiator covalently bonded to the polymer. The postulated mechanism is based on inter- molecular reaction of the triplet, {sup 3}(TX–Cz){sup ⁎} with the carbazole moiety at ground state, TX–Cz. The photoinitiation efficiency of TX–Cz during gelation of multifunctional acrylates was also investigated by Photo-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (Photo-DSC) technique and high polymerization rates were obtained. -- Highlights: • Thioxanthone–Carbazole was used as visible light photoinitiator for radical polymerization of meth(acrylates). • The detailed photophysical properties of TX–Cz was reported. • Fluorescence quantum yield, phosphorescence lifetime , triplet energy and triplet lifetime were determined. • Photo-DSC was used to follow photopolymerizatin kinetics of acrylates.

  18. Color-Tunable Solid-State Fluorescence Emission from Carbazole-Based BODIPYs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Chihiro; Todaka, Takumi; Ueda, Tomomi; Ema, Tadashi

    2016-05-23

    Several carbazole-based boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were synthesized by organometallic approaches. Thiazole, benzothiazole, imidazole, benzimidazole, triazole, and indolone substituents were introduced at the 1-position of the carbazole moiety, and boron complexation of each dipyrrin generated the corresponding compounds 1, 2 a, and 3-6. The properties of these products were investigated by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations. These compounds exhibited large Stokes shifts, and compounds 1, 2 a, and 3-5 fluoresced both in solution and in the solid state. Complex 2 a showed the highest fluorescence quantum yield (ΦF ) in the solid state, therefore boron complexes of the carbazole-benzothiazole hybrids 2 b-f, which had several different substituents, were prepared and the effects of the substituents on the photophysical properties of the compounds were examined. The fluorescence properties showed good correlation with the results of crystal-packing analyses, and the dyes exhibited color-tunable solid-state fluorescence. PMID:27072791

  19. Synthesis and characterization of poly(carbazole ethyl methacrylate) and its electrodeposition on ITO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ethyl methacrylate) functionalized with pendant carbazole moieties was synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Structural characteristics of the homopolymers were studies using Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (“1H-NMR). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was utilized to determine the molecular weight and showed an average of 27,000 g/mol. To determine the carbazole pendants of poly(ethyl methacrylate), cylic voltammetry was employed. This was done by sweeping the potential across the three electrode system form 0-1.4V with indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slide serving as the working electrode. The structure and optical characteristics of the electrodeposited polycarbazole film were then observed using UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology of the film while its thickness was measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was also employed to determine the surface roughness and topography of the film. Investigation of the characteristics of electropolymerized carbazole film may lead to interesting electrochromic properties, alternative materials in electro-optical devices and may have potential application in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). (author)

  20. Synthesis and Properties of 1,8-Carbazole-Based Conjugated Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Michinobu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new series of conjugated carbazole polymers based on the 1,8-carbazolylene unit was synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed polycondensation between the 1,8-diiodocarbazole derivative and various bifunctional counter comonomers. An alkyne spacer was found to be a key to increasing the molecular weight of the resulting polymers. All the obtained polymers showed good solubilities in the common organic solvents, and they were fully characterized by Gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and 1H NMR and infrared (IR spectroscopies. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra revealed the relationship between the chemical structure and effective conjugation length. The efficiency order of the carbazole connectivity was 2,7-carbazolylene > 1,8-carbazolylene > 3,6-carbazolylene. The electrochemical properties of these polymers suggested the relatively facile oxidation at ca. +0.5–0.7 V vs. Fc/Fc+ or a high potential as p-type semiconductors. The combination of the electrochemical oxidation potentials and the optical band gaps allowed us to estimate the HOMO and LUMO levels of the polymers. It was shown that the energy levels of the 1,8-carbazole-based conjugated polymers can be tunable by selecting the appropriate comonomer structures.

  1. 3,6-Carbazole vs 2,7-carbazole: A comparative study of hole-transporting polymeric materials for inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Otsuka, Munechika; Kato, Takehito; Wang, Yang; Mori, Takehiko; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for clean energy has encouraged researchers to intensively investigate environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are very promising due to their potentials of easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Designing hole-transporting materials (HTMs) is one of the key factors in achieving the high PCEs of PSCs. We now report the synthesis of two types of carbazole-based polymers, namely 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT, by Stille polycondensation. Despite the same chemical composition, 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT displayed different optical and electrochemical properties due to the different connectivity mode of the carbazole unit. Therefore, their performances as hole-transporting polymeric materials in the PSCs were also different. The device based on 2,7-Cbz-EDOT showed better photovoltaic properties with the PCE of 4.47% than that based on 3,6-Cbz-EDOT. This could be due to its more suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and higher hole mobility. PMID:27559390

  2. 3,6-Carbazole vs 2,7-carbazole: A comparative study of hole-transporting polymeric materials for inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Otsuka, Munechika; Wang, Yang; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ever increasing demand for clean energy has encouraged researchers to intensively investigate environmentally friendly photovoltaic devices. Inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are very promising due to their potentials of easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Designing hole-transporting materials (HTMs) is one of the key factors in achieving the high PCEs of PSCs. We now report the synthesis of two types of carbazole-based polymers, namely 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT, by Stille polycondensation. Despite the same chemical composition, 3,6-Cbz-EDOT and 2,7-Cbz-EDOT displayed different optical and electrochemical properties due to the different connectivity mode of the carbazole unit. Therefore, their performances as hole-transporting polymeric materials in the PSCs were also different. The device based on 2,7-Cbz-EDOT showed better photovoltaic properties with the PCE of 4.47% than that based on 3,6-Cbz-EDOT. This could be due to its more suitable highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and higher hole mobility.

  3. Synthese von TiO2-Nanopartikeln und Carbazol-Farbstoffderivaten für optische Anwendungen in anorganisch-organischen Hybridpolymeren

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenmaier, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Die Arbeit hatte das Ziel, Beiträge zur Synthese photorefraktiver Nanokomposite durch die geschickte Kombination spezieller organischer Farbstoffe mit elektronenleitenden, anorganischen Nanopartikeln oder mit lochleitenden Carbazol-Derivaten in hybriden Polymeren zu leisten. Dabei wurden grundlegende Erkenntnisse auf folgenden Gebieten erzielt: > TiO2-Nanopartikel als anorganische Elektronenleiter > Carbazol-Derivate als organische Lochleiter > Metallkomplex-Farbstoffe als Photosensibilisator...

  4. Novel high band gap pendant-borylated carbazole polymers with deep HOMO levels through direct +N=B- interaction for organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Rasmus G.; Sveegaard, Steffen G.; Xiao, Manjun;

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, we investigate the direct and still conjugated intramolecular +N=B- interactions in novel high band gap borylated carbazole containing polymers, namely, poly(3,6-(N-di(2,4,6-trimethyl)-phenylboryl-carbazole)-alt- 4,8-di(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b: 4,5-b'] di...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of aromatic and aliphatic ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Novel ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties were synthesized via elimination of HBr. Fluorescence measurements of the polymers were performed using N,N′-dimethyl formamide solutions. The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined TGA measurements. -- Highlights: • Novel ether bridged polymers containing carbazole moieties were synthesized via elimination of HBr. • Fluorescence measurements of the polymers were performed using DMF solutions. • The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy. • Thermal stabilities were determined TGA measurements. -- Abstract: In this study, the polymers were synthesized ether bridged containing carbazole moieties via HBr elimination. Also, these polymers include the aliphatic chains at the different lengths and aromatic groups in their structures. However, the polymers were characterized by FT-IR, NMR and UV–vis spectroscopy, and their thermal stabilities were determined via TGA measurements. Fluorescence measurements were performed using N,N′-dimethyl formamide solutions and also, the optimization of the concentrations to obtain maximal emission intensity was investigated in N,N′-dimethyl formamide. The morphologic properties of the polymers were investigated at different particle sizes by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) values of the polymers were determined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) technique. Resultantly, the remarkable properties related to the fluorescence and thermal measurements of the polymers were obtained. Therefore, these polymers could be used in various application fields because of the fluorescent and thermal properties

  6. Synthesis of two carbazole-based dyes and application of two-photon initiating polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU RenTao; LU LiangFei; RUAN BanFeng; WANG Peng; ZHANG MingLiang; ZHOU HongPing; LI ShengLi; WU JieYing; TIAN YuPeng

    2009-01-01

    Two carbazole-based polymerization initiators possessing blue fluorescence emission have been synthesized via Wittig reaction in the solid phase at room temperature.Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) spectra for them were investigated under 800 nm fs laser pulse and two-photon absorption cross sections were determined by the Z-scan technique.Then two-photon initiating polymerization (TPIP) microfabrication experiments were successfully carried out.Three-dimensional lattice and artificial defects were gained,indicating that they were viable candidates for the two-photon polymerization initiator in practical application of microfabrication.

  7. Genotoxicity of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole and its methyl derivatives in human keratinocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valovičová, Z.; Mesárošová, M.; Trilecová, L.; Hrubá, E.; Marvanová, S.; Krčmář, P.; Milcová, Alena; Schmuczerová, Jana; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.; Topinka, Jan; Gábelová, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 743, 1-2 (2012), s. 91-98. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08005 Grant ostatní: GA MZe(CZ) MZE0002716202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : dibenzo[c,g]carbazoles * DNA strand-breaks * micronuclei Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; BO - Biophysics (BFU-R) Impact factor: 2.220, year: 2012

  8. Synthesis of two carbazole-based dyes and application of two-photon initiating polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two carbazole-based polymerization initiators possessing blue fluorescence emission have been synthesized via Wittig reaction in the solid phase at room temperature.Two-photon excited fluorescence(TPEF) spectra for them were investigated under 800 nm fs laser pulse and two-photon absorption cross sections were determined by the Z-scan technique.Then two-photon initiating polymerization(TPIP) microfabrication experiments were successfully carried out.Three-dimensional lattice and artificial defects were gained,indicating that they were viable candidates for the two-photon polymerization initiator in practical application of microfabrication.

  9. Novel soluble fluorene-thienothiadiazole and fluorene-carbazole copolymers for optoelectronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrová, Věra; Kmínek, Ivan; Výprachtický, Drahomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 1 (2010), s. 65-70. ISSN 1022-1360. [Prague Meetings on Macromolecules /73./ New Frontiers in Macromolecular Science: From Macromolecular Concepts of Living Matter to Polymers for Better Quality of Life . Prague, 05.07.2009-09.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR IAA4050409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : fluorene – thienothiadiazole copolymers * photovoltaics * fluorene-carbazole copolymers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Theoretical study on alkyne-linked carbazole polymers for blue-light multifunctional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studied poly[(3,6-di-tert-butyl-N-hexadecyl-1,8-carbazolylene) butadiynylene] (P1), butadiynylene-linked poly (3,6-carbazole) (P2) and butadiynylene-linked poly (2,7-carbazole) (P3) through the theoretical measurements with Gaussian 03 program package. To investigate the relationship between structures and properties of these multifunctional electroluminescent materials, their geometrical structures of ground and excited-states were optimized by B3LYP/6-31G (d) and CIS/6-31G (d) methods, respectively. The lowest excitation energies (Eg's), and the maximum absorption and emission wavelengths of these polymers were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory methods (TD-DFT). The important parameters for luminescent materials were also predicated including the ionization potentials (Ip's) and electron affinities (Ea's). The calculated results show that the highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies lift about 0.27-0.49 eV compared to N,N'-bis(naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB), suggesting the significant improved hole-accepting and transporting abilities. In addition, substitution of alkyne for carbazole resulted in a narrow band gap and a red shift of both the absorption and emission peaks. Through above calculations, it is evidenced that these polymers can be considered as candidates for excellent OLEDs with good hole-creating abilities and high blue-light emission. - Highlights: → We studied poly [(3,6-di-tert-butyl-N-hexadecyl-1,8-carbazolylene) butadiynylene] by theoretical method. → The geometrical structures of ground and excited-states had been optimized by B3LYP/6-31G (d) and CIS/6-31G (d). → The relationship between structures and properties of these multifunctional electroluminescent materials had been investigated. → These molecules are excellent candidates for multifunctional OLED materials. → The substitution of alkyne for carbazole results in a narrow band gap and a red shift of both the

  11. Second harmonic generation spectroscopy of p-cresol and carbazole on SiO 2 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyck, N. E.; Koenig, E. W.; Byers, J. D.; Hetherington, W. M., III

    1985-11-01

    Surface second harmonic generation (SHG) has been developed as a surface specific type of electronic spectroscopy. The surface second-order susceptibility χ (2) is enhanced by the adsorption of molecules, and an electronic spectrum can be generated by scanning the dye laser through the two-photon resonances of the adsorbate. The spectra of p-cresol ionically and covalently bound to SiO 2 and of carbazole covalently bound to SiO 2 have been obtained. Weakly bound molecules such as hydrogen-bonded cresol, phenol and aniline as well as pyridine are rapidly desorbed by the competitive process of two-photon absorption.

  12. Synthesis, measurements, and theoretical analysis of carbazole derivatives with high-triplet-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jianli; Mi Xiaoyun; Wan Yuchun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Si Zhenjun, E-mail: szj@cust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czech Academy of Science, Praha 6 16610 (Czech Republic); Sun Haiying; Duan Qian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); He Xingquan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Yan Dong; Wan Sha [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-05-15

    In order to obtain the blue light-emitting organic materials with high triplet state energy, two 3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole (Tz) containing carbazole (Cz) derivatives of 9-(4-(3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl)-9H-carbazole (TzCz1) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-9-(4-(3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)phenyl) -9H-carbazole (TzCz2) are synthesized using Cz acting as the starting material, as well as characterized by the {sup 1}H NMR spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, and the IR absorption spectra. The luminescence quantum yields (LQYs) of TzCz1 and TzCz2 are measured in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution to be 32.1% and 47.5%, respectively. The electrochemical analysis and the photophysical measurements suggest that the triplet energy levels and the energy gaps of the highest-occupied orbital and the lowest-unoccupied orbital are 2.83 eV and 3.59 eV for TzCz1, and 2.80 eV and 3.43 eV for TzCz2. At last, the theoretical analyses of their ground state geometries and the simulated UV-vis absorption spectra are carried out at B3LYP1/6-31G Low-Asterisk level. The studies mentioned above indicate that both TzCz1 and TzCz2 are suitable for the host materials of blue light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of two blue light-emitting Carbazole derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photophysical and electrochemical properties are systematically studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical analysis of geometry of the ground states and the UV-vis absorption are performed with Firefly package. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The triplet energy levels are measured to be ca. 2.83 eV.

  13. Miscibility and Molecular Orientation of Carbazole in Mixed Langmuir and Langrnuir-Blodgett Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. N. Islam; D. Bhattacharjee; S. A. Hussain

    2007-01-01

    We report the miscibility and molecular orientation of carbazole (CA) molecules in the mixed Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of CA in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) matrices. The r-A isotherm confirms the formation of stable Langmuir films of CA mixed with either PMMA or SA at airwater interface. Characteristics of area per molecule versus molefraction and collapse pressure versus molefraction reveal complete demixing of CA and the matrix PMMA/SA molecules in the mixed films. Absorption spectroscopy certainly confirms the fact that CA molecules have preferred orientation on the substrate of the LB films.

  14. Solvent-dependent fluorescence enhancement and piezochromism of a carbazole-substituted naphthopyran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel carbazole-substituted naphthopyran, 3,3-bis-(4-carbazolylphenyl)-[3H]-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (CzNP) was designed and synthesized. The new compound exhibited normal photochromism in dichloromethane solution and the UV irradiation did not influence its fluorescence. On the contrary, the fluorescence of CzNP in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was intensively enhanced to 29 times after 60 min of the UV irradiation and this enhanced fluorescence can be quenched by addition of triethylamine (TEA). The study of enhanced extent of fluorescence of CzNP in solvents with different polarities and in mixed solvents demonstrated that the enhanced fluorescence is dependent on the polarity of solvents. The larger the polarity of solvent was, the stronger was the fluorescence of CzNP. CzNP also exhibited piezochromic performance and the pressure led to the cleavage of the C–O bond of pyran ring. - Highlights: • A carbazole-substituted photochromic naphthopyran was designed and synthesized. • The fluorescence was enhanced under the existence of DMF and UV irradiation. • The polarity of solvent was the dominating factor to affect the fluorescence. • The new compound also displayed piezochromic performance

  15. Solvent-dependent fluorescence enhancement and piezochromism of a carbazole-substituted naphthopyran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihui; Wang, Aixia [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Wang, Guang, E-mail: wangg923@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Munyentwari, Alexis [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhou, Yihan, E-mail: yhzhou@ciac.ac.cn [National Analytical Research Center of Electrochemistry and Spectroscopy, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-09-15

    A novel carbazole-substituted naphthopyran, 3,3-bis-(4-carbazolylphenyl)-[3H]-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (CzNP) was designed and synthesized. The new compound exhibited normal photochromism in dichloromethane solution and the UV irradiation did not influence its fluorescence. On the contrary, the fluorescence of CzNP in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was intensively enhanced to 29 times after 60 min of the UV irradiation and this enhanced fluorescence can be quenched by addition of triethylamine (TEA). The study of enhanced extent of fluorescence of CzNP in solvents with different polarities and in mixed solvents demonstrated that the enhanced fluorescence is dependent on the polarity of solvents. The larger the polarity of solvent was, the stronger was the fluorescence of CzNP. CzNP also exhibited piezochromic performance and the pressure led to the cleavage of the C–O bond of pyran ring. - Highlights: • A carbazole-substituted photochromic naphthopyran was designed and synthesized. • The fluorescence was enhanced under the existence of DMF and UV irradiation. • The polarity of solvent was the dominating factor to affect the fluorescence. • The new compound also displayed piezochromic performance.

  16. Synthesis and luminescent properties of carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A class of highly fluorescent and stable carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene compounds have been synthesized and the comparative photophysical studies are presented. These compounds exhibit intense violet-blue emission in CH2Cl2 solution (λmaxem∼383-420 nm, ΦF∼0.36-0.88, τF∼1.14-6.63 ns), and show a red-shifted emission in the solid state relative to that in solution. The extent of the shift is highly dependent on the nature of the substituents and the π-conjugation length of phenylene ethynylene component. Their photophysical properties and structural characterization have been investigated with the aim to provide a basis for elucidating the structure-property correlations and developing new blue-emitting materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). - Highlights: → Synthesis of carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene compounds bearing different chromophores. → Structure of products was characterized via spectroscopic techniques and single crystal X-ray crystallography. → Luminescent properties were characterized by UV-vis absorption and emission in both solution and solid state.

  17. A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of imidazole–carbazole fluorophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different tri and tetra substituted imidazole derivatives connected with carbazole moiety were synthesized by using Vilsmeier–Haack formylation followed by multicomponent cyclisation reaction. Results obtained from spectroscopic (1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass) and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of synthesized compound revealed its chemical structure. UV–vis and photoluminescence studies in various solvents with different polarity demonstrated that these compounds were sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment in the excited state. Results of TGA and AFM analysis demonstrated that the compounds exhibited good thermal and morphological stabilities over very harsh conditions. DFT calculations were performed to elucidate the structural and electrochemical properties of these compounds. The computed result revealed the ground state of the molecules was majorly stabilized by σ→σ⁎ interaction and the natural hybrid orbital compositions and occupancies predict that the bonding interactions between C and N centers possess pure σ bond with sp2 hybridization. -- Highlights: • Highly fluorescent imidazole–carbazole derivatives were synthesized and characterised. • Effect of solvent polarity on absorption and emission spectra were analysed. • Thermal and morphological stabilities of the compounds were analysed. • DFT calculations have been performed to elucidate the structural properties

  18. A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of imidazole–carbazole fluorophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, N.; Velmurugan, G.; Prabhu, G.; Venuvanalingam, P.; Renganathan, R., E-mail: rrengas@gmail.com

    2014-03-15

    Two different tri and tetra substituted imidazole derivatives connected with carbazole moiety were synthesized by using Vilsmeier–Haack formylation followed by multicomponent cyclisation reaction. Results obtained from spectroscopic ({sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, Mass) and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of synthesized compound revealed its chemical structure. UV–vis and photoluminescence studies in various solvents with different polarity demonstrated that these compounds were sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment in the excited state. Results of TGA and AFM analysis demonstrated that the compounds exhibited good thermal and morphological stabilities over very harsh conditions. DFT calculations were performed to elucidate the structural and electrochemical properties of these compounds. The computed result revealed the ground state of the molecules was majorly stabilized by σ→σ{sup ⁎} interaction and the natural hybrid orbital compositions and occupancies predict that the bonding interactions between C and N centers possess pure σ bond with sp{sup 2} hybridization. -- Highlights: • Highly fluorescent imidazole–carbazole derivatives were synthesized and characterised. • Effect of solvent polarity on absorption and emission spectra were analysed. • Thermal and morphological stabilities of the compounds were analysed. • DFT calculations have been performed to elucidate the structural properties.

  19. Smart windows application of carbazole and triazine based star shaped architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Merve; Soganci, Tugba; Ayranci, Rukiye; Ak, Metin

    2016-08-01

    A novel triazine-based, star shape and electroactive monomer, 2,4,6-tris(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TCZ) which contains 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as the core and 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethanol as the arms, was successfully synthesized. After electrochemical polymerization of the TCZ monomer, called PTCZ, the polymer shows superior optoelectronic and thermal properties due to its unique three-dimensional shape and highly-branched structure in comparison with linear analogues. Electrochromic studies exhibited that PTCZ has turquoise color in the oxidized state and is transparent in the neutral state. Due to the fact that the redox color characteristics of PTCZ are indispensable for smart windows, a PTCZ-based electrochromic device was formed with PEDOT as complementary coloring material. A potential range of -1.5 to +1.8 V was determined to be suitable for operating the PTCZ/PEDOT device between transparent and blue colors. Characterizations of the device were performed in term of switching times, optical contrast, optical memory and redox stability. PMID:27431786

  20. Novel N-acyl-carbazole derivatives as 5-HT7R antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjae; Yeom, Miyoung; Tae, Jinsung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Hyunah

    2016-03-01

    To discover a novel 5-HT7R antagonist for treatment of depression, we designed N-acyl-carbazole derivatives which were synthesized and biologically evaluated against 5-HT7R. Among total 30 compounds synthesized, four compounds 27-30 showed good binding affinities with Ki values of <100 nM. The compound 28, 1-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-6-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)hexan-1-one, showed good selectivity over other serotonin receptor subtypes and turned out to be a novel selective 5-HT7R antagonist following functional assays. The compound 28 showed moderate activity on hERG channel and good stability in microsomal stability test. The compound 28 exhibited a good pharmacokinetic profile with 67.8% oral bioavailability and good penetration to the brain. The compound 28 was also tested in in vivo depression animal model and showed antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test. Therefore, the selective 5-HT7R antagonist 28 can be considered as a good lead for discovery of novel 5-HT7R antagonists as antidepressants. PMID:26852005

  1. 75 FR 25840 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68780 (December 29, 2009) (Preliminary Results). The final... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice is published in accordance... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Extension...

  2. 75 FR 36630 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Administrative Review, 74 FR ] 68780 (December 29, 2009) (Preliminary Results). This administrative review covers...: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 25840 (May 10... International Trade Administration A-570-892 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of...

  3. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Pigment 23 (CVP-23) ] from India pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-year (Sunset) Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009) (Initiation Notice). On... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited...

  4. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 62743... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010)....

  5. 75 FR 12497 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... China, 69 FR 77987 (December 29, 2004); Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004... 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November...

  6. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Circumstances Review, 75 FR 52930 (August 30, 2010). Although we gave interested parties an opportunity to... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 38076 (July 1, 2010). Notification This notice serves as a... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping...

  7. 77 FR 1463 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 55003 (September 6, 2011) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective... People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 53408 (August 26... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China:...

  8. Molecular recognition of the antiretroviral drug abacavir: towards the development of a novel carbazole-based fluorosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzik, Krzysztof Ryszard; Cywinski, Piotr J; Cranfield, Charles G; Mohr, Gerhard J; Beckert, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    Due to their optical and electro-conductive attributes, carbazole derivatives are interesting materials for a large range of biosensor applications. In this study, we present the synthesis routes and fluorescence evaluation of newly designed carbazole fluorosensors that, by modification with uracil, have a special affinity for antiretroviral drugs via either Watson-Crick or Hoogsteen base pairing. To an N-octylcarbazole-uracil compound, four different groups were attached, namely thiophene, furane, ethylenedioxythiophene, and another uracil; yielding four different derivatives. Photophysical properties of these newly obtained derivatives are described, as are their interactions with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as abacavir, zidovudine, lamivudine and didanosine. The influence of each analyte on biosensor fluorescence was assessed on the basis of the Stern-Volmer equation and represented by Stern-Volmer constants. Consequently we have demonstrated that these structures based on carbazole, with a uracil group, may be successfully incorporated into alternative carbazole derivatives to form biosensors for the molecular recognition of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:21222147

  9. Efficient fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on carbazole/benzimidazole compound

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-07-28

    We report the synthesis, photophysics, and electrochemical characterization of carbazole/benzimidazole-based compound (Cz-2pbb) and efficient fluorescent deep-blue light emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb with the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.1% and Commission Internationale dÉnclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.05). Efficient deep-blue emission as well as high triplet state energy of Cz-2pbb enables fabrication of hybrid white organic light emitting diodes with a single emissive layer. Hybrid white emitting devices based on Cz-2pbb show the peak external quantum efficiency exceeding 10% and power efficiency of 14.8 lm/W at a luminance of 500 cd/m2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Carbazole Containing Copolymers: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Reversible Holographic Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Mailhot-Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbazolic copolymers have been developed to be used in reversible holographic recording. This paper describes a complete analysis, from synthesis of the material to its applications, together with the corresponding characterizations. The investigated materials were photosensitive copolymers obtained from carbazolylalkylmethacrylates (CEM and octylmethacrylate (OMA. A detailed investigation was undertaken involving infrared spectroscopy and NMR techniques, 1H, 13C, COSY, and HSQC, in order to establish the chemical structure and the composition of the copolymers. Holographic recording characteristics were investigated with one- and two-layer photothermoplastic carriers. The two-layer carrier contains separate photosensitive and thermoplastic layers and gives the best holographic response. The surface of microstructured samples has been characterized by atomic force microscopy analysis. It is shown that via a photothermoplastic recording process, it is possible to record and read holograms practically in real time (~3 s with a diffraction efficiency of 10% and a spatial resolution higher than 1000 mm−1.

  11. Postfunctionalization of Alkyne-Linked Conjugated Carbazole Polymer by Thermal Addition Reaction of Tetracyanoethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Fujita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The postfunctionalization of the main chain alkyne moieties of carbazole containing poly(arylenebutadiynylenes was attempted by using a high yielding addition reaction between electron rich alkynes and a strong acceptor molecule, tetracyanoethylene (TCNE. After successful postfunctionalization, the polymer band gap decreased due to the intramolecular donor-acceptor interactions. The resulting donor-acceptor alternating polymer showed a very broad charge-transfer band in the visible region as well as redox activities in both anodic and cathodic directions. The optical band gap showed good agreement with the electrochemical band gap. Furthermore, the thermal stability was enhanced after postfunctionalization. These features of the donor-acceptor alternating polymer are expected to be useful for high performance activities in organic solar cell applications.

  12. Magnetite nanoparticle aided immobilization of Pseudomonas sp. GBS.5 for carbazole degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorva Mehndiratta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Pseudomonas sp. GBS.5 is a newly isolated biosurfactant producing and carbazole degrading bacterium. In the present study, this bacterium was coated with magnetite nanoparticles, synthesized using co-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies confirmed the coating of the bacterial surface with these nanoparticles. Degradation activity of the coated cells obtained was 1.4 ppm/min as compared to 0.32 ppm/min for free cells and could be reused for five different cycles. These results indicate that magnetite nanoparticle can be efficiently used for the immobilization of biosurfactant producing bacteria involved in the degradation of polyaromatic compounds.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbazole-Benzothiadiazole-Based Conjugated Polymers for Organic Photovoltaic Cells with Triazole in the Main Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized a series of carbazole-benzothiadiazole-triazole based copolymers, poly[(N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-co-(5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′-benzothiadiazole-co-((4-(4-butylphenyl-3,5-diphenyl-4H-1,2,4]triazole] (PCz3TBTz by Suzuki coupling polymerization. The optical and electrochemical properties of the copolymers could be tuned by changing the comonomer unit of triazole from 0% to 80%. Organic photovoltaic (OPV cells were fabricated by blending the synthesized polymers as a donor and PCBM as an acceptor. The material solubility and film morphology were improved by introducing the triazole unit in the main chain. Improved OPV device performance of 1.74% was achieved in the presence of an optimal amount of triazole moieties.

  14. Performance variation from triphenylamine- to carbazole-triphenylamine-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We synthesized an organic dye of carbazole-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid-triphenylamine. → A dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using this dye with efficiency of 4.64%. → Carbazole donor in the dye molecule provides electron in increasing efficiency. → Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acids play a key role in increasing efficiency. → AC impedance proves this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2. - Abstract: Organic dyes have been synthesized which contain an extra-electron donor (carbazole) and electron acceptors (rhodaniline-3-acetic acid) on triphenylamines (TPA). Photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical computational methods have categorized these compounds. Nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated using these dye molecules as light-harvesting sensitizers. The overall efficiency of sensitized cells has 4.64% relative to a cis-di(thiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxylate ruthenium (II) (N3 dye)-sensitized device (7.83%) fabricated and measured under the same conditions. Carbazole-electron donation in the dye molecules plays a key role in the increased efficiency. Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acid groups appear to help convey the charge transfer from the excited dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a higher efficiency of devices using such a dye. Electrochemical impedance supports this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2 (e-). Computations on this dye compound also indicate the larger charge transfer efficiency in the electronically excited state.

  15. Carbazole based electrochromic polymers with benzoazole units: Effect of heteroatom variation on electrochromic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Doyranli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of carbazole-based polymers were synthesized via Suzuki polymerization between N-(2-ethylhexylcarbazole-3,6-bis(ethyleneboronate (Cbz and dibromobenzazole unit. Three different polymers, PCBN, PCBS and PCBSe were obtained from 4,7-dibromo-2-hexyl-2H-benzotriazole (BN, 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole- (BS and 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole (BSe, respectively. It is observed that, the variation of heteroatoms (N,S and Se on the benzazole unit have most important effect on electro-optic properties of the PCBX polymers. Neutral state color of the polymer films and their electrochromic performances are also influenced. Among the synthesized polymers, the PCBS bearing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole as acceptor units has a broad absorption and 50% of ΔT in the near-IR regime at the oxidized state. This property of PCBS is a great advantage for near-IR electrochromic applications.

  16. Effect of carbazole as a donor moiety on the second-order nonlinearity of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Guilia; Berkovic, Garry; Kotler, Zvi; Ben-Asuly, Amos; Mazor, Royi; Shapiro, Lev; Khodorkovsky, Vladimir

    1999-10-01

    The second order nonlinearity of conjugated organic molecules involving, 1,3 indandione derivatives as an acceptor moiety has been studied. Varying the donor from dialkylamino to the chemically similar substituent, N- carbazolyl resulted in a drastic reduction of electric field induced second harmonic (beta) values. For some molecules, even a small negative value of (beta) was received. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the decrease occurs as a result of two overlapping transitions, which contribute to (beta) with opposite signs. The charge transfer band gives a positive (beta) zzz along the molecular long axis, while a transition essentially within the carbazole moiety provides a negative (beta zzz contribution to (beta EFISH. Thus, these molecules must be described with a 2D model as opposed to the 'classical' model of 1D nonlinear optical chromophores. The prediction of the 2D model was verified experimentally by using a combination of two methods, EFISH and Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering, which probe different combination of the (beta) tensor elements.

  17. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90 Contributes to the Antimalarial Activities of Aminoalcohol-carbazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai; Mäser, Pascal; Picard, Didier

    2016-07-14

    Malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) remains a major public health problem throughout the developing world. One molecular target that should receive more attention is the molecular chaperone Hsp90. It is essential and highly conserved in all eukaryotes, including in protozoan parasites. We have identified an amino-alcohol carbazole (N-CBZ) as a PfHsp90-selective inhibitor by virtually docking a large set of antimalarial compounds, previously found in a phenotypic screen, into a PfHsp90-specific pocket. By correlating the ability of 30 additional N-CBZ derivatives to bind directly to PfHsp90 with their Pf-inhibitory activity, we found that these types of compounds are more likely to inhibit Pf growth if they bind PfHsp90. For plausible targets such as PfHsp90, our workflow may help identifying the molecular target for compounds found by screening large chemical libraries for a desired biological effect and, conversely, ensuring biological effectiveness for compounds affecting a particular target. PMID:27312008

  18. Synthesis and luminescent properties of novel bisfunctional polymeric complexes based on carbazole and 8-hydroxyquinoline groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis route: the ligand B8QPC was synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative and N-butyl-3,6-diformylcarbazole through the Wittig condensation polymerization. The corresponding polymeric metal complexes were: B8QPC with Cu(II), Zn(II). -- Abstract: A fully conjugated ligand 3,6-bis (8-hydroxyquinoline-5-propenyl)-N-butyl-carbazole (B8QPC) containing hole- and electron-transporting groups was firstly synthesized through the Wittig condensation polymerization. Corresponding polymeric complexes, B8QPC (1) with Cu(II) (2) and Zn(II) (3), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, elemental Analysis, conductivity measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). GPC indicated that the number average molecular weights (Mn) are about 3800 and the degree of polymerization (n) are about 5 for the polymeric complexes 2 and 3. UV-vis and fluorescence spectra at room temperature revealed that both the polymeric complexes 2 and 3 emit blue luminescence at 473 and 513 nm (λem,max) in DMSO solution and blue/green luminescence at 522 and 531 nm (λem,max) in solid state, respectively. Thermal property measurements show that they have good thermal stability

  19. Self-Assembly of Electron Donor-Acceptor-Based Carbazole Derivatives: Novel Fluorescent Organic Nanoprobes for Both One- and Two-Photon Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Chen, Wencheng; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Li, King Fai; Chen, Rui; Adachi, Chihaya; Chen, Zhan; Rogach, Andrey L; Zhu, Guangyu; Yu, Peter K N; Zhang, Wenjun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-05-11

    In this study, we report fluorescent organic nanoprobes with intense blue, green, and orange-red emissions prepared by self-assembling three carbazole derivatives into nanorods/nanoparticles. The three compounds consist of two or four electron-donating carbazole groups linked to a central dicyanobenzene electron acceptor. Steric hindrance from the carbazole groups leads to noncoplanar 3D molecular structures favorable to fluorescence in the solid state, while the donor-acceptor structures endow the molecules with good two-photon excited emission properties. The fluorescent organic nanoprobes exhibit good water dispersibility, low cytotoxicity, superior resistance against photodegradation and photobleaching. Both one- and two-photon fluorescent imaging were shown in the A549 cell line. Two-photon fluorescence imaging with the fluorescent probes was demonstrated to be more effective in visualizing and distinguishing cellular details compared to conventional one-photon fluorescence imaging. PMID:27097920

  20. One-Pot Synthesis of N-(α-Peroxy)Indole/Carbazole via Chemoselective Three-Component Condensation Reaction in Open Atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2015-11-06

    A facile one-pot synthesis of N-(α-peroxy)indole and N-(α-peroxy)carbazole has been developed using metal-free, organo-acid-catalyzed three-component condensation reactions of indole/carbazole, aldehyde, and peroxide. Based on the reaction discovered, a new synthetic proposal for Fumitremorgin A and Verruculogen is introduced. Such a protocol could be easily handled and scaled up in an open atmosphere with a wide substrate scope, enabling the construction of a new molecule library.

  1. Cloning and expression of meta-cleavage enzyme (CarB of carbazole degradation pathway from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Leites Larentis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the 1082bp PCR product corresponding to carBaBb genes that encode the heterotetrameric enzyme 2'-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol 1,2-dioxygenase (CarB, involved in the Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 31258 carbazole degradation pathway, was cloned using the site-specific recombination system. Recombinant clones were confirmed by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. CarB dioxygenase was expressed in high levels and in active form in Escherichia coli BL21-SI using the His-tagged expression vector pDEST TM17 and salt induction for 4h.Carbazol e seus derivados são compostos nitrogenados aromáticos, presentes comumente em petróleo e potencialmente poluentes. A rota de biodegradação de carbazol a ácido antranílico em Pseudomonas sp. é composta por três enzimas responsáveis, respectivamente, pelas reações de dioxigenação angular, meta-clivagem e hidrólise. A segunda enzima da rota, 2'-aminobifenil-2,3-diol 1,2-dioxigenase (CarB, codificada por dois genes (carBa e carBb, é um heterotetrâmero com atividade catalítica na quebra do anel catecol do susbtrato na posição meta. Neste trabalho, foi clonado o produto de PCR de 1082pb correspondente aos genes carBaBb da bactéria degradadora de carbazol Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 31258. A estratégia de clonagem empregada foi a de recombinação sítio-específica e a construção dos plasmídeos foi confirmada por PCR, digestão com enzima de restrição e seqüenciamento. A enzima ativa foi expressa em altas concentrações em vetor pDEST TM17 com cauda de histidina e promotor T7 em Escherichia coli BL21-SI com indução por NaCl durante 4h.

  2. Indolo[2,3-b]carbazoles with tunable ground states: How Clar's aromatic sextet determines the singlet biradical character

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic hydrocarbons (PHs) with a singlet biradical ground state have recently attracted extensive interest in physical organic chemistry and materials science. Replacing the carbon radical center in the open-shell PHs with a more electronegative nitrogen atom is expected to result in the more stable aminyl radical. In this work, two kinetically blocked stable/persistent derivatives (1 and 2) of indolo[2,3-b]carbazole, an isoelectronic structure of the known indeno[2,1-b]fluorene, were synthesized and showed different ground states. Based on variable-temperature NMR/ESR measurements and density functional theory calculations, it was found that the indolo[2,3-b]carbazole derivative 1 is a persistent singlet biradical in the ground state with a moderate biradical character (y0 = 0.269) and a small singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔES-T ≅ -1.78 kcal mol-1), while the more extended dibenzo-indolo[2,3-b]carbazole 2 exhibits a quinoidal closed-shell ground state. The difference can be explained by considering the number of aromatic sextet rings gained from the closed-shell to the open-shell biradical resonance form, that is to say, two for compound 1 and one for compound 2, which determines their different biradical characters. The optical and electronic properties of 2 and the corresponding aromatic precursors were investigated by one-photon absorption, transient absorption and two-photon absorption (TPA) spectroscopies and electrochemistry. Amphoteric redox behaviour, a short excited lifetime and a moderate TPA cross section were observed for 2, which can be correlated to its antiaromaticity and small biradical character. Compound 2 showed high reactivity to protic solvents due to its extremely low-lying LUMO energy level. Unusual oxidative dimerization was also observed for the unblocked dihydro-indolo[2,3-b]carbazole precursors 6 and 11. Our studies shed light on the rational design of persistent aminyl biradicals with tunable properties in the future. This journal

  3. Crystal structure of (E-N-(3,3-diphenylallylidene-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Thirumurthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H24N2, the C=N bond of the central imine group adopts an E conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean plane of the essentially planar carbazole ring system [r.m.s. deviation = 0.039 (2 Å] and the two phenyl rings of the 3,3-diphenylallylidene unit are 75.9 (1 and 64.6 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  4. Crystal structure of 3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl-N′-[(E-4-chlorobenzylidene]propanohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H18ClN3O, the carbazole ring system is essentially planar (r.m.s deviation = 0.003 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 9.01 (8° with the plane of the chlorophenyl ring. In the crystal, neighbouring molecules are linked into centrosymmetric R22(8 dimers by pairs of N—H...O interactions and into a three-dimensional network by C—H...π interactions. The dimers are arranged into layers parallel to (010.

  5. Crystal structure of poly[[[μ4-5-(9H-carbazol-9-ylisophthalato][μ3-5-(9H-carbazol-9-ylisophthalato]bis(dimethylformamide(methanoldizinc] dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov M. Lifshits

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the polymeric title compound, {[Zn2(C20H11NO42(C3H7NO2(CH3OH]·C3H7NO}n, comprises carbazolylisophthalate moieties connecting dimetallic tetracarboxylate zinc secondary building units (SBUs parallel to [100] and [010], leading to a layer-like arrangement parallel to (001. Each SBU consists of two Zn atoms in slightly distorted tetrahedral and octahedral coordination environments [Zn...Zn = 3.5953 (6 Å]. Three carboxylate groups bridge the two Zn atoms in a μ2-O:O′ mode, whereas the fourth coordinates through a single carboxylate O atom (μ1-O. The O atoms of two dimethylformamide (DMF and one methanol molecule complete the Zn coordination spheres. The methanol ligand interacts with the noncoordinating DMF molecule via an O—H...O hydrogen bond of medium strength. Carbazoles between the layers interdigitate through weak C—H....π interactions to form a laminar solid stacked along [010]. Two kinds of C—H...π interactions are present, both with a distance of 2.64 Å, between the H atoms and the centroids, and a third C—H...π interaction, where the aromatic H atom is located above the carbazole N-atom lone pair (H...N = 2.89 Å. Several C—H...O interactions occur between the coordinating DMF molecule, the DMF solvent molecule, and ligating carboxylate O atoms.

  6. Novel Hole Transporting Materials Based on 4-(9H-Carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine Derivatives for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Pham Bao Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs 3a–c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2ꞌ,3ꞌ-hquinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,Nꞌ-bis(naphthalen-1-yl-N,Nꞌ-bis(phenyl-benzidine/HTMs/CBP (4,4ꞌ-Bis(N-carbazolyl-1,1ꞌ-biphenyl: 5% Ir(ppy3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  7. Novel Carbazole-Based Hole-Transporting Materials with Star-Shaped Chemical Structures for Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Soo; Sung, Sang Do; Choi, In Taek; Kim, Hyoungjin; Hong, MunPyo; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2015-10-14

    Novel carbazole-based hole-transporting materials (HTMs), including extended π-conjugated central core units such as 1,4-phenyl, 4,4'-biphenyl, or 1,3,5-trisphenylbenzene for promoting effective π-π stacking as well as the hexyloxy flexible group for enhancing solubility in organic solvent, have been synthesized as HTM of perovskite-sensitized solar cells. A HTM with 1,3,5-trisphenylbenzene core, coded as SGT-411, exhibited the highest charge conductivity caused by its intrinsic property to form crystallized structure. The perovskite-sensitized solar cells with SGT-411 exhibited the highest PCE of 13.00%, which is 94% of that of the device derived from spiro-OMeTAD (13.76%). Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra indicate that SGT-411 shows the shortest decay time constant, which is in agreement with the trends of conductivity data, indicating it having fastest charge regeneration. In this regard, a carbazole-based HTM with star-shaped chemical structure is considered to be a promising candidate HTM. PMID:26352372

  8. Blue-shifted emission and enhanced quantum efficiency viaπ-bridge elongation in carbazole-carborane dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojin; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tianyu; Moxey, Graeme J; Cifuentes, Marie P; Zhang, Chi; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-06-21

    Carbazole-carborane linear dyads and di(carbazole)-carborane V-shaped dyads with phenyleneethynylene-based bridges have been synthesized. The V-shaped dyads display the expected red-shifts in the location of their UV-Vis absorption maxima on bridge-lengthening, but show unusual blue-shifts in charge-transfer (CT) emission on the same π-system lengthening. These blue-shifts can be attributed to the 2n + 3 electron count within the carborane cluster in the excited state. The linear dyads luminesce via a combination of local excited (LE) and CT emission, with a red-shift in LE emission and a blue-shift in CT emission accompanying π-bridge elongation. A quantum efficiency as high as 86% in the solution state is achieved from the hybrid LE/CT emission. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations at the excited state of these compounds have clarified the photoluminescence blue-shift and suggested a typical cluster C-C bond elongation in the V-shaped dyads. Calculations on the elongated linear dyads have suggested that the electron density is localized at the phenyleneethynylene-containing bridge. PMID:27225829

  9. The tryptophan photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) binds multiple AHRs and induces multiple CYP1 genes via AHR2 in zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Franks, Diana G.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Jenny, Matthew J.; Garrick, Rita A.; Behrendt, Lars; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The tryptophan photooxidation product 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has been proposed as a physiological ligand for the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which it binds with high-affinity, inducing expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). We investigated whether the response to...

  10. Synthesis, structure and properties of zinc(II) coordination polymers with 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Xiu-Chun; Xi, Fu-Gui; Wang, Kun; Su, Zhao; Gao, En-Qing, E-mail: eqgao@chem.ecnu.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    From a new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (2,7-H{sub 2}CDC), three Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were synthesized in the absence or presence of ditopic N-donor ligands. They are formulated as [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 4}(DEF){sub 2}] (1) (DEF=N,N-diethylformamide), [Zn{sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 2}(DABCO)(H{sub 2}O)]·5DMF·H{sub 2}O (2) (DABCO=1-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), and [Zn{sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 2}(bpea)]·3DMA·2 H{sub 2}O (3) (bpea=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylane, DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide). Compounds 1 and 3 display the 3D pcu frameworks. In 1 the unusual pentanuclear [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(COO){sub 8}] secondary building units (SBUs) are linked by dicarboxylate ligands. Differently, in 3 the well-known paddle–wheel [Zn{sub 2}(COO){sub 4}] SBUs are linked by dicarboxylate and dipyridyl ligands. Compound 2 shows the rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net topology based on the dinuclear paddle–wheel SBU and a mononuclear unit. The stability and fluorescent properties of the compounds have been studied. - Graphical abstract: A new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid, was used to construct Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks, including a novel self-catenated network with the rare 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net and two pcu-type networks based on an unprecedented pentanuclear clusters and the common paddle–wheel units. The compounds show blue fluorescent properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MOFs with a new carbazole-based dicarboxylate ligand. • New pentanuclear [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(COO){sub 8}] secondary building unit. • The rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on 9H-carbazole-9-(4-phenyl) boronic acid pinacol ester by DFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, E. B.; Kurt, M.; Can, M.; Horzum, N.; Atac, A.

    2016-08-01

    9H-Carbazole-9-(4-phenyl) boronic acid pinacol ester (9-CPBAPE) molecule was investigated by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. FT-IR, FT-Raman and dispersive Raman spectra were recorded in the solid phase. 1H, 13C NMR and UV-vis spectra were recorded in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The results of theoretical calculations for the spectra of the title molecule were compared with the experimental spectra. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analyses were performed. The theoretical calculations for the molecular structure and spectroscopic studies were performed with DFT (B3LYP) and 6-311G (d,p) basis set calculations using the Gaussian 09 program. The total (TDOS), partial (PDOS) density of state and overlap population density of state (OPDOS) diagrams analyses were performed using GaussSum 2.2 program.

  12. Synthesis and properties of a star-shaped organic material with triphenylamine and N-vinyl carbazole units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A starburst triphenylamine cored N-vinyl carbazole (V-Cz) branched compound was designed and synthesized via optimized Heck reaction in a yield of 40-60%. Moderate yield came from decomposition of V-Cz and self-coupling of triiodo-triphenylamine.TCz-TPA adopts a highly twisted propeller conformation by molecular mechanical optimization. It is readily soluble for its highly twisted conformation. Transparent and pinhole free films could be easily fabricated by spin-coating for its starburst structure. It emits blue-greenish light in CH2Cl2 peaked at 460 nm with a narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 65 nm. As compared,the absorption peaks of the spin-coated film blue shifted and emission peak red shifted to 510 nm with a FWHM of 96 nm.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the broad one-photon absorption line-shape of a flexible symmetric carbazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio; Rizzo, Antonio; Lin, Na; Zhao, Xian

    2016-08-17

    The one-photon absorption spectrum of a carbazole derivative has been studied by employing density functional response theory combined with a mixed quantum/classical (QC) approach to simulate the spectral shape. In a first step of our analysis we employed the vertical gradient (VG) vibronic model to investigate the role of Franck-Condon (FC) profiles of the first ten electronic excited states of the system, underlying most of the range of the experimental spectrum. We then focussed on the first six excited states covering the low-energy region of the spectrum, and investigated the effect of inter-state electronic couplings on the spectral shapes within Herzberg-Teller (HT) theory. Furthermore, in order to introduce the broadening effects due to the two inter-ring torsions, we employed a QC approach, adopting VG vibronic models for high-frequency modes and computing the contribution of the torsions to the spectrum from the distribution of the excitation energies along a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy. Finally, we estimated the solvent inhomogeneous broadening by computing the solvent reorganization energy using a polarizable continuum model. Our calculations allow us to obtain a non-phenomenological description of the low-energy part of the spectrum in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment and to dissect the relative importance of solvent, torsional flexibility, FC vibronic progressions, and inter-state couplings in determining its broad spectral shapes and the modulation of its intensity. Our analysis also clearly highlights that the investigated carbazole represents a big challenge for available methodologies due to the existence of many close-lying excited electronic states coupled by internal low-frequency and high-frequency motions and by solvent fluctuations. The study of their impact on the spectra at the HT level is only approximate and more refined treatments would require a fully quantum-dynamical calculation on the manifold of the coupled

  14. Carbazole dye with phosphonic acid anchoring groups for long-term heat stability of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the binding strength between the dye and TiO2 surface may affect the heat stability of the DSSCs. Carboxylic acids have generally been used as the anchoring groups for the adsorption of dyes on TiO2 surfaces. However, a phosphonic acid anchor is expected to effect more stable bonding to a TiO2 surface because of its tridentate binding capability. In this study, we developed a new carbazole dye that employed a phosphonic acid anchor, MK-94. We studied the effect of the dye anchoring group on the heat stability of DSSCs by comparing MK-94, MK-2 (a carbazole dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group), and Z-907 (a well-known, robust Ru complex dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group). In the initial performance assessment, the DSSC with MK-94 exhibited a lower short circuit current (jsc) but a higher open circuit voltage (ΔVoc) than MK-2. With respect to heat stability, decreases in jsc and ΔVoc were suppressed with MK-94, and the drop of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was kept within 6% after 504 h of heating. In addition, MK-94 demonstrated the longest electron lifetime and largest charge transfer resistance than the other dyes during the stability test. In contrast, the PCE decreased 27% from the initial value in the DSSC with MK-2. Thus, the phosphonic acid anchor was effective in extending the long-term heat stability of the DSSCs

  15. Effects of surfactants on microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation of poly(carbazole) in Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present preliminary investigation reports, for the first time, the effects of typical cationic and anionic surfactants on the microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation and polymerization of carbazole (Cz) in the basal spacings of Bentonite. The intercalation of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPCl), a cationic surfactant, and naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA), an anionic surfactant, in Bentonite was carried out at two loadings—25 and 50 wt%—using microwave irradiation. The in situ polymerization of Cz was successfully carried out into the surfactant-modified galleries of Bentonite. This was confirmed by Gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The intercalation of poly(carbazole) (PCz) was confirmed by FT-IR, UV–Visible, and XRD analyses. Although polymerization was carried out in the solid-state, the UV–Visible spectra revealed the doped state of PCz and the presence of a charge carrier tail. The XRD studies showed that the increase in the height of the galleries was higher in case of Bentonite/CPCl/PCz nanocomposites as compared to Bentonite/NSA/PCz nanocomposites. It also revealed different orientations of the two surfactants in the galleries of the clay. The average particle size of Bentonite/CPCl/PCz (1:0.25:0.25) and (1:0.5:0.5) nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 25–35 and 50–60 nm, respectively. The Bentonite/NSA/PCz (1:0.25:0.25) and (1:0.5:0.5) nanocomposites showed the average particle size in the range of 20–30 nm and 40–50 nm, respectively. The results revealed that both cationic and anionic surfactants strongly influenced the morphology of Bentonite/PCz nanocomposites. The difference in the mechanisms of solid-state intercalation of PCz in the presence of these surfactants has been proposed.

  16. Four new carbazole alkaloids from Murraya koenigii that display anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, Yedukondalu; Khajuria, Vidushi; Gupta, Shilpa; Arora, Palak; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ahmed, Zabeer; Ali, Asif

    2016-03-28

    In our present study, four new, designated as murrayakonine A-D (), along with 18 known carbazole alkaloids were isolated from CHCl3 : MeOH (1 : 1) crude extracts of the stems and leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. The structures of the all isolated compounds were characterized by analysis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR (1D and 2D spectroscopy) results, and comparison of their data with the literature data. For the first time, all the isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities, using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, against the key inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6. The new compound murrayakonine A (), O-methylmurrayamine A () and mukolidine () were proven to be the most active, efficiently inhibiting TNF-α and IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner and showing decreased LPS induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in human PBMCs. Furthermore, all the isolates were screened for their antimicrobial potential, and the compounds girinimbine () (IC50 3.4 μM) and 1-hydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde () (IC50 10.9 μM) displayed potent inhibitory effects against Bacillus cereus. Furthermore, compounds murrayamine J () (IC50 11.7 μM) and koenimbine () (IC50 17.0 μM) were active against Staphylococcus aureus. However, none of the compounds were found to be active against Escherichia coli or Candida albicans. PMID:26947457

  17. Influence of maturity on carbazole and benzocarbazole distributions in crude oils and source rocks from the Sonda de Campeche, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, H.; Wilkes, H.; Oldenburg, T.; Horsfield, B. [Research Centre, Juelich (Germany). Institute for Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry; Santamaria-Orozco, D. [Research Centre, Juelich (Germany). Institute for Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry]|[Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Carbazole geochemistry has been studied for a petroleum system in which vertical migration is prominent and where reservoirs are locally sourced. An essentially uniform organofacies of organic-rich Tithonian source rocks from the Sonda de Campeche (Gulf of Mexico), covering a well defined maturity sequence (0.36-1.29% R{sub r}) and associated crude oils (0.49-0.92% R{sub c}) from Palaeocene reservoirs formed the sampling base. Comparison of the distribution of alkylcarbazoles and benzocarbazoles in rock bitumens and oils revealed that fractionation due to primary expulsion had no effect on the distribution of shielded/exposed carbazoles within crude oils. Perhaps more importantly, the benzocarbazole ratio in both extracts and crude oils increased with maturity, indicating that this parameter cannot be directly used as a migration indicator in petroleum systems where vertical migration through faults and fissures represents the main avenues of oil migration. (author)

  18. A novel carbazole-based fluorescent probe:3,6-Bis-[(N-ethylcarbazole-3-y1)-propene-1-keto]-N-ethylcarbazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel carbazole-based compound 5,3,6-bis[(N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl)-propene-1-keto]-N-ethylcarbazole has been designed, synthesized and characterized.The absorption and fluorescence spectra in solvents of different polarities prove that the compound has a distinct intramolecular charge transfer character.Compound 5 can be used as a new class of fluorescent probe or biosensor due to its sensitivity to the local microenvironment such as solvent polarity.

  19. Anion Binding Studies on Receptors Derived from the Indolo[2,3-a]carbazole Scaffold Having Different Binding Cavity Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The indolo[2,3-a]carbazole scaffold is a fused polyheteroaromatic system bearing two NH groups which suitably converge as hydrogen bond donor sites for the recognition of anions. A simple derivatisation of the indolocarbazole system at positions 1 and 10 with different functional groups, namely alcohols and amides, has contributed to modulate the anion binding selectivity and sensibility. A particularly good response has been obtained for the benzoate anion.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Novosphingobium sp. KA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (Red) is involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to ferredoxin. The class IIA Red from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystal diffracted to a resolution of 1.58 Å. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial enzyme of the carbazole-degradation pathway. The CARDO of Novosphingobium sp. KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase, a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin-NADH oxidoreductase (Red) and is classified as a class IIA Rieske oxygenase. Red from KA1 was crystallized at 278 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystal diffracted to 1.58 Å resolution and belonged to space group P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 78.6 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 120°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray diffraction data revealed that the asymmetric unit contained two Red monomers. The crystal appeared to be a merohedral twin, with a twin fraction of 0.32 and twin law (−h, −k, l)

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a terminal oxygenase of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Novosphingobium sp. KA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terminal oxygenase component (Oxy) of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes dihydroxylation of the aromatic ring. The Oxy of CARDO from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial dioxygenase in the carbazole-degradation pathway of Novosphingobium sp. KA1. The CARDO from KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase (Oxy), a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin reductase. The Oxy from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Self-rotation function analysis suggested that the asymmetric unit contained two Oxy trimers; the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 5.9 Å3 Da−1 and 79.1%, respectively

  2. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, CHIEN-MIN; SYU, JHIH-PU; WAY, TZONG-DER; HUANG, LI-JIAU; KUO, SHENG-CHU; LIN, CHUNG-TIEN; LIN, CHIH-LI

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti-glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti-proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell-cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy-mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B-induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug-resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ. PMID:26329365

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ferredoxin reductase component in the Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NAD(P)H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase in carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Janthinobacterium sp. J3 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.60 Å resolution. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO), which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. CARDO-R was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with the precipitant PEG 8000. Two crystal types (types I and II) were obtained. The type I crystal diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.80 Å and belonged to space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 158.7, c = 81.4 Å. The type II crystal was obtained in drops from which type I crystals had been removed; it diffracted to 2.60 Å resolution and belonged to the same space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 161.8, c = 79.5 Å

  4. Facile Synthesis and High performance of a New Carbazole-Based Hole Transporting Material for Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2015-06-26

    Perovskite solar cells are very promising for practical applications owing to their rapidly rising power conversion efficiency and low cost of solution-based processing. 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine) 9,9’-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) is most widely used as hole transporting material (HTM) in perovskite solar cells. However, the tedious synthesis and high cost of Spiro-OMeTAD inhibit its commercial-scale application in the photovoltaic industry. In this article, we report a carbazole-based compound (R01) as a new HTM in efficient perovskite solar cells. R01 is synthesized via a facile route consisting of only two steps from inexpensive commercially available materials. Furthermore, R01 exhibits higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with R01 produce a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, comparable to that obtained in devices using Spiro-OMeTAD in this study. Our findings underscore R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, and its facile synthesis and low cost may facilitate the large-scale applications of perovskite solar cells.

  5. 9-[(E-2-(4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-ylethenyl]-9H-carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hatayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H22BNO2, is a simple olefinic compound which carries both B and N atoms that are trans to one another. The π-conjugated system of the compound is considered to be isoelectronic with 1,3-butadiene. There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit in which the environments around the boron atoms are essentially planar (r.m.s. deviations of 0.0032 and 0.0021 Å for the BO2C planes. The dihedral angles of the olefinic planes with the boron planes are 5.70 (11 and 9.74 (9°, respectively, while the dihedral angles of the olefinic planes with the carbazole planes are 19.37 (3 and 10.74 (6°. These dihedral angles are consistent with those in 9-ethenylcarbazole and an ethenylboronic ester derivative. The N—Csp2, B—Csp2 and C=C bond lengths suggest that the contribution of the canonical structure can be described as N+=C—C=B−.

  6. A novel donor-acceptor polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole and 1,8-naphtalimide as subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncu, Fatma Baycan, E-mail: fatmabaycan@hotmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Koyuncu, Sermet [Can Vocational School, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17400 Canakkale (Turkey); Ozdemir, Eyup, E-mail: eozdemir@comu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2010-07-01

    We report here the synthesis of a novel polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole (Cbz)-donor and 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor as subunit. The band gap E{sub g} was measured using UV-vis spectroscopy and compared with that obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Due to intramolecular electron transfer from Cbz-donor to 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor, the fluorescence quenching was observed. When the spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polymer film were investigated, various tones of green color were obtained on the polymeric film. In the positive regime, the polymer film obtained thereby is dark green resulting from the association of carbazolylium cation radicals at oxidized state and then it can be bleached by electrochemical reduction. Besides, in the negative regime, yellowish green color of film converted to blue attributed to reduction of the 1,8-napthalimide moiety. Finally, the polymeric electrochromic exhibits multi-electrochromic behavior, high redox stability, high coloration efficiency and reasonable response time.

  7. A novel donor-acceptor polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole and 1,8-naphtalimide as subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the synthesis of a novel polymeric electrochromic material containing carbazole (Cbz)-donor and 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor as subunit. The band gap Eg was measured using UV-vis spectroscopy and compared with that obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Due to intramolecular electron transfer from Cbz-donor to 1,8-napthalimide-acceptor, the fluorescence quenching was observed. When the spectro-electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polymer film were investigated, various tones of green color were obtained on the polymeric film. In the positive regime, the polymer film obtained thereby is dark green resulting from the association of carbazolylium cation radicals at oxidized state and then it can be bleached by electrochemical reduction. Besides, in the negative regime, yellowish green color of film converted to blue attributed to reduction of the 1,8-napthalimide moiety. Finally, the polymeric electrochromic exhibits multi-electrochromic behavior, high redox stability, high coloration efficiency and reasonable response time.

  8. A carbazole alkaloid deactivates mTOR through the suppression of rictor and that induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Priyajit; Seal, Soma; Mukherjee, Sandip; Kundu, Rakesh; Bhuyan, Mantu; Barua, Nabin C; Baruah, Pranab K; Babu, Santi Prasad Sinha; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2015-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is known to be a difficult cancer to treat because of its poor prognosis, limited option for surgery, and resistance to chemo or radiotherapy. In this study, we have demonstrated that suppression of rictor expression in A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells by mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid, disrupted constitutive activation of mTOR and Akt. Mahanine suppression of rictor gene expression and consequent attenuation of its protein expression affected the inhibition of mTOR (Ser-2481) and Akt (Ser-473) phosphorylation. Since mahanine treatment revealed this new insight of rictor-mTOR relationship, we examined an association between mTOR activation with rictor expression. Interestingly, in rictor knockdown (KD) NSCLC cells, mTOR activation was significantly impaired. Transfection of rictor over-expression vector into the NSCLC cells reversed this situation. In fact, both rictor KD and mahanine treated cells showed considerably depleted phospho-mTOR level. These results indicate that rictor is required to maintain constitutive activation of mTOR in lung cancer cells. When mTOR kinase activity in rictor KD cells was examined with Akt as substrate, a significant reduction of Akt phosphorylation indicated impairment of mTOR kinase potentiality. Disruption of mTOR and Akt activation caused drastic mortality of NSCLC cancer cells through apoptosis. Hence, our study reveals a new dimension in mTOR-rictor relationship, where rictor stands to be a suitable therapeutic target for lung cancer. PMID:25893736

  9. Acidichromism in the Mixed Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Stearic Acid with a Carbazole-containing Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Yao-Hu(刘耀虎); LIU,Ming-Hua(刘鸣华)

    2002-01-01

    A new Schiff base containing carbazole group (CzSB) was synthesized. Although the compound can not form stable monolayer at air/water interface itself, it does form stable monolayers by mixing with stearic acids as verified from the surface pressure-area measurements. The mixed monolayers can be deposited by vertical dipping method. UV Spectroscopic studies of the mixed LB films reveal a broadening and red shift of the absorption spectra compared to those of CzSB in the ethanol solution, which confirms the formation of organized aggregates of the compounds in the mixed LB films. An ordered LB film was obtained as confirmed by using low-angle X-ray diffraction.The mixed LB film shows acidichromism, that is, the colors of theLB films can be reversibly changed upon exposing to HCl and NH3 gas alternatively. On the basis of FT-IR measurement, it is proposed fhat the protontatopm of the imine group in the compound is the reason for the acidichromism.

  10. Synthesis, structure and properties of zinc(II) coordination polymers with 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiu-Chun; Xi, Fu-Gui; Wang, Kun; Su, Zhao; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-10-01

    From a new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (2,7-H2CDC), three Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were synthesized in the absence or presence of ditopic N-donor ligands. They are formulated as [Zn5(μ3-OH)2(2,7-CDC)4(DEF)2] (1) (DEF=N,N-diethylformamide), [Zn2(2,7-CDC)2(DABCO)(H2O)]·5DMF·H2O (2) (DABCO=1-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), and [Zn2(2,7-CDC)2(bpea)]·3DMA·2 H2O (3) (bpea=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylane, DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide). Compounds 1 and 3 display the 3D pcu frameworks. In 1 the unusual pentanuclear [Zn5(μ3-OH)2(COO)8] secondary building units (SBUs) are linked by dicarboxylate ligands. Differently, in 3 the well-known paddle-wheel [Zn2(COO)4] SBUs are linked by dicarboxylate and dipyridyl ligands. Compound 2 shows the rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net topology based on the dinuclear paddle-wheel SBU and a mononuclear unit. The stability and fluorescent properties of the compounds have been studied.

  11. Purification and Characterization of Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase, a Three-Component Dioxygenase System of Pseudomonas resinovorans Strain CA10

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Jeong-Won; Nojiri, Hideaki; Noguchi, Haruko; Uchimura, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Takako; Habe, Hiroshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Omori, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 consists of terminal oxygenase (CarAa), ferredoxin (CarAc), and ferredoxin reductase (CarAd). Each component of CARDO was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as a native form (CarAa) or a His-tagged form (CarAc and CarAd) and was purified to apparent homogeneity. CarAa was found to be trimeric and to have one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron center in each monomer. Both His-ta...

  12. 5′,11′-Dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,6′-indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-12′,1′′-cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia A. Guzei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C28H30N2, is a symmetrical 2:2 product from the condensation of indole and cyclohexanone. It is the only reported 5,11-dihydroindolo[3,2-b]carbazole compound in which the spiro atoms are quaternary C atoms. Crystals were grown by vapor diffusion in a three-zone electric furnace. The molecule resides on a crystallographic inversion center. The cyclohexyl rings are in a slightly distorted chair conformation, whereas the indole units and the spiro-carbons are coplanar within 0.014 Å.

  13. QSAR and docking studies of inhibition activity of 5,6-dihydro 11-alkylbenzo[a]carbazole derivatives against estrogen receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğba TAŞKIN; SEVİN, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, QSAR and docking studies were applied to understand the nature of 5,6-dihydro 11-alkylbenzo[a]carbazole derivatives and to investigate the interactions of homolog series with binding sites on selected a-chains of human estrogen receptors (hER). The best QSAR model was selected, having the correlation coefficient r = 0.924, squared correlation coefficient r2 = 0.854, standard deviation s = 0.357, and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient Q2 = 0.755. The ...

  14. Halogen effect on structure and 13C NMR chemical shift of 3,6-disubstituted-N-alkyl carbazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof; Daszkiewicz, Zdzislaw; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Structures of selected 3,6-dihalogeno-N-alkyl carbazole derivatives were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) level of theory and their 13C NMR isotropic nuclear shieldings were predicted using density functional theory (DFT). The model compounds contained 9H-, N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives....... The relativistic effect of Br and I atoms on nuclear shieldings was modeled using the spin-orbit ZORA method. Significant heavy atom shielding effects for the carbon atom directly bonded with bromine and iodine were observed (~ -10 and ~ -30 ppm while the other carbon shifts were practically...

  15. Synthesis of novel precursors of Pfitzinger reaction: A facile one-pot strategy to the synthesis of quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives of pyrazolo-carbazoles and azacarbazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruchi Tyagi; Bhawani Singh; D Kishore

    2012-03-01

    Interaction of 5-indazolyldiazonium chloride 2 with 2-hydroxymethylidene cyclohexanone 5 and -benzyl-3-hydroxymethylidene-4-piperidone 6 under the conditions of Japp-Klingemann reaction, followed by Fischer-indolization of the resulting hydrazones, formed the 5,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrazolo[4,3-b]carbazol- 6(1)-one 9 and 9-benzyl-5,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[2,3-f]indazol-6(1)-one 10, respectively. Pfitzinger reaction of 9 and 10 with isatin in alkali afforded the corresponding quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives 12 and 13, respectively.

  16. Morphological, dielectric and electrical conductivity characteristics of clay-containing nanohybrids of poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Ipsita; Biswas, Mukul; Nayak, Arabinda; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2012-10-01

    Poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PNVC) and polypyrrole (PPY)-montmorillonite (MMT) clay hybrids were prepared by mechanical grinding of the respective monomers with MMT followed by subsequent standard processing methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies confirmed the inclusion of the polymers in the composites. The morphologies of the hybrids were investigated by transmission electron microscopic techniques, which suggested the formation of intercalated structures. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated the enhancement of 'd001' values in MMT implying intercalation of the polymers into the nano-interlamellar spaces of MMT. The dielectric constants of PNVC-MMT hybrids were improved (60-180) relative to the homopolymer (3-6) in the frequency range 0.1-25 kHz. PPY-MMT hybrid also showed significantly higher values of dielectric constant (2000-4000) relative to the corresponding base polymers. These variations were dependent on the MMT/polymer feed ratio in the frequency range (1-25 kHz). This feature could manifest from the characteristic differences in the interfaces between the grains and grain boundaries of the composites, which control the dielectric properties of the system. Relaxation behavior for the composites was explained by considering the Maxwell-Wagner two-layered dielectric models. The ac conductivity was found to be dependent on frequency in the entire frequency range of study (100 Hz to 25 kHz), which indicated that the composites had few free charges for conduction, and frequency dependent conductivity was due to trapped charges in the grain boundary. PMID:23421146

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a novel multicolored electrochromic polymer based on a vinylene-linked EDOT-carbazole monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel heterocycle-based monomer (BEDOT-V-NEtCz) is designed and synthesized using 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) as the end units and 3,6-linked N-ethyl-carbazole (NEtCz) as the inner unit spaced by vinylene (V). The monomer BEDOT-V-NEtCz can be electrochemically oxidized at a very low onset potential of 0.41 V vs SCE. The resulting electroactive polymer (PBEDOT-V-NEtCz) is electrochemically synthesized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method and its electrochromic properties are reported. Characterizations of PBEDOT-V-NEtCz film are performed by CV, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Spectroelectrochemical analysis reveals that PBEDOT-V-NEtCz film shows multicolored electrochromism: brick-red in the reduced state, sky-blue in the oxidized state and three intermediate colors (brown at 0.2 V, olive green at 0.4 V and blue-green at 0.6 V vs SCE). The color changes are accompanied by good optical contrasts of 50% at 759 nm and 27% at 470 nm, respectively. Kinetic studies reveal that the switching time of PBEDOT-V-NEtCz film are 1.2s (759 nm) and 1.9s (470 nm) for the bleaching process and 1.4s (759 nm) and 1.8s (470 nm) for the coloration process (95% of the full ΔT%), respectively. The resultant polymer could be useful as the active layers in electrochromic devices

  18. Effects of carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1 on biofilm morphology in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunguk; Takahashi, Yurika; Oura, Hiromu; Suzuki-Minakuchi, Chiho; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria typically form biofilms under natural conditions. To elucidate the effect of the carriage of carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1 on biofilm formation by host bacteria, we compared the biofilm morphology, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, of three pCAR1-free and pCAR1-carrying Pseudomonas hosts: P. putida KT2440, P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. fluorescens Pf0-1. Although pCAR1 did not significantly affect biofilm formation by PAO1 or Pf0-1, pCAR1-carrying KT2440 became filamentous and formed flat biofilms, whereas pCAR1-free KT2440 formed mushroom-like biofilms. pCAR1 contains three genes encoding nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), namely, Pmr, Pnd and Phu. The enhanced filamentous morphology was observed in two double mutants [KT2440(pCAR1ΔpmrΔpnd) and KT2440(pCAR1ΔpmrΔphu)], suggesting that these NAPs are involved in modulating the filamentous phenotype. Transcriptome analyses of the double mutants identified 32 candidate genes that may be involved in filamentation of KT2440. Overexpression of PP_2193 in KT2440 induced filamentation and overexpression of PP_0308 or PP_0309 in KT2440(pCAR1) enhanced filamentation of cells over time. This suggests that pCAR1 induces development of an abnormal filamentous morphology by KT2440 via a process involving overexpression of several genes, such as PP_2193. In addition, pCAR1-encoded NAPs partly suppress too much filamentation of KT2440(pCAR1) by repressing transcription of some genes, such as PP_0308 and PP_0309. PMID:26743211

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 1,2,4-triazine derivatives bearing carbazole moiety as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangcheng; Wang, Jing; He, Dianxiong; Li, Xin; Li, Juan; Peng, Zhiyun

    2016-06-15

    A new series of 1,2,4-triazine derivatives bearing carbazole moiety 7a-7p were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The majority of the screened compounds displayed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values in the range of 4.27±0.07-47.75±0.25μM as compared to the standard drug acarbose. Among the series, compound 7k represented the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.27±0.07μM. Kinetic analysis revealed that compound 7k is a non-competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 4.43μM. Furthermore, the binding interactions of compound 7k with α-glucosidase was confirmed through molecular docking. This study showed these 1,2,4-triazine derivatives bearing carbazole moiety as a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:27177827

  20. Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based multi-donor-π-acceptor type organic dyes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Yan, Rucai; Wang, Xiaoying; Hou, Linxi

    2016-07-01

    Four novel indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based multi-donor-π-acceptor type organic dyes QX01-04 have been designed, synthesized, and applied for dye-sensitized solar cells. These dyes consist of an indolo[3,2-b]carbazole core acting as the main donor group, a couple of groups such as ethylbenzene, N,N-diethylaniline, ethyloxylbenzene, and octyloxylbenzene acting as the secondary donors. The photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical studies indicate that the four dyes are all capable as the photosensitizers. When introducing N,N-diethylaniline as the secondary donor, QX02 exhibits a broader absorption region and significantly improved IPCE values, which ensured a good light-harvesting ability and a high Jsc of 15.2 mA cm-2. Finally, QX02-based cell achieved a high efficiency of 8.09% which is very close to that of the commercial N719-based cell (8.26%) under 100 mW cm-2 irradiation.

  1. Doped and non-doped organic light-emitting diodes based on a yellow carbazole emitter into a blue-emitting matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Choukri, H; Forget, S; Chenais, S; Castex, M C; Geffroy, B; Ades, D; Siove, A; Choukri, Hakim; Fischer, Alexis; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sebastien; Castex, Marie-Claude; Geffroy, Bernard; Ades, Dominique; Siove, Alain

    2007-01-01

    A new carbazole derivative with a 3,3'-bicarbazyl core 6,6'-substituted by dicyanovinylene groups (6,6'-bis(1-(2,2'-dicyano)vinyl)-N,N'-dioctyl-3,3'-bicarbazyl; named (OcCz2CN)2, was synthesized by carbonyl-methylene Knovenagel condensation, characterized and used as a component of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Due to its -donor-acceptor type structure, (OcCz2CN)2 was found to emit a yellow light at max=590 nm (with the CIE coordinates x=0.51; y = 0.47) and was used either as a dopant or as an ultra-thin layer in a blue-emitting matrix of 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi). DPVBi (OcCz2CN)2-doped structure exhibited, at doping ratio of 1.5 weight %, a yellowish-green light with the CIE coordinates (x = 0.31; y = 0.51), an electroluminescence efficiency EL=1.3 cd/A, an external quantum efficiency ext= 0.4 % and a luminance L= 127 cd/m2 (at 10 mA/cm2) whereas for non-doped devices utilizing the carbazolic fluorophore as a thin n...

  2. Substitution of Carbazole Modified Fluorenes as π-Extension in Ru(II) Complex-Influence on Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam; Ganugula Rajkumar; Thogoti Suresh; Chikkam Srinivasa Rao; Paidi Yella Reddy; Jun-Ho Yum; Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin; Michael Graetzel

    2011-01-01

    A new high molar extinction coefficient ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex “cis-Ru(4, 4  -bis(9,9-dibutyl-7-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-2, 2  -bipyridine)(2, 2  -bipyridine-4, 4  -dicarboxylic acid)(NCS)2, BPFC” has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1 H -NMR, and ESI-MASS spectroscopes. The sensitizer showed molar extinction coefficient of 1 8 . 5 × 1 0 3  M−1cm−1, larger as compared to the reference N719, which showed 1 4 . 4 × 1 0 3  M−1cm−1. The test c...

  3. Synthesis of 2-amino-8-chloro-4-phenyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-a]carbazole-3-carbonitrile: Structural and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indumathi, Thangavel; Fronczek, Frank R.; Rajendra Prasad, K. J.

    2012-05-01

    The title compound 2-amino-8-chloro-4-phenyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-a]carbazole-3-carbonitrile was prepared in good yield by multicomponent reaction under L-proline as promoter structure of the prepared compound was studied and characterized using IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structure of the compound was determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystals. The spectroscopic experimental evidences strongly suggested that the compound could interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through intercalation. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by Sulforhodamine B assay against A-549, B16F10, HCT-15, SKMel2 and SKOV3 cell lines and compared with standard drug cisplatin. The title compound bearing the chloro group depicted better and selective cytotoxicity against SKMel2 cell line. The compound showed moderate capacity for scavenging DPPH.

  4. 3He NMR studies on helium-pyrrole, helium-indole, and helium-carbazole systems: a new tool for following chemistry of heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald

    2015-02-01

    The (3)He nuclear magnetic shieldings were calculated for free helium atom and He-pyrrole, He-indole, and He-carbazole complexes. Several levels of theory, including Hartree-Fock (HF), Second-order Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) (VSXC, M062X, APFD, BHandHLYP, and mPW1PW91), combined with polarization-consistent pcS-2 and aug-pcS-2 basis sets were employed. Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) calculated (3)He nuclear magnetic shieldings reproduced accurately previously reported theoretical values for helium gas. (3)He nuclear magnetic shieldings and energy changes as result of single helium atom approaching to the five-membered ring of pyrrole, indole, and carbazole were tested. It was observed that (3)He NMR parameters of single helium atom, calculated at various levels of theory (HF, MP2, and DFT) are sensitive to the presence of heteroatomic rings. The helium atom was insensitive to the studied molecules at distances above 5 Å. Our results, obtained with BHandHLYP method, predicted fairly accurately the He-pyrrole plane separation of 3.15 Å (close to 3.24 Å, calculated by MP2) and yielded a sizable (3)He NMR chemical shift (about -1.5 ppm). The changes of calculated nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) with the distance above the rings showed a very similar pattern to helium-3 NMR chemical shift. The ring currents above the five-membered rings were seen by helium magnetic probe to about 5 Å above the ring planes verified by the calculated NICS index. PMID:25228253

  5. Discovery of a Neuroprotective Chemical, (S)-N-(3-(3,6-Dibromo-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-fluoropropyl)-6-methoxypyridin-2-amine [(−)-P7C3-S243], with Improved Druglike Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Jacinth; De Jesus-Cortes, Hector; Huntington, Paula; Estill, Sandi; Morlock, Lorraine K.; Starwalt, Ruth; Mangano, Thomas J.; Williams, Noelle S.; Pieper, Andrew A.; Ready, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    (−)-P7C3-S243 is a neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazole with improved druglike properties compared with previously reported compounds in the P7C3 class. It protects developing neurons in a mouse model of hippocampal neurogenesis and protects mature neurons within the substantia nigra in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. A short, enantioselective synthesis provides the neuroprotective agent in optically pure form. It is nontoxic, orally bioavailable, metabolically stable, and able to cros...

  6. Synthesis and luminescent properties of star-burst D-π-A compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: rui.liu@njtech.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhu, Xiaolin [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Yuhao [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chang, Jin [Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St., Brisbane 4000 (Australia); Zhu, Hongjun, E-mail: zhuhjnjut@hotmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ma, Liangwei; Lv, Wangjie; Guo, Jun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Two new star-burst compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms (1a and 1b) were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. Both compounds exhibit strong {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎} transitions in the UV region and intense {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎}/intramolecular charge transfer ({sup 1}ICT) absorption bands in the UV–vis region. Introducing the carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arm on the 1,3,5-triazine core causes a slight bathochromic shift and enhanced molar extinction coefficient of the {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎}/{sup 1}ICT transition band. Both compounds are emissive in solution at room temperature and 77 K, which exhibit pronounced positive solvatochromic effect. The emitting state could be ascribed to {sup 1}ICT state in more polar solvent, and {sup 1}π–π{sup ⁎} state in low-polarity solvent. The high emission quantum yields (Φ{sub em}=0.90∼1.0) of 1a and 1b (in hexane and toluene) make them potential candidates as efficient light-emitting materials. The spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations indicate that the photophysical properties of these compounds can be tuned by the carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arm, which would also be useful for rational design of photofunctional materials. - Highlights: • Star-burst compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms. • Photophysical properties of target compounds were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. • The relatively high fluorescence quantum yields make them potential candidates as light-emitting materials.

  7. Synthesis and luminescent properties of star-burst D-π-A compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new star-burst compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms (1a and 1b) were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. Both compounds exhibit strong 1π–π⁎ transitions in the UV region and intense 1π–π⁎/intramolecular charge transfer (1ICT) absorption bands in the UV–vis region. Introducing the carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arm on the 1,3,5-triazine core causes a slight bathochromic shift and enhanced molar extinction coefficient of the 1π–π⁎/1ICT transition band. Both compounds are emissive in solution at room temperature and 77 K, which exhibit pronounced positive solvatochromic effect. The emitting state could be ascribed to 1ICT state in more polar solvent, and 1π–π⁎ state in low-polarity solvent. The high emission quantum yields (Φem=0.90∼1.0) of 1a and 1b (in hexane and toluene) make them potential candidates as efficient light-emitting materials. The spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculations indicate that the photophysical properties of these compounds can be tuned by the carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arm, which would also be useful for rational design of photofunctional materials. - Highlights: • Star-burst compounds based on 1,3,5-triazine core and carbazole end-capped phenylene ethynylene arms. • Photophysical properties of target compounds were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. • The relatively high fluorescence quantum yields make them potential candidates as light-emitting materials

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analyses of the redox-controlled complex of terminal oxygenase and ferredoxin components in the Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crystal was obtained of the complex between reduced terminal oxygenase and oxidized ferredoxin components of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase. The crystal belonged to space group P21 and diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution. The initial reaction in bacterial carbazole degradation is catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase, which consists of terminal oxygenase (Oxy), ferredoxin (Fd) and ferredoxin reductase components. The electron-transfer complex between reduced Oxy and oxidized Fd was crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as the precipitant under anaerobic conditions. The crystal diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.25 Å and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.3, b = 81.6, c = 116.2 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 100.1°. The VM value is 2.85 Å3 Da−1, indicating a solvent content of 56.8%

  9. The Role of Porphyrin-Free-Base in the Electronic Structures and Related Properties of N-Fused Carbazole-Zinc Porphyrin Dye Sensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Yu Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitizers can significantly affect power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Porphyrin-based dyes are promising sensitizers due to their performances in DSSCs. Here, based upon a N-fused carbazole-zinc porphyrin-free-base porphyrin triad containing an ethynyl-linkage (coded as DTBC, the novel porphyrin dyes named DTBC-MP and DTBC-TP were designed by varying the porphyrin-free-base units in the π conjugation of DTBC in order to study the effect of porphyrin-free-base in the modification of electronic structures and related properties. The calculated results indicate that, the extension of the conjugate bridge with the porphyrin-free-base unit results in elevation of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO energies, decrease of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energies, reduction of the HOMO-LUMO gap, red-shift of the absorption bands, and enhancement of the absorbance. The free energy changes demonstrate that introducing more porphyrin-free-base units in the conjugate bridge induces a faster rate of electron injection. The transition properties and molecular orbital characters suggest that the different transition properties might lead to a different electron injection mechanism. In terms of electronic structure, absorption spectra, light harvesting capability, and free energy changes, the designed DTBC-TP is a promising candidate dye sensitizer for DSSCs.

  10. A Carbazole-Attached NO{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Macrocycle Exhibiting Hg{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seulgi; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Shimsung [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A synthesis and cation-induced fluorescent behavior of the carbazole-attached NO{sub 2}S{sub 2}-macrocycle (L) is described and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The photoluminescence spectrum of L in 80% CH{sub 3}CN/CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} displays a peak maximum at 431 nm (blue emission). In the metal-induced fluorometric experiment, L showed a drastic chelation-enhanced fluorescence quenching (CHEQ) effect only with Hg{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}. In ESI-mass study, a 1:1 stoichiometry for complexation of L with Hg{sup 2+} was confirmed, suggesting the unique sensing behavior of the proposed ligand L due to the selective complexation affinity for Hg{sup 2+}. The observed results indicate that L is a promising turn-off type fluoroionophore for Hg{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} detections. Additionally, the Ag{sup +} complex of the precursor macrocycle was prepared and its solid structure was crystallographically characterized.

  11. Synthesis and photovoltaic performance of novel polymeric metal complex sensitizer with benzodithiophene or carbazole derivative as donor in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanlong; Hu, Jiaomei; Zhu, Chunxiao; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xu; Chen, Chenqi; Zhong, Chaofan

    2016-03-01

    Four donor-acceptor (D-A) types of novel conjugated polymeric metal complex dyes (P1-P4) with Zn (II) or Cd (II) complexes as the electron acceptors and benzodithiophene or carbazole derivative as the electron donors were designed and prepared, as promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Diaminomaleonitrile acted as ancillary ligand. The structures of the polymers were confirmed, and their thermal, optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. All conjugated polymers exhibit good thermal stability with onset decomposition temperatures with 5% weight loss over 315 °C, broad absorption with the onset of absorption at 588 nm in the visible region, and relatively lower HOMO energy levels from -5.54 to -5.71 eV. The DSSC device based on P2 which containing Cd(II) as coordination metal ion and benzodithiophene derivative as donor exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 2.18% under the AM 1.5 G (100 mW cm-2) sunlight illumination with an open-circuit voltage of Voc = 0.68 V, a short current density of Jsc = 4.85 mA cm-2, and a fill factor of FF = 66.2%, respectively. Therefore, these results provide a new way to design dye sensitizers for DSSCs.

  12. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Theoretical Studies of (E)-1-((9-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Qiu; ZHANG Zhi-Wen; LI Dan-Dan; ZHOU Hong-Ping; TIAN Yu-Peng; WU Jie-Ying

    2013-01-01

    A novel thiosemicarbazide derivative,(E)-1-(9-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl) methylene)-thiosemicarbazide (CMT),was synthesized and structurally characterized by IR,1H-NMR,EI-MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.It crystallizes in monoclinic,space group P21/c with a =14.769(5),b =8.279(5),c =17.166(5) (A),β =114.391(5)°,V=1911.6(14) (A)3,Z =4,F(000) =784,Dc =1.287 g/m3,Mr =370.47,μ =0.190 mm-1,the final R =0.0390 and wR =0.1358 for 1446 observed reflections with I > 2σ(Ⅰ).The UV-vis absorption spectra of CMT were explained based on quantum chemical calculations,using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level.

  13. Focused ion beam and field-emission microscopy of metallic filaments in memory devices based on thin films of an ambipolar organic compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Christopher; Bowen, Leon; Lee, Myung Won; Fisher, Alison L.; Linton, Katherine E.; Bryce, Martin R.; Petty, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of operation of organic thin film resistive memory architectures based on an ambipolar compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units. Cross-sections of the devices have been imaged by electron microscopy both before and after applying a voltage. The micrographs reveal the growth of filaments, with diameters of 50 nm–100 nm, on the metal cathode. We suggest that these are formed by the drift of aluminium ions from the anode and are responsible for the observed switching and negative differential resistance phenomena in the memory devices.

  14. Red Emission of Eu(Ⅲ) Complex Based on 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione Excited by Blue Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-gui Liu; Wen-yi Su; Rong-kai Pan; Xiao-ping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    A new Eu(Ⅲ) complex,EuL3(phen),was synthesized,where L is the abbreviation of deprotonated 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (HL),phen is the abbreviation of 1,10-phenanthroline.The Eu(Ⅲ) complex was characterized by element analysis,IR,1H NMR,UV-visible absorption spectroscopy,thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),and photoluminescence measurements (PL).TGA shows that thermal stability of the complex is up to 325 ℃.PL measurement indicates that the Eu(Ⅲ) complex exhibits intense red-emission and extends their excitation bands to visible region.LEDs device was successfully fabricated by precoating complex EuL3(phen) onto 460 nm blue-emitting InGaN chip.The emission of device shows that the complex can act as red phosphor in combination with 460 nm blue-emitting chips.This europium complex based on 1-(7-(tert-butyl)-9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-2-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione is a kind of interesting red-emitting material excited by blue light,which could avoid the damage of excitation by UV light.

  15. The role of human cytochrome P4503A4 in biotransformation of tissue-specific derivatives of 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental pollutant 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) and its derivative, 5,9-dimethylDBC (DiMeDBC), produced significant and dose-dependent levels of micronuclei followed by a substantial increase in the frequency of apoptotic cells in the V79MZh3A4 cell line stably expressing the human cytochrome P450 (hCYP) 3A4. In contrast, neither micronuclei nor apoptosis were found in cells exposed to the sarcomagenic carcinogen, N-methylDBC (N-MeDBC). A slight but significant level of gene mutations and DNA adducts detected in V79MZh3A4 cells treated with N-MeDBC, only at the highest concentration (30 μM), revealed that this sarcomagenic carcinogen was also metabolized by hCYP3A4. Surprisingly, DBC increased the frequency of 6-thioguanine resistant (6-TGr) mutations only at the highest concentration (30 μM), while DiMeDBC failed to increase the frequency of these mutations. The resistance to 6-thioguanine is caused by the mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) gene. The molecular analysis of the coding region of Hprt gene showed a deletion of the entire exon 8 in DiMeDBC-induced 6-TGr mutants, while no changes in the nucleotide sequences were identified in 6-TGr mutants produced by DBC and N-MeDBC. Based on our results, we suggest that hCYP3A4 is involved in the metabolism of DBC and its tissue-specific derivatives. While hCYP3A4 probably plays an important role in biotransformation of the liver carcinogens, DBC and DiMeDBC, it might only have a marginal function in N-MeDBC metabolism. - Highlights: → DBC activation via CYP3A4 resulted in micronuclei, DNA adduct formation and mutations in V79MZh3A4 cells. → The CYP3A4-mediated DiMeDBC activation caused micronuclei followed by apoptosis in V79MZh3A4 cells. → The genotoxic effects produced by N-MeDBC in V79MZh3A4 cells were negligible. → The hCYP3A4 may play an important role in DBC and DiMeDBC metabolism. → The CYP3A4 might only have a marginal function in N-MeDBC metabolism.

  16. N-vinyl carbazole-divinylbenzene copolymers. formation of porous structure by using cyclohexanone and petroleum ether as diluents in suspension polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of copolymers were synthesized by the reaction of N-vinyl carbazole (NVC) and divinylbenzene (DVB) by using the technique of suspension polymerization. A mixture of cyclohexanone (CHN) and petroleum ether of various composition was used as a diluent in the polymerization experiments. The copolymers were characterized for the density, pore volume, pore size distribution, surface area and mechanical strength. The copolymers were also converted into cation-exchange resin by sulfonation and the resulting resins were characterized for the ion-exchange capacity. The pore volume of the copolymers decreases from 1.26 to 0.19 ml/g and 1.09 to 0.46 ml/g with the decrease in pet. ether or increase in CHN ratio of organic phase, with the decrease in the amount of diluents as compared to monomers (F/sub s/) and with the decrease in the crossing agent, DVB, respectively, used in the respective polymerization experiments. The apparent density of the copolymers varies from 0.55 to 0.25 g/ml, 0.55 to 0.27 g/ml and 0.45 to 0.28 g/ml with the percentage increase in the ratio of pet. ether from 0 to 100% as compared to CHN, with the increase in solvent fraction from 0.3 to 0.8 and with the increase in DVB from 5 to 40%, respectively. The relatively larger size pores were observed in the beads of copolymers formed with the increase in the pet. ether contents of the diluents, increase in the amount of diluents as compared to monomers and also with the increase in the crossing agent. The capacity of NVC-DVB cation-exchange resins decrease slightly from 4.89 to 4.00 meq/g with the increase in the crosslinking agent from 5 to 40% whereas it does not change significantly with change in the composition and the amount of diluents used polymerization experiments under the given experimental conditions. The mechanical strength (crushing load) of the copolymer beads increased with the increase in CHN ratio from 0 to 100% in diluents mixture, with the decrease in solvent fraction from 0

  17. Spectrometric measurements and DFT studies on new complex of copper (II) with 2-((E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyang; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The molecular structure of a new complex of copper (II) with (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole ([Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2) was optimized with B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level. The ligand, (E)-9-ethyl-3-(2-(6-(4-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-9H-carbazole (emppc), binds to Cu(II) ions with a bi-dentate mode, two Cl(-) serve as bridging ligand, each Cu(II) ion has a highly distorted tetrahedron coordination geometry. With M062X/LanL2DZ theoretical level, the calculated interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms N are between 183.3-200.0kJmol(-1) for α spin and 319.4-324.9kJmol(-1) for β spin, and interaction energies of Cu(II) with coordination atoms Cl atom are 248.0-252.4kJmol(-1) for α spin and 332.6-333.6kJmol(-1) for β spin. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/LanL2DZ, PBE1PBE/LanL2DZ and M062X/LanL2DZ methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectra of [Cu2(emppc)2Cl2]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/M062X and PCM-TD/M062X methods with LanL2DZ basis set. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods. PMID:27285472

  18. 手性固定相法拆分咔唑羧酸衍生物对映异构体%Enantiomeric Resolution of Carbazole Derivates with a Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于兆文; 李梅晔; 陶偌偈; 倪林

    2001-01-01

    用直链淀粉-三(3,5-二甲基苯基氨基甲酸酯)手性固定相,在正相条件下首次拆分了6种咔唑羧酸衍生物对映异构体。考察了流动相中不同的酸性添加剂、不同的正丙醇浓度对样品保留和拆分的影响。%Six pairs of enantiomeric compounds of carbazole derivatives were separated by high performance liquid chromatography using an amylosetris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral column made in our laboratory. The mob I le phases were mixtrues of different content ofn-hexane, n-propanol and a little amount of acidic additives. It was found that the stronger the acid added, the better the separation. All the enantiomers were baseline separated with a mobile phase comtaining 1% trifluoroacetic acid and 5% n-propanol. The effect of sam ple structure on the retention factor was discussed. When the carboxylic chain of the sample became longer, the retention factor became smaller. When the sample was halogenated, the retention factor increased along with the increasing of the molecular weight of the samples.

  19. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on cationic iridium(III) complexes with a 1,10-phenanthroline derivative containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit as the auxiliary ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaijun; Wei, Liying; Meng, Guoyun; Li, Yanhu; Wang, Guanze; Yang, Furui; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Wei; Cao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    A 1,10-phenanthroline derivative (co-phen) containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit was synthesized and used as the auxiliary ligand in cationic iridium(III) complexes [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine) and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (npy: 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)pyridine). Two complexes have high thermal stability with the glass-transition temperatures (Tg) of 207 °C and 241 °C, and the same 5% weight-reduction temperatures (ΔT5%) of 402 °C. Both of them were used as phosphorescent dopants in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs): ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK: PBD: complex (mass ratios 100: 40: x, x = 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0)/CsF/Al. The maximum luminances of the PLEDs using [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 were 12567 cd m-2 and 11032 cd m-2, the maximum luminance efficiencies were 17.3 cd A-1 and 20.4 cd A-1, the maximum power efficiencies were 9.8 lm W-1 and 10.3 lm W-1, and the maximum external quantum efficiencies were 9.3% and 11.4% respectively. The CIE color coordinates were around (0.37, 0.57) and (0.44, 0.54) respectively, corresponding to the yellow green region.

  20. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3′, 2′-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕琼; William J.Potscavage Jr; 张建华; 魏斌; 黄荣娟

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3′,2′-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a pho-todetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7%for anα-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with low-concentration donor.

  1. Study on the Synthesis of 3,6-Disubstituted Asymmetric Carbazole Derivatives%3,6-位不对称二取代咔唑衍生物的合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵三虎; 刘瑞琴; 亢丽娜; 葛海霞; 赵明根

    2011-01-01

    以咔唑为主要合成原料,通过N-烷基化、付克酰基化、硝化以及付克烷基化等反应合成了两个结构新颖的3,6-位不对称二取代咔唑衍生物.探讨了原料摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应温度及反应时间等因素对反应的影响,得到最佳反应条件:(1)傅克酰基化反应:n(N-乙基咔唑):n(三氯化铝):n(乙酰氯)=1:1.2:1.5,反应温度室温,反应时间4h,产品收率82%;(2)硝化反应:n(N-乙基咔唑):n(65%硝酸)=1:1.15,反应温度5~10℃,反应时间2h,产品收率89%;(3)傅克烷基化反应:n(3-乙酰基-N-乙基咔唑):n(氯化锌):n(叔丁基氯)=1:1.5:1.5,反应温度室温,反应时间12 h,产品收率64%.所得产品结构经FTIR、1 H NMR、13C NMR、及MS表征.%With carbazole as mainly synthetic material,two novel compounds of 3,6-disubstituted asymmetric carbazole derivatives were prepared by a serious of reactions, such as N- alkylation,Friedel-Crafts acyla-tion, nitration and Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The factors affected the reactions,such as the mol ratio of substrates, the quantity of catalyst,reaction temperature and reaction time were explored and the optimum reaction conditions are as follows; (1) For the reaction of Friedel-Crafts acylation,with the mol ratio 1 : 1. 2 ':1. 5 of N-ethylcarbazole,anhydrous aluminum chloride and acetyl chloride,82% yield of the product was obtained at room temperature for 4 h;(2) For the reaction of nitration, with the mol ratio 1:1. 15 of the N-ethylcarbazole and 65% nitric,89% yield of the object product was obtained at 5 - 10 °C for 2 h;(3) For the reaction of Friedel-Crafts alkylation, with the mol ratio 1 : 1. 5 : 1. 5 of 3-acetyl-N-ethylcarbazol,anhydrous zinc chloride and tert. -butyl chloride,64% yield of the product was obtained at room temperature for 12 h. The structures of object products were characterized by FTIR、1H NMR、13C NMR and MS.

  2. Solution phase photophysics of 5,7-dimethoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-one: Analysing the lineaments of a new fluorosensor to probe different micro-environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Amrit Krishna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata 700073 (India); Ghosh, Sujay; Sau, Abhishek [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Saha, Chandan [Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata 700073 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.in [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-11-15

    We present here a detailed photophysical study of a newly synthesised fluorophore 5,7-dimethoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-one (KTHC-57). Spectroscopic investigation of the compound has been carried out in 14 different protic and aprotic solvents, as well as in different binary solvent mixtures, using absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The spectral behaviour of this compound is found to be extremely sensitive to the polarity and hydrogen bonding nature of the solvent. When considered in micelles, reverse micelles and β-cyclodextrin, KTHC-57 behaves as a reporter of its immediate microenvironment. Extent of hypsochromic shift varies as we move from cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (~40 nm) to anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (~23 nm) to non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (~37 nm). In case of anionic reverse micellar nanocavities composed of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/heptane with increasing water contents, a bathochromic shift of ~50 nm is observed. A quantitative assessment of the emission intensity data on Benesi–Hildebrand equation reveals a 1:1 stoichiometry for KTHC-57:β-CD complex. Triethylamine (TEA) is a simple aliphatic organic molecule that interacts with KTHC-57 in polar aprotic medium. Within β-CD environment, fluorescence quenching takes place along with a bathochromic shift. Interaction of (TEA) with KTHC-57 in β-CD nano-confinement is studied using absorption spectroscopy, steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis in conjunction with an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Excited state properties of KTHC-57 vary with its H-bonding environment. • KTHC-57 interacts differently in various microheterogeneous environments. • Benesi–Hildebrand equation reveals a 1:1 stoichiometry for KTHC-57:β-CD complex. • Organic base TEA quench KTHC-57 fluorescence in polar aprotic solvents. • PET takes place from

  3. Solution phase photophysics of 5,7-dimethoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-one: Analysing the lineaments of a new fluorosensor to probe different micro-environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a detailed photophysical study of a newly synthesised fluorophore 5,7-dimethoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-1-one (KTHC-57). Spectroscopic investigation of the compound has been carried out in 14 different protic and aprotic solvents, as well as in different binary solvent mixtures, using absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The spectral behaviour of this compound is found to be extremely sensitive to the polarity and hydrogen bonding nature of the solvent. When considered in micelles, reverse micelles and β-cyclodextrin, KTHC-57 behaves as a reporter of its immediate microenvironment. Extent of hypsochromic shift varies as we move from cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (~40 nm) to anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (~23 nm) to non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (~37 nm). In case of anionic reverse micellar nanocavities composed of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/heptane with increasing water contents, a bathochromic shift of ~50 nm is observed. A quantitative assessment of the emission intensity data on Benesi–Hildebrand equation reveals a 1:1 stoichiometry for KTHC-57:β-CD complex. Triethylamine (TEA) is a simple aliphatic organic molecule that interacts with KTHC-57 in polar aprotic medium. Within β-CD environment, fluorescence quenching takes place along with a bathochromic shift. Interaction of (TEA) with KTHC-57 in β-CD nano-confinement is studied using absorption spectroscopy, steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis in conjunction with an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Excited state properties of KTHC-57 vary with its H-bonding environment. • KTHC-57 interacts differently in various microheterogeneous environments. • Benesi–Hildebrand equation reveals a 1:1 stoichiometry for KTHC-57:β-CD complex. • Organic base TEA quench KTHC-57 fluorescence in polar aprotic solvents. • PET takes place from

  4. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3‧, 2‧-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; J. Potscavage, William, Jr.; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Rong-Juan

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a photodetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7% for an α-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with a low-concentration donor. Project supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R & D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, the Fund from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant Nos. 14DZ2280900 and 14XD1401800), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 15ZR1416600).

  5. 基于咔唑结构的共轭聚合物太阳能电池材料的合成及表征%Synthesis and Characterization of Carbazole Based Conjugated Polymer for Organic Photovoltaics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缴春明; 徐清; 周刚明

    2016-01-01

    A series of conjugated polymers are synthesized successfully from donor unit with three kinds of alkyls (-octyl, -isooctyl, -dodecyl) carbazole and acceptor unit based on 4,7-bis(5-bromo-3-hexylthiophen-2- yl)-5,6-difluoro-[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole via Suzuki coupling reaction. The influence of optical absorption properties and electrochemical energy levels from different kinds of alkyl chains is investigated. Compared with the copolymers of branching isooctyl chain and dodecyl possessing longer carbon chains, the copolymer replaced with octyl exhibits a wider absorption region and narrower optical band gap. Besides, the spacing ofπ-π stacking is found to be 4.13 Å via XRD spectra, open circuit voltage calculated by the theoretical formula reaches 1.15 V, which proves to be the suitable material for manufacturing the polymer solar cells.%通过Sukuzi偶联反应,分别以3种烷基(正辛基、异辛基和十二烷基)咔唑为给体单元,4,7-二(5-溴-3-己基噻吩-2-基)-5,6-二氟-[2,1,3]苯并噻二唑为受体单元,合成了一系列共轭聚合物,并研究了不同烷基链对聚合物光吸收性能和电化学能级的影响.结果表明:相比于支化的异辛基和较长碳链的十二烷基取代的聚合物,正辛基取代的聚合物有更广的吸收范围和较窄的光学带隙,通过XRD可知π-π堆积的间距为4.13Å;通过理论计算,其开路电压(VOC)可达1.15 V,更适合用作聚合物太阳能电池材料.

  6. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  7. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  8. Performance of spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer based bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices were fabricated using the spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer. The spray coating parameters such as spraying time, substrate-nozzle distance for the deposition of active layers were analyzed. Optical absorption of the active layers was analyzed using UV–visible spectral studies in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm. The surface morphology of the active layers deposited with different parameters was examined using atomic force microscopy. Surface morphology of the active layers deposited with the substrate-nozzle distance of 20 cm and for 20 s shows smooth morphology with peak-valley value of 4 nm. The devices fabricated using the selected active layer show overall power conversion efficiency of 1.08%. - Graphical abstract: Current–voltage (J–V) characteristics of spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer based solar cell device under illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2. Highlights: ► Organic solar cells were fabricated using a spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer. ► The active layers deposited with spray conditions show flat morphology. ► Using the selected active layers power conversion efficiency of 1.08% is obtained.

  9. Platinum chloride complexes containing 6-[9,9-di(2-ethylhexyl)-7-R-9H-fluoren-2-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine ligand (R = NO2, CHO, benzothiazol-2-yl, n-Bu, carbazol-9-yl, NPh2): tunable photophysics and reverse saturable absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjing; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Ugrinov, Angel; Kilina, Svetlana; Sun, Wenfang

    2013-07-01

    Six new platinum(II) chloride complexes 1-6 containing a 6-[9,9-di(2-ethylhexyl)-7-R-9H-fluoren-2-yl]-2,2'-bipyridine (R = NO2, CHO, benzothiazol-2-yl (BTZ), n-Bu, carbazol-9-yl (CBZ), NPh2) ligand were synthesized and characterized. The influence of the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituent at the 7-position of the fluorenyl component on the photophysics of these complexes was systematically investigated by spectroscopic methods and simulated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Electron-withdrawing or -donating substituents exert distinct effects on the photophysics of the complexes. All complexes feature a low-energy, broad (1)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer)/(1)ILCT (intraligand charge transfer)/(1)π,π* absorption band (tail) above ca. 430 nm and a major absorption band(s) between 320 and 430 nm, which admix (1)MLCT, (1)π,π*, (1)ILCT, and/or (1)LLCT (ligand-to-ligand charge transfer) characters. The contributions of different configurations to the major absorption band(s) vary depending on the nature of the substituent. Strong electron-donating or -withdrawing substituents (NPh2 and NO2) and the aromatic substituent BTZ cause a pronounced red-shift of the absorption spectra of 1, 3, and 6. All complexes are emissive at room temperature and at 77 K. The emitting excited state is dominated by (3)π,π* character in 1-3, with some contributions from (3)MLCT in 1 and 2, while the emission is predominantly from the (3)MLCT state for 4 and 5 but with some (3)π,π* character. For 6, the emitting state is (3)ILCT in nature. With the increased electron-donating ability of the substituent, the (3)π,π* character diminishes while charge transfer character increases. All complexes exhibit broad and strong triplet excited-state absorption (TA) from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region. The TA band maxima are red-shifted for complexes 1-3 (which possess the electron-withdrawing substituents) compared to those of 4-6 (which

  10. Synthesis of carbazole-based monomer for conjugated polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výprachtický, Drahomír; Kmínek, Ivan; Pokorná, Veronika; Cimrová, Věra

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2011. s. 140. ISBN 978-80-85009-69-9. [Prague Meeting on Macromolecules /75./ - Conducting Polymers - Formation, Structure, Properties, and Applications . 10.07.2011-14.07.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymers * organic electronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. Optical and photophysical properties of new carbazole copolymer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzhabarov, Vagif; Ulbricht, C.; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Egbe, D. A. M.; Cimrová, Věra

    Prague: Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2014. P10. ISBN 978-80-85009-79-8. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /6./. 18.07.2014-19.07.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S; GA ČR GAP106/12/0827 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : electroluminescence * polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. An efficient magnetically modified microbial cell biocomposite for carbazole biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufei; Du, Xiaoyu; Wu, Chao; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic modification of microbial cells enables to prepare smart biocomposites in bioremediation. In this study, we constructed an efficient biocomposite by assembling Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the surface of Sphingomonas sp. XLDN2-5 cells. The average particle size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 20 nm with 45.5 emu g-1 saturation magnetization. The morphology of Sphingomonas sp. XLDN2-5 cells before and after Fe3O4 nanoparticle loading was verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Compared with free cells, the microbial cell/Fe3O4 biocomposite had the same biodegradation activity but exhibited remarkable reusability. The degradation activity of the microbial cell/Fe3O4 biocomposite increased gradually during recycling processes. Additionally, the microbial cell/Fe3O4 biocomposite could be easily separated and recycled by an external magnetic field due to the super-paramagnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticle coating. These results indicated that magnetically modified microbial cells provide a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the biodegradation of hazardous compounds.

  13. 75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Review, 75 FR 10759 (March 9, 2010) (Initiation). In this notice we indicated that we would conduct the...: Rescission of Administrative Review, 75 FR 25209 (May 7, 2010). In the notice we indicated that, in... within 270 days after the date on which we initiated the changed-circumstances review.'' See 75 FR...

  14. Hierarchical organization of Au nanoparticles in a poly(vinyl carbazole) matrix for hybrid electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Amarnath, Chellachamy A; Paik, Ungyu [Division of Advanced Materials Science Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seon-Mi; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Joo, Won-Jae; Choi, Jae-Young [Display Device and Processing Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin-si 449-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Dong Kee [Gachon Bionano Research Institute, Kyungwon University, Sungnam-si, 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: pandora@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: sm76.yoon@samsung.com, E-mail: hyeonjin.shin@samsung.com, E-mail: wj.joo@samsung.com, E-mail: vitalis@kyungwon.ac.kr, E-mail: jaeyoung88.choi@samsung.com, E-mail: ca_amar@yahoo.com, E-mail: upaik@hanyang.ac.kr

    2008-02-20

    We report a novel one-step method for the preparation of hierarchically patterned Au nanoparticles in a conducting polymer matrix by controlling the interface properties between Au nanoparticles and the conducting polymer matrix. The terminal group of capping molecules for the Au nanoparticles was modified to change the interface properties, not to change the size of the Au nanoparticles which affects their intrinsic properties. By modulating the interface properties, it is possible to construct Au nanoparticle-conducting polymer composites with two different structures: one presents a triple layer in which the conducting polymer layer is sandwiched between Au nanoparticle layers at the top and bottom; the other exhibits a form like a raisin cake in which Au nanoparticles are homogeneously organized in the conducting polymer matrix. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and patterning of Au nanoparticles in the conducting polymer matrix.

  15. 75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... to its notice of institution (74 FR 56663 November 2, 2009) of the subject five-year reviews was... section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November...

  16. Hierarchical organization of Au nanoparticles in a poly(vinyl carbazole) matrix for hybrid electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a novel one-step method for the preparation of hierarchically patterned Au nanoparticles in a conducting polymer matrix by controlling the interface properties between Au nanoparticles and the conducting polymer matrix. The terminal group of capping molecules for the Au nanoparticles was modified to change the interface properties, not to change the size of the Au nanoparticles which affects their intrinsic properties. By modulating the interface properties, it is possible to construct Au nanoparticle-conducting polymer composites with two different structures: one presents a triple layer in which the conducting polymer layer is sandwiched between Au nanoparticle layers at the top and bottom; the other exhibits a form like a raisin cake in which Au nanoparticles are homogeneously organized in the conducting polymer matrix. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and patterning of Au nanoparticles in the conducting polymer matrix

  17. 76 FR 55003 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Republic of China, 69 FR 77987 (December 29, 2004) (the Order). On December 1, 2010, the Department... FR 74682 (December 1, 2010). On January 3, 2011, the Department received a timely request for... Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January 28, 2011). Also on January 28, 2011, the Department requested...

  18. DFT and experimental studies on structure and spectroscopic parameters of 3,6-diiodo-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof;

    2016-01-01

    predicted at the non-relativistic and relativistic level of theory using the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA). Theoretical relativistic calculations of chemical shifts of carbons C3 and C6, directly bonded to iodine atoms, produced a reasonable agreement with experiment (initial deviation from...... experiment of 44.3 dropped to 4.25 ppm). The changes in ring aromatic character via simple harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) and the nucleus independent chemical shift indexes (NICS) calculations were estimated. A good linear correlation between experimental and theoretically predicted...

  19. 4a-Methyl-2,3,4,4a-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-6-sulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Al-Youbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C13H16N2O2S, the nine non-H atoms comprising the indole residue are approximately coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å. The partially saturated ring adopts a chair conformation. One amine H forms an intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond to a sulfonamide O atom, while the other amine H form is connected to the indole N atom of an adjacent molecule via an N—H...N hydrogen bond, resulting in a three-dimensional architecture.

  20. Synthesis of indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based new colorimetric receptor for anions: A unique color change for fluoride ions

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Ajit Kumar; Hazra, Giridhari; Sahoo, Prithidipa

    2010-01-01

    A novel indolocarbazole-based chemosensor 1 containing hydrogen bond donor moieties has been established as a selective colorimetric and fluorometric sensor for F− in CH3CN/H2O (4:1 v/v). Upon the addition of a series of tetrabutylammonium salts to receptor 1 in aqueous CH3CN, only when the counter ion was F− was a significant color change (from light violet to dark orange) observed.

  1. Synthesis of indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-based new colorimetric receptor for anions: A unique color change for fluoride ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Mahapatra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel indolocarbazole-based chemosensor 1 containing hydrogen bond donor moieties has been established as a selective colorimetric and fluorometric sensor for F− in CH3CN/H2O (4:1 v/v. Upon the addition of a series of tetrabutylammonium salts to receptor 1 in aqueous CH3CN, only when the counter ion was F− was a significant color change (from light violet to dark orange observed.

  2. Investigation of exciton photodissociation, charge transport and photovoltaic response of poly(N-vinyl carbazole):TiO2 nanocomposites for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, C.; Barlier, V.; Chaabane, H.; Davenas, J.; Ben Ouada, H.

    2008-09-01

    The photogeneration of charge carriers in spin-coated thin films of nanocrystalline (nc-)TiO2 particles dispersed in a semiconducting polymer, poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), has been studied by photoluminescence and charge transport measurements. The solvent and the TiO2 particle concentration have been selected to optimize the composite morphology. A large number of small domains leading to a large interface and an improved exciton dissociation could be obtained with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The charge transport mechanism and trap distribution at low and high voltage in ITO/nc-TiO2:PVK/Al diodes in the dark could be identified by current-voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy. The transport mechanism is space charge limited with an exponential trap distribution in the high voltage regime (1-4 V), whereas a Schottky process with a barrier height of about 0.9 eV is observed at low bias voltages (characteristics under white illumination have shown a dramatic increase of the short circuit current density Jsc and open circuit voltage Voc for a 30% TiO2 volume content corresponding to the morphology exhibiting the best dispersion of TiO2 particles. A degradation of the photovoltaic properties is induced at higher compositions by the formation of larger TiO2 aggregates. A procedure has been developed to extract the physical parameters from the J-V characteristics in the dark and under illumination on the basis of an equivalent circuit. The variation of the solar cell parameters with the TiO2 composition confirms that the photovoltaic response is optimum for 30% TiO2 volume content. It is concluded that the photovoltaic properties of nc-TiO2:PVK nanocomposites are controlled by the interfacial area between the donor and the acceptor material and are limited by the dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles in the polymer.

  3. Investigation of exciton photodissociation, charge transport and photovoltaic response of poly(N-vinyl carbazole):TiO(2) nanocomposites for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, C; Barlier, V; Chaabane, H; Davenas, J; Ben Ouada, H

    2008-09-17

    The photogeneration of charge carriers in spin-coated thin films of nanocrystalline (nc-)TiO(2) particles dispersed in a semiconducting polymer, poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), has been studied by photoluminescence and charge transport measurements. The solvent and the TiO(2) particle concentration have been selected to optimize the composite morphology. A large number of small domains leading to a large interface and an improved exciton dissociation could be obtained with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The charge transport mechanism and trap distribution at low and high voltage in ITO/nc-TiO(2):PVK/Al diodes in the dark could be identified by current-voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy. The transport mechanism is space charge limited with an exponential trap distribution in the high voltage regime (1-4 V), whereas a Schottky process with a barrier height of about 0.9 eV is observed at low bias voltages (characteristics under white illumination have shown a dramatic increase of the short circuit current density J(sc) and open circuit voltage V(oc) for a 30% TiO(2) volume content corresponding to the morphology exhibiting the best dispersion of TiO(2) particles. A degradation of the photovoltaic properties is induced at higher compositions by the formation of larger TiO(2) aggregates. A procedure has been developed to extract the physical parameters from the J-V characteristics in the dark and under illumination on the basis of an equivalent circuit. The variation of the solar cell parameters with the TiO(2) composition confirms that the photovoltaic response is optimum for 30% TiO(2) volume content. It is concluded that the photovoltaic properties of nc-TiO(2):PVK nanocomposites are controlled by the interfacial area between the donor and the acceptor material and are limited by the dispersion of the TiO(2) nanoparticles in the polymer. PMID:21832543

  4. Molecular modeling and experimental studies on structure and NMR parameters of 9-benzyl-3,6-diiodo-9H-carbazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof;

    2015-01-01

    using the harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) indexes. Theoretical relativistic calculations of chemical shifts of carbons C3 and C6, directly bonded to iodine atoms, produced a reasonable agreement with experiment (initial deviation from...

  5. Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in rat primary hepatocytes and acts as a potential tumor promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan; Seidelin, Michel; Bisgaard, Hanne Cathrine;

    2002-01-01

    environment of the stomach after intake of I3C, has a similar structure to, and shares biological effects with, the well-known tumor promoter 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD). Therefore, we hypothesized that ICZ could be responsible for the potential tumor-promoting activity of I3C. The aim of the....... Significant inhibition was observed after 8 and 12 h of treatment with 1 and 0.1 µM ICZ, respectively. Maximum GJIC inhibition (cell–cell communication only 5% of control values) was observed after 24–48 h of ICZ treatment. Continued exposure to 1 µM ICZ suppressed GJIC until ~120 h. Both ICZ and TCDD...

  6. Solution processed single-emission layer white polymer light-emitting diodes with high color quality and high performance from a poly(N-vinyl)carbazole host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shang-Hui; Hu, Tian-Qing; Zhou, Zhou; Yang, Min; Quan, Mei-Han; Mei, Qun-Bo; Zhai, Bang-Cheng; Jia, Zhen-Hong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-14

    Low cost and high performance white polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are very important as solid-state lighting sources. In this research three commercially available phosphors were carefully chosen, bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C(2)](picolinate)iridium(III) (FIrpic), bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-N)phenyl-C](2,4-pentanedionato-O(2),O(4))iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)2(acac)], and bis(2-phenyl-benzothiazole-C(2),N)(acetylacetonate)iridium(III) [Ir(bt)2(acac)], plus a home-made red phosphor of tris[1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)phthalazine]iridium(III) [Ir(MPCPPZ)3], and their photophysical and morphological properties were systematically studied as well as their applications in single-emission layer white PLEDs comprising poly(N-vinylcarbazole) as host. Additionally, the electrochemical properties and energy level alignment, possible energy transfer process, and thin-film morphology were also addressed. The binary blue/orange complementary white PLEDs exhibit stable electroluminescence spectra, wide spectrum-covering region range from 380-780 nm, and high color rendering index (CRI) over 70 with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates x,y (CIEx,y) of (0.388, 0.440), correlated color temperature (CCT) of around 4400, plus high efficiency of 25.5 cd A(-1). The optimized red-green-blue white PLEDs showed a satisfactory CRI of around 82.4, maximum current efficiency of 20.0 cd A(-1) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 10.8%, corresponding to a CCT of 3700-2800, which is a warm-white hue. At last, stable and high color quality, red-green-orange-blue four component white PLEDs, with a CRI of over 82, a high efficiency of 24.0 cd A(-1), EQE of 11.5%, and high brightness of 43,569.9 cd m(-2) have been obtained. PMID:25742776

  7. 2-{4-Methyl-N-[(2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-3-ylmethyl]benzenesulfonamido}ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagihan Çaylak Delibaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H32N2O5S2, the indole ring system is nearly planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.013 (2 Å, and the cyclohexenone ring has an envelope conformation with the methine C atom as the flap. The two methylbenzene rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8°. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a chain running along the a-axis direction, and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions are observed between the chains.

  8. Investigation of exciton photodissociation, charge transport and photovoltaic response of poly(N-vinyl carbazole):TiO2 nanocomposites for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photogeneration of charge carriers in spin-coated thin films of nanocrystalline (nc-)TiO2 particles dispersed in a semiconducting polymer, poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), has been studied by photoluminescence and charge transport measurements. The solvent and the TiO2 particle concentration have been selected to optimize the composite morphology. A large number of small domains leading to a large interface and an improved exciton dissociation could be obtained with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The charge transport mechanism and trap distribution at low and high voltage in ITO/nc-TiO2:PVK/Al diodes in the dark could be identified by current-voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy. The transport mechanism is space charge limited with an exponential trap distribution in the high voltage regime (1-4 V), whereas a Schottky process with a barrier height of about 0.9 eV is observed at low bias voltages (sc and open circuit voltage Voc for a 30% TiO2 volume content corresponding to the morphology exhibiting the best dispersion of TiO2 particles. A degradation of the photovoltaic properties is induced at higher compositions by the formation of larger TiO2 aggregates. A procedure has been developed to extract the physical parameters from the J-V characteristics in the dark and under illumination on the basis of an equivalent circuit. The variation of the solar cell parameters with the TiO2 composition confirms that the photovoltaic response is optimum for 30% TiO2 volume content. It is concluded that the photovoltaic properties of nc-TiO2:PVK nanocomposites are controlled by the interfacial area between the donor and the acceptor material and are limited by the dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles in the polymer

  9. How do 10-camphorsulfonic acid, silver or aluminum nanoparticles influence optical, electrochemical, electrochromic and photovoltaic properties of air and thermally stable triphenylamine-based polyazomethine with carbazole moieties?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivan, A.; Boharewicz, B.; Tazbir, I.; Filapek, M.; Korona, P.K.; Wróbel, Piotr; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wronkowska, A.A.; Wronkowski, A.; Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz, B.; Grankowska-Ciechanowicz, S.; Kaminska, M.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 185, December (2015), s. 198-210. ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : refraction index * nanoparticles * bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  10. 2-(1,2,3,4-Tetra­hydro-9H-carbazol-1-yl­idene)propane­dinitrile

    OpenAIRE

    Velmurugan, R.; M. Sekar; Chandramohan, A.; Ramesh, P.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H11N3, the cyclo­hexene ring adopts a sofa conformation. An intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond generates an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯N, C—H⋯N and C—H⋯π inter­actions into a three-dimensional network.

  11. Metabolic Engineering to Develop a Pathway for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Nitrogen Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a biochemical pathway for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. Specifically a novel biochemical pathway will be developed for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in carbazole. The cleavage of the first C-N bond in carbazole is accomplished by the enzyme carbazole dioxygenase, that catalyzes the conversion of carbazole to 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol. The genes encoding carbazole dioxygenase were cloned from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 and from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. The selective cleavage of the second C-N bond has been challenging, and efforts to overcome that challenge have been the focus of recent research in this project. Enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating bacterial cultures that can metabolize 2-aminobiphenyl, but no enzyme capable of selectively cleaving the C-N bond in 2-aminobiphenyl has been identified. Aniline is very similar to the structure of 2-aminobiphenyl and aniline dioxygenase catalyzes the conversion of aniline to catechol and ammonia. For the remainder of the project the emphasis of research will be to simultaneously express the genes for carbazole dioxygenase and for aniline dioxygenase in the same bacterial host and then to select for derivative cultures capable of using carbazole as the sole source of nitrogen.

  12. 1-O-Substituted derivatives of murrayafoline A and their antifungal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, N M; Wilhelm, H; Porzel, A; Arnold, N; Wessjohann, L

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of some 1-oxygenated derivatives of murrayafoline A (1) and their antifungal properties is reported. Three derivatives, 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9H-carbazole (2), 1-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-3-methyl-9H-carbazole (3) and 1-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-O-glucopyranosyl)-3-methyl-9H-carbazole (4) of murrayafoline A were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong fungicidal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum at the dose of 12.5 microg. PMID:19023805

  13. Total Synthesis of the Strychnos Alkaloid (+)-Minfiensine: Tandem Enantioselective Intramolecular Heck–Iminium Ion Cyclization

    OpenAIRE

    Dounay, Amy B.; Humphreys, Philip G.; Overman, Larry E.; Wrobleski, Aaron D.

    2008-01-01

    A 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9a,4a-(iminoethano)-9H-carbazole (4) is a central structural feature of the Strychnos alkaloid minfiensine (1) and akuammiline alkaloids such as vincorine (5) and echitamine (6). A cascade catalytic asymmetric Heck-iminium cyclization was developed that rapidly provides 3,4-dihydro-9a,4a-(iminoethano)-9H-carbazoles in high enantiomeric purity. Two sequences were developed for advancing 3,4-dihydro-9a,4a-(iminoethano)-9H-carbazole 27 to (+)-minfiensine. In our first-genera...

  14. Theoretical Investigation on the Electron and Energy Transfer between Peripheral Carrier Transport Groups and Central Chromophores in Electroluminescent Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉钰; 刘丹丹; 许海; 刘晓冬; 孙冠楠; 杨兵; 马於光

    2012-01-01

    The molecular materials with structures of luminescent core and peripheral carrier groups (e.g. carbazoles), have exhibited high-performance in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Present work is to understand the basic process of electronic and energy exchange between the peripheral functional groups and the central core through quantum chemical analysis. As an example, 4,7-bis(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)benzo[c]- [1,2,5]thiadiazole (TCBzC) is investigated in regards to optoelectronic properties using density functional theory (DFT). The results suggest that the forbidden transition from peripheral carbazole to the central chromophore core makes for separated electrical and optical properties, and high performance electroluminescence (EL) is mainly at- tributed to the energy-transfer from carbazoles to the fluorene derivative core.

  15. Iridium complexes demonstrating broadband emission through controlled geometric distortion and applications thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Turner, Eric

    2016-04-12

    Iridium compounds and their uses are disclosed herein. For example, carbazole containing iridium compounds are disclosed. The compounds are useful in many devices, including, but not limited to, electroluminescent devices.

  16. Effects of Biodegradation on the Distribution of Alkylcarbazoles in Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG CHUNMING(张春明); MEI BOWEN(梅博文); STEVE R.LARTER; MARTIN P.KOOPMANS; XIAO QIANHUA(肖乾华)

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the distributions of alkylcarbazoles in a series of crude oils with different biodegradation extents, in combination with biomarker parameters, stable carbon isotopic ratios and viscosities. The analyses showed that slight biodegradation has little effect on alkylcarbazoles. The concentrations of C0-, C1-, and C2-carbazoles seem to display a slight decrease with biodegradation through the moderately biodegraded stage, and an abrupt decrease to the heavily biodegraded stage. The relative concentrations of C0-, C1-, and C2-carbazoles do not show any apparent change in the non-heavily biodegraded stages, but through non-heavily biodegraded to heavily biodegraded stages, the percentages of C0- and C1-carbazoles decrease,and those of C2-carbazoles increase significantly, which may indicate that C2-carbazoles are more resistant to biodegradation than lower homologous species. As to C2-carbazole isomers,the relative concentrations of the pyrrolic N-H-shielded, pyrrolic N-H partially shielded and pyrrolic N-H-exposed isomers do not show any obvious variation in the non-heavily biodegraded oil, but there is an abrupt change through the mid-biodegraded stage to the heavily biodegraded stage.

  17. Poly{4,6-bis[3'-(2-ethylhexyl)thien-2'-yl]thieno[3,4-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole-5',5'-diyl-alt-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole-2,7-diyl}: synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzhabarov, Vagif; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Cimrová, Věra

    Prague : Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2015. P7. ISBN 978-80-85009-83-5. [Workshop "Career in Polymer s" /7./. 03.07.2015, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0827; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : electrochemical properties * polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  18. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of p and n dopable interpenetrating polymer networks for organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) based on carbazole derivatives and diacrylate perylene are synthesized in two steps via an in-situ process. From a spin-coated thin film of a mixture of the two precursors, the diacrylate perylene is first photopolymerized to form a network in the presence of the carbazole derivative which is then electropolymerized to elaborate the IPN. Electrochemical characterizations show that the carbazole and perylene are electroactive inside the film which confirm the p and n dopable properties of the IPN. AFM images of the IPNs show a homogenous and smooth surface, compared to single network, which indicate a high quality of association of each network which should allow an efficient p/n bulk heterojunction

  20. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs) are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation

  1. The fabrication of polyfluorene and polycarbazole-based photovoltaic devices using an air-stable process route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovill, E.; Lidzey, D. G., E-mail: d.g.lidzey@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yi, H.; Iraqi, A. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, The Dainton Building, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We report a comparative study based on the fabrication of polymer:fullerene photovoltaic (PV) devices incorporating carbazole, fluorene, and a PTB based co-polymer. We have explored the efficiency and performance of such devices when the active polymer:fullerene layer is deposited by spin-casting either under nitrogen or ambient conditions. We show that PV devices based on carbazole and fluorene based materials have very similar power conversion efficiencies when processed under both air and nitrogen, with other photobleaching measurements suggesting that such materials have comparatively enhanced photostability. Devices based on the PTB co-polymer, however, have reduced efficiency when processed in air.

  2. One-pot synthesis and UV-Visible absorption studies of novel tricyclic heterocycle tethered Xanthene-1,8-diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thirumal Yempala; Balasubramanian Sridhar; Srinivas Kantevari

    2015-05-01

    A series of new tricyclic heterocyclic xanthene-1,8-diones tethered with chromophoric dibenzo [ , ]furan, dibenzo[ , ]thiophene and 9-methyl-9-carbazoles were synthesized through one-pot condensation of dibenzo[ , ]furan-2-carbaldehyde, dibenzo[ , ] thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and 9-methyl-9-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyls in the presence of recyclable PPA-SiOM2 catalyst under solvent-free conditions. Further, UV-Visible absorption properties of all the synthesized compounds were investigated in CHCl3, THF and acetonitrile.

  3. Ring Contracting Sulfur Extrusion from Oxidized Phenothiazine Ring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth H. Berg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium, used in conjunction with sodium metal, produces a high yield of carbazole when reacted with phenothiazine-5-oxide or phenothiazine-5,5-dioxide. A high yield of 9-ethylcarbazole is also produced when these reagents react with 10-ethylphenothiazine, 10-ethylphenothiazine-5-oxide, and 10-ethylphenothiazine-5,5-dioxide. Degassed Raney nickel produces carbazole in high yield when reacted with phenothiazine and phenothiazine-5-oxide. A moderate yield of 9-ethylcarbazole is produced when n-butyllithium is reacted with 10-ethylphenothiazine-5-oxide.

  4. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Fukuchi, Masashi; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hirata, Shuzo; Jung, Heo Hyo; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyusyu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hirata, Osamu; Shibano, Yuki [Nissan Chemical Industries, LTD, 722-1 Tsuboi, Funabashi 274-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs) are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  5. 75 FR 55754 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... a reliable source for surrogate values because India is at a comparable level of economic... Review of the Countervailing Duty Order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India, 75 FR 13257 (March 19... economic development comparable to that of the NME country, and (2) are significant producers of...

  6. 75 FR 40788 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...) India is at a level of economic development comparable to that of the PRC; (2) India is a significant... Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India, 75 FR 13257 (March 19, 2010) and accompanying Issues and Decision... countries that are: (1) At a level of economic development comparable to that of the NME country; and...

  7. 75 FR 55759 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... India to be a reliable source for surrogate values because India is at a comparable level of economic... Review of the Countervailing Duty Order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India, 75 FR 13257 (March 19... more market-economy countries that (1) are at a level of economic development comparable to that of...

  8. 75 FR 47270 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Sunset Review of the Countervailing Duty Order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India, 75 FR 13257... market economy countries that are: (1) at a level of economic development comparable to that of the NME... of China, 65 FR 35606 (June 5, 2000) (``Order''). On December 15, 2009, pursuant to section...

  9. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYCARBAZOL - POLYANILINE COPOLYMER IN DICHLOROMETHANE SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanoz, Muammer; Kılıç, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    Conductive polymers can be synthesized in solution or on the electrode surface by oxidation of aromatic heterocyclic organic molecules. Polypyrrole, polythiophene, polyaniline, polyfuran, polyphenylenevinylene, polytionaphtene, polycarbazole, polyindole and polyazulene are the most well-known conductive polymers. Although less studied among the conductive polymers, carbazole polymers have many advantages such as cheap, environmental and chemically stable because of aromatic structure, optic w...

  10. The Effects of Conducting Polymers on Formic Acid Oxidation at Pt Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The activity of Pt nanoparticles for formic acid oxidation varies with the chemical structure of the polymer support. • Polycarbazole is strongly activating while a polypyrrole support inhibits formic acid oxidation. • There is a correlation between activity and the energy of the lowest unoccupied orbital of the repeat unit of the polymer. • An electronic effect involving electron donation from Pt to the polymer may be responsible for the differences in activity. - Abstract: The effects of polyaniline, polypyrrole, polyindole and polycarbazole on formic acid oxidation at Pt nanoparticles are compared. The observed trend in activity (polypyrrole < polyaniline ∼ polyindole < polycarbazole) correlates with the decreasing LUMO energies of the monomers (pyrrole > aniline > indole > carbazole), supporting previous evidence of electron donation from Pt nanoparticles into the π-system of a polycarbazole support layer. Density functional theory calculations on CO and carbazole binding to Pt4 clusters show that the electronic effect of carbazole in a carbazole-Pt4-CO ensemble considerably weakens the binding of CO. The magnitude of this effect is comparable to the effects of graphite and graphene supports reported by other researchers, and stronger than the effect calculated here for indole

  11. Carotenoids play a positive role in the degradation of heterocycles by Sphingobium yanoikuyae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial oxidative degradation is a potential way of removing pollutants such as heterocycles from the environment. During this process, reactive oxygen species or other oxidants are inevitably produced, and may cause damage to DNA, proteins, and membranes, thereby decreasing the degradation rate. Carotenoids can serve as membrane-integrated antioxidants, protecting cells from oxidative stress. FINDINGS: Several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were cloned and characterized from a carbazole-degrading bacterium Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5. In addition, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid synthesized by strain XLDN2-5 was identified as zeaxanthin that was synthesized from β-carotene through β-cryptoxanthin. The amounts of zeaxanthin and hydrogen peroxide produced were significantly and simultaneously enhanced during the biodegradation of heterocycles (carbazole < carbazole + benzothiophene < carbazole + dibenzothiophene. These higher production levels were consistent with the transcriptional increase of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, one of the key enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 can enhance the synthesis of zeaxanthin, one of the carotenoids, which may modulate membrane fluidity and defense against intracellular oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the positive role of carotenoids in the biodegradation of heterocycles, while elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the Sphingobium genus.

  12. Influence of biodegradation on benzocarbazole distri-butions in reservoired oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Partition coefficient difference of benzocarba-zole isomers between oil, water and mineral phase makes them auseful indicator to quantify petroleum migration distance. Because of their nitrogen-heteroatom andannelated aromatic cycles they are generally regarded asbeing more resistant and the effects of biodegradation ontheir concentrations and distributions have not previouslybeen investigated. Reservoir extracts from three wells lo-cated in the Leng43 block of the Liaohe Basin were analyzed to investigate their occurrence and the effect of biodegrada-tion. Both hydrocarbon biomarkers and benzocarbazole isomers show systematical changes with the increase extent of biodegradation in study columns. Carbazole compounds may be biodegraded in a similar way to that observed in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The distance from oil water contact is a primary control factor for biodegradation. The concentrations of benzocarbazole isomers show a slight increase in the upper part of the columns then a sharp de-crease towards oil water contact (OWC). Among three iso-mers benzo[a]carbazole seems more susceptible to biode-gradation than other two isomers and benzo[b]carbazole has higher ability to res ist bacterial attack. Benzo[b]carba-zole/benzo- [a]carbazole ratios can sensitively indicate the degree of biodegradation and the benzocarbazole index (BCratio) cannot be directly used as a migration indicator inbiodegraded oils.

  13. IndizolineThis paper is dedicated to Dato' Dr Chatar Singh, Foundation Dean, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, whose 80th birthday falls on the 9th September 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 1-methoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde], C19H19NO2, is a natural carbazole which was isolated from the twigs of Clausena lansium. The carbazole ring system is essentially planar with a mean deviation of 0.0068 (10 Å. The aldehyde substituent is approximately co-planar with the attached benzene ring with a torsion angle of −8.58 (14°, whereas the methoxy group is rotated out of the benzene plane with a torsion angle of −82.17 (11°. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 3-methyl-2-butenyl group and the carbazole ring is 88.06 (5°. An intermolecular N—H...O interaction connects the molecules into a chain along the a axis. The crystal is further consolidated by a C—H...O hydrogen bond and two π–π interactions with centroid–centroid distances of 3.6592 (6 and 3.7440 (6 Å.

  14. A novel three-step synthesis of N-(2-ethylhexyl)-2,7-diiodocarbazole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výprachtický, Drahomír; Kmínek, Ivan; Pavlačková, Petra; Cimrová, Věra

    -, č. 9 (2011), s. 1472-1476. ISSN 0039-7881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbazole ring closure * electrophilic aromatic substitution * heterocycles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2011

  15. Solar cells on the base of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters of organic solar cells on the base of different organic semiconductors as poly epoxypropyl carbazole, copper phthalocyanine and bordeaux perylene are considered. Moreover the properties of solar cells on the base of n-GaAs and copper phthalocyanine heterostructure are described. The new technologies in the field of organic solar cells as bulk heterostructure solar cells are discussed. (author)

  16. Chemical constituents from stem barks and roots of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four carbazole alkaloids, identified as mahanimbine (1), girinimbine (2), murrayanine (3) murrayafoline-A (4) and one triterpene were isolated from stem bark and roots of Murraya koenigii. The structures of these compounds were established by infra-red (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Ligand exchange leads to efficient triplet energy transfer to CdSe/ZnS Q-dots in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) matrix nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetubol, Adis; Van Snick, Sven; Hassinen, Antti; Fron, Eduard; Firdaus, Yuliar; Pandey, Lesley; David, Charlotte C.; Duerinckx, Karel; Dehaen, Wim; Hens, Zeger; Van der Auweraer, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Upon exchanging long chain alkylamine ligands with a carbazole terminated fatty acid as 6-(N-carbazolyl)-hexanoic acid (C6) and 11-(N-carbazolyl) undecanoic acid (C11), efficient photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) was observed upon excitation in the absorption band of the carbazole moiety at 330 nm. This effect, which occurred both in solution and in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix doped with the QDs, is attributed to sensitization of the QDs by PVK and the ligands. More efficient energy transfer was observed in solution for the shorter ligand (C6) capped QDs, due to a shorter average distance between the donor (carbazole) and the acceptor (QD). The binding of C6 and C11 to the QDs was confirmed by 1H solution nuclear magnetic resonance, which showed line broadening of the carbazole signal due to a decrease of the mobility of the carbazoles upon binding to the QDs compared with the sharp lines observed for the free molecules in solution. In doped PVK films, the significant enhancement of the energy transfer to the QD core could also be related to a better miscibility between the QDs and the PVK as confirmed by optical transmission and confocal microscopy images. In contrast to the experiment in solution, the overall energy transfer in the doped films was found more efficient for QDs capped with C11. To study in more detail the energy transfer between the carbazole moieties and the QDs, time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for solutions of C6 and C11, capped QDs and PVK films doped with the QDs. In contrast to the large enhancement of the QD emission indicated by steady-state PL spectra, the latter experiments suggested only a relatively low efficiency (19.6% and 10.8%) for singlet transfer from the carbazole ligands to the QDs. This suggests that the enhancement of the QD emission must be largely due to triplet transfer.

  18. Multi-3,3'-Bicarbazole-Substituted Arylsilane Host Materials with Balanced Charge Transport for Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dianming; Zhou, Xiaokang; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoli; Ren, Zhongjie; Ma, Dongge; Yan, Shouke

    2015-08-19

    A series of 3,3'-bicarbazole (mCP)-functionalized tetraphenylsilane derivatives (SimCPx), including bis(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)diphenylsilane (SimCP2), tris(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)methylsilane (SimCP3-CH3), tris(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)phenylsilane (SimCP3-Ph), and tetrakis(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)silane (SimCP4), serving as bipolar blue hosts for bis[2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl-N,C2']iridium(III) (FIrpic), have been synthesized by incorporating different ratios of mCP subunits into a central silicon atom. All of the SimCPx derivatives have wide bandgaps and high triplet energies because of the indirect linkage by silicon between each mCP subunit. The good solubility and high thermal and morphological stability of SimCPx are beneficial for forming amorphous and homogeneous films through solution processing. Density functional theory simulations manifest the better bipolar characteristics for SimCPx using three and four mCP units rather than the represented bipolar host SimCP2. As a result, SimCP4 presents the best electron-transporting ability for charge balance. Consequently, the lowest driving voltage of 4.8 eV, and the favorable maximum efficiencies of 14.2% for external quantum efficiency (28.4 cd A(-1), 13.5 lm W(-1)), are achieved by solution-processed, SimCP4-based blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes as the highest performance among SimCPx, in which 32% improved device efficiencies compared to that of SimCP2 are obtained. It is inspiring to develop efficient bipolar hosts for blue phosphors by just incorporating monopolar carbazole into arylsilanes in two steps. PMID:26252613

  19. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project was focused on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate deaminase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative C-N bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments resulted in the isolation of microbial cultures that utilize aromatic amides as sole nitrogen sources, several amidase genes were cloned and were included in directed evolution experiments to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. During the second year of the project (October, 2003-September, 2004) enrichment culture experiments succeeded in isolating a mixed bacterial culture that can utilize 2-aminobiphenyl as a sole nitrogen source, directed evolution experiments were focused on the aniline dioxygenase enzyme that is capable of deaminating aniline, and expression vectors were constructed to enable the expression of genes encoding C-N bond cleaving enzymes in Rhodococcus hosts. The construction of a new metabolic pathway to selectively remove nitrogen from carbazole and other molecules typically found in petroleum should lead to the development of a process to improve oil refinery efficiency by reducing the

  20. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Feed Hydrotreatment and its Impact on Distribution of Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds in FCC Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Rui; Chai Yongming; Zhang Chengtao; Liu Chenguang

    2015-01-01

    The sulfides and nitrogen compounds in FCC diesel were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a pulsed lfame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) and gas chromatography coupled with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (GC-NCD). And the variation of sulifdes and nitrogen compounds in FCC diesel produced from gas oil feed hydrotreated at different temperatures was investigated. The test results showed that two main types of sulfur compounds, i.e. benzothio-phenes (BTs) and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) were found in diesel. Nitrogen compounds are mainly composed of non-basic nitrogen compounds, and indoles and carbazoles account for about 98% of the total nitrogen contents. The sulifdes in FCC diesel obtained from hydrotreated feed are mainly BTs with a small amount of 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT. With the increase in FCC feed hydrotreating temperature, indoles content in FCC diesel increases, while carbazoles content decreases.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, computational and photophysical studies of new hydrazono-thiazole derivatives decorated with N-methyl tetrahydrocarbazole pendant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Deepika; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-one, obtained from 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) oxidation of tetrahydrocarbazole, on methylation with N, N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) furnish N-methyl derivative. The thiosemicarbazone of N-methyl derivative on reaction with 2-bromopropionic acid, ethyl bromopyruvate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) afford hydrazono-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives with tetrahydrocarbazole pendant. X-ray diffraction and DFT studies of (Z)-5-methyl-2-((E)-(9-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4(9H)-ylidene)hydrazono)thiazolidin-4-one 5 have been reported. The reaction with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) and ethyl bromopyruvate take place without any catalyst and organic solvent. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by means of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  2. Synthesis and phosphorescent properties of the copolymers of N-vinylcarbazole, methyl methacrylate and iridium complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zhou, Minglu; Liang, Luying; Lin, Meijuan; Ling, Qidan

    2014-06-01

    The copolymers containing carbazole unit and iridium complexes, such as (Ir(bpy)2Cl, Ir(mbpy)2Cl and Ir(Brbpy)2Cl, were synthesized via radical copolymerization of N-vinylcarbazole, methyl methacrylate and iridium complex. The synthesized copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. According to the results, the copolymers (Ir(Brbpy)2Cl/PVK and Ir(mbpy)2Cl/PVK) exhibit yellow phosphorescence with an emission peak at around 553 nm under UV-visible light in the solid state. The results also reveal almost complete energy transfer from the host carbazole segments to the guest Ir complex in the copolymer film when the Ir content reaches 1.0 wt.%. The synthesized copolymers are good candidates as blue or yellow phosphorescent materials for PLED applications.

  3. Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectrum of a Novel Pyrazoline Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Y.Han; J.F.Li; P.H.Lin; D.X.Li; C.Dong

    2007-01-01

    1 Results 2-pyrazolines and carbaozole derivatives are well known fluorescent compounds with high quantum yields[1],and have been investigated in many other respects[2,3].In this paper,carbazole radical was introduced to pyrazoline ring on C-5,and a novel derivative,named 1-phenyl-3-biphenyl-5-(N-ethyl carbazole-3-yl)-2-pyrazoline (PBEP) (5) was synthesized: The product PBEP was characterized by IR,1H NMR,and elementary analysis.Yield: 47.2%.M.P 104-106 ℃.1H NMR (CDCl3) δ/10-6: 1.5(3H,—CH3).2.4(2H,—...

  4. Synthesis, Luminescent Properties of aza-Boron-Diquinomethene Difluoride Complexes and Their Application for Fluorescent Security Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Long; Liu, Rui; Shi, Hong; Wang, Qiang; Song, Guangliang; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yuan, Shidong; Zhu, Hongjun

    2016-03-01

    Two aza-boron-diquinomethene (aza-BODIQU) complexes bearing phenyl and carbazyl substituents were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. Both complexes exhibit strong (1)π-π* transition absorptions (λ(abs) = 400-540 nm) and intense fluorescent emissions (λ(em) = 440-600 nm, Φ(PL) = 0.93 and 0.78) in CH2Cl2 solution and in solid state at room temperature. Compared to the complex with phenyl groups, the complex bearing carbazyl groups shows significant bathochromic shift in both absorption and emission. This could be attributed to the larger π-electron conjugation of the carbazole unit and intramolecular charge transfer feature from carbazole to aza-BODIQU component. In addition, the complexes exhibit intense photoluminescence and good stability on antacid, anti-alkali and stability in printing ink samples, which makes them potential dopants for the application of fluorescent security inks. PMID:26596734

  5. Synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and the possible mechanism of photopolymerization of two new two-photon absorption chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient Witting and Pd-catalyzed Heck coupling methodologies are employed to synthesize two new two-photon free-radical photopolymerization initiators 9-ethyl-3-{2-[4-(2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-vinyl}-9H-carbazole (abbreviated to EPVPC) and 9-octadecyl-3-{2-[4-(2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-vinyl}-9H-carbazole (abbreviated to OPVPC). The experimental results confirm that the two compounds are good two-photon absorbing chromophores and operative two-photon photopolymerization initiators. The calculated two-photon absorption cross-sections of EPVPC and OPVPC are 56.6 and 62.0x10-50 cm4 s photon-1, respectively. A microstructure by using EPVPC as initiator has been fabricated under irradiation of 200 fs, 76 MHz Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at 780 nm. The possible mechanism of photopolymerization is discussed

  6. The influence of torsion on excimer formation in bipolar host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Alexander A; Bagnich, Sergey; Wagner, Daniel; Athanasopolous, Stavros; Strohriegl, Peter; Köhler, Anna

    2016-06-01

    We present a combined detailed spectroscopic and quantum chemical study on the bipolar host materials BPTRZ and MBPTRZ in solution and in neat film. In the two compounds, the hole transporting carbazole is separated from the electron transporting triazine moiety by a fully aromatic but non-conjugated meta-linked biphenyl unit. The two materials differ by an additional steric twist at the biphenyl in MBPTRZ, which is achieved by methyl-substitution in 2- and 2'-position of the biphenyl. We find that while the twist shifts the triplet state in MBPTRZ to higher energies (3.0 eV in solution) compared to BPTRZ (2.8 eV in solution), this also localizes electron density on the carbazole moiety, leading to excimer formation in neat films. PMID:27276969

  7. NOVEL FUROCARBAZOLE A LKALOIDS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM Zanthoxylum fagara (L. Sargent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Macías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From ethanol-soluble extract of the bark from Zanthoxylum fagara (L. Sargent. were isolated two novel furocarbazole alkaloids, 4-methoxy-10H-furo[3,2-a]carbazole ( and 10H-furo[3,2-a]carbazole ( , whose structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, MS and NMR (including 1D and 2D techniques. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract of bark was evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii, Vibrio cholerae El Tor, and Vibrio cholerae clinical lysate; and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, using the Agar-well diffusion method. In above-mentioned assay was found that the ethanol extract of bark exhibited inhibition against strains B. subtilis (17mm, V. cholerae El Tor (11mm, V. cholerae clinical lysate (10mm, and S. epidermidis (9mm.

  8. Oligoquinolines under Solvent-free Microwave Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwi-Jeon; Kwon, Tae-Woo [Kyungsung University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Quinolines are thermally stable and can be used as an excellent n-type semiconducting materials. Since quinolines are also known to be electron acceptor molecules, combination of various electron donor building blocks can be utilized in photonic and electronic organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. For example, donor.acceptor systems with phenothiazine (or carbazole) molecules as electron donors and the phenylquinoline group as an electron acceptor provide an efficient approach for the design of new materials exhibiting highly efficient charge-transfer photophysics and electroluminescence in OLEDs. We have described the Friedlander quinoline synthesis between aminobenzophenones and symmetrical diacetyl compounds having phenothiazine, carbazole, biphenyl, and phenyl moieties under solvent-free microwave irradiation in 12.98% isolated yields.

  9. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Fukushima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  10. Oligoquinolines under Solvent-free Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolines are thermally stable and can be used as an excellent n-type semiconducting materials. Since quinolines are also known to be electron acceptor molecules, combination of various electron donor building blocks can be utilized in photonic and electronic organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. For example, donor.acceptor systems with phenothiazine (or carbazole) molecules as electron donors and the phenylquinoline group as an electron acceptor provide an efficient approach for the design of new materials exhibiting highly efficient charge-transfer photophysics and electroluminescence in OLEDs. We have described the Friedlander quinoline synthesis between aminobenzophenones and symmetrical diacetyl compounds having phenothiazine, carbazole, biphenyl, and phenyl moieties under solvent-free microwave irradiation in 12.98% isolated yields

  11. Synthesis, nonlinear optical properties and the possible mechanism of photopolymerization of two new two-photon absorption chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunxing; Tao, Xutang; Sun, Yuanhong; Xu, Guibao; Wang, Chuankui; Yang, Jiaxiang; Zhao, Xian; Jiang, Minhua

    2004-09-01

    Efficient Witting and Pd-catalyzed Heck coupling methodologies are employed to synthesize two new two-photon free-radical photopolymerization initiators 9-ethyl-3-{2-[4-(2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-vinyl}-9H-carbazole (abbreviated to EPVPC) and 9-octadecyl-3-{2-[4-(2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-vinyl}-9H-carbazole (abbreviated to OPVPC). The experimental results confirm that the two compounds are good two-photon absorbing chromophores and operative two-photon photopolymerization initiators. The calculated two-photon absorption cross-sections of EPVPC and OPVPC are 56.6 and 62.0×10 -50 cm 4 s photon -1, respectively. A microstructure by using EPVPC as initiator has been fabricated under irradiation of 200 fs, 76 MHz Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at 780 nm. The possible mechanism of photopolymerization is discussed.

  12. Preparation and Identification of Hyaluronic Acid From Fresh Pigskin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuhong; HAN Linlin

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) had been prepared from pigskin residues with neutral proteinase.The preparing results and conditions were studied.After extracting and purification,HA was detected through ultraviolet spectra and infraction spectrum,and its content and purity were tested by carbazole and Elason-Morgan,respectively.This results indicated that significant quantifies of HA could be prepared in fresh pigskin with biologic enzyme,and the pure HA was cosmetic grade and food grade.

  13. From small to medium and beyond: a pragmatic approach in predicting properties of Ne containing structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupka, T.; Stachów, M.; Nieradka, M.; Radula-Janik, K.; Stobinski, L.; Kaminský, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, 5/6 (2014), s. 645-653. ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DFT * Ne-21 NMR * dispersion interactions * carbazole * cyclacenes * fullerenes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.720, year: 2014

  14. Effects of Substituents in Polyvinylcarbazole Structures on Their Optical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vertsimakha, Ya; Syromyatnikov, V; Savchenko, I

    2016-01-01

    Absorption, photoluminescence, and photoluminescence excitation spectra of solutions and thin films of N-vinylcarbazole polymers and copolymers with various substituents directly on the carbazole moiety and on the polymer chain were studied comprehensively. Polymers that were used previously to develop polymer composites with polymethine dyes having photosensitivity over a broad spectral range including the visible and near-IR regions were selected for the studies.

  15. Regioselective functionalization of core-persubstituted perylene diimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wan; Jiang, Wei; Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos L; Wang, Zhaohui

    2014-04-25

    Regioselective functionalization of core per-substituted perylene diimides has been achieved efficiently based on a new versatile building block, named tetrabromotetrachloro-perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (Br4Cl4-PTCDA), which affords a series of novel chromophores with impressive optoelectronic properties. Direct palladium-catalyzed fourfold intramolecular ring fusion affords successfully unique propeller-shaped biscarbazole[2,3-b]carbazole diimides with six annulated rings. PMID:24687914

  16. Wettability alteration in carbonates : the effect of water-soluble acids in crude oil and application of enzyme for wettability alteration

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the project is defined in two phases. The first phase is to study the effect of oil composition and carboxylic acids in the crude oil on the wetting condition and wettability alteration process using “Smart Water”. It has been reported that the major types of acidic compounds in crude oil were identified as carboxylic acids, phenols, carbazoles, and amides. The phenols and carboxylic acids comprise the major portion of the acidic species. The water soluble comp...

  17. Dibenzofuran degradation by Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 under environmental stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado E.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingomonas wittichii is a gram-negative Alpha-proteobacterium, capable of degrading xenobiotic compounds such as dibenzofuran (DBF), dibenzo-p-dioxin, carbazole, 2-hydroxybiphenyl or nitro diphenyl ether herbicides. The metabolism of strain RW1 has been the subject of previous studies and a number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been characterized. It is known that RW1 posseses a unique initial DBF dioxygenase (encoded by the dxnAl gene) that catalyzes the first step in the degrad...

  18. Wavelength Dependence of a Two-Beam Coupling Measurement on a Fully Functional Photorefractive Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; Geon Joon Lee; 刘慧; 龚旗煌; Jiwon Sohn; Jaehoon Hwang; Soo Young Park; Jin-Kyung Lee; Jai-Hyung Lee; Joon-Sung Chang

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the photorefractive properties of a fully functional polymer, 9-(2-Ethyl-hexyl)-3-[2-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)vinyl]-9H-carbazole, using a multiline He-Ne laser. We measured the wavelength-dependent two-beam coupling coefficient, which exhibited a maximal value of 105 cm- 1 at 609 nm under an applied electric field of 84 V/μm at room temperature.

  19. High-resolution mapping of plasmid transcriptomes in different host bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintani Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are extrachromosomal elements that replicate autonomously, and many can be transmitted between bacterial cells through conjugation. Although the transcription pattern of genes on a plasmid can be altered by a change in host background, the expression range of plasmid genes that will result in phenotypic variation has not been quantitatively investigated. Results Using a microarray with evenly tiled probes at a density of 9 bp, we mapped and quantified the transcripts of the carbazole catabolic plasmid pCAR1 in its original host Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 and the transconjugant P. putida KT2440(pCAR1 during growth on either carbazole or succinate as the sole carbon source. We identified the operons in pCAR1, which consisted of nearly identical transcription units despite the difference in host background during growth on the same carbon source. In accordance with previous studies, the catabolic operons for carbazole degradation were upregulated during growth on carbazole in both hosts. However, our tiling array results also showed that several operons flanking the transfer gene cluster were transcribed at significantly higher levels in the transconjugant than in the original host. The number of transcripts and the positions of the transcription start sites agreed with our quantitative RT-PCR and primer extension results. Conclusion Our tiling array results indicate that the levels of transcription for the operons on a plasmid can vary by host background. High-resolution mapping using an unbiased tiling array is a valuable tool for the simultaneous identification and quantification of prokaryotic transcriptomes including polycistronic operons and non-coding RNAs.

  20. Dark decay of holograms in photorefractive polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Bittner, Reinhard; Meerholz, Klaus; Steckman, Gregory; Psaltis, Demetri

    2002-01-01

    The decay of holograms stored in photorefractive polymer composites based on poly(N-vinyl-carbazole) with and without extrinsic deep traps is investigated. The photorefractive phase shift is identified as one of the key parameters determining the dark decay dynamics. This has important implications for all kinds of photorefractive imaging applications including holographic data storage. A trade off will be required between accepting a certain degree of hologram distortion due to two-beam coup...

  1. Density functional theory study of new azo dyes with different π-spacers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Novir, Samaneh; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid

    2015-05-01

    Some of new azo-based metal-free dyes with different π-conjugation spacers, such as carbazole, fluorene, pyrrole, thiophene, furan and thiazole, have been investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. Theoretical calculations allow us to quantify factors such as light harvesting efficiency (LHE), electron injection driving force (ΔGinject) and the weight of the LUMO orbital on the carboxylic group (QLUMO) related to the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), and to evaluate both charge recombination between the semiconductor conduction band electrons and the oxidized dyes and/or electrolyte, and also the shift of the conduction band of the semiconductor as a result of the adsorption of the dyes onto the semiconductor surface, associated with the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc). According to the results, we could predict that how the π-conjugation spacers influence the Jsc as well as the Voc of DSSCs. Among these dyes, the carbazole and fluorene-based dyes (dyes 1 and 2) show the highest LHE, ΔGinject, QLUMO, and the slowest recombination rate. Consequently, the obtained results show that the carbazole and fluorene-based dyes could have the better Jsc and Voc compared to the other dyes.

  2. Bioactive constituents of Clausena lansium and a method for discrimination of aldose enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, De-Yang; Chao, Chih-Hua; Chan, Hsiu-Hui; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lai, Chin-Yu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Thang, Tran Dinh; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2012-10-01

    Glycosides, clausenosides A and B, and carbazole alkaloids, clausenaline A, claulamine A, and claulamine B, together with 50 known compounds, were isolated from the stems of Clausena lansium. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic methods, including that of CD and 1D/2D NMR analysis. Claulamine A has a 1-oxygenated carbazole skeleton with a rare 2,3-lactone ring, and claulamine B represents an hitherto unknown acetal carbazole alkaloid. Thirty-one of the isolated known compounds were evaluated in various assays for anti-inflammatory activity. Among them, imperatorin, isoheraclenin, and osthol exhibited selective and potent inhibition of formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB)-induced superoxide anion generation, and lansiumarin C also decreased nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. In addition, a modified HPLC method of pre-column derivatization was developed that is more practical for simultaneous analysis of aldose enantiomers as compared to the literature method. The absolute configurations of the sugar moieties in clausenosides A and B were determined with this modified method. PMID:22818357

  3. Copolymères (carbazolylène-pyrrolylène) : synthèse par oxydation chimique et propriétés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucard, V.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    1998-06-01

    Conditions in which (carbazolylene-pyrrolylene) random copolymers could be synthetized directly by chemical oxidation by FeCl3 were studied. A substantial amount of soluble copolymers is obtained after work-up in the conditions corresponding to carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 molar proportions. An important fraction of polypyrrole was obtained beside a fraction of species soluble in ethanol (carbazole and dimer) and an other fraction of products soluble in water (pyrrole accompanied by the first terms of the oligomeric series). Soluble copolymers were characterized by means of SEC, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Cyclic voltammetry analysis disclosed that these copolymers exhibit both the carbazolic and the pyrrolic features. Les conditions dans lesquelles des copolymères statistiques (carbazo lylène-pyrrolylène) pouvaient être synthétisés directement par oxydation chimique par FeCl3 ont été étudiées. Des quantités substantielles de copolymères solubles en milieu organique sont obtenues par extraction lorsque les proportions molaires en réactifs carbazole/pyrrole/2 FeCl3 sont utilisées. Une fraction importante de polypyrrole est obtenue à côté d'une fraction d'espèces solubles dans l'éthanol (carbazole et son dimère) et d'une fraction de produits solubles dans l'eau (pyrrole et les premiers termes oligomères). Les copolymères solubles ont été caractérisés par CES, spectroscopies RMN et UV-Visible. L'analyse voltampérométrique de ces matériaux révèle qu'ils possèdent à la fois les caractéristiques des entités carbazolylènes et celles des entités pyrrolylènes.

  4. Harnessing Fluorine-Sulfur Contacts and Multipolar Interactions for the Design of p53 Mutant Y220C Rescue Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias R; Jones, Rhiannon N; Baud, Matthias G J; Wilcken, Rainer; Boeckler, Frank M; Fersht, Alan R; Joerger, Andreas C; Spencer, John

    2016-08-19

    Many oncogenic mutants of the tumor suppressor p53 are conformationally unstable, including the frequently occurring Y220C mutant. We have previously developed several small-molecule stabilizers of this mutant. One of these molecules, PhiKan083, 1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine, binds to a mutation-induced surface crevice with a KD = 150 μM, thereby increasing the melting temperature of the protein and slowing its rate of aggregation. Incorporation of fluorine atoms into small molecule ligands can substantially improve binding affinity to their protein targets. We have, therefore, harnessed fluorine-protein interactions to improve the affinity of this ligand. Step-wise introduction of fluorines at the carbazole ethyl anchor, which is deeply buried within the binding site in the Y220C-PhiKan083 complex, led to a 5-fold increase in affinity for a 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl anchor (ligand efficiency of 0.3 kcal mol(-1) atom(-1)). High-resolution crystal structures of the Y220C-ligand complexes combined with quantum chemical calculations revealed favorable interactions of the fluorines with protein backbone carbonyl groups (Leu145 and Trp146) and the sulfur of Cys220 at the mutation site. Affinity gains were, however, only achieved upon trifluorination, despite favorable interactions of the mono- and difluorinated anchors with the binding pocket, indicating a trade-off between energetically favorable protein-fluorine interactions and increased desolvation penalties. Taken together, the optimized carbazole scaffold provides a promising starting point for the development of high-affinity ligands to reactivate the tumor suppressor function of the p53 mutant Y220C in cancer cells. PMID:27267810

  5. Total alkyl dibenzothiophenes content tracing the filling pathway of condensate reservoir in the Fushan Depression,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The condensates are generally characterized by high maturity,low concentration of steranes and ter-panes biomarkers and low content of non-hydrocarbon fraction. In this case commonly used steranes,terpanes and carbazoles parameters cannot be effectively applied in the reservoir-filling tracing. The hydrogen bond formed by sulfur atom in the dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) results in molecule adsorption and fractionation during oil migration in reservoir. Like carbazoles,total DBTs content decreases with the increasing of oil migration distance. Therefore,a new parameter——total DBTs content is proposed to be used to trace the oil migration orientation and filling pathway. In present study,total DBTs con-tents of condensates and light oils are obtained by adding internal standard——eight deuterium atoms substituted DBT during Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of aromatic fraction. Except for a few samples with much lower content of non-hydrocarbon fraction,the total DBTs content shows a fine positive correlation with that of carbazoles. Large errors can be caused in the process of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds separation. The application of this new parameter in the Fushan Depression of Beibu Gulf Basin,South China Sea indicates that this parameter is a reliable one to trace filling pathway in condensate reservoirs. Combined with other DBTs-related parameters,such as 4-/1-methydibenzo-thiophene and 2,4-/1,4-dimethyldibenzothiophene,oil migration orientation and filling pathway of the Fushan Depression was determined. The accumulations of Huachang oil field in the Fushan Depres-sion are mainly migrated and charged from northeast to southeast along the Huachang uplift. It can be predicated that the light oil and condensates in the Huachang oil field should be sourced from the source kitchen at the Bailian Sag. It shows that total DBTs content is an effective parameter to tracing oil migration orientation and filling pathway.

  6. Synthesis and electrophysical properties of carbazolite contained polymer complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the carbozolite based polymer complexes of the N-methyl carbazole (PMCC), N-vinyl carbazole (PVCC) and N-(2, 3-epoxipropyl) carbazole (PEPCC) with iodine were synthesised and electrical conductivity and density resistive effect were investigated. Synthesis of the polymeric complexes PMCC, PEPCC with iodine was prepared in solid phase in the inert gas-helium by heating appropriate monomers at temperature 323-623-623 K and different mode ratio monomer: iodine. In the result the charge transfer complexes where the polymer is donor and iodine is acceptor were synthesised. The content of iodine in polymers was (36-48) wt.%. The AC conductivity of polymer complexes at 300 K was equal to (0.8-15)10/sup -6/ sigma/sup -1/m/sup -1/ form temperature dependence of conductivity the activation energies were determined (E = 0.12-0.26 eV). The compensative effect showed a linear increase of activation energy on logarithm of the pre-exponential factor (sigma). It means that the mechanism of electrical conductivity in polymeric complexes in identical and the increase of the activation energy of electrical conductivity leads to appropriate rise of the temperature independent (non activated) factor of conductivity. Tensity resistive effect in these complexes was also investigated. The dependence of electrical resistance on mechanical stress under compression were quasi linear. It has been seen that this effect is very high in comparison to ordinary semiconductors (for example, Si piezerosistive coefficients are (0.8-3.2)10/sup -6/ m/sup -2//newton. It is assumed that resistances between grains in press-tablets are more than from their volume resistances. On the basis of these polymers probably, it is possible to manufacture high sensitive resistance strain gauges. (author)

  7. Highly porous metal-organic framework sustained with 12-connected nanoscopic octahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Makal, Trevor A; Wei, Zhangwen; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2013-02-01

    Two dicopper(II)-paddlewheel-based metal-organic frameworks (PCN-81 and -82) have been synthesized by using tetratopic ligands featuring 90°-carbazole-dicarboxylate moieties. Both adopt 12-connected tfb topology with nanoscopic octahedra as building units. The freeze-dried PCN-82 shows Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir surface areas as high as 4488 and 4859 m(2) g(-1), respectively. It also exhibits high H(2)-adsorption capacity at low pressure (300 cm(3) g(-1) or 2.6 wt% at 77 K and 1 bar), which can be attributed to its high surface area, microporosity, and open metal sites. PMID:23160711

  8. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-yl)methane derivative and its Zn(II) complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehestani Maryam; Zeidabadinejad Leila

    2015-01-01

    Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d) theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-yl)methanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-methyl)phenyl)-9H-carbazole (L) and its zinc(II) complexes: ZnLCl2 (1), ZnLBr2 (2) and ZnLI2 (3). The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and ...

  9. Is organic photovoltaics promising for indoor applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Li, Zhe; Durrant, James R.; Tsoi, Wing C.

    2016-06-01

    This work utilizes organic photovoltaics (OPV) for indoor applications, such as powering small electronic devices or wireless connected Internet of Things. Three representative polymer-based OPV systems, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)], and poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  10. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  11. Visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution using planarized conjugated polymer photocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Sprick, R. S.; Bonillo, B.; Clowes, R.; Guiglion, P.; Brownbill, N. J.; Slater, B. J.; Blanc, F.; Zwijnenburg, M.A.; Adams, D. J.; Cooper, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Linear poly(p‐phenylene)s are modestly active UV photocatalysts for hydrogen production in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor. Introduction of planarized fluorene, carbazole, dibenzo[b,d]thiophene or dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone units greatly enhances the H2 evolution rate. The most active dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co‐polymer has a UV photocatalytic activity that rivals TiO2, but is much more active under visible light. The dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co‐polymer has ...

  12. Charge Formation, Recombination, and Sweep-Out Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Sarah R.; Banerji, Natalie; Leong, Wei Lin; Heeger, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a critical discussion of the various physical processes occurring in organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on recent experimental results. The investigations span from photoexcitation to charge separation, recombination, and sweep-out to the electrodes. Exciton formation and relaxation in poly[N-9?-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) and poly-3(hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are discussed based on a fluorescen...

  13. Polarization holographic gratings in hybrid solgel films doped with Disperse Red 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschellà, Raffaella; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Bersani, Danilo

    2003-11-15

    Polarization holographic gratings in sp configuration are written at 488 nm in photorefractive organic-inorganic films based on SiO2. The films, prepared by a solgel technique, contain Disperse Red 1, carbazole units, and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone. The gratings are characterized by their diffraction efficiency for a 632.8-nm probe. The polarization gratings act as a half-wave plate, and the diffraction efficiency is independent of the polarization direction of the probe. PMID:14649954

  14. 8-THP-DHI analogs as potent Type I dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudkins, Robert L; Zulli, Allison L; Underiner, Ted L; Angeles, Thelma S; Aimone, Lisa D; Meyer, Sheryl L; Pauletti, Daniel; Chang, Hong; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ruggeri, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    A novel series of 8-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-12,13-dihydroindazolo[5,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles (THP-DHI) was synthesized and evaluated as dual TIE-2 and VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Development of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) with the support of X-ray crystallography led to identification of 7f and 7g as potent, selective dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Compounds 7f and 7g were orally active in tumor models with no observed toxicity. PMID:20430619

  15. Formation of charge-transfer-complex in organic:metal oxides systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. P.; Kang, Y.; Liu, T. L.; Jin, Z. H.; Jiang, N.; Lu, Z. H.

    2013-04-01

    It is found that composite systems consisting of 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) form an IR absorption band around 847 nm. It is also found that the vibrational modes of the CBP, as measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, are quenched upon the formation of charge-transfer-complex (CTC) between CBP and MoO3. By examining several sets of organic:metal oxides systems, we discovered that the IR absorption band of the CTCs follow two distinct mechanisms depending on the nature and location of the HOMOs in the organic molecules.

  16. 40 CFR 437.47 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Wastestreams § 437.47 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 or...-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.215 0.101 Carbazole 0.598 0.276 o-Cresol 1.92 0.561 p-Cresol 0.698 0.205 n-Decane 0... 1.92 0.561 p-Cresol 0.698 0.205 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 0.155 0.106 1 mg/L (ppm). (2) The following...

  17. 40 CFR 437.46 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Wastestreams § 437.46 Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES) (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7... Parameters Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.267 0.158 Carbazole 0.392 0.233 o-Cresol 1.92 0.561 p-Cresol 0.698 0....561 p-Cresol 0.698 0.205 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 0.155 0.106 1 mg/L (ppm). (2) The following...

  18. 40 CFR 437.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this....188 0.0887 Carbazole 0.598 0.276 o-Cresol 1.92 0.561 p-Cresol 0.698 0.205 n-Decane 0.948 0.437... Parameters Acetone 30.2 7.97 Acetophenone 0.114 0.0562 2-Butanone 4.81 1.85 o-Cresol 1.92 0.561 p-Cresol...

  19. 1,3-Diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-Based Monomer for Cross-Linked Hole Transporting Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryte Daskeviciene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new cross-linkable monomer containing 1,3-diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-based hole-transporting moieties and four reactive epoxy groups, was prepared by a multistep synthesis route from 1,3-bis(2,2-diphenylethenyl-9H-carbazol-2-ol and its application for the in situ formation of cross-linked hole transporting layers was investigated. A high concentration of flexible aliphatic epoxy chains ensures good solubility and makes this compound an attractive cross-linking agent. The synthesized compounds were characterized by various techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, xerographic time of flight, and electron photoemission in air methods.

  20. Graphene oxide hole transport layers for large area, high efficiency organic solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, CTG; Rhodes, RW; Beliatis, MJ; Jayawardena, KDGI; Rozanski, LJ; Mills, CA; Silva, SRP

    2014-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is becoming increasingly popular for organic electronic applications. We present large active area (0.64 cm^2), solution processable, poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:[6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC70BM) organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells, incorporating GO hole transport layers (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ~5% is the highest reported for OPV using ...

  1. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Design and analysis of optically pumped semiconductor VECSEL with ANECz optical control layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqi Zhou; Dapeng Zhao; Yajuan Li; Qingxin Yang

    2008-01-01

    Through the reversible isomerization of trans-cis-trans under the linear polarization light, the molecules of azo materials have the same tropism which is vertical to the polarization of light. This means that azo materials have photo-induced birefringence which is related to optical power and polarization angle of the light. Based on the photo-induced birefringence of azo materials, we design a new type of optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (OPS-VECSEL) which can control the polarization and frequency of the ejection laser. The functional molecules of azo materials are [3-azo- (4'nitro)]-(9-ethyl)-carbazole (ANECz).

  3. Studies in benzimidazo [2,1-a] isoquinoline chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Donaghy, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Studies in Benzimidazo[2,1-a]isoquinoline Chemistry by Michael John Donaghy B. Sc. (Hons.) Ellipticine, a member of the pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole alkaloid family first isolated in 1959 from the leaves of the plant Ochrosia Elliptica has been shown to possess anti-cancer activity against various tumours. Ellipticine is thought to undergo biological oxidation to give the more active 9-hydroxyellipticine that is subsequently converted to a highly reactive quinone-imine intermediate. The quinone-imi...

  4. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn. Spreng. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Vats

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

  5. Discovery and Biological Characterization of 1-(1H-indol-3-yl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole as an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activator Generated by Photoactivation of Tryptophan by Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Ma, Yuliang; Labitzke, Erin; Tao, Hui; Warren, J. David; Anderson, Jared; Chen, Qiuying; Gross, Steven S.; Rifkind, Arleen B.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is required for AHR dependent transcriptional activation and TCDD toxicity. We previously reported that aqueous tryptophan exposed to sunlight through window glass (aTRP) contains multiple photoproducts, including the well characterized 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), capable of activating the AHR and inducing CYP1A and CYP1A-mediated enzyme activities. We report here the isolation from aTRP...

  6. Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Xu, Bo; Johansson, Malin B; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Boschloo, Gerrit; Sun, Licheng; Johansson, Erik M J; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-07-26

    The hole transporting material (HTM) is an essential component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for efficient extraction and collection of the photoinduced charges. Triphenylamine- and carbazole-based derivatives have extensively been explored as alternative and economical HTMs for PSCs. However, the improvement of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), as well as further investigation of the relationship between the chemical structure of the HTMs and the photovoltaic performance, is imperatively needed. In this respect, a simple carbazole-based HTM X25 was designed on the basis of a reference HTM, triphenylamine-based X2, by simply linking two neighboring phenyl groups in a triphenylamine unit through a carbon-carbon single bond. It was found that a lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was obtained for X25 compared to that of X2. Besides, the carbazole moiety in X25 improved the molecular planarity as well as conductivity property in comparison with the triphenylamine unit in X2. Utilizing the HTM X25 in a solar cell with mixed-ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, a highest reported PCE of 17.4% at 1 sun (18.9% under 0.46 sun) for carbazole-based HTM in PSCs was achieved, in comparison of a PCE of 14.7% for triphenylamine-based HTM X2. From the steady-state photoluminescence and transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements, we conclude that (1) the lowered HOMO level for X25 compared to X2 favored a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) in PSCs; (2) a more uniform formation of X25 capping layer than X2 on the surface of perovskite resulted in more efficient hole transport and charge extraction in the devices. In addition, the long-term stability of PSCs with X25 is significantly enhanced compared to X2 due to its good uniformity of HTM layer and thus complete coverage on the perovskite. The results provide important information to further develop simple and efficient small molecular HTMs applied in solar cells

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Eleventh quarterly report, December 21, 1977-March 20, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, B. C.; Katzer, J. R.; Olson, J. H.; Kwart, H.; Stiles, A. B.

    1978-05-20

    Three high-pressure flow microreactors and two batch autoclave reactors have been used to study the reaction networks and kinetics of (1) catalytic hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene and methyl-substituted dibenzothiophenes, and (2) catalytic hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline, methyl-substituted quinolines, acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridine, and carbazole. The catalysts were commercial, sulfided CoO-MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO-MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and NiO-WO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The results of the experiments are described. (LTN)

  8. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup, Line E; Krogh, Paul Henning; Nielsen, Torben; Kjaer, Christian; Stenersen, Jørgen

    2003-12-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O-substituted analogues of fluorene (carbazole, dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran, respectively), and the quinoline representative acridine. Seedling growth was a far more sensitive endpoint than seed emergence for all substances. Concentrations estimated to give a 20% reduction of seedling fresh weight (EC20-values) ranged from 36 to 290 mgkg(-1) for carbazole, 43 to 93 mgkg(-1) for dibenzofuran, 37 to 110 mgkg(-1) for dibenzothiophene, 140 to 650 mgkg(-1) for fluoranthene, 55 to 380 mgkg(-1) for fluorene, 37 to 300 mgkg(-1) for phenanthrene, and 49 to 1300 mgkg(-1) for pyrene. For acridine, no toxicity was observed within the concentration range tested (1-1000 mgkg(-1)). As illustrated by the EC20-values, there was a rather large difference in sensitivity between the species, and T. pratense was the most sensitive of the species tested. PMID:14505722

  9. Hydrogenation of heteroaromatics by high pressure DTA techniques. 3; Koatsu DTA ho ni yoru hokozoku kagobutsu no suisoka (rutenium tanji shokubai ni yoru kakusuisoka datsu hetero hanno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Ring-opening of heteroaromatics and heteroatom-removal reaction were studied experimentally using the acidic catalyst containing phosphoric acid for improvement of an upgrading method of coal derived oils. In experiment, some Ru-carrying metal oxide catalysts such as RMZ, RML and RMN catalyst, and MNP catalyst containing phosphoric acid were used as specimens. Nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of dibenzothiophene and carbazole were compared with each other. The experimental results are as follows. Both RMN and RMNP catalysts offer a superior selectivity in nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of carbazole. Although both catalysts offer an extremely high nuclear hydrogenation activity at 360{degree}C, these offer the high selectivity of denitrogenation products at 430{degree}C. In comparison of the activities of MN and MNP catalysts with the same Mn2O3:NiO ratio, MNP catalyst offers the higher denitrogenation activity than MN catalyst at 430{degree}C. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  10. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-01

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η = 4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm2, an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm2) compared to diphenylamine based device.

  11. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)₂ comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-15

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η=4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm(2)) compared to diphenylamine based device. PMID:25801442

  12. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donor and acceptor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Kyu; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient exciplex type organic light-emitting diodes were developed using thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters as donors and acceptors of an exciplex. Blue emitting bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)phenyl]sulfone (DMAC-DPS) was a donor and 9,9‧-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (DDCzTrz) and 9,9‧,9″-(5-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)benzene-1,2,3-triyl)tris(9H-carbazole) (TCzTrz) were acceptor materials. The exciplexes of DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz resulted in high photoluminescence quantum yield and high quantum efficiency in the green exciplex organic light-emitting diodes. High quantum efficiencies of 13.4% and 15.3% were obtained in the DMAC-DPS:DDCzTrz and DMAC-DPS:TCzTrz exciplex devices.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of one star-shaped polymer with charged iridium complex as luminescent core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One new three-arm star-shaped polymer was synthesized by the core-first way using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. This polymer contained charged iridium (Ir) complex as the luminescent core and 2-(carbazol-9-yl) ethyl methacrylate as the arm repeat unit. Its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, nuclear magnet resonance (NMR) and photoluminescence (PL). The polymer has a relatively low polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.30 with excellent thermal stability. It also possesses significant redox behavior with a HOMO level of -5.21 eV, which will be of benefit to hole-injection. The PL spectrum of the polymer in film state has a stable peak at 565 nm, however, its PL in dichloromethane solution varied with its concentration. It demonstrated effective energy transfer from the arm unit to the core in the host-guest system. This indicated that when the length of the arm is properly designed, highly luminescent materials can be achieved with emission at 565 nm. - Highlights: → One three-arm star-shaped polymer with Ir complex core was synthesized by ATRP method. → Cationic Ir complex can serve as versatile templates for polymerization initiators. → The polymer shows a pure emission at 565 nm attributed to 3MLCT transition. → The effective energy transfer occurs from the carbazole arm to the Ir complex core.

  14. Crystal structure, photoluminescence and electroluminescence of three bluish green light-emitting iridium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Lei; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Liang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, You-Xuan

    2016-04-25

    Three bis-cyclometalated iridium complexes ((TPP)2Ir(acac), (TPP)2Ir(tpip) and (TPP)2Ir(pic)) with 2-(2-trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine-pyridine (TPP) as the main ligand, 2,4-pentanedionate (acac), tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate (tpip) and picolinate (pic) as the ancillary ligands, respectively, were prepared. Their photoluminescence and electrochemistry properties were investigated in detail, and (TPP)2Ir(tpip) was also examined by X-ray crystallography. These complexes show bluish green emission with a quantum efficiency of 11-14%. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the structure of ITO/TAPC (1,1-bis[4-(di-p-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane, 40 nm)/mCP (1,3-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene, 10 nm)/Ir complex (8 wt%):PPO21 (3-(diphenylphosphoryl)-9-(4-(diphenylphosphoryl)phenyl)-9H-carbazole, 25 nm)/TmPyPB (1,3,5-tri(m-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene, 50 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) were fabricated to evaluate the potential application of these complexes. A (TPP)2Ir(tpip) emitter based device showed the best performance of a maximum current efficiency (ηc) value of 37.61 cd A(-1) and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 13.7% with low efficiency roll-off. PMID:27030006

  15. Quantification of alginate by aggregation induced by calcium ions and fluorescent polycations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hewen; Korendovych, Ivan V; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2016-01-01

    For quantification of polysaccharides, including heparins and alginates, the commonly used carbazole assay involves hydrolysis of the polysaccharide to form a mixture of UV-active dye conjugate products. Here, we describe two efficient detection and quantification methods that make use of the negative charges of the alginate polymer and do not involve degradation of the targeted polysaccharide. The first method utilizes calcium ions to induce formation of hydrogel-like aggregates with alginate polymer; the aggregates can be quantified readily by staining with a crystal violet dye. This method does not require purification of alginate from the culture medium and can measure the large amount of alginate that is produced by a mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture. The second method employs polycations tethering a fluorescent dye to form suspension aggregates with the alginate polyanion. Encasing the fluorescent dye in the aggregates provides an increased scattering intensity with a sensitivity comparable to that of the conventional carbazole assay. Both approaches provide efficient methods for monitoring alginate production by mucoid P. aeruginosa. PMID:26408812

  16. Correlation and migration studies of North Central Sumatra oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, R.J. [Chevron Texaco Energy Research Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States); Heidrick, T.; Mertani, B.; Qivayanti [PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Rumbai (Indonesia); Li, M. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary (China)

    2002-12-01

    The Central Sumatra Basin (CSB) is a profile petroleum-producing basin and its petroleum systems have been extensively studied. The widely occurring Tertiary lacustrine shale, Brown Shale, has long been recognized as the main source rock for tens of billions of barrels of oil in place. The oils produced from different fields display significant variation in source characteristics that have been attributed to variation in source facies. Despite this generalized recognition of the oil source, the links between major oil accumulations and many possible source kitchens throughout the basin have not been established as detailed oil-source correlation, and oil migration routes are not well defined. For continued exploration in the region, detailed genetic grouping and migration routes of the oils were evaluated through geochemical characterization of numerous oils from various fields in the northern part of Central Sumatra. Biomarker and carbon isotopic data indicate that the oils are quite similar geochemically but form several genetic groups on the basis of subtle but persistent differences in source facies. The groupings appear geographically meaningful and show association of the different oil groups with various troughs. Carbazole distributions show consistency in suggesting differences in relative migration distance among the oils within each genetic group. By combining the oil grouping and carbazole distributions with geological data, models of migration directions and pathways for oils in North Central Sumatra have been constructed. (author)

  17. Electroluminescence enhancement in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on different hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fang-hui; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Mai-li; Ma, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the hole transport-type host material of 1,3-bis(carbazol-9-yl)benzene (MCP) combined with the electron transport-type host material of 1,3-bis (triphenylsilyl) benzene (UGH3) with the ratios of 1:0, 8:2 and 6:4, and doping with blue phosphorescent dopant of bis(4,6-difluorophenylpyridinato-N,C2)picolinatoiridium (FIrpic). The device with an optimum concentration proportion of MCP:UGH3 of 8:2 exhibits the maximum current efficiency of 19.18 cd/A at luminance of 35.71 cd/m2 with maintaining Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.1481, 0.2695), which is enhanced by 35.7% compared with that of 1:0 with (0.1498, 0.2738). The improvements are attributed to the effective carrier injection and transport in emitting layer (EML) because of mixed host materials. In addition, electron and exciton are confined in the EML, and 4,4',4″-Tris(carbazol-9-yl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) and Di-[4-(N,N-ditolyl-amino)-phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) have the high lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level and triplet exiton energy.

  18. Acid glycosaminoglycans in plasma. I. Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, C; Juvani, M

    1977-01-01

    Plasma glycosaminoglycans (GAG) were isolated from 10 ml of plasma by a modification of the method of Calatroni et al. (3). DE-52 anion-exchange cellulose was used in the isolation of the fraction operationally defined as free GAG. Chondroitin sulphate and heparin added to plasma were quantitatively recovered in this fraction. After proteolysis with papain the fraction operationally defined as bound GAG was isolated using anion-exchange resin AG 1 X 2. GAG were measured as hexuronate with the m-hydroxydiphenyl method of Blumenkrantz and Asboe-Hansen (7) which was superior to various modifications of the carbazole/borate carbazole procedures. In 15 healthy females and in 15 healthy males the concentrations of the free GAG (mean +/- S.D., expressed as microgram per 10 ml of plasma) were: 12.2 +/- 2.8 and 16.8 +/- 3.8 (P less than 0.001); of the bound GAG 40.4 +/- 7.7, and 40.2 +/- 11.6; and of the total GAG 52.7 +/- 9.0 and 57.0 +/- 10.4, respectively. With the isolation procedures used, plasma GAG were obtained in sufficient quantity for their electrophoretic characterization. Assay of plasma GAG can be performed with satisfactory accuracy and precision within two days by the present method. In clinical chemistry its application to the study of proteoglycan and GAG metabolism in various diseases may prove valuable. PMID:897589

  19. The distribution of dimethylcarbazoles in oils from the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunming; ZHAO Hongjing; GAO Kunshun; YANG Shaokun

    2007-01-01

    C2-carbazole isomers have been investigated in crude oils from the Hui-Liu Structure Ridge (HLSR) in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), South China Sea. The NH shielded isomer, as well as the NH partially shielded isomers, was detected in high abundance and the NH exposed isomers in lower abundance. A small-enrichment trend of 1,8-dimethylcarbazole (DMC) was observed in crude oils along the western part of HLSR (WPHLSR), which may indicate little effect of migration on the C2-carbazole distributions. Two strikingly different distribution patterns of NH partially shielded isomers were observed in the reservoirs along the WPHLSR: one with a preference of 1,3- and 1,6-DMCs and the other with a preference of 1,4- and 1,5-DMCs. All of the oils occurring in the Upper reservoirs have a preference of 1,3- and 1,6-DMCs, whereas those trapped in the Lower reservoirs show a preference of 1,4- and 1,5-DMCs, which may indicate there are two petroleum migration systems in the WPHLSR.

  20. Study on photophysical properties of Eu(III) complexes with aromatic β-diketones – Role of charge transfer states in the energy migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We synthesized a set of aromatic β-diketones and measured the photophysical properties of their europium(III) complexes. According to these photophysical properties, the europium complexes can be divided into two groups: the complexes with or without the freely rotating amino-group (FRAG). On the basis of the experimental results, it can be concluded that in the FRAG complexes, the ligand-centered excitation energy is most probably transferred from a ligand to a coordinated europium via the intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) state. The temperature dependency of the lifetimes of the emissive 5D0 state revealed that in the FRAG complexes, the energy of the emissive 5D0 state is back-transferred to the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) state and in the non-FRAG complexes, to the triplet state of the ligand. The most efficient complex synthesized was the europium complex of carbazole derivative L6 with the quantum yield of 47% and molar absorption coefficient of 70,400 M−1cm−1. -- Highlights: • We synthesized a set of substituted aromatic β-diketones and their Eu(III) complexes. • We measured the photophysical properties of these Eu(III) complexes. • Carbazole derivative of β-diketone forms the brightest Eu(III) complex. • The Jablonski diagrams proposed for the luminescence of these complexes

  1. External Heavy-Atom Effect via Orbital Interactions Revealed by Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingxing; Zhang, Baicheng; Li, Xinyang; Trindle, Carl O; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-07-28

    Enhanced spin-orbit coupling through external heavy-atom effect (EHE) has been routinely used to induce room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) for purely organic molecular materials. Therefore, understanding the nature of EHE, i.e., the specific orbital interactions between the external heavy atom and the luminophore, is of essential importance in molecular design. For organic systems, halogens (e.g., Cl, Br, and I) are the most commonly seen heavy atoms serving to realize the EHE-related RTP. In this report, we conduct an investigation on how heavy-atom perturbers and aromatic luminophores interact on the basis of data obtained from crystallography. We synthesized two classes of molecular systems including N-haloalkyl-substituted carbazoles and quinolinium halides, where the luminescent molecules are considered as "base" or "acid" relative to the heavy-atom perturbers, respectively. We propose that electron donation from a π molecular orbital (MO) of the carbazole to the σ* MO of the C-X bond (π/σ*) and n electron donation to a π* MO of the quinolinium moiety (n/π*) are responsible for the EHE (RTP) in the solid state, respectively. PMID:27319778

  2. Study on photophysical properties of Eu(III) complexes with aromatic β-diketones – Role of charge transfer states in the energy migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: mpvras@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Rosenberg, Jaana; Mäkelä, Joonas [Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    We synthesized a set of aromatic β-diketones and measured the photophysical properties of their europium(III) complexes. According to these photophysical properties, the europium complexes can be divided into two groups: the complexes with or without the freely rotating amino-group (FRAG). On the basis of the experimental results, it can be concluded that in the FRAG complexes, the ligand-centered excitation energy is most probably transferred from a ligand to a coordinated europium via the intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) state. The temperature dependency of the lifetimes of the emissive {sup 5}D{sub 0} state revealed that in the FRAG complexes, the energy of the emissive {sup 5}D{sub 0} state is back-transferred to the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) state and in the non-FRAG complexes, to the triplet state of the ligand. The most efficient complex synthesized was the europium complex of carbazole derivative L{sup 6} with the quantum yield of 47% and molar absorption coefficient of 70,400 M{sup −1}cm{sup −1}. -- Highlights: • We synthesized a set of substituted aromatic β-diketones and their Eu(III) complexes. • We measured the photophysical properties of these Eu(III) complexes. • Carbazole derivative of β-diketone forms the brightest Eu(III) complex. • The Jablonski diagrams proposed for the luminescence of these complexes.

  3. Highly Efficient PCDTBT:PC71 BM Based Photovoltaic Devices without Thermal Annealing Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少鹏; 孔伟光; 刘博雅; 郑文耀; 李保民; 刘贤豪; 傅广生

    2011-01-01

    We propose an effective method to fabricate highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on poly [N-9"-hepta-decanyl-2, 7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4'7'-di-2-thienyl-2'l '3'-b-enzothiadiazole):[6,6]-phenyl Cji-butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT.PC71BM). A power conversion efficiency of as high as 5.6% and a fill factor of 53.7% are achieved from the optimized cells. The influence of surface morphology of the active layer on the performance of the cells is also investigated.%We propose an effective method to fabricate highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on poly[N-9”-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4'7'-di-2-thienyl-2'1 '3'-b-enzothiadiazole):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester(PCDTBT:PC71BM).A power conversion efficiency of as high as 5.6% and a fill factor of 53.7% are achieved from the optimized cells.The influence of surface morphology of the active layer on the performance of the cells is also investigated.

  4. Hyperbranched red light-emitting phosphorescent polymers based on iridium complex as the core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ting; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yong; Li, Yanhu; Tao, Yun [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hou, Qiong [School of Chemistry & Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ying, Lei, E-mail: msleiying@scut.edu.cn [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Wei; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A series of hyperbranched π-conjugated light-emitting polymers containing an iridium complex as the branched core unit and polyfluorene or poly(fluorene-alt-carbazole) as the branched segments were synthesized via a palladium catalyzed Suzuki polymerization. Apparent Förster energy transfer in the photoluminescent spectra as thin films was observed, while no discernible characteristic absorbance and photoluminescence of the iridium complex can be realized in dilute solutions. Copolymers based on poly(fluorene-alt-carbazole) as the branched segments demonstrated enhanced highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels relative to those based on polyfluorene. The electroluminescent spectra of these copolymers exclusively showed the characteristic emission of the iridium complex, with corresponding CIE coordinates of (0.67±0.01, 0.31). All devices exhibited relatively slow roll-off of efficiency, and the best device performance with the maximum luminous efficiency of 5.33 cd A{sup −1} was attained by using PFCzTiqIr3 as the emissive layer. These results indicated that the hyperbranched conjugated architectures can be a promising molecular design strategy for efficient electrophosphorescent light-emitting polymers. - Highlights: • Hyperbranched red light-emitting polymers are synthesized. • Red light-emitting iridium complex is used as the branched core unit. • Hyperbranched polymers based on PFCz exhibit higher luminescence. • The highest luminous efficiency of 5.33 cd A{sup −1} is attained.

  5. Electrochemical Generation of Porphyrin-Porphyrin and Porphyrin-C60 Polymeric Photoactive Organic Heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photoactive organic-organic interfaces were formed by electrochemical synthesis. • Zn(II), free base porphyrin and C60 films were used to form donor-aceptor bilayers. • Photoinduced electron transfer between the interfaces were analyzed by SPV. • The heterojunctions were able to produce photoinduced charge separated states. - Abstract: Photoactive organic-organic interfaces are formed by electrochemical synthesis. The generation of porphyrin/porphyrin and porphyrin/C60 heterojunctions over indium tin oxide electrodes by successive electropolymerization steps is described. Functionalized C60 buckminsterfullerene holding a carbazol residue and porphyrins containing carbazol and phenylamino moieties are able to form electrodeposited layers by cyclic voltammetry. Photoinduced electron transfer between Zn(II), free base porphyrins and C60 films were analyzed by both, light modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy and laser induced transient photovoltage. The results showed that the electrochemical generated polymeric heterojunctions are able to produce photoinduced charge separated states, which could present a potential application in the design and construction of organic optoelectronic devices

  6. WORM memory devices based on conformation change of a PVK derivative with a rigid spacer in side chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonvolatile write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device based on poly((4-vinylbenzyl)-9H-carbazole) (PVCz) was fabricated by a simple and conventional process. The as-fabricated device was found to be at its OFF state and could be programmed irreversibly to the ON state with a low transition voltage of -1.7 V. The device exhibits a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 106, high stability in retention time up to 8 h and number of read cycles up to 108 under a read voltage of -1.0 V in both ON and OFF states. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence emission spectra in different states of PVCz indicate that the electrical bistable phenomenon is caused by the voltage-induced conformation change of the pendant carbazole groups. With high performance, low power consumption and low production cost, the device fabricated with PVCz has a potential application for nonvolatile memory.

  7. Carbazolyldibenzofuran-type high-triplet-energy bipolar host material for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-triplet-energy material, 9′-(4,4′-(phenylphosphoryl)bis(dibenzo[b,d]furan-6,2-diyl)) bis(9H-carbazole) (44DFCzPO), was synthesized as a bipolar host material for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs). 44DFCzPO was synthesized by the selective lithiation of the 4-position of a carbazole-modified dibenzofuran, followed by phosphorylation. 44DFCzPO showed a high triplet energy of 2.91 eV for energy transfer to a blue phosphorescent dopant, and bipolar charge transport properties for balanced hole and electron density in the emitting layer. A high quantum efficiency of 16.7% at a low doping concentration of 3% was obtained using 44DFCzPO as the host in blue PHOLEDs. -- Highlights: • High quantum efficiency and stable film morphology up to 110 °C. • High triplet energy of 2.91 eV for energy transfer to blue dopant. • Carbazolyldibenzofuran type high triplet energy host material

  8. Novel Aryne Chemistry in Organic Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhijian Liu

    2006-12-12

    Arynes are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet and their use as reagents in synthetic organic chemistry has been somewhat limited, due to the harsh conditions needed to generate arynes and the often uncontrolled reactivity exhibited by these species. Recently, o-silylaryl triflates, which can generate the corresponding arynes under very mild reaction conditions, have been found very useful in organic synthesis. This thesis describes several novel and useful methodologies by employing arynes, which generate from o-silylaryl triflates, in organic synthesis. An efficient, reliable method for the N-arylation of amines, sulfonamides and carbamates, and the O-arylation of phenols and carboxylic acids is described in Chapter 1. Amines, sulfonamides, phenols, and carboxylic acids are good nucleophiles, which can react with arynes generated from a-silylaryl triflates to afford the corresponding N- and O-arylated products in very high yields. The regioselectivity of unsymmetrical arynes has also been studied. A lot of useful, functional groups can tolerate our reaction conditions. Carbazoles and dibenzofurans are important heteroaromatic compounds, which have a variety of biological activities. A variety of substituted carbazoles and dibenzofwans are readily prepared in good to excellent yields starting with the corresponding o-iodoanilines or o-iodophenols and o-silylaryl triflates by a treatment with CsF, followed by a Pd-catalyzed cyclization, which overall provides a one-pot, two-step process. By using this methodology, the carbazole alkaloid mukonine has been concisely synthesized in a very good yield. Insertion of an aryne into a {sigma}-bond between a nucleophile and an electrophile (Nu-E) should potentially be a very beneficial process from the standpoint of organic synthesis. A variety of substituted ketones and sulfoxides have been synthesized in

  9. METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO DEVELOP A PATHWAY FOR THE SELECTIVE CLEAVAGE OF CARBON-NITROGEN BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane III

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the project is to develop biochemical pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N bonds in molecules found in petroleum. The initial phase of the project will focus on the isolation or development of an enzyme capable of cleaving the C-N bond in aromatic amides, specifically 2-aminobiphenyl. The objective of the second phase of the research will be to construct a biochemical pathway for the selective removal of nitrogen from carbazole by combining the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11 with the gene(s) encoding an appropriate amidase. The objective of the final phase of the project will be to develop derivative CN bond cleaving enzymes that have broader substrate ranges and to demonstrate the use of such strains to selectively remove nitrogen from petroleum. The project is on schedule and no major difficulties have been encountered. During the first year of the project (October, 2002-September, 2003) enrichment culture experiments have resulted in the isolation of promising cultures that may be capable of cleaving C-N bonds in aromatic amides, several amidase genes have been cloned and are currently undergoing directed evolution to obtain derivatives that can cleave C-N bonds in aromatic amides, and the carA genes from Sphingomonas sp. GTIN11, and Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 were cloned in vectors capable of replicating in Escherichia coli. Future research will address expression of these genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis. Enrichment culture experiments and directed evolution experiments continue to be a main focus of research activity and further work is required to obtain an appropriate amidase that will selectively cleave C-N bonds in aromatic substrates. Once an appropriate amidase gene is obtained it must be combined with genes encoding an enzyme capable of converting carbazole to 2'aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol: specifically carA genes. The carA genes from two sources have been cloned and are ready for construction of C-N bond cleavage

  10. A novel reaction-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for cyanide anion with a large emission shift and high selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaodan; Fei, Xiaoliang; Guo, Jing; Yang, Qingbiao; Li, Yaoxian; Song, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A hybrid carbazole-hemicyanine dye (Cac) has been developed as a novel colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for cyanide detection. Upon treatment with cyanide, Cac displayed a remarkable fluorescence ratiometric response, with the emission wavelength displaying a very large emission shift (214 nm). The detection of cyanide was performed via the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion to the indolium group of the sensor, which resulted in the blocking of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in the sensor, inducing a ratiometric fluorescence change and simultaneously an obvious color change. Furthermore, competitive anions did not showed any significant changes both in color and emission intensity ratio (I381/I595), indicating the high selectivity of the sensor to CN(-). PMID:26653444

  11. Solution-processable phosphorescent to organic light-emitting diodes based on chromophoric amphiphile/silica nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung-He; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Hsu, Chain-Shu

    2009-08-01

    We report the synthesis of a tris-cyclometalated iridium complex which emits sky-blue light and its potential use in phosphorescent light-emitting devices. The hybrid meso-structured nanocomposites by sol-gel co-assembly with tetraethyl ortho-silicate and corresponding molecular interactions within mesopores were also demonstrated. Electroluminescent devices were fabricated using carbazole-based monomers and iridium complex as the active layer, acting as a host/guest system through a co-assembled sol-gel process. Devices based on this nanocomposite showed improved luminescent efficiencies several times higher than that of similar chromophores elaborated in the literature. A triple-layer electroluminescence device with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/ Ir(F2OC11ppy)3:CA-C11:PBD nanocomposite/TPBI/Ca/Al showed a maximum brightness of 1389 cd m-2 at 12 V and a maximum efficiency of 3.29 cd A-1.

  12. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, Absorbance, Fluorescence and Non Linear Optical Properties of Some Donor Acceptor Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khan, Salman A.; Alamry, Kalid A. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, Muhammed S. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-06-15

    Three carbazole chromophores featuring dicyano, cyano, ethyl acetate and dimethyl acetate groups as an acceptor moiety with a {pi}-conjugated spacer and N-methyl dibenzo[b]pyrole as donor were synthesized by Knovenagel condensation and characterized by IR, {sup 1}HNMR, {sup 13}CNMR, UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy, electrochemistry and theoretical B3LYP/6-311G* level whilst NLO properties and spectroscopic quantities were calculated. Calculations showed remarkable trend with HOMO located on the donor moiety and LUMO on the acceptors dicyano methylene, cyano, ethyl acetate methylene and dimethyl acetate methylene. In agreement with the calculations, solvatochromic, behavior intramolecular charge transfer band was observed in the visible region

  14. Thermally evaporated fullerene (C70) to bridge the charge transport in between nanostructured zinc oxide and conjugated copolymer in hybrid solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of incorporating thin fullerene (C70) layer in between nanostructured ZnO and conjugated co-polymer PCDTBT (Poly [[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H–carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thophenediyl-2,1, 3-benzothiadiazole- 4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]) for photovoltaic device performance. The addition of the fullerene layer enhances the electron transfer at the heterojunction from polymer to the metal oxide. The reason for the enhanced performance is investigated and it is observed that the fullerene layer can improve charge transfer process thorough the reduction of the trap induced interfacial recombination. The fullerene introduction is also helping in effective charge transfer (CT) excitons dissociation and transport at the interface. Encouraging improvement of the device performance was observed with the incorporation of C70 in this kind of hybrid solar cells. (papers)

  15. Thermally stable and efficient polymer solar cells based on a novel donor-acceptor copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synooka, O.; Eberhardt, K.-R.; Balko, J.; Thurn-Albrecht, T.; Gobsch, G.; Mitchell, W.; Berny, S.; Carrasco-Orozco, M.; Hoppe, H.

    2016-06-01

    We report high photovoltaic performance of a novel donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymer poly[2,6[4,8-bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)benzo[1,2-b4,5-b‧]dithiophene-co-2,5-thiophene-co-4,7[5,6-bis-octyloxy-benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole]-co-2,5-thiophene] (PBDTTBTZT) in bulk heterojunctions with [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of more than 7% is obtained for optimized charge-extracting electrodes. Upon application of thermal stress via annealing, a superior thermal stability is demonstrated as compared to poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4‧,7‧-di-2-thienyl-2‧,1‧,3‧-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT).

  16. Remarkable improvement in electroluminescence benefited from appropriate electron injection and transporting in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fengjiao; Mo, Bingjie; Liu, Liming; Wang, Honghang; Bin Wei; Xu, Jiwen; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2016-08-01

    Suitable thickness of LiF and 4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline with slightly weakened electron injection and transporting is proposed to match the intractable hole injection capacity in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diode (UV OLED). By using this strategy, the device performance is remarkably improved. With 4,4‧-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) and 3-(4-biphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-1,2,4-triazole (TAZ) as emitters, the UV OLED shows maximum radiance of 5.8 mW/cm2 and external quantum efficiency of 2.1% with emission peak of ~380 nm predominantly from TAZ and noticeable shoulder emission of ~410 nm from CBP. The retarded electron injection and transporting contribute to optimizing hole-electron recombination zone and balance within the emitting layers, which accounts for the improved electroluminescent intensity. The detailed mechanism is further clarified with impedance spectroscopy.

  17. A novel and facile synthesis of 3-(2-benzofuroyl- and 3,6-bis(2-benzofuroylcarbazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Gao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A facile synthesis of hitherto unreported 3-(2-benzofuroylcarbazoles 3a–k, 3,6-bis(2-benzofuroylcarbazoles 5a–k, and naphtho[2,1-b]furoylcarbazoles 3l and 5l is described. The synthesis mainly relies on the ultrasound-assisted Rap–Stoermer reaction of 3-chloroacetyl- (1 or 3,6-dichloroacetyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole (4 with various salicylaldehydes 2a–k as well as 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2l in CH3CN with the presence of PEG-400 as catalyst. The procedure offers easy access to benzofuroylcarbazoles in short reaction times and the products are obtained in moderate to good yields.

  18. Charge Transport in Dendrimer Melt using Multiscale Modeling Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Saientan; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical calculation of the charge carrier mobility in two different dendrimeric melt system (Dendritic phenyl azomethine with Triphenyl amine core and Dendritic Carbazole with Cyclic Phenylazomethine as core), which have recently been reported1 to increase the efficiency of Dye-Sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by interface modification. Our mobility calculation, which is a combination of molecular dynamics simulation, first principles calculation and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, leads to mobilities that are in quantitative agreement with available experimental data. We also show how the mobility depends on the dendrimer generation. Furthermore, we examine the variation of mobility with external electric field and external reorganization energy. Physical mechanisms behind observed electric field and generation dependencies of mobility are also explored.

  19. Visible‐Light‐Driven Hydrogen Evolution Using Planarized Conjugated Polymer Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Reiner Sebastian; Bonillo, Baltasar; Clowes, Rob; Guiglion, Pierre; Brownbill, Nick J.; Slater, Benjamin J.; Blanc, Frédéric; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Linear poly(p‐phenylene)s are modestly active UV photocatalysts for hydrogen production in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor. Introduction of planarized fluorene, carbazole, dibenzo[b,d]thiophene or dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone units greatly enhances the H2 evolution rate. The most active dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co‐polymer has a UV photocatalytic activity that rivals TiO2, but is much more active under visible light. The dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co‐polymer has an apparent quantum yield of 2.3 % at 420 nm, as compared to 0.1 % for platinized commercial pristine carbon nitride. PMID:26696450

  20. Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution Using Planarized Conjugated Polymer Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Reiner Sebastian; Bonillo, Baltasar; Clowes, Rob; Guiglion, Pierre; Brownbill, Nick J; Slater, Benjamin J; Blanc, Frédéric; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-01-26

    Linear poly(p-phenylene)s are modestly active UV photocatalysts for hydrogen production in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor. Introduction of planarized fluorene, carbazole, dibenzo[b,d]thiophene or dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone units greatly enhances the H2 evolution rate. The most active dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co-polymer has a UV photocatalytic activity that rivals TiO2, but is much more active under visible light. The dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co-polymer has an apparent quantum yield of 2.3 % at 420 nm, as compared to 0.1 % for platinized commercial pristine carbon nitride. PMID:26696450

  1. A novel femtosecond-laser formation of CdS nanocrystallites in zirconia matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulin, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.raulin@univ-lille1.fr; Cristini-Robbe, Odile [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (CNRS, UMR 8516), Bat. C-5, Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications (CERLA-FR CNRS 2416) (France); Baldeck, Patrice; Stephan, Olivier [Universite Joseph-Fourier-CNRS, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (CNRS, UMR 5588) (France); Kinowski, Christophe; Turrell, Sylvia [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (CNRS, UMR 8516), Bat. C-5, Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications (CERLA-FR CNRS 2416) (France); Capoen, Bruno; Bouazaoui, Mohamed [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules (CNRS, UMR 8523), Bat. P-5, Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches Lasers et Applications (CERLA-FR CNRS 2416) (France)

    2010-05-15

    A novel method for direct laser writing of two-dimensional cadmium sulfide (CdS) semiconductor nanoparticle microstructures is reported. A two photon or a higher-order multiphoton absorption process, originating from femtosecond laser pulses, was used to decompose CdS precursors dispersed in a zirconia thin film previously dip-coated on a glass substrate. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation as a function of laser power were monitored in situ by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was also performed to characterize the structural changes of the zirconia matrix under irradiation and to verify the formation of CdS nanoparticles. Results show that CdS nanoparticles were formed by two-photon absorption (TPA) with or without the help of an additional carbazole photoinitiator.

  2. Modeling and experimental study of photoinduced anisotropy in hybrid solgel films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschellà, Raffaella; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Razzetti, Carlo; Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier P.

    2007-03-01

    The mechanism of photoinduced anisotropy through photoisomerization has been studied by measuring photoinduced dichroism and birefringence in solgel silica-based glasses containing an azo dye (Disperse Red 1) and a plasticizer (carbazole). The equations commonly adopted to describe the molecular orientation (Sekkat's theory) have been solved numerically and analytically within two different approximations. The results have been applied to photoinduced birefringence measured with expanded beams, and the dominant mechanisms driving the azo-dye molecular orientation in the investigated materials during both illumination and relaxation have been inferred. The experiments of photoinduced dichroism, performed with nonexpanded beams, suggest that the distribution of times describing the kinetics of the anisotropy formation, usually attributed to inhomogeneities in the chromophore environment, may be ascribed instead to the nonuniform profile of the beams.

  3. Nucleation of Gold in the Electric Field on the Surface of Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Barabash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of gold nanoclusters phase formation processes in the matrix of poly-N-vinil-carbazole ( PVCa at co-condensation from the gas phase in local electric field near the surface of the template and on the surface of neutral substrates is investigated. TEM studies have directly observed the golden critical nuclei in the PVCa matrix and determine their size. Experimentally proved that the size of the gold critical nuclei is 1.9 nm, whereas in the non-uniform electric field of the template is reduced it to 1.2 nm. Modelling the influence of polarization component on Au nucleation within the thermodynamic approach to electrically charged and neutral gold nanoclusters showed the possibility of the existence of the measured changes in the critical nucleus size in the field 108-1010 V/m.

  4. Synthesis and photophysics of novel 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum metal dye with hole transfer groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Feng, Liheng; Chen, Zhaobin

    2008-12-01

    A novel luminescent dye metal complex, (CZHQ) 3Al, with 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum and hole-transporting carbazole units was designed and synthesized. The (CZHQ) 3Al optical properties were carefully investigated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra in diluent solution. The results showed that the luminescent quantum yield of (CZHQ) 3Al was 0.62 in DMSO and it emitted red-light with the band gap of 2.89 eV estimated from the onset absorption. In addition, the light-emission of (CZHQ) 3Al can be quenched by electron acceptor (dimethylterephalate), where the process followed the Stern-Volmer equation. However, the fluorescent intensities of (CZHQ) 3Al were slowly increased with the addition of electron donor ( N, N-dimethylaniline). Furthermore, the molecular interactions of (CZHQ) 3Al with fullerene (C 60) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were also respectively investigated, which indicated the metal dye can be used as new fluorescent probe.

  5. Lignin peroxidase oxidation of aromatic compounds in systems containing organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Westlake, D W; Fedorak, P M

    1994-02-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  6. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Shizu, Katsuyuki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  7. Simultaneous SHG and 2PEF imaging using a new type of selective markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meulenaere, E.; van Cleuvenbergen, S.; Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.; Vanderleyden, J.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Clays, K.

    2011-06-01

    In general, second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is used to image highly ordered structures in biological samples, like starch, collagen, myosin and tubulin. In an effort to expand the possible targets for SHG microscopy, a number of new fluorescent probes with high performance in SHG imaging were designed and synthesized. The design is based on an electron-rich carbazole template, functionalized with pyridinium-like acceptors, resulting in cyanine-like dyes. In this paper, we report on the linear and nonlinear optical characterization of one of these dyes and its applicability in microscopy using two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) and SHG to visualize the specificity of the dyes in HeLa cells.

  8. Photoluminescent studies in ions rare earth compounds coordinated by carbazolyc derivative; Estudos fotoluminescentes em compostos de ions terras raras coordenados por um derivado carbazolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Renata Figueredo; Neri, Claudio Roberto; Sousa Filho, Paulo Cesar de; Serra, Osvaldo Antonio, E-mail: osaserra@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP/RP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Kleber Thiago de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    [RE(czb){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] complexes (where RE = Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}; and czb = 4-(9H-carbazole-9-yl)benzoate) have been synthesized and characterized. The Gd{sup 3+} complex was used to determine the triplet state energy of the czb ligand. Photoluminescence measurements of the complexes have been carried out under UV excitation. The Tb{sup 3+} complex exhibited a strong green luminescence indicating an efficient antenna effect, whereas the Eu{sup 3+} complex showed low red luminescence and the Gd{sup 3+} complex a blue-green luminescence from the ligand. The luminescence lifetimes and quantum yields have also been measured for the evaluation of the spectroscopic behavior of the complexes. (author)

  9. Surface Modification of ZnO Layers via Hydrogen Plasma Treatment for Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamakarios, Vasilis; Polydorou, Ermioni; Soultati, Anastasia; Droseros, Nikos; Tsikritzis, Dimitris; Douvas, Antonios M; Palilis, Leonidas; Fakis, Mihalis; Kennou, Stella; Argitis, Panagiotis; Vasilopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-20

    Modifications of the ZnO electron extraction layer with low-pressure H plasma treatment increased the efficiency of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on four different photoactive blends, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC71BM), P3HT:1',1″,4',4″-tetrahydro-di[1,4]methanonaphthaleno-[5,6]ullerene-C60 (P3HT:IC60BA), poly[(9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl)-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:PC71BM (PCDTBT:PC71BM), and (poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-(2-ethylhexy)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  10. Spatial assessment of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in streambed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and seasonal changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil-contaminated sediment from selected oil areas of Ondo State, Nigeria were studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Six PAHs were identified and quantified with phenanthrene and carbazole, recording the highest and the least concentrations during the dry and wet seasons. Mean PAHs content ranged from 0.06 - 4.42 ig/g and 0.09 - 6.0 ig/g during the dry and the wet seasons, respectively. Significant correlations were observed (alpha = 0.05) between the two seasons but without significant mean difference (p 0.05). For anthracene and phenanthrene, the compound toxic units (TU) were >> 1 and far exceeded the available consensus-based guidelines about the expected adverse effects. Results of the study call for further investigations especially with aquatic species due to the transfer of PAHs to humans via food chain. (author)

  11. Synthesis of functionalized poly({alpha}-olefins) via Ziegler-Natta catalysis: Homo- and copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogstad, A.L.; Kesti, M.R.; Coates, G.W.; Waymouth, R.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Poly(methylene-1,3-cyclopentane-{beta}-caprolactone) (P(MCP-{beta}-CL) diblock copolymers are prepared by reacting hydroxy-terminated PMCP with triethylaluminum to produce a macroinitiator which is active for the ring-opening polymerization of {epsilon}-caprolactone (ECL). {sup 1}H NMR analysis of purified P(MCP)-{beta}-CL) shows a 1:1 ratio for the signals at 3.97 ppm due to the methylene at the PMCP-ester linkage and 3.63 due to the methylene at the PCL chain end; this is strong evidence for the formation of a diblock copolymer. In addition, {alpha}-olefins containing silylether, diisopropylamino, diphenylphosphino and carbazole functional groups have been polymerized in the presence of cationic, group 4 metallocene Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The resulting polymines, polyalcohols, polycarbazoles and polyphosphines serve as precursors to novel polyelectrolytes and organometallic polymers.

  12. Triplet-Polaron-Interaction-Induced Upconversion from Triplet to Singlet: a Possible Way to Obtain Highly Efficient OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolda, Ablikim; Peng, Qiming; He, Chuanyou; Zhang, Tian; Ren, Jiajun; Ma, Hongwei; Shuai, Zhigang; Li, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Two D-A-type molecules, 4-N-[4-(9-phenylcarbazole)]-3,5-bis(4-diphenylamine)phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4,4'-(9-(4-(1-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-9H-carbazole-3,6-diyl) bis-(N,N-diphenylaniline), are designed and synthesized. Organic lightemitting diodes based on them exhibit deep-blue emission and the singlet formation ratios are higher than the simple spin-statistics of 25%. A triplet-polaroninteraction-induced upconversion from triplet to singlet through a one-electron transfer mechanism is proposed, and is proven by magnetocurrent measurement and quantum-chemistry computation. PMID:27028509

  13. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%

  14. Surface electronic structure and molecular orientation of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) thin film: ARUPS and NEXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Okudaira, K K; Hasegawa, S; Ishii, H; Azuma, Y; Imamura, M; Shimada, H; Seki, K; Ueno, N

    2001-01-01

    The molecular orientation at the surfaces of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PvCz) thin films was studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The observed take-off angle (theta) dependence of photoelectron intensities from top pi band peaks clearly at larger theta than the calculated one for the three-dimensional isotropic random orientation model. The results indicate that there are more pendant groups with large tilt angles than the three-dimensional isotropic random orientation model, which is in good agreement with the result obtained from NEXAFS spectroscopy. The surface electronic states of PvCz may be rather dominated by sigma(C-H) states at the pendant carbazole group than pi states

  15. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  16. Porous Organic Polymer Films with Tunable Work Functions and Selective Hole and Electron Flows for Energy Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Huang, Ning; Chen, Youchun; Zhang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Shitong; Li, Fenghong; Ma, Yuguang; Jiang, Donglin

    2016-02-24

    Organic optoelectronics are promising technologies for energy conversion. However, the electrode interlayer, a key material between active layers and conducting electrodes that controls the transport of charge carriers in and out of devices, is still a chemical challenge. Herein, we report a class of porous organic polymers with tunable work function as hole- and electron-selective electrode interlayers. The network with organoborane and carbazole units exhibits extremely low work-function-selective electron flow; while upon ionic ligation and electro-oxidation, the network significantly increases the work function and turns into hole conduction. We demonstrate their outstanding functions as anode and cathode interlayers in energy-converting solar cells and light-emitting diodes. PMID:26822287

  17. Multifunctional Composites Obtained by Incorporating Nanocrystals into Decorated PVK Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhu Sun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK was decorated with surfactant group to achieve amphiphilic polymer with luminescent property. The composition and properties of the polymers were systematically investigated using FTIR, EA, TGA, UV-Vis, and PL characterizations. Different CdTe nanocrystals (NCs prepared in aqueous medium were directly transferred to organic phase using the PVK-based polymers. The quantum yield of NCs in the composites had been improved by 50% compared with their parent aqueous solution due to the short distance from carbazole moieties to NCs, which facilitated the Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET between them. Moreover, efficient electron transfer at the interface of NCs and polymers had been confirmed which also indicated the application in photovoltaic cell for such composites.

  18. Development and characterization of PCDTBT:CdSe QDs hybrid solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar cell consisting of low band gap polymer poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10, 30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) as donor and cadmium selenide/zinc sulphide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots (QDs) as an acceptor has been developed. The absorption measurements show that the absorption coefficient increases in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure covering broad absorption spectrum (200nm–700nm). Also, the photoluminescence (PL) of the PCDTBT:QDs film is found to decrease by an order of magnitude showing a significant transfer of electrons to the QDs. With this approach and under broadband white light with an irradiance of 8.19 mW/cm2, we have been able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.1 % with fill factor 0.42 for our typical solar cell

  19. Efficient light-emitting devices based on platinum-complexes-anchored polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2010-08-24

    The synthesis, photophysical, and electrochemical characterization of macromolecules, consisting of an emissive platinum complex and carbazole moieties covalently attached to a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core, is reported. Organic light-emitting devices based on these POSS materials exhibit a peak external quantum efficiency of ca. 8%, which is significantly higher than that of the analogous devices with a physical blend of the platinum complexes and a polymer matrix, and they represent noticeable improvement in the device efficiency of solution-processable phosphorescent excimer devices. Furthermore, the ratio of monomer and excimer/aggregate electroluminescent emission intensity, as well as the device efficiency, increases as the platinum complex moiety presence on the POSS macromolecules decreases. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Narrow bandgap host material for high quantum efficiency yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes doped with iridium(III) bis(4-phenylthieno[3,2-c]pyridine)acetylacetonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@skku.edu

    2015-05-15

    A narrow bandgap host material, 4,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phthalonitrile (2CzPN), was used as a bipolar host material to improve the device performances of yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes(PHOLEDs). The device performances of the yellow PHOLEDs were optimized at a low doping concentration of 1%. A low turn-on voltage of 3.0 V and high quantum efficiency of 19.3% were achieved using the 2CzPN host material and no efficiency roll-off of the device was observed up to 1000 cd/m{sup 2} compared with 25% of reference device. - Highlights: • High quantum efficiency in yellow phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. • Narrow bandgap host material with donor–acceptor structure for low driving voltage. • Low optimum doping concentration of 1% for high quantum efficiency and power efficiency.

  1. Donor–acceptor-structured 1,4-diazatriphenylene derivatives exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence: design and synthesis, photophysical properties and OLED characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new series of luminescent 1,4-diazatriphenylene (ATP) derivatives with various peripheral donor units, including phenoxazine, 9,9-dimethylacridane and 3-(diphenylamino)carbazole, is synthesized and characterized as thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters. The influence of the donor substituents on the electronic and photophysical properties of the materials is investigated by theoretical calculations and experimental spectroscopic measurements. These ATP-based molecules with donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) structures can reduce the singlet–triplet energy gap (0.04–0.26 eV) upon chemical modification of the ATP core, and thus exhibit obvious TADF characteristics in solution and doped thin films. As a demonstration of the potential of these materials, organic light-emitting diodes containing the D–A–D-structured ATP derivatives as emitters are fabricated and tested. External electroluminescence quantum efficiencies above 12% and 8% for green- and sky-blue-emitting devices, respectively, are achieved. (papers)

  2. Synthesis, characterization, antiproliferative and molecular docking study of new half sandwich Ir(III), Rh(III) and Ru(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Saravanan; Paulpandi, Manickam; Friedrich, Holger B; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kalva, Sukesh; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-06-01

    The new carbazole N,N' ligand containing [(η(5)-C5Me5)MCl(L)]PF6, (M=Ir (1) and Rh (2)) and [(η(6)-C6H6)RuCl(L)]PF6 (3) (C5Me5=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, L=9-ethyl-N-(pyridine-2-yl methylene)-9H-carbazole-3-amine) complexes has been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR, melting point analysis, electronic absorption, infrared spectroscopy, HR-Mass spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of the [(η(5)-C5Me5)RhCl(L)]PF6 has been confirmed by single crystal XRD. The anticancer study of the synthesized complexes 1-3 clearly showed a potent inhibitor of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) under in vitro conditions. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the complexes 1-3 were determined at low (5, 6 and 8μM) concentration against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Further cytotoxic, cell cycle and nuclear studies confirmed that the novel half sandwich Ir(III), Rh(III) and Ru(II) complexes could be effective against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover the results indicate that anticancer in vitro activity of complexes 1-3 falls in the order of 1>2>3. A molecular docking study of the complexes 1-3 showed the nature of binding energy, H-bond and hydrophobic interactions with the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) receptor. PMID:26918899

  3. Do assorted approaches aid in estimation of uronic acids? Case studies on Tinospora sinensis polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Nagar, Shipra; Tripathi, Y C

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides containing uronic acids are of immense biological significance. Colorimetric methods using different chromogens have been explored for uronic acid estimation in polysaccharides but these methods counter numerous difficulties, when neutral sugars are present in substantial amount. The uronic acid content of cold water-soluble polysaccharide (CWSP) and hot water-soluble polysaccharide (HWSP) isolated from Tinospora sinensis, widely known for marked therapeutic significance has been studied. The uronic acid was quantitatively estimated by spectrophotometric methods using carbazole, 3-phenylphenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol (DMP) vis-a-vis gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis. Galacturonic acid in CWSP and HWSP was estimated as 1.41% and 1.20% respectively. The findings bring to light, the efficacy of chromogens and also reveal to what extent, they could be relied upon. The results also indicated higher specificity and selectivity of DMP over carbazole and 3-phenylphenol. However, GLC analysis despite time consuming remains the finest method for precise estimation of uronic acids. Further, GLC analysis of alditol acetates indicated the monosugar composition of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-galactose and D-glucose in molar ratio 0.178, 0.259, 0.140, 1.045 and 98.377 in CWSP and L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose and D-glucose in molar ratio 0.608, 0.628, 0.978, 0.227, 0.111 and 97.448 in HWSP respectively. PMID:25034757

  4. Bipolar Alq{sub 3}-based complexes: Effect of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq{sub 3}-center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Jianxin [Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang, Hunan 421002 (China); Lu Mangeng, E-mail: mglu@gic.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Yang Chaolong [Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Tong Bihai [Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Liang Liyan [Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Two bipolar Alq{sub 3}-based complexes, tris{l_brace}5-[(carbazole-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline{r_brace} aluminum (Al(CzHQ){sub 3}) and tris{l_brace}5-[(phenothiazine-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline{r_brace} aluminum (Al(PHQ){sub 3}), involving an Alq{sub 3}-center and three hole-transporting substituents (carbazole or phenothiazine), were prepared and characterized. Effects of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq{sub 3}-center were investigated in detail. It is found that the two complexes have improved hole-transporting performance and appropriate thermal stability (the 5%-weight-loss temperatures T{sub 5%}>260 Degree-Sign C). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that both energy transfer and electron transfer can take place simultaneously in the PL process of these complexes. Both thermodynamics and dynamics of the electron transfer were studied and corresponding parameters were calculated. Energy transfer is favorable for the PL of Alq{sub 3}-center, while electron transfer is unfavorable for the PL of Alq{sub 3}-center. These results will be useful to explore novel OLEDs material with increased efficiency. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of substituent on the properties of Alq{sub 3}-center were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer and electron transfer can transfer from substituent to Alq{sub 3}-center. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamics and dynamics of electron transfer were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanisms of PL and EL of Al(CzHQ){sub 3} were studied and compared with each other.

  5. Spectral, stoichiometric ratio, physicochemical, polarity and photostability studies of newly synthesized chalcone dye in organized media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwani, Hadi M., E-mail: hmarwani@kau.edu.sa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Salman A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-04-15

    The main focus of this study was to investigate spectroscopic properties, stoichiometric ratios, physicochemical parameters, polarity and photostability behaviors of newly synthesized chalcone dye in organized media. The chalcone dye, 1-(2,5-Dimethyl-thiophen-3-yl)-3-(9-etnyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-propenone (DTEP), was prepared by the reaction of carbazole aldehyde with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethythiophene. Data obtained from FT-IR, {sup 1}H-–NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and elemental analysis were consistent with chemical structure of newly prepared DTEP. Increases in fluorescence intensities of DTEP with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were observed. In comparison of fluorescence intensities for DTEP with CTAB, reductions in fluorescence intensities for DTEP with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were noticed under the same experimental and instrumental conditions. Additionally, Benesi–Hildebrand method was applied to determine stoichiometric ratios and association constants of DTEP with CTAB and SDS. Stern–Volmer plot was used in order to further confirm the stoichiometric ratio and association constant of DTEP with SDS. Physicochemical parameters such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, oscillator strength, dipole moment and fluorescence quantum yield of DTEP were also determined. Fluorescence polarity study displayed that DTEP was sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents. Finally, fluorescence steady-state measurements revealed that DTEP has high photostability against photobleaching. -- Highlights: ► Mechanistic understanding of molecular structure of newly synthesized chalcone dye. ► Exploring spectral behaviors and physicochemical parameters of chalcone dye. ► Determination of stoichiometric ratios and association constants of chalcone dye. ► Determination of fluorescence quantum yield in different solvents. ► High photostability against photobleaching of chalcone dye was observed.

  6. Deep-blue phosphorescence from perfluoro carbonyl-substituted iridium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Seul-Ong; Shin, Hyun; Yun, Hui-Jun; Yang, Kiyull; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2013-09-25

    The new deep-blue iridium(III) complexes, (TF)2Ir(pic), (TF)2Ir(fptz), (HF)2Ir(pic), and (HF)2Ir(fptz), consisting of 2',4″-difluororphenyl-3-methylpyridine with trifluoromethyl carbonyl or heptafluoropropyl carbonyl at the 3' position as the main ligand and a picolinate or a trifluoromethylated-triazole as the ancillary ligand, were synthesized and characterized for applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Density function theory (DFT) calculations showed that these iridium complexes had a wide band gap, owing to the introduction of the strong electron withdrawing perfluoro carbonyl group. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations suggested that their lowest triplet excited state was dominated by a HOMO → LUMO transition and that the contribution of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) was higher than 34% for all four complexes, indicating that strong spin-orbit coupling exists in the complexes. The 10 wt % (TF)2Ir(pic) doped 9-(3-(9H-carbazole-9-yl)phenyl)-3-(dibromophenylphosphoryl)-9H-carbazole (mCPPO1) film exhibited the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of 74 ± 3% among the films based on the four complexes. Phosphorescent OLEDs based on (TF)2Ir(pic) and (TF)2Ir(fptz) exhibited maximum external quantum efficiencies of 17.1% and 8.4% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.141, 0.158) and (0.147, 0.116), respectively. These CIE coordinates represent some of the deepest blue emissions ever achieved from phosphorescent OLEDs with considerably high EQEs. PMID:23998654

  7. Mastering tricyclic ring systems for desirable functional cannabinoid activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Ravil R.; Knight, Lindsay; Chen, Shao-Rui; Wager-Miller, Jim; McDaniel, Steven W.; Diaz, Fanny; Barth, Francis; Pan, Hui-Lin; Mackie, Ken; Cavasotto, Claudio N.; Diaz, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in using cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists for the treatment of neuropathic pain and other indications. In continuation of our ongoing program aiming for the development of new small molecule cannabinoid ligands, we have synthesized a novel series of carbazole and γ-carboline derivatives. The affinities of the newly synthesized compounds were determined by a competitive radioligand displacement assay for human CB2 cannabinoid receptor and rat CB1 cannabinoid receptor. Functional activity and selectivity at human CB1 and CB2 receptors were characterized using receptor internalization and [35S]GTP-γ-S assays. The structure-activity relationship and optimization studies of the carbazole series have led to the discovery of a non-selective CB1 and CB2 agonist, compound 4. Our subsequent research efforts to increase CB2 selectivity of this lead compound have led to the discovery of CB2 selective compound 64, which robustly internalized CB2 receptors. Compound 64 had potent inhibitory effects on pain hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Other potent and CB2 receptor–selective compounds, including compounds 63 and 68, and a selective CB1 agonist, compound 74 were also discovered. In addition, we identified the CB2 ligand 35 which failed to promote CB2 receptor internalization and inhibited compound CP55,940-induced CB2 internalization despite a high CB2 receptor affinity. The present study provides novel tricyclic series as a starting point for further investigations of CB2 pharmacology and pain treatment. PMID:24125850

  8. Synthesis, characterization and hydrotreating performance of supported tungsten phosphide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Supported tungsten phosphide catalysts were prepared by temperature-programmed reduction of their precursors (supported phospho-tungstate catalysts) in H2 and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),BET,temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The reduction-phosphiding processes of the precursors were investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and the suitable phosphiding temperatures were defined.The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) activities of the catalysts were tested by using thiophene,pyridine,dibenzothiophene,carbazole and diesel oil as the feed-stock.The TiO2,γ-Al2O3 supports and the Ni,Co promoters could remarkably increase and stabilize active W species on the catalyst surface.A suitable amount of Ni (3%-5%),Co (5%-7%) and V (1%-3%) could increase dispersivity of the W species and the BET surface area of the WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.The WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst possesses much higher thiophene HDS and carbazole HDN activities and the WP/TiO2 catalyst has much higher dibenzothiophene (DBT) HDS and pyridine HDN activities.The Ni,Co and V can obviously promote the HDS activity and inhibit the HDN activity of the WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.The G-Ni5 catalyst possesses a much higher diesel oil HDS activity than the sulphided industrial NiW/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.In general,a support or promoter in the WP/γ-Al2O3 catalyst which can increase the amount and dispersivity of the active W species can promote its HDS and HDN activities.

  9. Highly improved electroluminescence from a series of novel Eu(III) complexes with functional single-coordinate phosphine oxide ligands: tuning the intramolecular energy transfer, morphology, and carrier injection ability of the complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yin, Kun; Huang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The functional single-coordinate phosphine oxide ligands (4-diphenylaminophenyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (TAPO), (4-naphthalen-1-yl-phenylaminophenyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (NaDAPO), and 9-[4-(diphenylphosphinoyl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole (CPPO), as the direct combinations of hole-transporting moieties, and electron-transporting triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) were designed and synthesized (amines or carbazole), together with their Eu(III) complexes [Eu(tapo)(2)(tta)(3)] (1), [Eu(nadapo)(2)(tta)(3)] (2), and [Eu(cppo)(2)(tta)(3)] (3; TTA: 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate). The investigation indicated that by taking advantage of the modification inertia of the phosphine oxide ligands, the direct introduction of the hole-transport groups as chromophore made TAPO, NaDAPO, and CPPO obtain the most compact structure and mezzo S(1) and T(1) energy levels, which improved the intramolecular energy transfer in their Eu(III) complexes. The amorphous phase of 1-3 proved the weak intermolecular interaction, which resulted in extraordinarily low self-quenching of the complexes. The excellent double-carrier transport ability of the ligands was studied with Gaussian calculations, and the bipolar structure of TAPO and CPPO was proved. The great improvement of the double-carrier transport ability of 1-3 was shown by cyclic voltammetry. Their HOMO and LUMO energy levels of around 5.3 and 3.0 eV, respectively, are the best results for Eu(III) complexes reported so far. A single-layer organic light-emitting diode of 2 had the impressive brightness of 59 cd m(-2) which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest reported so far. Both of the four-layer devices based on pure 1 and 2 had a maximum brightness of more than 1000 cd m(-2), turn-on voltages lower than 5 V, maximum external quantum yields of more than 3 % and excellent spectral stability. PMID:17918175

  10. 盐酸昂丹司琼7种微量杂质的鉴定及定量分析%Identification and Determination of Seven Impurities in Ondansetron Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯茹; 孙宇鹏; 王琳; 童元峰; 吴松; 王琰; 蒋晔

    2011-01-01

    .8mL·min-1;进样量:10μL;检测波长:266 nm.HPLC/DAD/MS条件离子源:APCI;扫描模式:正离子.结果 盐酸昂丹司琼及其7种杂质9-甲基-3-(二甲胺基)甲基-1,2,3,9-四氢-4H-咔唑-4-酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,3-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-,A1)、9-甲基-3-(二甲胺基)甲基-1,2,3,9-四氢-4H-咔唑-4-酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,3-[(dimethylamino)methyl)-1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-,A2)、1,2,3,9-四氢-9-甲基-4H-咔唑酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-,A3),1,2,3,9-四氢-4H-咔唑酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-,A4)、1,2,3,9-四氢-9-甲基-3-亚甲咔唑酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3-methylene-,A5),1,2,3,9-四氢-3-(1H-咪唑基-1-甲基)-9-甲基-4H-咔唑酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-3-[(1H-imidazol-l-yl)methyl]-9-methyl-,Z1),1,2,3,9-四氢-3-[(2-甲基-1H一咪唑-1-)-4H-咔唑酮(4H-carbazol-4-one,1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-3-[(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-l-yl)methyl]-,Z2)的线性范围分别为:0.009 7-1.94μg(r=0.9997),0.0104-2.08μg(r=0.9997),0.0098-1.96μg(r=0.9999),0.0095-1.90μg(r=0.9998),0.0105-2.10 μg(r=0.9998),0.0096-1.92μg(r=0.9998),0.0104-2.08μg(r=0.9998),0.0105-2.10μg(r=0.9997);最低检测限分别为0.29,0.31,0.49,0.10,0.10,0.29,0.31,0.16 ng;定量限分别为0.97,1.04,1.47,0.29,0.32,0.96,1.04,0.52 ng.结论 盐酸昂丹司琼及其7种微量杂质分离良好;对其两批制剂及一批原料药进行检测,其中原料药中检出杂质A1,A3,A5含量超过0.11%.该方法简单、准确、可靠、具有较广泛的适用性,可以作为盐酸昂丹司琼及其7种可能的微量杂质的质量控制方法.

  11. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qinhua Huang

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I{sub 2}, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O{sub 2}NC{sub 6}H{sub 4}SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement with the idea that

  12. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten

    2010-05-05

    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main

  13. Preorganized anion traps for exploiting anion-π interactions: an experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Anne; Andrada, Diego M; Dechert, Sebastian; Meyer, Steffen; Mata, Ricardo A; Meyer, Franc

    2013-12-01

    1,3-Bis(pentafluorophenyl-imino)isoindoline (A(F)) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,8-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-9H-carbazole (B(F)) have been designed as preorganized anion receptors that exploit anion-π interactions, and their ability to bind chloride and bromide in various solvents has been evaluated. Both receptors A(F) and B(F) are neutral but provide a central NH hydrogen bond that directs the halide anion into a preorganized clamp of the two electron-deficient appended arenes. Crystal structures of host-guest complexes of A(F) with DMSO, Cl(-), or Br(-) (A(F):DMSO, A(F):Cl(-), and A(2)(F):Br(-)) reveal that in all cases the guest is located in the cleft between the perfluorinated flaps, but NMR spectroscopy shows a more complex situation in solution because of E,Z/Z,Z isomerism of the host. In the case of the more rigid receptor B(F), Job plots evidence 1:1 complex formation with Cl(-) and Br(-), and association constants up to 960 M(-1) have been determined depending on the solvent. Crystal structures of B(F) and B(F):DMSO visualize the distinct preorganization of the host for anion-π interactions. The reference compounds 1,3-bis(2-pyrimidylimino)isoindoline (A(N)) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,8-diphenyl-9H-carbazole (B(H)), which lack the perfluorinated flaps, do not show any indication of anion binding under the same conditions. A detailed computational analysis of the receptors A(F) and B(F) and their host-guest complexes with Cl(-) or Br(-) was carried out to quantify the interactions in play. Local correlation methods were applied, allowing for a decomposition of the ring-anion interactions. The latter were found to contribute significantly to the stabilization of these complexes (about half of the total energy). Compounds A(F) and B(F) represent rare examples of neutral receptors that are well preorganized for exploiting anion-π interactions, and rare examples of receptors for which the individual contributions to the binding energy have been quantified. PMID

  14. A small molecule that targets r(CGG)(exp) and improves defects in fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Matthew D; Liu, Biao; Yang, Wang-Yong; Sellier, Chantal; Tran, Tuan; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Childs-Disney, Jessica L

    2012-10-19

    The development of small molecule chemical probes or therapeutics that target RNA remains a significant challenge despite the great interest in such compounds. The most significant barrier to compound development is defining which chemical and RNA motif spaces interact specifically. Herein, we describe a bioactive small molecule probe that targets expanded r(CGG) repeats, or r(CGG)(exp), that causes Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). The compound was identified by using information on the chemotypes and RNA motifs that interact. Specifically, 9-hydroxy-5,11-dimethyl-2-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)ethyl)-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazol-2-ium binds the 5'CGG/3'GGC motifs in r(CGG)(exp) and disrupts a toxic r(CGG)(exp)-protein complex in vitro. Structure-activity relationship studies determined that the alkylated pyridyl and phenolic side chains are important chemotypes that drive molecular recognition of r(CGG)(exp). Importantly, the compound is efficacious in FXTAS model cellular systems as evidenced by its ability to improve FXTAS-associated pre-mRNA splicing defects and to reduce the size and number of r(CGG)(exp)-containing nuclear foci. This approach may establish a general strategy to identify lead ligands that target RNA while also providing a chemical probe to dissect the varied mechanisms by which r(CGG)(exp) promotes toxicity. PMID:22948243

  15. BMVC test, an improved fluorescence assay for detection of malignant pleural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions is an important issue in the management of malignancy patients. Generally, cytologic examination is a routine diagnostic technique. However, morphological interpretation of cytology is sometimes inconclusive. Here an ancillary method named BMVC test is developed for rapid detection of malignant pleural effusion to improve the diagnostic accuracy at low cost. A simple assay kit is designed to collect living cells from clinical pleural effusion and a fluorescence probe, 3,6-Bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium) carbazole diiodide (BMVC), is used to illuminate malignant cells. The fluorescence intensity is quantitatively analyzed by ImageJ program. This method yields digital numbers for the test results without any grey zone or ambiguities in the current cytology tests due to intra-observer and inter-observer variability. Comparing with results from double-blind cytologic examination, this simple test gives a good discrimination between malignant and benign specimens with sensitivity of 89.4% (42/47) and specificity of 93.3% (56/60) for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion. BMVC test provides accurate results in a short time period, and the digital output could assist cytologic examination to become more objective and clear-cut. This is a convenient ancillary tool for detection of malignant pleural effusions

  16. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  17. Monitoring the contents of six steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in chicken, fish and aquaculture pond water samples using pre-column derivatization and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongliang; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Shucheng; Hu, Na; Geng, Dandan; Chen, Guang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Xianen; Xia, Lian; You, Jinmao

    2016-02-01

    This research established a sensitive and efficient pre-column derivatization HPLC method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the simultaneous determination of six steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, EDCs were firstly labeled by the derivatization reagent 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl) ethyl carbonochloridate (BCEC-Cl) and then extracted by DLLME. The response surface methodology was employed to investigate the key parameters of pre-column derivatization and DLLME. Under the optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the peak area and the concentration of analytes was observed with correlation coefficients of >0.9991. Limits of detection for all EDCs derivatives were achieved within the range of 0.02-0.07 μg L(-1). The proposed method has the advantages of simple operation, low consumption of organic solvent, saving time, low output limit and good selectivity. When applied to several food and water samples analysis, it demonstrated good applicability for the determination of EDCs. PMID:26304325

  18. Simultaneous determination of six triterpenic acids in some Chinese medicinal herbs using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongliang; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Shucheng; Liu, Di; Chen, Guang; Hu, Na; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-03-25

    A novel analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of six triterpenic acids using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) follow by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Six triterpenic acids (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, maslinic acid, betulonic acid and corosolic acid) were extracted by UA-DLLME using chloroform and acetone as the extraction and disperser solvents, respectively. After the extraction and nitrogen flushing, the extracts were rapidly derivatized with 2-(12,13-dihydro-7H-dibenzo[a,g]carbazol-7-yl)ethyl4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The main experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency and derivatization yield were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.95-1.36 ng mL(-1) and 3.17-4.55 ng mL(-1), respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the method has been successfully applied for the analysis of triterpenic acids in six different traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:25569287

  19. Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Barber, L.B., II; Schroeder, M.P.; Becker, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected on March 9 and 10,1987 from one site upstream and three sites downstream of the discharge from a municipal wastewater-treatment plant on Rowlett Creek near Dallas, Texas. To extract and separate organic compounds, purgeand-trap, closed-loop stripping, and pH-adjusted solvent extraction methods were used for water samples; and a Soxhlet-solvent extraction method was used for streambed sediment. These methods were combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify organic compounds in Rowlett Creek. Results from this study confirm the persistence of many organic compounds in water as far as 13.5 kilometers downstream of the wastewater discharge. These include: (1) the volatile organic compounds chloroform, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene; (2) several linear alkylbenzene compounds, octyl phenol, and a tetramethylbutyl phenol isomer that are related to detergent use; (3) 9-phenyl-9H-carbazole, a compound related to coal tars and coal combustion residues; and (4) caffeine. The only compound present in water in concentrations greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water was tetrachloroethene (6.0 micrograms per liter) in a sample collected 13.5 kilometers downstream from the waste water discharge. Compounds identified from the streambed-sediment samples include a xylene isomer at 7.7 kilometers downstream and chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and a xylene isomer at 13.5 kilometers downstream from the wastewater discharge.

  20. Dielectric Function and Electronic Excitations of Functionalized DNA Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hosuk; Lee, Hosun; Lee, Jung Eun; Rha Lee, U.; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2010-06-01

    We measure the dielectric functions of organic-soluble, functionalized DNAs bearing functional moieties in the near-infrared, visible, and ultra-violet spectra by using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Natural double-stranded DNA is dissolved in water and reacted with carbazole-based trimethyl ammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and chalcone-terminated trimethyl ammonium bromide. The functional DNA products are all precipitated and filtered for washing and drying. We successfully prepare functionalized DNAs that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. The thin films are fabricated by using the spin coating technique after preparing solutions in either homogeneous or mixed organic solvents. We measure the ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra of the films. The absorbance spectra show that the optical energy gaps of the functionalized DNAs change little even though the DNAs are connected to the complex molecules by electrostatic interaction. From the measured ellipsometric angles, we estimate the dielectric functions by using parametric optical constant model and layer model analysis. Depending on the nature of the attached complex molecules, the dielectric functions change, new optical structures develop below and above band gaps arising from the side molecules, and the optical energy gaps of the DNAs are altered slightly by weak coupling to the tethered complex molecules.

  1. Microcosm experiments of oil degradation by microbial mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several microcosm experiments were run in parallel to evaluate the efficiency of microbial mats for crude oil degradation as compared with physico-chemical weathering. The oils used in the experiments constituted representative examples of those currently used for commercial purposes. One was aliphatic and of low viscosity (33.4 American Petroleum Institute degrees, o API) and the other was predominantly aromatic, with high sulphur content (ca. 2.7%) and viscosity (16.6o API). After crude oil introduction, the microcosms were kept under cyclic changes in water level to mimic coastal tidal movements. The transformations observed showed that water weathering leads to more effective and rapid elimination of low molecular weight hydrocarbons than microbial mat metabolism, e.g. n-alkanes with chain length shorter than n-pentadecane or n-heptadecane, regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons with chain length lower than C16 or C18 or lower molecular weight naphthalenes. Microbial mats preserved these hydrocarbons from volatilization and water washing. However, hydrocarbons of lower volatility such as the C24-C3 n-alkanes or containing nitrogen atoms, e.g. carbazoles, were eliminated in higher proportion by microbial mats than by water weathering. The strong differences in composition between the two oils used for the experiments were also reflected in significant differences between water weathering and microbial mat biodegradation. Higher oil viscosity seemed to hinder the former but not the later

  2. Solution-processable phosphorescent to organic light-emitting diodes based on chromophoric amphiphile/silica nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chung-He; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Hsu, Chain-Shu, E-mail: cshsu@mail.nctu.edu.t [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-05

    We report the synthesis of a tris-cyclometalated iridium complex which emits sky-blue light and its potential use in phosphorescent light-emitting devices. The hybrid meso-structured nanocomposites by sol-gel co-assembly with tetraethyl ortho-silicate and corresponding molecular interactions within mesopores were also demonstrated. Electroluminescent devices were fabricated using carbazole-based monomers and iridium complex as the active layer, acting as a host/guest system through a co-assembled sol-gel process. Devices based on this nanocomposite showed improved luminescent efficiencies several times higher than that of similar chromophores elaborated in the literature. A triple-layer electroluminescence device with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/ Ir(F2OC11ppy){sub 3}:CA-C11:PBD nanocomposite/TPBI/Ca/Al showed a maximum brightness of 1389 cd m{sup -2} at 12 V and a maximum efficiency of 3.29 cd A{sup -1}.

  3. Chemistry and morphology of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1984-March 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.

    1984-04-01

    In task 1, selective synthesis of gasoline-range components from synthesis gas, rate expressions were developed for four different iron catalysts (promoted and unpromoted). Data for all four catalysts can be correlated by a semi-empirical expression. In task 2 catalyzed low temperature reactions of carbon and water, the catalytic activity for the production of hydrocarbons from graphite and water over KOH plus a co-catalyst was investigated for several first row transition metals. NiO showed the greatest activity. Several samples of /sup 13/CO, /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O adsorbed on graphite and on catalyst-graphite systems after reaction with steam were prepared for NMR investigation. In task 3 chemistry of coal solubilization and liquefaction, rate studies of quinoline reduction to tetrahydroquinoline in the presence of the homogeneous catalysts (phi/sub 3/P)/sub 3/RhCl have provided definitive evidence that benzothiophene, indole, pyrrole, carbazole, thiophene, p-cresol and dibenzothiophene enhance the initial rate of hydrogenation of quinoline by a factor greater than 1.5. P-cresol was found to enhance the initial rate of hydrogenation of quinoline (1.6 to 2 fold) in a model coal liquid with polymer-supported (2% cross-linked) (phi/sub 3/P)/sub 3/ RhCl. 2 references, 6 figures.

  4. Microcosm experiments of oil degradation by microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oteyza, Tirso García; Grimalt, Joan O; Llirós, Marc; Esteve, Isabel

    2006-03-15

    Several microcosm experiments were run in parallel to evaluate the efficiency of microbial mats for crude oil degradation as compared with physico-chemical weathering. The oils used in the experiments constituted representative examples of those currently used for commercial purposes. One was aliphatic and of low viscosity (33.4 American Petroleum Institute degrees, degrees API) and the other was predominantly aromatic, with high sulphur content (ca. 2.7%) and viscosity (16.6 degrees API). After crude oil introduction, the microcosms were kept under cyclic changes in water level to mimic coastal tidal movements. The transformations observed showed that water weathering leads to more effective and rapid elimination of low molecular weight hydrocarbons than microbial mat metabolism, e.g. n-alkanes with chain length shorter than n-pentadecane or n-heptadecane, regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons with chain length lower than C16 or C18 or lower molecular weight naphthalenes. Microbial mats preserved these hydrocarbons from volatilization and water washing. However, hydrocarbons of lower volatility such as the C24-C30 n-alkanes or containing nitrogen atoms, e.g. carbazoles, were eliminated in higher proportion by microbial mats than by water weathering. The strong differences in composition between the two oils used for the experiments were also reflected in significant differences between water weathering and microbial mat biodegradation. Higher oil viscosity seemed to hinder the former but not the later. PMID:15935450

  5. Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on solution-processed small molecular mixed-host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices were developed using 4,4′,4″-tris (N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) blended with 4,4′-bis-(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) as a mixed-host for the emitting layer. The performances of the fabricated devices made with different mixing ratios of host materials were investigated, and were found to depend on the mixing ratios. Under the optimal TCTA:CBP ratio (3:7), the maximum luminous efficiency of the device reached 19.9 cd/A, corresponding to external quantum efficiency of 11.1%. Moreover, this device with the mixed-host structure shows over 50% enhanced efficiency compared with the device using CBP as the single host. These improvements were attributed to the mixed-host structure, which effectively enhanced the hole injection/transport properties and gave a good charge carrier balance. - Highlights: • Solution processed high efficiency red phosphorescent OLEDs. • Small molecule mixed host system exhibits good device performances. • A maximum current efficiency of 19.9 cd/A was obtained in the device. • Mixed-host structure was utilized to obtain better charge carrier balance

  6. Studies of the effect of selected nondonor solvents on coal liquefaction yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R. L.; Rodgers, B. R.; Benjamin, B. M.; Poutsma, M. L.; Douglas, E. C.; McWhirter, D. A.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of this research program was to evaluate the effectiveness of selected nondonor solvents (i.e., solvents that are not generally considered to have hydrogen available for hydrogenolysis reactions) for the solubilization of coals. Principal criteria for selection of candidate solvents were that the compound should be representative of a major chemical class, should be present in reasonable concentration in coal liquid products, and should have the potential to participate in hydrogen redistribution reactions. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, carbazole, phenanthridine, quinoline, 1-naphthol, and diphenyl ether were evaluated to determine their effect on coal liquefaction yields and were compared with phenol and two high-quality process solvents, Wilsonville SRC-I recycle solvent and Lummus ITSL heavy oil solvent. The high conversion efficacy of 1-naphthol may be attributed to its condensation to binaphthol and the consequent availability of hydrogen. The effectiveness of both the nitrogen heterocycles and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds may be due to their polycyclic aromatic nature (i.e., possible hydrogen shuttling or transfer agents) and their physical solvent properties. The relative effectiveness for coal conversion of the Lummus ITSL heavy oil solvent as compared with the Wilsonville SRC-I process solvent may be attributed to the much higher concentration of 3-, 4-, and 5-ring PAH and hydroaromatic constituents in Lummus solvent. The chemistry of coal liquefaction and the development of recycle, hydrogen donor, and nondonor solvents are reviewed. The experimental methodology for tubing-bomb tests is outlined, and experimental problem areas are discussed.

  7. Phosphine oxide derivatives as hosts for blue phosphors: A joint theoretical and experimental study of their electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Salman, Seyhan; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Salomon, Eric; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Kahn, Antoine; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-12

    We report on a joint theoretical and experimental investigation of the electronic structure of a series of bis(diphenylphosphine oxide) derivatives containing a central aromatic core with high triplet energy. Such molecules can serve as host material in the emissive layer of blue electro-phosphorescent organic devices. The aromatic cores considered in the theoretical study consist of biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, dibenzothiophenesulfone or carbazole, linked to the two phosphoryl groups in either para or meta positions. With respect to the isolated core molecules, it is found that addition of the diphenylphosphine oxide moieties has hardly any impact on the core geometry and only slightly reduces the energy of the lowest triplet state (by at most ~0.2 eV). However, the diphenylphosphine oxide functionalities significantly impact the ionization potential and electron affinity values, in a way that is different for para and meta substitutions. Excellent comparison is obtained between the experimental UPS and IPES spectra of the para biphenyl and meta dibenzothiophene and dibenzothiophenesulfone compounds and the simulated spectra. In general, the phosphine oxide derivatives present triplet energies that are calculated to be at least 0.2 eV higher than those of currently widely used blue phosphorescent emitters.

  8. Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)'s for organic-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, T.; Ramkumar, V.; Kannan, P.

    2016-08-01

    The present work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of poly(arylchalcone)'s (PCH I-IV) by reacting acetone with various dialdehydes for the first time at below ambient temperature followed by cyclization with phenylhydrazinehydrochloride to yield luminescent poly(arylpyrazoline)'s (PPY I-IV). The synthesized polymers were characterized by standard techniques such as, GPC, SEM, TGA, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical studies by cyclic voltammetry analyses. The Pyrazoline group hooked with different aryl donors such as benzene, thiophene, carbazole, triphenylamine, thus results a series of blue and green emitting materials. The obtained optical bandgap energy of the polymers (PPY I-IV) were 2.53, 3.41, 3.07, 3.10 eV respectively, suggest that all the polymers belongs to semiconducting category. The solvent effect of polymers was thoroughly studied and explained by Lippert-Mataga equation. The polymers I & IV display large degree of intra-molecular charge transfer in excited state evidenced from solvatochromic shift on the emission spectra. The obtained results demonstrate that they are promising materials for organic electronics applications.

  9. High-efficiency diphenylsulfon derivatives-based organic light-emitting diode exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Geon Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material with diphenyl sulfone (DPS) as an electron acceptor and 3,6-dimethoxycarbazole (DMOC) and 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (TMC) as electron donors were investigated theoretically for a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) emitter. We calculate the energies of the first singlet (S1) and first triplet (T1)-excited states of TADF materials by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state using a dependence on charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT. The calculated {\\Delta}EST values of TMC-DPS (0.094 eV) was smaller than DMOC-DPS (0.386 eV) because of the large dihedral angles between the donor and accepter moieties. We show that TMC-DPS would have a suitable blue OLED emitter, because it has a large dihedral angle that creates a small spatial overlap between the HOMO and the LUMO and, consequently, the small {\\Delta}EST an...

  10. Alkyl chain length-dependent surface reaction of dodecahydro-N-alkylcarbazoles on Pt model catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleichweit, Christoph; Amende, Max; Bauer, Udo; Schernich, Stefan; Höfert, Oliver; Lorenz, Michael P. A.; Zhao, Wei; Bachmann, Philipp; Papp, Christian, E-mail: christian.papp@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Müller, Michael; Koch, Marcus [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wasserscheid, Peter [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Erlangen Catalysis Resource Center, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Libuda, Jörg; Steinrück, Hans-Peter [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Erlangen Catalysis Resource Center, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-05-28

    The concept of liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC) holds the potential for large scale chemical storage of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Herein, we compare the dehydrogenation and decomposition of three alkylated carbazole-based LOHCs, dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H{sub 12}-NEC), dodecahydro-N-propylcarbazole (H{sub 12}-NPC), and dodecahydro-N-butylcarbazole (H{sub 12}-NBC), on Pt(111) and on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Pt nanoparticles. We follow the thermal evolution of these systems quantitatively by in situ high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We show that on Pt(111) the relevant reaction steps are not affected by the different alkyl substituents: for all LOHCs, stepwise dehydrogenation to NEC, NPC, and NBC is followed by cleavage of the C–N bond of the alkyl chain starting at 380–390 K. On Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, we discern dealkylation on defect sites already at 350 K, and on ordered, (111)-like facets at 390 K. The dealkylation process at the defects is most pronounced for NEC and least pronounced for NBC.

  11. Reduced amplified spontaneous emission threshold in organic semiconductor laser structure with relaxed roll-off characteristics under high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reduced the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold in an organic semiconductor laser structure by the introduction of an exciton blocking layer adjacent to the cathode layer. A phenyl-dipyrenylphosphine oxide (POPy2) layer with the function of an electron transport layer and the exciton blocking layer were inserted between an active layer of 4,4-bis[N-(carbazole)styrylbiphenyl] (BSB-Cz) and a metal cathode layer. The electron injection barrier from POPy2 to BSB-Cz is downward, indicating no net energy barrier, and the hole injection barrier from the BSB-Cz layer into the POPy2 layer is also small because of the similarity between the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of the materials. Therefore, the proposed device structure can avoid extra carrier accumulations at the heterointerface, leading to compatibility in terms of both relaxation of the exciton-polaron annihilation and blocking of the energy transfer from the BSB-Cz layer into the cathode layer. -- Highlights: • An exciton blocking layer (EBL) was introduced between an emitting layer (EML) and a cathode. • The carrier injection barriers between EBL and EML was significantly small. • The ASE threshold was reduced by the exciton confinement in EML. • The electrically pumped device showed relaxation of the roll-off by avoiding carrier accumulation

  12. Studies on Tinospora cordifolia monosugars and correlation analysis of uronic acids by spectrophotometric methods and GLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Nagar, Shipra

    2014-01-01

    Cold water-soluble (CWSP) and hot water soluble polysaccharides (HWSP) from Tinospora cordifolia stems were isolated and purified in 2.99% and 1.99% yield respectively. Complete hydrolysis followed by paper chromatography and GLC analysis indicated the presence of L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose and D-glucose in molar ratio of 0.857, 1.106, 0.727, 0.526, 0.708 and 95.763 in CWSP and 0.697, 0.777, 2.048, 0.777, 0.292 and 95.408 in HWSP. The uronic acid content in the polysaccharide has been studied extensively using assorted approaches. It was quantitatively estimated by GLC analysis and spectrophotometric methods using carbazole, m-hydroxydiphenyl and 3,5-dimethylphenol as colorimetric reagents. GLC analyses indicated galacturonic acid content of 3.06% and 5.16% in CWSP and HWSP respectively. Estimation of uronic acid using 3,5-dimethylphenol corroborated the above analysis. The study resulted in composition of constituent monosugars of CWSP and HWSP and co-relation analysis of uronic acid content, leading to an unambiguous structural analysis. PMID:24274509

  13. The effect of methanol treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant performance enhancement was observed for the bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cell of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly[N-9″-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′, 7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′ -benzodithiazole)]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC71BM)/Al when the as-cast active layer was rinsed with methanol before the deposition of the metal electrode. Comparison of independent anode interfacial layers of PEDOT:PSS and MoO3 indicated that the effects of methanol treatment on the improvement of device performance are more pronounced for PEDOT:PSS-based devices. No discernible changes can be observed in film thickness, surface topography and UV–vis absorption profiles of the photoactive layer, indicating the absence of film reconstruction and the improvement of device performance are hence attributed to the modification of the interface between the PEDOT:PSS and the fresh active layer. Further examination of the devices containing a cathode interlayer of poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamino) propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9–dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) also demonstrates the potential modification of the interface between the PEDOT:PSS and the active layer by methanol in addition to the widely observed PFN functionality. (paper)

  14. Understanding polycarbazole-based polymer:CdSe hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report for the first time the fabrication and characterization of organic–inorganic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells made of poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and pyridine-capped CdSe nanorods. By optimizing both CdSe loading and active layer film thickness, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PCDTBT:CdSe hybrid solar cells were able to reach 2%, with PCDTBT:CdSe devices displaying an open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is 35% higher than P3HT:CdSe devices due to the deeper HOMO level of PCDTBT polymer. The performance of PCDTBT:CdSe devices is limited by its morphology and also its lower LUMO energy offset compared to P3HT:CdSe devices. Hence, the performance of PCDTBT:CdSe solar cells could be further improved by modifying the morphology of the films and also by including an interlayer to generate a built-in voltage to encourage exciton dissociation. Our results suggest that PCDTBT could be a viable alternative to P3HT as an electron donor in hybrid BHJ solar cells for high photovoltage application. (paper)

  15. Benzo[b]naphthothiophenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes: molecular tracers for oil migration distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijun; Wang, T.-G.; Shi, Shengbao; Liu, Keyu; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The secondary migration of petroleum is one of the most critical geological processes responsible for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin. Pyrrolic nitrogen compounds such as carbazoles and benzocarbazoles are thought to be practical molecular indicators for estimating relative migration distances of oil. In light oils or condensates, however, considerable analytical errors are usually caused by low concentrations of NSO-compounds. Here we show that polycyclic sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons such as dibenzothiophene, C1∼C3 alkylated dibenzothiophenes and benzo[b]naphthothiophenes, which are present in relatively higher concentrations than the pyrrolic nitrogen compounds, exhibit changes in both absolute and relative concentrations that correlate with migration distances. The polycyclic sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons related parameters — benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]thiophene} (abbreviated as [2,1]BNT/([2,1]BNT+[1,2]BNT) and the concentration of total dibenzothiophenes plus benzo[b]naphthothiophenes — are proposed by this paper to trace the oil migration distances.

  16. Push-Pull Type Porphyrin Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Donor Structure on the Light-Harvesting Ability and Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao

    2015-06-23

    Push-pull type porphyrin-based sensitizers have become promising candidates for high-efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). It is of importance to understand the fundamental structure-physical property-photovoltaic performance relationships by varying the donor and acceptor moieties. In this work, two new porphyrin-based sensitizers, WW-7 and WW-8, were synthesized and compared with the known sensitizer YD20. All the three dyes have the same porphyrin core and acceptor group (ethynylbenzoic acid) but their donor groups vary from the triphenylamine in YD20 to meso-diphenylaminoanthracene in WW-7 to N-phenyl carbazole in WW-8. Co(II/III)-based DSC device characterizations revealed that WW-7 showed enhanced light harvesting ability in comparison to YD20 with improved incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies (IPCEs). As a result, WW-7 displayed much higher short circuit current (Jsc: 13.54 mA cm-2) and open-circuit voltage (Voc: 0.829 V), with a power conversion efficiency (η) as high as 7.7%. Under the same conditions, YD20 cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 6.6% and the dye WW-8 showed even lower efficiency (η = 4.6%). Detailed physical measurements and theoretic calculations were conducted to understand the difference and reveal how three different donor structures affect their molecular orbital profile, light-harvesting ability, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance.

  17. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuk; Gwak, Jungsug; Cho, Munju; Ryu, Min-Jung [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gye Won [Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Konyang University, Nonsan 320-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Mi-Young [Department of Beauty Health Care, Daejeon University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cuong, Nguyen Manh [Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu-Yong, E-mail: gysong@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of {beta}-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  18. Bis and tris indole alkaloids from marine organisms: new leads for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Leena; Talwar, Archna; Chauhan, Prem M S

    2007-01-01

    The marine organisms are a rich source of varied natural products with unique functionality. Marine natural products chemistry has undergone an explosive growth during the past three decades. A variety of natural products of new molecular structures with diverse biological activities have been reported from marine flora and fauna, thus ensuring motivation in the search of newer natural products. The bis and trisindole alkaloids are a class of marine natural products that show unique promise in the development of new drug leads. 3-hydroxy staurosporine 51, an indolo carbazole having powerful antiproliferative activity. Hamacanthin A 1 and B 2, pyrazinone alkaloids have significant antimicrobial activity. Coscinamides 60-62 and Chondriamides 63-65 an indolic enamides which have anti-HIV and cytotoxic activity respectively. Gelluisine A 66 and B 67, trisindole alkaloids have strong anti-serotonin activity and strong affinity with somatostatin and neuropeptide Y receptors in receptor-binding assays. This report reviews the literature on these alkaloids of marine origin and highlights the isolation, structure, latest synthesis and specific biological activities including cytotoxicity, antiviral, antiparasitic, serotonin antagonism and other pharmacological activities of sixty-nine bis and trisindole alkaloids. PMID:17627517

  19. Interface-engineering additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) for low-band gap polymer solar cells consisting of PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ bulk-heterojunction layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Park, Byoungchoo

    2013-01-14

    We herein report on the improved photovoltaic (PV) effects of using a polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer that consists of a low-band gap electron donor polymer of poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (PCDTBT) and an acceptor of [6,6]-phenyl C₇₁ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM₇₀), doped with an interface-engineering surfactant additive of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE). The presence of an interface-engineering additive in the PV layer results in excellent performance; the addition of PTE to a PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ system produces a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0%, which is much higher than that of a reference device without the additive (4.9%). We attribute this improvement to an increased charge carrier lifetime, which is likely to be the result of the presence of PTE molecules oriented at the interfaces between the BHJ PV layer and the anode and cathode, as well as at the interfaces between the phase-separated BHJ domains. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the PTE interface-engineering additive in the PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ PV layer results in a functional composite system that shows considerable promise for use in efficient polymer BHJ PV cells. PMID:23389265

  20. Long-Range Energy Transfer and Singlet-Exciton Migration in Working Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Grayson L.; Nguyen, Carmen; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialization of organic light-emitting devices for flat-panel displays and solid-state lighting makes a deep understanding of device physics more desirable than ever. Developing reliable experimental techniques to measure fundamental physical properties such as exciton diffusion lengths is a vital part of developing device physics. In this paper, we present a study of exciton diffusion and long-range energy transfer in working organic light-emitting devices, and a study of the interplay between these two tangled processes through both experimental probes and simulations. With the inclusion of multiple factors including long-range energy transfer, exciton boundary conditions, and the finite width of the exciton generation zone, we quantify exciton migration based on emission characteristics from rubrene sensing layers placed in working organic light-emitting devices. This comprehensive analysis is found to be essential to accurately measuring exciton diffusion length, and in the present case the measured singlet-exciton diffusion length in the archetype material 4' -bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl is 4.3 ±0.3 nm with a corresponding diffusivity of (2.6 ±0.3 )×10-4 cm2/s .

  1. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase activity by compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Glycosmis stenocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Morgan, Abubaker M A; Tai, Bui Huu; Van, Doan Thi; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to search for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from natural plants, bioassay-guided fractionation of lipophilic n-hexane and chloroform layers of an extract of the aerial parts of Glycosmis stenocarpa led to the isolation of 12 compounds (1-12) including murrayafoline-A (1), isomahanine (2), bisisomahanine (3), saropeptate (4), (24 S)-ergost-4-en-3,6-dione (5), stigmasta-4-en-3,6-dion (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (7), β-sitosterol (8), 24-methylpollinastanol (9), trans-phytol (10), neosarmentol III (11) and (+)-epiloliolide (12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Among them, neosarmentol III (11) was isolated from nature for the first time. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against sEH. Among isolated carbazole-type compounds, isomahanine (2) and bisisomahanine (3) were identified as a potent inhibitor of sEH, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 1.7 and 7.7 ± 1.2 µM, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory action of 2 and 3 represented mixed-type enzyme inhibition. PMID:26444316

  2. Epigenetically Mediated Pathogenic Effects of Phenanthrene on Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthrene (Phe, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, is a major constituent of urban air pollution. There have been conflicting results regarding the role of other AhR ligands 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD and 6-formylindolo [3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ in modifying regulatory T cell populations (Treg or T helper (Th17 differentiation, and the effects of Phe have been understudied. We hypothesized that different chemical entities of PAH induce Treg to become either Th2 or Th17 effector T cells through epigenetic modification of FOXP3. To determine specific effects on T cell populations by phenanthrene, primary human Treg were treated with Phe, TCDD, or FICZ and assessed for function, gene expression, and phenotype. Methylation of CpG sites within the FOXP3 locus reduced FOXP3 expression, leading to impaired Treg function and conversion of Treg into a CD4+CD25lo Th2 phenotype in Phe-treated cells. Conversely, TCDD treatment led to epigenetic modification of IL-17A and conversion of Treg to Th17 T cells. These findings present a mechanism by which exposure to AhR-ligands mediates human T cell responses and begins to elucidate the relationship between environmental exposures, immune modulation, and initiation of human disease.

  3. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author)

  4. Ligand enabling visible wavelength excitation of europium(III) for fluoroimmunoassays in aqueous micellar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valta, Timo; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Hyppänen, Iko; Kankare, Jouko; Takalo, Harri; Soukka, Tero

    2012-09-18

    Fluorescent reporters based on lanthanide ions, such as europium chelates, enable highly sensitive detection in immunoassays and other ligand binding assays. Unfortunately they normally require UV-excitation produced by a xenon flash or nitrogen laser light source. In order to use modern solid state excitation sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), these reporters need to be excited at wavelengths longer than 365 nm, where high-powered ultraviolet LEDs are available. A novel ligand, 9-ethyl-3,6-bis(5',5',5',4',4'-pentafluoro-1',3'-dioxopentyl)carbazole (bdc), was synthesized to efficiently excite europium(III) at wavelengths up to 450 nm in micellar solutions, and its performance was compared to a commercially available DELFIA enhancement solution. The detection limit of Eu(III) with the bdc-ligand using 365 nm excitation was determined to be 63 fM, which is 3 times lower than with the DELFIA solution. The bdc-ligand enabled sensitive detection of europium(III) ions in solution using 365 nm excitation and displayed similar sensitivity and functionality as commercially available DELFIA enhancement solution. Therefore, this novel enhancement solution might be a feasible alternative in producing time-resolved fluorescence under LED-excitation. PMID:22901050

  5. Surfactant-free, low band gap conjugated polymer nanoparticles and polymer:fullerene nanohybrids with potential for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suxiao; Singh, Amita; Walsh, Nichola; Redmond, Gareth

    2016-06-17

    Stable, aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles based on the low band gap polymers poly [2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and poly [N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) were prepared, using a flexible, surfactant-free reprecipitation method, and characterized by a variety of optical techniques. Light scattering measurements indicated average nanoparticle hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 40 nm. The particles presented wide-bandwidth absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectra with high absorption cross-sections on the order of 10(-12) cm(2). Nanoparticle emission spectra were significantly red-shifted, with decreased emission quantum yields and lifetimes, consistent with increased inter-polymer chain interactions in the condensed phase. Single particle photoluminescence studies highlighted the multi-chromophoric nature of the polymer nanoparticles and confirmed their favorable photostabilities. When the nanoparticles were doped with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), the correspondence of photoluminescence emission quenching, quantum yield decreases, emission lifetime shortening, and increased non-radiative rates with increasing PCBM concentration suggested efficient photo-induced donor-to-acceptor charge transfer between the conjugated polymers and the fullerene dopants co-localized in the nanoparticle cores. Taken together, the data suggest that these surfactant-free hybrid nanomaterials may be useful for integration with future nanostructured organic photovoltaics technologies. PMID:27159927

  6. Resistance pressure sensor based on Ag/Cu/sub 2/O-PEPC-NiPc/Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the fabrication and investigation of pressure sensor based on Ag/Cu/sub 2/O-PEPC-NiPc/Al composite. The active layer of the composite was deposited by drop-casting of the blend Cu/sub 2/O-PEPC-NiPc on flexible substrate. The thin film of the blend consist of cuprous oxide (Cu/sub 2/O) micropowder, (5 wt. %), poly-N-epoxypropyl carbazole (PEPC), (2 wt. %) and nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) micropowder, (3 wt. %) in benzol (1 ml). The film thickness of the composite is in the range of 20-30 mu m. It is found that the fabricated sensor is sensitive to pressure and showed good repeatability. The decrease in resistance of the sensor is observed 10 times by increasing the external uniaxial pressure up to 11.7 kNm/sup -2/. The experimentally obtained results are compared with the simulated results and showed reasonable agreement with each other. (author)

  7. Aqueous high-temperature chemistry of carbo- and heterocycles. 29. Reactions of aryl hydrocarbons, aryl N-oxides and aryl carbonyl compounds in supercritical water at 460{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katritzky, A.R.; Ignatchenko, E.S.; Allin, S.M.; Barcock, R.A.; Siskin, M.; Hudson, C.W. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Heterocyclic Compounds, Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    A series of aryl hydrocarbons, aryl N-oxides, and aryl carbonyl compounds were subjected to thermolysis at 460{degree}C in water alone, in 15% aqueous formic acid, in 15% aqueous sodium formate, and, for comparison of purely thermal reactions, in cyclohexane. The runs were carried out initially for 7 min and, in most cases, also for 1 h. The aryl carbonyl substrates underwent mainly carbonyl reduction mainly under reduction conditions, with ring opening only observed in significant amounts for 1,4-naphthoquinone and 3,4-benzocoumarin. The arenes produced mainly reduction products with only low yields of ring-opened products observed. Aryl oximes underwent significant denitrogenation and subsequent reduction with only very little cleavage to simpler aromatic systems. The N-oxides underwent deoxygenation, and in the case of isoquinoline, ring opening of the heterocyclce was prevalent. 2-Aminobiphenyl was denitrogenated and cleaved to simpler systems in cyclohexane, but in the aqueous systems it underwent mainly cyclization to yield carbazole with only low yields of denitrogenated products. 2-Phenylphenol was unreactive under aqueous conditions with only low yields of deoxygenated products observed. 11 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Synthesis of an A-D-A type of molecule used as electron acceptor for improving charge transfer in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Shu-Duo; Shen, Dan; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Mingdao

    2016-08-01

    Electron-accepting molecules play an important role in developing organic solar cells. A new type of A-D-A molecule, 3,6-di([7-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocin-3-yl]thiophen-2-yl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, was synthesized. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels are -3.55 and -5.85 eV, respectively. Therefore, the A-D-A type of compound could be used as electron acceptor for fabricating organic solar cell with a high open circuit voltage. Gibbs free energy (-49.2 kJ/mol) reveals that the process of A-D-A acceptor accepting an electron from poly(3-hexylthiophene) at excited state is spontaneous. The value of entropy (118 J/mol) in the process of an electron transferring from P3HT to the A-D-A acceptor at organic interface suggests that electrons generated from separation of electron-hole pairs at donor/acceptor interface would be delocalized efficiently. Therefore, the A-D-A molecule would be a potential acceptor for efficient organic BHJ solar cells.

  9. Synthesis and properties of glass-forming condensed aromatic amines with reactive functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of new glass-forming condensed aromatic amines containing functional groups was synthesized by stepwise route and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and mass spectrometry. The thermal, optical and photoelectrical properties of the synthesized compounds are reported. The synthesized aromatic amines form glasses with the glass transition temperatures in the range of 73-104 deg. C as characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The ionisation potentials of these compounds range from 5.25 to 5.36 eV as determined by electron photoemission method. The best charge transport properties were shown by di(4-(4-(3,6-di(N,N-diphenylamino) carbazole-9)-phenyloxy-2-hydroxypropylthio) phenyl)sulphide. Room temperature hole-drift mobilities in its 50% solid solutions in bisphenol Z polycarbonate established by the xerographic time-of-flight technique were found to be 2 x 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 at electric field of 6.4 x 105 V cm-1

  10. Using Geochemical Method to Distinguish Lateral Migration and Vertical Migration in Rifted Basin: A Case Study from Eastern Lujiapu Depression in the Kailu Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shuqing; HUANG Haiping; LIU Yuming

    2008-01-01

    Migration fractionation diagnosis is complicated in rifted basins where migration distance is generally short and lateral migration in sandy beds and vertical migration along faults are co-existed. Quantitative data from GC-MS analysis makes it possible to distinguish lateral and vertical migration effects. Oils discovered from the Jiaolige oilfield, eastern Lujiapu Depression are derived from single source rock with similar maturity, which is an ideal case to study the migration fractionation effects. Compositional differences among oils are largely caused by the migration fractionation either laterally in sand beds or vertically along the faults. Subtle maturity differences are assessed by the classic saturated hydrocarbon parameters which have certain influence on nitrogen compounds. In a certain maturity range, the ratios of shield and semi-shield isomers to the exposed isomers of alkylcarbazoles change with maturity in an opposite direction with migration fractionation, which may conceal the migration influence. However, migration and maturation have the same effects on absolute concentrations of aikylated carbazoles and benzocarhazole [a]/([a]+[c]) ratios, which provides an ideal tool for migration direction assessment. Continuous variations among different samples reflect increased migration distance in sandy beds, while abrupt changes may indicate the change of migration conduit systems. Integrated both geochemical interpretation and geological constrains, not only migration direction can be determined, but also the conduit systems through the sandy beds or the. faults can be recognized.

  11. Operational stability enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes with ultrathin Liq interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Daniel Ping-Kuen; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-03-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) under constant current operation suffer from a decrease of luminance accompanied by an increase of driving voltage. We report a way to greatly improve the stability of OLEDs having a green emitter exhibiting thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl) isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN), by introducing ultrathin (1 to 3 nm) interlayers of 8-hydroxyquinolinato lithium (Liq) between hole-blocking layer and its surrounding emissive and electron-transport layers. Under constant current operation starting at a luminescence of 1,000 cd/m2, the time to reach 90% of initial luminance (LT90) increased eight times, resulting in LT90 = 1,380 hours after insertion of the interlayers. Combining this new concept and mixed host system, LT95 was further extended to 1315 hours that is 16 times of reference device. This is the best value reported for TADF-based OLEDs and is comparable to the operational lifetimes of well-established phosphorescence-based OLEDs. Thermally stimulated current measurements showed that the number of deep charge traps was reduced with the insertion of the ultrathin Liq interlayer, indicating that reducing the number of deep traps is important for improving the operational lifetime and that exciton-polaron annihilation may be a source of the device degradation.

  12. Synthesis, structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Hua [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu, Huixia, E-mail: xuhuixiatyut@163.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Li, Jie; Wu, Yuling; Du, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xu, Bingshe, E-mail: xubs@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-07-15

    A kind of blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex, (CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) [CzPhBI = 9-(6-(2-phenyl-1-benzimidazolyl)hexyl)-9-carbazole; tfmptz = 2-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine], was designed and synthesized. The synthesized iridium(III) complex was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 19}F NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction, respectively. Its thermal properties, optical properties and electrochemical properties were also investigated. The host-free organic electroluminescent devices with the configuration of ITO/MoO{sub 3} (3 nm)/NPB (30 nm)/TAPC (15 nm)/(CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) (30 nm)/TBPI (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) had been fabricated. The devices exhibited excellent performance indicating that (CzPhBI){sub 2}Ir(tfmptz) was a promising phosphorescent material. - Highlights: • A blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was synthesized. • The molecular structure, and photophysical properties were investigated. • Electroluminescent performance in host-free devices were discussed. • The maximum current efficiency 8.2 cd A{sup −1} and the maximum brightness 5420 cd m{sup −2} were achieved.

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals in sludges from biological sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzek, D; Janoszka, B; Dobosz, C; Warzecha, L; Bodzek, M

    1997-07-11

    The procedure of the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in the sludges from biological sewage treatment plants has been worked out. The analysis included isolation of organic matter from sludges, separation of the extract into fractions of similar chemical character, qualitative-quantitative analysis of individual PAHs and their nitrogenated and oxygenated derivatives. Liquid-solid chromatography, solid-phase extraction and semipreparative band thin-layer chromatography techniques were used for the separation. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the separated fractions enabled identification of more than 21 PAHs, including hydrocarbons which contained 2-6 aromatic rings as well as their alkyl derivatives, 10 oxygen derivatives, 9 nitroarenes, aminoarenes and over 20 azaarenes and carbazoles. Using the capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection technique the content of 17 dominant PAHs was determined. The content of heavy metals was determined in investigated sludges with the use of atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of the respective metals could be ranked in the order Cd coal mine wastes, taking into consideration the contents of toxic organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:9253190

  14. Probing the absorption and release of nitroaromatic vapours from fluorescent dendrimer films for the detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study into three generations of fluorescent carbazole-based dendrimers that exhibit strong binding with nitroaromatic compounds accompanied by photoluminescence (PL) quenching, making them attractive sensing materials for the detection of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The absorption and release of the (deuterated) TNT analogue, 4-nitrotoluene (pNT), from thin films of the dendrimers were studied with a combination of time-correlated neutron reflectometry and PL spectroscopy. When saturated with pNT the PL of the films was quenched and could only be recovered with a nitrogen gas flow upon heating to 40-80°C. Although the majority of the absorbed pNT was removed by this method the neutron reflectometry showed that the recovered films still contained residual quantities of pNT. However, the proportion of the PL recovered increased strongly with generation with the third generation dendrimer exhibiting full recovery. This result is attributed to a combination of two effects. Firstly, the dendrimer films present a range of binding sites for nitroaromatic molecules, with molecules bound to the higher energy sites remaining after the thermal recovery. Secondly, the exciton diffusion coefficient decreases with dendrimer generation, inhibiting the PL quenching by the bound pNT.

  15. QTAIM investigation of bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethane derivative and its Zn(II complexes (ZnLX2, X=Cl, Br or I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehestani Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological analyses of the electron density using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM have been carried out at the B3PW91/6-31g (d theoretical level, on bis(pyrazol-1-ylmethanes derivatives 9-(4-(di (1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methylphenyl-9H-carbazole (L and its zinc(II complexes: ZnLCl2 (1, ZnLBr2 (2 and ZnLI2 (3. The topological parameters derived from Bader theory were also analyzed; these are characteristics of Zn-bond critical points and also of ring critical points. The calculated structural parameters are the frontier molecular orbital energies highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, hardness (η, softness (S, the absolute electronegativity (χ, the electrophilicity index (ω and the fractions of electrons transferred (ΔN from ZnLX2 complexes to L. The numerous correlations and dependencies between energy terms of the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory approach (SAPT, geometrical, topological and energetic parameters were detected and described.

  16. Alkyl chain length-dependent surface reaction of dodecahydro-N-alkylcarbazoles on Pt model catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHC) holds the potential for large scale chemical storage of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Herein, we compare the dehydrogenation and decomposition of three alkylated carbazole-based LOHCs, dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H12-NEC), dodecahydro-N-propylcarbazole (H12-NPC), and dodecahydro-N-butylcarbazole (H12-NBC), on Pt(111) and on Al2O3-supported Pt nanoparticles. We follow the thermal evolution of these systems quantitatively by in situ high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We show that on Pt(111) the relevant reaction steps are not affected by the different alkyl substituents: for all LOHCs, stepwise dehydrogenation to NEC, NPC, and NBC is followed by cleavage of the C–N bond of the alkyl chain starting at 380–390 K. On Pt/Al2O3, we discern dealkylation on defect sites already at 350 K, and on ordered, (111)-like facets at 390 K. The dealkylation process at the defects is most pronounced for NEC and least pronounced for NBC

  17. Synthesis, structure, photophysical and electroluminescent properties of a blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex, (CzPhBI)2Ir(tfmptz) [CzPhBI = 9-(6-(2-phenyl-1-benzimidazolyl)hexyl)-9-carbazole; tfmptz = 2-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,2,4-triazolyl)pyridine], was designed and synthesized. The synthesized iridium(III) complex was characterized by 1H NMR, 19F NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and X-ray single-crystal diffraction, respectively. Its thermal properties, optical properties and electrochemical properties were also investigated. The host-free organic electroluminescent devices with the configuration of ITO/MoO3 (3 nm)/NPB (30 nm)/TAPC (15 nm)/(CzPhBI)2Ir(tfmptz) (30 nm)/TBPI (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) had been fabricated. The devices exhibited excellent performance indicating that (CzPhBI)2Ir(tfmptz) was a promising phosphorescent material. - Highlights: • A blue-green self-host phosphorescent iridium(III) complex was synthesized. • The molecular structure, and photophysical properties were investigated. • Electroluminescent performance in host-free devices were discussed. • The maximum current efficiency 8.2 cd A−1 and the maximum brightness 5420 cd m−2 were achieved

  18. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L8) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L9)) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L8 show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L3)3L8 while Eu(L7)3L8 (HL3=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL7=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu3+ complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features

  19. Silole-Containing Polymer Nanodot: An Aqueous Low-Potential Electrochemiluminescence Emitter for Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaqiang; Dai, Chunhui; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Cheng, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel D-A conjugated polymer backbone containing silole and 9-octyl-9H-carbazole units was synthesized via Sonogashira reaction. This silole-containing polymer (SCP) was further used to prepare SCP dots with a nanoprecipitation method, which showed an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emission at relatively low potential in aqueous solution. The strong anodic ECL emission could be observed at +0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) with a peak value at +0.78 V in the presence of tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) as a co-reactant, which came from the band gap emission of the excited SCP dots. The ECL emission could be quenched via resonance energy transfer from the excited SCP dots to an acceptor. Thus, a low-potential anodic ECL sensing strategy was proposed for ECL detection of the acceptor-related analytes. Using dopamine as the analyte, whose electro-oxidation product could act as the energy acceptor to quench the ECL emission of SCP dots, the ECL detection method showed a detection limit of 50 nM and high anti-interference ability. This work demonstrates an example of polymer dots as an ECL emitter and its potential application in ECL detection methodology. PMID:26613322

  20. The Use of Nanoclays to Modify the Morphology and Photoluminescence of Electrospun Poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] Blend Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Jesús-Uriel; Falcony, Ciro; Jiménez, Gloria-Lesly; Garzón, Amanda-Stephanie; Mondragón, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    The morphology and photoluminescence properties of electrospun poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) blend fibers, which were loaded with either halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) or an organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) clay, were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. A concentration range of 0-30 wt.% was used for the clays, while the MEH-PPV concentration was fixed at 0.5 wt.%. Both clays, especially the OMMT clay, increased the phase separation of the components in the electrospun PVK/MEH-PPV blend fibers. This was attributed to their selective localization on the polymer phases. The HNTs and OMMT clay also increased energy transfer to the lowest energy states of MEH-PPV generated during electrospinning, and modified the amount of the partially overlapping conformation of carbazole groups (p-PVK) that constrained the aggregation of the PVK chains. These changes resulted in an increased emission from p-PVK, which varied depending on the type and concentration of the clay.

  1. Efficient near-infrared polymer and organic light-emitting diodes based on electrophosphorescence from (tetraphenyltetranaphtho[2,3]porphyrin)platinum(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jonathan R; Farley, Richard T; Graham, Kenneth R; Yang, Yixing; Reynolds, John R; Xue, Jiangeng; Schanze, Kirk S

    2009-02-01

    The new metalloporphyrin Pt(tptnp), where tptnp = tetraphenyltetranaphtho[2,3]porphyrin, has been prepared and subjected to photophysical and electrooptical device studies. In degassed toluene solution at room temperature Pt(tptnp) features efficient phosphorescence emission with lambda(max) 883 nm with a quantum efficiency of 0.22. The complex has been used as the active phosphor in polymer and organic light-emitting diodes. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on a spin-coated emissive layer consisting of a blend of Pt(tptnp) doped in poly(9-vinylcarbazole) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole exhibit near-IR emission with lambda(max) 896 nm, with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.4% and a maximum radiant emittance of 100 muW/cm(2). Organic light-emitting diodes prepared via vapor deposition of all layers and that feature an optimized multilayer hole injection and electron blocking layer heterostructure with an emissive layer consisting of 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) doped with Pt(tptnp) exhibit a maximum EQE of 3.8% and a maximum radiant emittance of 1.8 mW/cm(2). The polymer and organic light-emitting diodes characterized in this study exhibit record high efficiency for devices that emit in the near-IR at lambda >800 nm. PMID:20353214

  2. Murrayafoline A attenuates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by promoting the degradation of intracellular β-catenin proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular lesions in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and subsequent up-regulation of β-catenin response transcription (CRT) occur frequently during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that suppress CRT, we screened natural compounds in a cell-based assay for detection of TOPFalsh reporter activity. Murrayafoline A, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis stenocarpa, antagonized CRT that was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM) or LiCl, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and promoted the degradation of intracellular β-catenin without altering its N-terminal phosphorylation at the Ser33/37 residues, marking it for proteasomal degradation, or the expression of Siah-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Murrayafoline A repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is known β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes and thus inhibited the proliferation of various colon cancer cells. These findings indicate that murrayafoline A may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer.

  3. Synthesis, photophysical and electroluminescence properties of anthracene-based green-emitting conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthracene-based conjugated polymers, which include carbazole and fluorene groups as host materials, are synthesized via Suzuki coupling reaction. Monomer feed ratios are varied in order to determine the effect of anthracene concentration on polymer properties. It is found that anthracene content plays a crucial role both in photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of the polymers. All polymers exhibit efficient energy transfer from host groups to anthracene moieties in solid state. Excimer emission is observed for all polymers in devices, leading to green emission around 530–545 nm. The device structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Polymer/Alq3/LiF/Al based on a polymer with 5% anthracene-containing monomer produces a luminance efficiency of 1.9 cd/A. -- Highlights: • Anthracene containing conjugated polymers with host groups are synthesized. • Emission characteristics depend on the extent of energy transfer. • Polymers exhibit excimer emission, leading to green-emitting devices. • Polymer with 5% anthracene produces a luminance efficiency of 1.9 cd/A

  4. Four new two-photon polymerization initiators with varying donor and conjugated bridge: Synthesis and two-photon activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fuying; Liu, Zhaodi; Zhang, Mingliang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Shengyi; Wu, Jieying; Zhou, Hongping; Tian, YuPeng

    2014-01-01

    A specific series of dumbbell-shaped bis-carbazoles or bis-phenothiazines dyes (1, 2, 3 and 4) constructed with styrene or biphenylethyne as the π-bridge have been synthesized and characterized. Detailed spectral properties including linear absorption, one and two-photon fluorescence properties were investigated. The results show that extending conjugated chain and introducing donors have substantial effect on their photophysical properties. Among them, two-photon absorption cross sections (σ) of the four dyes in DMF determined by the Z-scan technique are successively increased from 1 to 4 with enhancing electron-donating ability and extending conjugated chain, but electron-donating ability has larger contribution to the σ values than extending conjugated chain based on the comparison of small molecules (D-π-D). Two-photon initiation polymerization (TPIP) microfabrication experiments have been carried out using compound 4 as an initiator under irradiation of 200 fs, 76 MHz femtosecond laser at 760 nm. The results confirm that the four dyes can be effectively used as organic two-photon photopolymerization initiators.

  5. SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALGINATE FROM AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM USING DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES UNDER VARIOUS STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Pandurangan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alginates form an important family of biopolymers. These are linear polysaccharides composed of variable amounts of (1–4-β-D-mannuronic acid and its epimer, α-L-guluronic acid. Currently, commercial alginates are extracted from marine brown algae. Considering the merits of bacterial alginates, optimal fermentation conditions aiming at the maximization of alginate using bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum from different substrates were examined. Whey, molasses, ammonium nitrate, starch, yeast extract, butanol, mannitol, and glucose have been used. The alginate obtained from whey (45.15%, ammonium nitrate (46.02% and butanol (47.3% varied. Among the physical stress conditions, the production of alginate was maximum at heat shock 50 0C for 30min (42.96% followed by 41.29% on UV radiation for 10 min. At pH 7 and 8 the alginate produced was 44.63% and 46.64% respectively. Carbazole reagent was used to recognize alginate; it was lyophilized and quantitated by gas chromatography.

  6. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

  7. Electron Transfer to Vinylaromatic Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatic polymers accept electrons from alkali metals to form polyradicalanions. These undergo chain scission as a result of electronic interaction between aromatic rings. Spectrophotometric and chemical evidence led to the conclusion that during the chain-breaking process polymeric fragments were formed which had the properties of ''living polymers'', i.e. the characteristic visible spectra and the capability of initiating the polymerization of a number of vinyl monomers. It was possible to follow the rate of chain scission in the case of poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and poly(α-vinyl naphthalene) by means of viscosity and spectrophotometric measurements. The postulated mechanism was found to be consistent with the slow decrease in free spin concentration measured by means of the electron spin resonance technique. Chain scission in polyacenaphthalene takes place at a much faster rate than in poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) and this fact is in good agreement with simple LCAO MO calculations. Preliminary experiments indicate that electron transfer to poly-N-vinyl carbazole produces little if any degradation. These investigations led to the examination of the temperature effect on the electron-transfer reaction from sodium to some substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. The details of this effect are discussed. (author)

  8. Very large photoconduction enhancement upon self-assembly of a new triindole derivative in solution-processed films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego-Gomez, Francisco; Villalvilla, Jose M.; Quintana, Jose A.; Diaz-Garcia, Maria A. [Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante and Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Garcia-Frutos, Eva M.; Gutierrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, Angeles; Gomez-Lor, Berta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-22

    A new carbazole-related small molecule exhibiting self-assembly into ordered nanostructures in solution-processed cast films has been synthesized and its charge-photogeneration and -transport properties have been investigated. Large photoconductivity was measured in the amorphous state while an enormous improvement in the photoconduction properties was observed when the molecules spontaneously organized. Photocurrents increased upon self-assembly by up to four orders of magnitude, mostly due to the drastic enhancement of the charge photogeneration. A greatly favorable arrangement of the aromatic cores in the resulting nanostructures, which were characterized by X-ray analysis, may explain these improvements. Photocurrents of mA cm{sup -2}, on/off ratios of 10{sup 4} and quantum efficiencies of unity at low field and light intensity, which are among the best values reported to date, along with the simplicity of fabrication, give this readily-available organic system great potential for use in plastic optoelectronic devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Padronização da técnica de imunoperoxidase para detecção do vírus da diarréia bovina a vírus em cultura de células: Standardization of immunoperoxidase test to detection bovine viral diarrhea virus in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade G.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização do ensaio de imunoperoxidase em monocamada de células (IPM para o diagnóstico etiológico da diarréia bovina a vírus (DBV. O teste foi padronizado em monocamada de cultivo primário de pulmão fetal bovino (PFB inoculada com as amostras clássicas, citopatogênica (CP e não citopatogênica (NCP, do vírus da DBV e testado em amostras biológicas suspeitas processadas no teste clássico de isolamento viral (IV. O método de IPM identificou o vírus da DBV, apresentando melhores resultados com a utilização do calor como agente fixador, a soroalbumina bovina a 4% em PBS como bloqueador e a revelação com o cromógeno 3-amino-9-etil-carbazol (AEC. Como anticorpos primários, tanto o anticorpo policlonal como o monoclonal forneceram bons resultados.

  10. Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT) for Rapid Diagnosis of Rabies in Animals and Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shampur Narayan Madhusudana; Sundaramurthy Subha; Ullas Thankappan; Yajaman Belludi Ashwin

    2012-01-01

    Presently the gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFA) which is very expensive and requires a high level of expertise.There is a need for more economical and user friendly tests,particularly for use in developing countries.We have established one such test called the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) for diagnosis of rabies using brain tissue.The test is based on capture of rabies nucleoprotein (N) antigen in brain smears using a cocktail of biotinylated monoclonal antibodies specific for the N protein and color development by streptavidin peroxidase-amino ethyl carbazole and counter staining with haematoxollin.The test was done in parallel with standard FAT dFA using 400 brain samples from different animals and humans.The rabies virus N protein appears under light microscope as reddish brown particles against a light blue background.There was 100 % correlation between the results obtained by the two tests.Also,interpretation of results by dRIT was easier and only required a light microscope.To conclude,this newly developed dRIT technique promises to be a simple,cost effective diagnostic tool for rabies and will have applicability in field conditions prevalent in developing countries.

  11. [IncP-7 plasmids' classification based on structural diversity of their basic replicons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O V; Panov, A V; Kosheleva, I A; Boronin, A M

    2013-01-01

    The structural diversity of basic replicons and repB gene of the IncP-7 plasmids' collection was firstly assessed on the basis of PCR, restriction analysis and partial sequencing. It has been revealed that DNA fragment containing gene for UvrD-like helicase RepB is a part of all known P-7 replicons, but often serves as hot place for diverse IS-elements invasion. The first system of P-7 plasmids' classification has been worked out on the basis of determined repA-oriV-par WABC nucleotide divergency. Most degradation plasmids established to be belonging to large beta-subgroup, streptomycin resistance plasmid Rms148 (IncP-7 archetype)--to alpha-subgroup, carbazole degradation plasmid pCAR1 and NAH/SAL-plasmids from pY-line (Yamal oil deposits)--to gamma-subgroup and CAP-plasmid pBS270 with potentially reduced P-7 replicon--to delta-subgroup. It has been observed that the type of IncP-7 basic replicon molecular organization does not correlate with fixed phenotypic character in most cases, that is plasmids encoding different phenotypic markers could be members of the same P-7 subgroup. PMID:23808156

  12. Electrospinning fabrication and oxygen sensing properties of Cu(I) complex-polystyrene composite microfibrous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a phosphorescent Cu(I) complex of [Cu(POP)(ECI-Phen)]BF4, where POP=bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether, and ECI-Phen=1-ethyl-2-(N-ethyl-carbazole-yl-4-)imidazo[4,5-f] 1,10-phenanthroline, is incorporated into a polystyrene matrix of polystyrene (PS) to form microfibers membranes. The possibility of using the resulted composite microfibrous membranes as an optical oxygen sensor is explored. Good linearity and short response time are obtained with a sensitivity of 9.8. These results suggest that phosphorescent [Cu(POP)(ECI-Phen)]BF4 is a promising candidate for oxygen-sensors and PS is an excellent matrix for oxygen sensing material because it owns a large surface-area-to-volume ratio and can supply a homogeneous matrix for probe molecules. Further analysis suggests that the molecular structure of diamine ligand in Cu(I) complexes is critical for sensitivity due to the characteristic electronic structure of excited state Cu(I) complexes. - Highlights: → Cu(I) complex is incorporated into polystyrene matrix to form nanofibers. → Resulted sample exhibit good linearity and short response time. → PS is an excellent matrix for oxygen sensing material for probe molecules. → Molecular structure of diamine ligand is critical for sensitivity.

  13. Electrospinning fabrication and oxygen sensing properties of Cu(I) complex-polystyrene composite microfibrous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liyan, E-mail: wanglykmmc@163.co [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, XiAn (China); Xu Yun [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, KunMing Medical College, Kunming (China); Lin Zhu [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, XiAn (China); Zhao Ning [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, West China College, SiChuan University, ChengDu (China); Xu Yanhua [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, KunMing Medical College, Kunming (China)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, a phosphorescent Cu(I) complex of [Cu(POP)(ECI-Phen)]BF{sub 4}, where POP=bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether, and ECI-Phen=1-ethyl-2-(N-ethyl-carbazole-yl-4-)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, is incorporated into a polystyrene matrix of polystyrene (PS) to form microfibers membranes. The possibility of using the resulted composite microfibrous membranes as an optical oxygen sensor is explored. Good linearity and short response time are obtained with a sensitivity of 9.8. These results suggest that phosphorescent [Cu(POP)(ECI-Phen)]BF{sub 4} is a promising candidate for oxygen-sensors and PS is an excellent matrix for oxygen sensing material because it owns a large surface-area-to-volume ratio and can supply a homogeneous matrix for probe molecules. Further analysis suggests that the molecular structure of diamine ligand in Cu(I) complexes is critical for sensitivity due to the characteristic electronic structure of excited state Cu(I) complexes. - Highlights: {yields} Cu(I) complex is incorporated into polystyrene matrix to form nanofibers. {yields} Resulted sample exhibit good linearity and short response time. {yields} PS is an excellent matrix for oxygen sensing material for probe molecules. {yields} Molecular structure of diamine ligand is critical for sensitivity.

  14. Asymmetric catalytic formation of quaternary carbons by iminium ion trapping of radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John J.; Bastida, David; Paria, Suva; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    An important goal of modern organic chemistry is to develop new catalytic strategies for enantioselective carbon–carbon bond formation that can be used to generate quaternary stereogenic centres. Whereas considerable advances have been achieved by exploiting polar reactivity, radical transformations have been far less successful. This is despite the fact that open-shell intermediates are intrinsically primed for connecting structurally congested carbons, as their reactivity is only marginally affected by steric factors. Here we show how the combination of photoredox and asymmetric organic catalysis enables enantioselective radical conjugate additions to β,β-disubstituted cyclic enones to obtain quaternary carbon stereocentres with high fidelity. Critical to our success was the design of a chiral organic catalyst, containing a redox-active carbazole moiety, that drives the formation of iminium ions and the stereoselective trapping of photochemically generated carbon-centred radicals by means of an electron-relay mechanism. We demonstrate the generality of this organocatalytic radical-trapping strategy with two sets of open-shell intermediates, formed through unrelated light-triggered pathways from readily available substrates and photoredox catalysts—this method represents the application of iminium ion activation (a successful catalytic strategy for enantioselective polar chemistry) within the realm of radical reactivity.

  15. Improved photovoltaic performance of inverted polymer solar cells through a sol-gel processed Al-doped ZnO electron extraction layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Cho, Eunae; Kim, Jaehoon; Shin, Hyeonwoo; Roh, Jeongkyun; Thambidurai, Mariyappan; Kang, Chan-mo; Song, Hyung-Jun; Kim, SeongMin; Kim, Hyeok; Lee, Changhee

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate that nanocrystalline Al-doped zinc oxide (n-AZO) thin film used as an electron-extraction layer can significantly enhance the performance of inverted polymer solar cells based on the bulk heterojunction of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(70)BM). A synergistic study with both simulation and experiment on n-AZO was carried out to offer a rational guidance for the efficiency improvement. As a result, An n-AZO film with an average grain size of 13 to 22 nm was prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method, and a minimum resistivity of 2.1 × 10(-3) Ω·cm was obtained for an Al-doping concentration of 5.83 at.%. When an n-AZO film with a 5.83 at.% Al concentration was inserted between the ITO electrode and the active layer (PCDTBT:PC(70)BM), the power conversion efficiency increased from 3.7 to 5.6%. PMID:26406762

  16. Structure and Luminescence Behaviour of Ag+/π-Donor Complexes (In German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, M.

    1982-12-01

    Photoluminescence (ethanol, 77 K) of 2-naphthylamine (I), its N,N-dimethyl derivative (II), 1-methyl-naphthalene (III) and 1-naphthyl-9-carbazyl-methane (IV) in the presence of AgNO3 has been studied. The results obtained can be explained assuming different types of Ag+-compIexing with the π-donor: (i) Covalent linkage between Ag and N in the case of I, (ii) Charge-transfer complexation with the aromatic units of II and III , respectively, and (iii) Charge-transfer complexation with the carbazole in IV as the stronger π-donor compared to 1-methyl-naphthalene. Most of the photophysical properties of the systems AgNO3/π-donor can be understood as resulting from heavy atom spin-orbit coupling effects. However, a strong effect of AgNO3 on the structure of the phosphorescence spectra of II and III is shown not to result from heavy atom spin-orbit coupling interaction.

  17. Macroscopic birefringence in liquid crystals from novel cyanobacterial polysaccharide with an extremely high molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima-Kaneko, Maiko; Hayasaka-Kaneko, Daisaku; Miyazato, Shinji; Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-05-01

    We report an efficient method for extraction of anionic polysaccharides (PS) from cyanobacteria, Aphanothece sacrum; we used a hot alkaline solution (0.01 N NaOH) as an elution solvent in the first step of the extraction and isopropanol as a precipitation solvent in the last step. Thin fibers of PS were obtained at a high yield (50-80 % to the weight of the raw cyanobacterial sample). The spectroscopy and elemental analyses indicated the PS contains fucose, uronic acids (14.2 % by a carbazole-sulfuric acid method), a sugar unit containing amides. The solution of PS with a concentration of 1 wt% showed a very high viscosity (80 000cps) implying a high molecular weight, and a strong macroscopic birefringence with a texture typical of nematic liquid crystals was confirmed by crossed-polarizing microscopy (more than 0.5 wt%). The PS from A. sacrum may form a special structure rigid-rod enough to show LC phase and macroscopic birefringence.

  18. Immunohistochemical identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum by monoclonal antibodies in paraffin-embedded tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), using paired immunoenzyme and paired immunofluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, O; Dale, O B; Nilsen, A

    1994-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum was identified in situ by immunoenzymatic and immunofluorescence techniques in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens collected during a natural outbreak of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) and from an experimental infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 4D3 and 2G5 were used in this study, both specific for the 57-58-kD outer membrane protein (p57) of the bacterium. Both MAbs revealed positive staining in ethanol-fixed tissue specimens, but only the epitope identified by MAb 4D3 was formalin resistant. Pretreatment with trypsin did not reestablish the antigenicity for the epitope identified by Mab 2G5. Paired immunoenzymatic staining for identification of the bacterium in sequential incubation steps on ethanol-fixed tissue specimens using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase system was obtained after serial dilution of the Mab (2G5) or the chromagen, amino ethyl carbazole, in the first sequence. Paired immunofluorescence staining with well-balanced color mixing was easily obtained on ethanol-fixed tissue specimens using sequential incubations. Single exposures gave blue (aminomethyl coumarin acetic acid) and green (fluorescein isothiocyanate) fluorescence for MAbs 2G5 and biotinylated 4D3, respectively. Color mixing was revealed as a turquoise staining. Studies on method sensitivity was performed by incorporating a known amount of a protein preparation of p57 into an inert matrix, creating an artificial test substrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8011782

  19. Solution-processed PCDTBT capped low-voltage InGaZnOx thin film phototransistors for visible-light detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of visible-light detection based on solution processed poly[N-9′′-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) capped InGaZnOx (IGZO) phototransistors with Al2Ox serving as gate dielectric are investigated in this paper. The high-k dielectric is used to lower the device operating voltage down to 2 V. Photons emitted from laser sources with the wavelengths (λ) of 532 nm and 635 nm are absorbed through the layer of PCDTBT to generate electron-hole-pairs (EHPs). After the separation of EHPs, electrons are injected into IGZO layer through the p-n junction formed between the IGZO (n-type semiconductor) and the PCDTBT (p-type semiconductor). The photo-generated carriers boost the drain current of the transistors as well as bring about the negative threshold voltage shift. Significant enhanced detection performance is achieved under the laser wavelength of 532 nm. The highest photoresponsivity reaches up to 20 A/W, while the photoresponse rise time comes to 10 ms and the fall time comes to approximate 76 ms, which is much faster than trap assisted IGZO visible light detection. The fabricated phototransistors favor the application of visible-light detectors and/or optical switches

  20. Rate constant of exciton quenching of Ir(ppy)3 with hole measured by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Shiho; Sakai, Heisuke; Murata, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    We observed the quenching of tris(2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)3] excitons by polarons (holes or electrons) by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to clarify the dynamics of the triplet-polaron quenching of excitons. We employed a hole-only device (HOD) and an electron-only device (EOD), where the emitting layer consists of Ir(ppy)3 doped in 4,4‧-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl. Time-resolved PL spectroscopy of the EOD and HOD were measured under a constant current density. The results showed that the excitons of Ir(ppy)3 were significantly quenched only by holes. The PL decay curves of HOD were well fitted by the biexponential function, where lifetimes (τ1 and τ2) remain unchanged but the coefficient of each exponential term depends on hole current density. From the results, we proposed a model of exciton quenching where the exciton-hole quenching area expands with increasing hole current density. On the basis of the model, the triplet-polaron quenching rate constant Kq was determined.

  1. Bridged bis-BODIPYs: their synthesis, structures and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Praseetha E; Das, Sudipta; Lone, Mohsin Y; Jha, Prakash C; Mori, Shigeki; Gupta, Iti

    2015-10-21

    A series of bis-BODIPYs 1-6 bridged via thiophene, furan, N-alkylcarbazole, triphenyl-amine, para- and meta-phenylene groups have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The change in the spectroscopic properties of bis-BODIPYs upon varying the size of spacers was studied. X-ray crystal structures of three bis-BODIPYs containing triphenylamine, para- and meta-phenylene bridges were solved. Intermolecular C(H)π and ππ stacking interactions were observed in solid state structures of three bis-BODIPYs. The dihedral angles between the spacer unit and two boron-dipyrrin units were lower in all three compounds as compared to their corresponding monomers. This suggests increased interactions between the two boron-dipyrrin units in molecules which are in turn reflected in the anodic shifts in their reduction potentials. DFT studies indicated effective electronic interactions between spacers and two boron dipyrrin units in all the bis-BODIPYs. The calculated HOMO-LUMO gap was found to be lower for bis-BODIPY having bulky carbazole spacers and higher for bis-BODIPY having smaller furan spacers. Changing the spacer size clearly affected the spectroscopic properties of the bis-BODIPYs and red shifted absorption and emission maxima were observed for bis-BODIPYs with furan and thiophene spacers as compared to bis-BODIPYs with phenylene or bulky aromatic spacers. PMID:26373792

  2. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in oils derived from the fluidised bed pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Nazzal, Jamal M. [Department of Fuel and Energy, The University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Oil shale was pyrolysed in a 10 cm diameterx100 cm high fluidised bed reactor with nitrogen as the fluidising gas at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 520, 570 and 620C. The gases were analysed by packed column gas chromatography. The condensed pyrolytic oils were analysed for their content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), sulphur-PAH (PASH) and nitrogen-PAH (PANH). The oils were fractionated into chemical classes using mini-column liquid chromatography followed by analysis using capillary column gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) and capillary column GC with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for identification and quantification of PAH. PASH and PANH were identified in the chemical class fractions using capillary column GC with selective detection and GC/MS. The pyrolytic shale oils were found to contain significant concentrations of PAH, PASH and PANH. The concentrations of PAC were increased with increasing reactor temperature and residence time. The PAH consisted mainly of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues, and lower concentrations of fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene. The PASH identified included benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene, and the PANH identified including indole and carbazole and their alkylated derivatives. Some of the PAC identified have been reported to be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic

  3. Pyrolysis of oil shales: influence of particle grain size on polycyclic aromatic compounds in the derived shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Nazzal, J.M. [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1999-06-01

    Oil shales of different particle grain sizes were pyrolysed in a 10 cm diameter x 100 cm high fluidized-bed reactor under both a nitrogen and a steam atmosphere. The oil shales were from the Kimmeridge clay of Jurassic age from the UK. The influence of particle grain size on the yield and composition of the oil and gases was determined. The gases were analysed for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and other hydrocarbons to C{sub 4}. The condensed oils were analysed for their content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), sulphur-PAH (PASH) and nitrogen-PAH (PANH). The oil yield increased with increasing particle grain size. The derived shale oils contained significant concentrations of PAH, PASH and PANH. The concentration of PAC increased with decreasing particle grain size. The PAH consisted mainly of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues, and lower concentrations of fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene. The PASH identified included benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, and the PANH identified included indole, carbazole and their alkylated derivatives. Increased secondary reactions linked to the formation of PAC were indicated by the alkene/alkane ratio. The effect of steam was to significantly increase the yield of oil and also to increase the concentration of PAH, PASH and PANH in the derived shale oil compared with using nitrogen as the sweep gas. (author)

  4. Highly efficient organic blue light emitting devices using doped transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, Nico; Reineke, Sebastian; Walzer, Karsten; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik/Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Tomkeviciene, Ausra; Grazulevicius, Juozas V. [Department of Organic Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas LT-50254 (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    In contrast to red and green OLEDs, blue light emitting devices are still far away from the theoretical limit of about 20 % external quantum efficiency. The best results so far have been achieved involving ultrahigh energy gap organosilicon compounds. Due to their poor transport properties, high efficiencies are obtained only at low current densities and high voltages. We used the blue phosphorescent emitter iridium(III)bis[(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C{sup 2{sup '}}]picolinate (FIrpic) as a dopant in the host material 3,6-di(9-carbazolyl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, which possesses both a large triplet exciton energy and good charge carrier transport properties. It was therewith possible to efficiently confine the triplet excitons on the emitting molecules and keep the recombination zone away from the blocking layers. This results in a high external quantum efficiency of 13.1 % at a brightness of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. Due to the superior charge carrier injection properties provided by the doped transport layers, this brightness could be achieved at low voltages of only 4.0 V, resulting in a high power efficiency of 22.5 lm/W.

  5. Identification of sulfur heterocycles in coal liquids and shale oils. Technical progress report, August 1, 1980-May 1, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. L.; Castle, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur heterocycle separation scheme which was described in the last progress report was evaluated for quantitative recovery of individual components. The results indicate that recoveries can range from 10% to approx. 30% depending on the structure of the compound. During this period, 23 unsubstituted sulfur-containing heterocyclic ring systems were synthesized in oder to confirm GC/MS identifications and for biological testing. The four possible 3-ring heterocycles and the thirteen possible 4-ring heterocycles were tested for mutagenic activity in the histidine reversion (Ames assay) system. One of the 3-ring isomers, naphtho(1,2-b)-thiophene, and six of the 4-ring isomers induced mutations in Salmonella test strains. One of these compounds, phenanthro(3,4-b)thiophene, displayed approximately the same mutagenic activity as benzo(a)pyrene. A two-step adsorption chromatographic procedure was developed in order to fractionate synthetic fuels into various chemical-type classes for studying the relative concentrations and mutagenic activities of the various types. An SRC-II Heavy Distillate was fractionated into aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocycles, indoles and carbazoles, azaarenes, and amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was found that the amino-PAH fraction contained most of the mutagenic activity. A survey was made for compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms in their structures. A number of these compounds were detected by GC using nitrogen- and sulfur-selective detection.

  6. Asymmetric catalytic formation of quaternary carbons by iminium ion trapping of radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John J; Bastida, David; Paria, Suva; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2016-04-14

    An important goal of modern organic chemistry is to develop new catalytic strategies for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation that can be used to generate quaternary stereogenic centres. Whereas considerable advances have been achieved by exploiting polar reactivity, radical transformations have been far less successful. This is despite the fact that open-shell intermediates are intrinsically primed for connecting structurally congested carbons, as their reactivity is only marginally affected by steric factors. Here we show how the combination of photoredox and asymmetric organic catalysis enables enantioselective radical conjugate additions to β,β-disubstituted cyclic enones to obtain quaternary carbon stereocentres with high fidelity. Critical to our success was the design of a chiral organic catalyst, containing a redox-active carbazole moiety, that drives the formation of iminium ions and the stereoselective trapping of photochemically generated carbon-centred radicals by means of an electron-relay mechanism. We demonstrate the generality of this organocatalytic radical-trapping strategy with two sets of open-shell intermediates, formed through unrelated light-triggered pathways from readily available substrates and photoredox catalysts--this method represents the application of iminium ion activation (a successful catalytic strategy for enantioselective polar chemistry) within the realm of radical reactivity. PMID:27075098

  7. Efficient ternary organic photovoltaics incorporating a graphene-based porphyrin molecule as a universal electron cascade material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, M. M.; Konios, D.; Kakavelakis, G.; Charalambidis, G.; Stratakis, E.; Coutsolelos, A. G.; Kymakis, E.; Anastasiadis, S. H.

    2015-10-01

    A graphene-based porphyrin molecule (GO-TPP) was synthesized by covalent linkage of graphene oxide (GO) with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (TPP-NH2). The yielded graphene-based material is a donor-acceptor (D-A) molecule, exhibiting strong intermolecular interactions between the GO core (A) and the covalently anchored porphyrin molecule (D). To demonstrate the universal role of GO-TPP as an electron cascade material, ternary blend organic photovoltaics based on [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PC71BM) as an electron acceptor material and two different polymer donor materials, poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and the highly efficient poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7), were fabricated. The addition of GO-TPP into the active layer implies continuous percolation paths between the D-A interfaces, enhancing charge transport, reducing exciton recombination and thus improving the photovoltaic performance of the device. A simultaneous increase of short circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF), compared to the PTB7:PC71BM reference cell, led to an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.81% for the PTB7:GO-TPP:PC71BM-based device, owing mainly to the more efficient energy level offset between the active layer components.A graphene-based porphyrin molecule (GO-TPP) was synthesized by covalent linkage of graphene oxide (GO) with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl porphyrin (TPP-NH2). The yielded graphene-based material is a donor-acceptor (D-A) molecule, exhibiting strong intermolecular interactions between the GO core (A) and the covalently anchored porphyrin molecule (D). To demonstrate the universal role of GO-TPP as an electron cascade material, ternary blend organic photovoltaics based on [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric

  8. Terahertz Spectroscopic Identification with Deep Belief Network%基于深层信念网络的太赫兹光谱识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马帅; 沈韬; 王瑞琦; 赖华; 余正涛

    2015-01-01

    特征提取和分类是太赫兹光谱识别的关键。部分物质在太赫兹波段内没有明显的吸收峰,难以人工定义、提取特征及分类识别,为此,结合深度信念网络(deep belief network ,DBN)和K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)分类器的优点,提出了一种基于DBN的太赫兹光谱识别方法。首先利用S-G滤波和三次样条插值对ATP ,acetylcholine-bromide ,bifenthrin ,buprofezin ,carbazole ,bleomycin ,buckminster 和 cylotriphosp-hazene在0.9~6 THz内的太赫兹透射光谱进行归一化处理;然后由两层受限波尔兹曼机(restricted Boltz-mann machine ,RBM )构建DBN模型,并采用逐层无监督的方法训练模型,以自动提取太赫兹光谱特征;最后用KNN分类器对8种物质的太赫兹透射光谱进行分类。结果表明,使用DBN 自动提取的光谱特征, KNN分类器、BP神经网络、SOM神经网络和RBF神经网络的分类准确率达到了90%以上,且KNN分类器的识别率优于其他三种分类器;采用DBN自动提取物质的太赫兹光谱特征大大减少了工作量,在海量光谱数据识别中具有广阔的应用前景。%Feature extraction and classification are the key issues of terahertz spectroscopy identification .Because many materials have no apparent absorption peaks in the terahertz band ,it is difficult to extract theirs terahertz spectroscopy feature and identi-fy .To this end ,a novel of identify terahertz spectroscopy approach with Deep Belief Network (DBN) was studied in this paper , which combines the advantages of DBN and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier .Firstly ,cubic spline interpolation and S-G filter were used to normalize the eight kinds of substances (ATP ,Acetylcholine-Bromide ,Bifenthrin ,Buprofezin ,Carbazole , Bleomycin ,Buckminster and Cylotriphosphazene) terahertz transmission spectra in the range of 0.9~ 6 THz .Secondly ,the DBN model was built by two restricted Boltzmann machine

  9. Molecular Engineering, Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterizations of Novel Ru(II) and BODIPY Sensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2 Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Hammad Arshad

    precludes coplanarity of the naphthalene moiety, thus decreasing the extracted photocurrent response from solar device. The findings were published in Dyes and Pigments (doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2014.08.005). For HD-7 and HD-8, intriguing difference caused by structural isomerization based on anthracene and phenanthrene stilbazole type ancillary ligands, respectively in Ru (II) sensitizers was investigated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to ISC (intersystem crossing) much more than that in HD-8 and those triplet electrons are not being injected in TiO2 efficiently as discussed in Chapter 5. To achieve long term stability, we combined the strong electron donor characteristics of carbazole and the hydrophobic nature of long alkyl chains, C7 (HD-14 ), C18 (HD-15) and C2 (NCSU-10), tethered to N-carbazole. HD-15 showed strikingly good long term light soaking stability and maintained up to 98% of initial efficiency value compared to 92% for HD-14 and 78% for NCSU-10, as discussed in Chapter 6. Boron dipyromethene (BODIPY) dyes HB-1, HB-2 and HB-3 were synthesized and fully characterized for dye solar cells. It was found that having long alkyl chains tethered to the donor groups alone are not sufficient for achieving highly efficient photovoltaic response from BODIPY dyes (Chapter 7). Thus, replacement of fluorines from BODIPY core with long alkoxy chains has been suggested for future work.

  10. Toxicity of a polymer-graphene oxide composite against bacterial planktonic cells, biofilms, and mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejías Carpio, Isis E.; Santos, Catherine M.; Wei, Xin; Rodrigues, Debora F.

    2012-07-01

    It is critical to develop highly effective antimicrobial agents that are not harmful to humans and do not present adverse effects on the environment. Although antimicrobial studies of graphene-based nanomaterials are still quite limited, some researchers have paid particular attention to such nanocomposites as promising candidates for the next generation of antimicrobial agents. The polyvinyl-N-carbazole (PVK)-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (PVK-GO), which contains only 3 wt% of GO well-dispersed in a 97 wt% PVK matrix, presents excellent antibacterial properties without significant cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The high polymer content in this nanocomposite makes future large-scale material manufacturing possible in a high-yield process of adiabatic bulk polymerization. In this study, the toxicity of PVK-GO was assessed with planktonic microbial cells, biofilms, and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. The antibacterial effects were evaluated against two Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Cupriavidus metallidurans; and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Rhodococcus opacus. The results show that the PVK-GO nanocomposite presents higher antimicrobial effects than the pristine GO. The effectiveness of the PVK-GO in solution was demonstrated as the nanocomposite ``encapsulated'' the bacterial cells, which led to reduced microbial metabolic activity and cell death. The fact that the PVK-GO did not present significant cytotoxicity to fibroblast cells offers a great opportunity for potential applications in important biomedical and industrial fields.It is critical to develop highly effective antimicrobial agents that are not harmful to humans and do not present adverse effects on the environment. Although antimicrobial studies of graphene-based nanomaterials are still quite limited, some researchers have paid particular attention to such nanocomposites as promising candidates for the next generation of antimicrobial agents. The polyvinyl-N-carbazole

  11. Columnar liquid crystals in cylindrical nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Kim, Bongseock; Bushby, Richard J; Shin, Kyusoon; Baker, Patrick J; Percec, Virgil; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Ungar, Goran

    2015-02-24

    Axial orientation of discotic columnar liquid crystals in nanopores of inorganic templates, with the columns parallel to the axis of the nanochannels, is considered desirable for applications such as production of molecular wires. Here, we evaluate experimentally the role of the rigidity of the LC columns in achieving such orientation in nanopores where the planar anchoring (i.e., columns parallel to wall surface) is enforced. We studied the columnar phase of several discotic compounds with increasing column rigidity in the following order: dendronized carbazole, hexakis(hexyloxy)triphenylene (HAT6), a 1:1 HAT6-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) complex, and a helicene derivative. Using 2-D X-ray diffraction, AFM, grazing incidence diffraction, and polarized microscopy, we observed that the orientation of the columns changes from circular concentric to axial with increasing column rigidity. Additionally, when the rigidity is borderline, increasing pore diameter can change the configuration from axial back to circular. We derive expressions for distortion free energy that suggest that the orientation is determined by the competition between, on the one hand, the distortion energy of the 2-d lattice and the mismatch of its crystallographic facets with the curved pore wall in the axial orientation and, on the other hand, the bend energy of the columns in the circular configuration. Furthermore, the highly detailed AFM images of the core of the disclinations of strength +1 and +1/2 in the center of the pore reveal that the columns spiral down to the very center of the disclination and that there is no amorphous or misaligned region at the core, as suggested previously. PMID:25626118

  12. Probing the Carbonyl Functionality of a Petroleum Resin and Asphaltene through Oximation and Schiff Base Formation in Conjunction with N-15 NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Thorn

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in spectroscopic techniques, there is uncertainty regarding the nature of the carbonyl groups in the asphaltene and resin fractions of crude oil, information necessary for an understanding of the physical properties and environmental fate of these materials. Carbonyl and hydroxyl group functionalities are not observed in natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of asphaltenes and resins and therefore require spin labeling techniques for detection. In this study, the carbonyl functionalities of the resin and asphaltene fractions from a light aliphatic crude oil that is the source of groundwater contamination at the long term USGS study site near Bemidji, Minnesota, have been examined through reaction with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and aniline in conjunction with analysis by solid and liquid state 15N NMR. Ketone groups were revealed through 15N NMR detection of their oxime and Schiff base derivatives, and esters through their hydroxamic acid derivatives. Anilinohydroquinone adducts provided evidence for quinones. Some possible configurations of the ketone groups in the resin and asphaltene fractions can be inferred from a consideration of the likely reactions that lead to heterocyclic condensation products with aniline and to the Beckmann reaction products from the initially formed oximes. These include aromatic ketones and ketones adjacent to quaternary carbon centers, β-hydroxyketones, β-diketones, and β-ketoesters. In a solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS 15N NMR spectrum recorded on the underivatized asphaltene as a control, carbazole and pyrrole-like nitrogens were the major naturally abundant nitrogens detected.

  13. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-Qin; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Hua; Jia, Hu-Sheng; Liu, Xu-Guang; Tsuboi, Taijuf

    2015-05-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. Project supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0927), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFR50460), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21101111 and 61274056), and the Shanxi Provincial Key Innovative Research Team in Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012041011).

  14. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wincent, Emma [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1050 (United States); Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hyaluronic acid/human-like collagen hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injectable hydrogel plays an important role in soft tissue filling and repair. We report an injectable hydrogel based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and human-like collagen (HLC), both with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability. These two types of biomacromolecules were crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to form a three-dimensional network. The redundant crosslinker was removed by dialysis and distillation. An HA-based hydrogel prepared by the same method was used as a control. The cytocompatibility was studied with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) test. Carbazole colorimetry was used to analyze the in vitro degradation rate. The histocompatibility was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that the HA/HLC hydrogel was less cytotoxic than the HA-based hydrogel and could promote baby hamster kidney cell (BHK) proliferation. The cell adhesion indicated that BHK could grow well on the surface of the materials and maintain good cell viability. The in vitro degradation test showed that the HA/HLC hydrogel had a longer degradation time and an excellent antienzyme ability. In vivo injection showed that there was little inflammatory response to HA/HLC after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Therefore, the HA/HLC hydrogel is a promising biomaterial for soft tissue filling and repair. - Highlights: • Human-like collagen was used with hyaluronic acid to prepare soft tissue filling meterials. • 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) was introduced to treat the hydrogels. • The addition of human-like collagen could improve the biological properties of hydrogels

  16. 2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase gene was first discovered in Arthrobacter sp. strain P J3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG MeiYing; MA PengDa; LI WenMing; LIU JinYing; LI Liang; ZHU XiaoJuan; WANG XingZhi

    2007-01-01

    Bacterium strain PJ3, isolated from wastewater and identified as Arthrobacter sp. bacterium based on its 16S rDNA gene, could use carbazole as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. The genomic libraryof strain PJ3 was constructed and a positive clone JM109 (pUCW402) was screened out for the expression of dioxygenase by the ability to form yellow ring-fission product. A 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (23DHBD) gene of 933 bp was found in the 3360 bp exogenous fragment of pUCW402 by GenSCAN software and BLAST analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 23DHBD from strain PJ3 formed a deep branch separate from a cluster containing most known 23DHBD in GenBank.Southern hybridization confirmed for the first time that the 23DHBD gene was from the genomic DNA of Arthrobacter sp. PJ3. In order to test the gene function, recombinant bacterium BL21 (pETW-8) was constructed to express 23DHBD. The expression level in BL21 (pETW-8) was highest compared with the recombinant bacteria JM109 (pUCW402) and strain PJ3. We observed that 23DHBD was not absolute specific. The enzyme activity was higher with 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as a substrate than with catechol.The substrate specificity assay suggested that 23DHBD was essential for cleavage of bi-cyclic aromatic compounds during the course of aromatic compound biodegradation in Arthrobacter sp. strain PJ3.

  17. Surfactant-free, low band gap conjugated polymer nanoparticles and polymer:fullerene nanohybrids with potential for organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suxiao; Singh, Amita; Walsh, Nichola; Redmond, Gareth

    2016-06-01

    Stable, aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles based on the low band gap polymers poly [2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4‧,7‧-di-2-thienyl-2‧,1‧,3‧-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and poly [N-9‧-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4‧,7‧-di-2-thienyl-2‧,1‧,3‧-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) were prepared, using a flexible, surfactant-free reprecipitation method, and characterized by a variety of optical techniques. Light scattering measurements indicated average nanoparticle hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 40 nm. The particles presented wide-bandwidth absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectra with high absorption cross-sections on the order of 10‑12 cm2. Nanoparticle emission spectra were significantly red-shifted, with decreased emission quantum yields and lifetimes, consistent with increased inter-polymer chain interactions in the condensed phase. Single particle photoluminescence studies highlighted the multi-chromophoric nature of the polymer nanoparticles and confirmed their favorable photostabilities. When the nanoparticles were doped with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), the correspondence of photoluminescence emission quenching, quantum yield decreases, emission lifetime shortening, and increased non-radiative rates with increasing PCBM concentration suggested efficient photo-induced donor-to-acceptor charge transfer between the conjugated polymers and the fullerene dopants co-localized in the nanoparticle cores. Taken together, the data suggest that these surfactant-free hybrid nanomaterials may be useful for integration with future nanostructured organic photovoltaics technologies.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Hua; Hsu, Pei-Chien; Sun, Yu-Yo; Huang, Yu-Jie; Zhuo, Jiun-Horng; Wang, Chen-Yu; Gan, Yu-Ling; Hung, Chia-Chi; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Shie, Feng-Shiun

    2015-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates peripheral immunity; but its role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the brain remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AhR mediates both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Activation of AhR by its ligands, formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) or 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), attenuated LPS-induced microglial immune responses. AhR also showed proinflammatory effects, as evidenced by the findings that genetic silence of AhR ameliorated the LPS-induced microglial immune responses and LPS-activated microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Similarly, LPS-induced expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were reduced in the cerebral cortex of AhR-deficient mice. Intriguingly, LPS upregulated and activated AhR in the absence of AhR ligands via the MEK1/2 signaling pathway, which effects were associated with a transient inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Although AhR ligands synergistically enhance LPS-induced AhR activation, leading to suppression of LPS-induced microglial immune responses, they cannot do so on their own in microglia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results further revealed that LPS-FICZ co-treatment, but not LPS alone, not only resulted in co-recruitment of both AhR and NFκB onto the κB site of TNFα gene promoter but also reduced LPS-induced AhR binding to the DRE site of iNOS gene promoter. Together, we provide evidence showing that microglial AhR, which can be activated by LPS, exerts bi-directional effects on the regulation of LPS-induced neuroinflammation, depending on the availability of external AhR ligands. These findings confer further insights into the potential link between environmental factors and the inflammatory brain disorders. PMID:25690886

  19. Direct comparative study on the energy level alignments in unoccupied/occupied states of organic semiconductor/electrode interface by constructing in-situ photoemission spectroscopy and Ar gas cluster ion beam sputtering integrated analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the installation of electron gun and photon detector, an in-situ photoemission and damage-free sputtering integrated analysis system is completely constructed. Therefore, this system enables to accurately characterize the energy level alignments including unoccupied/occupied molecular orbital (LUMO/HOMO) levels at interface region of organic semiconductor/electrode according to depth position. Based on Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS), Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPES), and reflective electron energy loss spectroscopy, the occupied/unoccupied state of in-situ deposited Tris[4-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]amine (TCTA) organic semiconductors on Au (ELUMO: 2.51 eV and EHOMO: 1.35 eV) and Ti (ELUMO: 2.19 eV and EHOMO: 1.69 eV) electrodes are investigated, and the variation of energy level alignments according to work function of electrode (Au: 4.81 eV and Ti: 4.19 eV) is clearly verified. Subsequently, under the same analysis condition, the unoccupied/occupied states at bulk region of TCTA/Au structures are characterized using different Ar gas cluster ion beam (Ar GCIB) and Ar ion sputtering processes, respectively. While the Ar ion sputtering process critically distorts both occupied and unoccupied states in UPS/IPES spectra, the Ar GCIB sputtering process does not give rise to damage on them. Therefore, we clearly confirm that the in-situ photoemission spectroscopy in combination with Ar GCIB sputtering allows of investigating accurate energy level alignments at bulk/interface region as well as surface region of organic semiconductor/electrode structure.

  20. Petroleum Migration Direction of the Silurian Paleo-pools in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Luofu; LI Yan; ZHAO Yande; HUO Hong; CHEN Lixin; CHEN Yuanzhuang; ZHAO Suping; LI Chao; LI Shuangwen; GUO Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The results obtained in this paper indicate that carbazole-type compounds have high thermal stability and also show stability in oxidation and bio-degradation. This kind of compounds still has a high concentration and complete distribution in the analyzed dry asphalt samples, showing that they are particularly useful in studying petroleum migration of paleo-pooi. During the basin's first-stage of oil-gas pool formation in the Silurian in Tazhong and Tabei areas of Tarim Basin (at the end of Silurian period) and the second-stage in the Awati area (in Permian), the petroleum experienced a long-distance migration. During the formation of the Silurian paleo-pools in Tazhong Uplift at the end of Silurian, the petroleum mainly came from the lower and middle Cambrian source rocks in the Manjiaer sag. The petroleum migrated towards the southwest-south entering the Silurian reservoir beds in Tazhong first. Then, it further migrated within Silurian from northwest to southeast along the highs of the Structural Belts to the region of the Silurian pinchout boundary in Tazhong. In Tabei Uplift, during the first-stage of pool formation, the petroleum was also from the lower and middle Cambrian source rocks in the Manjiaer sag. It migrated northwest entering the Silurian reservoir beds in the Tabei Uplift firstly, and then the migration continued in the same direction within the Silurian reservoirs and finally the petroleum was trapped in higher positions. During the second-stage pool formation in the Silurian beds in the areas around Awati sag, the petroleum mainly came from the lower-middle Cambrian source rocks in the Awati sag. The petroleum migrated from the generation center to Silurian reservoirs in all directions around the sag through major paths, and the petroleum was finally trapped in higher locations.

  1. Conformational and Molecular Structures of α,β-Unsaturated Acrylonitrile Derivatives: Photophysical Properties and Their Frontier Orbitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Judith Percino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report single crystal X-ray diffraction (hereafter, SCXRD analyses of derivatives featuring the electron-donor N-ethylcarbazole or the (4-diphenylaminophenyl moieties associated with a -CN group attached to a double bond. The compounds are (2Z-3-(4-(diphenylamino-phenyl-2-(pyridin-3-ylprop-2-enenitrile (I, (2Z-3-(4-(diphenylaminophenyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl-prop-2-enenitrile (II and (2Z-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl-2-(pyridin-2-ylenenitrile (III. SCXRD analyses reveal that I and III crystallize in the monoclinic space groups P2/c with Z’ = 2 and C2/c with Z’ = 1, respectively. Compound II crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with Z’ = 1. The molecular packing analysis was conducted to examine the pyridine core effect, depending on the ortho, meta- and para-positions of the nitrogen atom, with respect to the optical properties and number of independent molecules (Z’. It is found that the double bond bearing a diphenylamino moiety introduced properties to exhibit a strong π-π-interaction in the solid state. The compounds were examined to evaluate the effects of solvent polarity, the role of the molecular structure, and the molecular interactions on their self-assembly behaviors. Compound I crystallized with a cell with two conformers, anti and syn, due to interaction with solvent. DFT calculations indicated the anti and syn structures of I are energetically stable (less than 1 eV. Also electrochemical and photophysical properties of the compounds were investigated, as well as the determination of optimization calculations in gas and different solvent (chloroform, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane and dimethyl sulfoxide in the Gaussian09 program. The effect of solvent by PCM method was also investigated. The frontier HOMO and LUMO energies and gap energies are reported.

  2. C-H and N-H bond dissociation energies of small aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barckholtz, C.; Barckholtz, T.A.; Hadad, C.M.

    1999-01-27

    A survey of computational methods was undertaken to calculate the homolytic bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the C-H and N-H bonds in monocyclic aromatic molecules that are representative of the functionalities present in coal. These include six-membered rings (benzene, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine) and five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, pyrrole, oxazole). By comparison of the calculated C-H BDEs with the available experimental values for these aromatic molecules, the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was selected to calculate the BDEs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including carbonaceous PAHs (naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, coronene) and heteroatomic PAHs (benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole, benzoxazole, quinoline, isoquinoline, dibenzofuran, carbazole). The cleavage of a C-H or a N-H bond generates a {sigma} radical that is, in general, localized at the site from which the hydrogen atom was removed. However, delocalization of the unpaired electron results in {approximately} 7 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} stabilization of the radical with respect to the formation of phenyl when the C-H bond is adjacent to a nitrogen atom in the azabenzenes. Radicals from five-membered rings are {approximately} 6 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1} less stable than those formed from six-membered rings due to both localization of the spin density and geometric factors. The location of the heteroatoms in the aromatic ring affects the C-H bond strengths more significantly than does the size of the aromatic network. Therefore, in general, the monocyclic aromatic molecules can be used to predict the C-H BDE of the large PAHs within 1 kcal {center{underscore}dot} mol{sup {minus}1}.

  3. Electrosynthesis and characterization of a donor–acceptor type electrochromic material from poly(4,7-dicarbazol-9-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadia-zole) and its application in electrochromic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A donor–acceptor type monomer 4,7-dicarbazol-9-yl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (CBTD) was synthesized by modified Ullmann coupling reaction and its corresponding polymer (PCBTD) was obtained via electrochemical polymerization. Characterizations of the resulting polymer PCBTD were performed by cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The polymer displayed multiple colors changed from yellow to yellowish green, green, and turquoise blue with the applied potential. The UV–vis spectra depicted that polymer film have two absorption bands as expected for this type of donor–acceptor polymer, at 320 and 467 nm, which attributed to the π–π* transition and intrachain charge transfer transition, respectively. Further, electrochemical and optical band gaps were obtained by using their oxidation and reduction onset potentials and absorption edges, respectively. The optical contrasts of the PCBTD film were found to be 28.1% at 420 nm and 49.9% at 800 nm in the visible region. The dual type electrochromic device constructed utilizing PCBTD and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) showed a maximum contrast (ΔT %) of 49.4% at 620 nm with response time of 0.6 s and exhibited high coloration efficiency (1728 cm2 C−1) and good stability. These properties make the polymer a suitable material for electrochromic applications. - Highlights: ► A donor–acceptor carbazole based monomer and its polymer were synthesized. ► The polymer film showed good electrochromic properties and high optical contrast. ► An electrochromic device based on the polymer was also constructed and characterized

  4. Neuroprotective efficacy of a proneurogenic compound after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Meghan O; Bramlett, Helen M; Naidoo, Jacinth; Pieper, Andrew A; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2014-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by histopathological damage and long-term sensorimotor and cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies have reported the discovery of the P7C3 class of aminopropyl carbazole agents with potent neuroprotective properties for both newborn neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus and mature neurons in other regions of the central nervous system. This study tested, for the first time, whether the highly active P7C3-A20 compound would be neuroprotective, promote hippocampal neurogenesis, and improve functional outcomes after experimental TBI. Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to moderate fluid percussion brain injury were evaluated for quantitative immunohistochemical and behavioral changes after trauma. P7C3-A20 (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was initiated intraperitoneally 30 min postsurgery and twice per day every day thereafter for 7 days. Administration of P7C3-A20 significantly reduced overall contusion volume, preserved vulnerable anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive pericontusional cortical neurons, and improved sensorimotor function 1 week after trauma. P7C3-A20 treatment also significantly increased both bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)- and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells within the subgranular zone of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus 1 week after TBI. Five weeks after TBI, animals treated with P7C3-A20 showed significantly increased BrdU/NeuN double-labeled neurons and improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze, compared to TBI-control animals. These results suggest that P7C3-A20 is neuroprotective and promotes endogenous reparative strategies after TBI. We propose that the chemical scaffold represented by P7C3-A20 provides a basis for optimizing and advancing new pharmacological agents for protecting patients against the early and chronic consequences of TBI. PMID:24070637

  5. Biological testing and chemical analysis of process materials from an integrated two stage coal liquefaction: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Buhl, P.; Moroni, E.C.

    1983-07-01

    Samples for chemical characterization and biological testing were obtained from ITSL runs 3LCF7, 3LCF8 and 3LCF9. Chemical analysis of these materials showed that SCT products were composed of fewer compounds than analogous materials from Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) processes. Major components in the SCT materials were three-, four-, five- and six-ring neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Methyl(C/sub 1/) and C/sub 2/ homologs of these compounds were present in relatively low concentrations, compared to their non-alkylated homologs. Organic nitrogen was primarily in the form of tertiary polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles and carbazoles. Little or no amino PAH (APAH) or cyano PAH were detected in samples taken during normal PDU operations, however, mutagenic APAH were produced during off-normal operation. Microbial mutagenicity appeared to be due mainly to the presence of APAH which were probably formed in the LC finer due to failure of the catalyst to promote deamination following carbon-nitrogen bond scission of nitrogen-containing hydroaromatics. This failure was observed for the off-normal runs where it was likely that the catalyst had been deactivated. Carcinogenic activity of ITSL materials as assessed by (tumors per animal) in the initiation/promotion mouse skin painting assay was slightly reduced for materials produced with good catalyst under normal operation compared to those collected during recycle of the LC Finer feed. Initiation activity of the latter samples did not appear to be significantly different from that of other coal derived materials with comparable boiling ranges. The observed initiation activity was not unexpected, considering analytical data which showed the presence of four-, five- and six-ring PAH in ITSL materials.

  6. Protective efficacy of carnosic acid against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells through the SIRT1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Fan, Qing; Lin, Musen; Zhang, Ce; Fan, Guangjun; Zhai, Xiaohan; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Zhao; Yao, Jihong

    2015-08-01

    Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary, has been reported to have antioxidant and antiadipogenic properties. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which CA inhibits hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in HepG2 cells. Cells were pretreated with 2.5-10 μmol/L CA for 2 h and then exposed to 3 mmol/L H2O2 for an additional 4 h. CA dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activities. Pretreatment with CA completely attenuated the inhibited expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), and reduced glutathione activity caused by H2O2, whereas it reversed reactive oxygen species accumulation and the increase in cleaved caspase-3. Importantly, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, was significantly increased by CA. Considering the above results, we hypothesized that SIRT1 may play important roles in the protective effects of CA in injury induced by H2O2. As expected, SIRT1 suppression by Ex527 (6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide) and siRNA-mediated SIRT1 silencing (si-SIRT1) significantly aggravated the H2O2-induced increased level of cleaved caspase-3 but greatly reduced the decreased expression of MnSOD and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, the positive regulatory effect of CA was inhibited by si-SIRT1. Collectively, the present study indicated that CA can alleviate H2O2-induced hepatocyte damage through the SIRT1 pathway. PMID:26059423

  7. Morphology-Dependent Trap Formation in High Performance Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2011-06-28

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly[N-9″-hepta- decanyl-2,7-carbazole- alt -5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) can have internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100% but require active layers that are too thin to absorb more than ∼70% of the above band gap light. When the active layer thickness is increased so that the cell absorbs more light, the fi ll factor and open circuit voltage decrease rapidly, so that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases. We fi nd that hole-traps in the polymer, which we characterize using space-charge limited current measurements, play an important role in the performance of PCDTBT-based BHJs and may limit the active layer thickness. Recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in BHJs because it is not believed to be a dominant loss mechanism in the "fruit-fl y" P3HT system. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to P3HT, PCDTBT has only weak short-range molecular order, and that annealing at temperatures above the glass transition decreases the order in the π-π stacking. The decrease in structural order is matched by the movement of hole-traps deeper into the band gap, so that thermal annealing worsens hole transport in the polymer and reduces the efficiency of PCDTBTbased BHJs. These fi ndings suggest that P3HT is not prototypical of the new class of high efficiency polymers, and that further improvement of BHJ efficiencies will necessitate the study of high efficiency polymers with low structural order. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Photophysical study of blue-light excitable ternary Eu(III) complexes and their encapsulation into polystyrene nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Räsänen, Markus, E-mail: mpvras@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Takalo, Harri [DHR Finland Oy, Innotrac Diagnostics, Biolinja 12, FIN-20750 Turku (Finland); Soukka, Tero [Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Haapakka, Keijo; Kankare, Jouko [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    In this work, 14 ternary Eu(III) complexes were studied by means of spectroscopy. The studied Eu(III) complexes consisted of Lewis bases (4′-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine (L{sup 8}) or 1,10-phenanthroline (L{sup 9})) and differently substituted β-diketones. The ternary complexes with L{sup 8} show the excitation peak at 405 nm and the quantum yield even 76%. The brightest ternary complex at the 405 nm excitation was Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 3}L{sup 8} while Eu(L{sup 7}){sub 3}L{sup 8} (HL{sup 3}=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, HL{sup 7}=1-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoro-1,3-pentanedione) was found to be the brightest at the ligand-centred excitation maximum. The ternary complexes were studied mainly in toluene as the model environment for the polystyrene nanoparticle cavities. The complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles enabling their bioanalytical application in aqueous environment. The encapsulation of the complexes preserved, or even enhanced, their good photophysical features. - Highlights: • Ternary Eu{sup 3+} complexes with some β-diketone and substituted terpyridine were studied. • Ternary complexes with substituted terpyridine showed blue-light excitability. • Ternary complexes were successfully loaded into the polystyrene nanoparticles. • Encapsulation of the complexes preserved their good photophysical features.

  9. Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9 reveals Pim kinases as potent stimulators of cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudhomme Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pim family kinases are small constitutively active serine/threonine-specific kinases, elevated levels of which have been detected in human hematopoietic malignancies as well as in solid tumours. While we and others have previously shown that the oncogenic Pim kinases stimulate survival of hematopoietic cells, we now examined their putative role in regulating motility of adherent cancer cells. For this purpose, we inhibited Pim kinase activity using a small molecule compound, 1,10-dihydropyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole-3-carbaldehyde (DHPCC-9, which we had recently identified as a potent and selective inhibitor for all Pim family members. Results We now demonstrate that the Pim kinase inhibitor DHPCC-9 is very effective also in cell-based assays. DHPCC-9 impairs the anti-apoptotic effects of Pim-1 in cytokine-deprived myeloid cells and inhibits intracellular phosphorylation of Pim substrates such as Bad. Moreover, DHPCC-9 slows down migration and invasion of cancer cells derived from either prostate cancer or squamocellular carcinoma patients. Silencing of Pim expression reduces cell motility, while Pim overexpression enhances it, strongly suggesting that the observed effects of DHPCC-9 are dependent on Pim kinase activity. Interestingly, DHPCC-9 also abrogates NFATc-dependent migration of cancer cells, implying that NFATc factors mediate at least part of the pro-migratory effects of Pim kinases. Conclusions Altogether, our data indicate that DHPCC-9 is not only a powerful tool to investigate physiological effects of the oncogenic Pim family kinases, but also an attractive molecule for drug development to inhibit invasiveness of Pim-overexpressing cancer cells.

  10. Novel cathode interlayers based on neutral alcohol-soluble small molecules with a triphenylamine core featuring polar phosphonate side chains for high-performance polymer light-emitting and photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongcheng; Zhou, Hu; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Wei-Ming; Su, Shi-Jian; Cao, Yong

    2013-04-12

    A new family of neutral alcohol-soluble small molecular materials comprised of electron-rich triphenylamine (TPA) and fluorene featuring phosphonate side chains (FEP) is reported, namely 3TPA-FEP, 2TPA-2FEP and TPA-3FEP, which have different TPA and FEP contents. Due to their good solubility in polar solvents like alcohol, multilayer devices can be fabricated by a wet process from orthogonal solvents. Polymer light-emitting devices with these materials as a cathode interlayer and Al as the cathode show greatly enhanced efficiencies in contrast to control devices without such a cathode interlayer, and their efficiencies are comparable with or even higher than devices with the low work-function metal Ba/Al as the cathode. In addition, high-performance polymer solar cells based on the poly[N-9''-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) system are also achieved with power conversion efficiencies of 7.21%, 6.90% and 6.89%, by utilizing 3TPA-FEP, 2TPA-2FEP and TPA-3FEP as the cathode interlayer, respectively. These efficiencies are also much higher than those for control devices without the cathode interlayer. Although TPA is well-known as a hole-transport unit, the current findings indicate that alcohol-soluble TPA-based small molecules are also a promising cathode interlayer for both electron injection and extraction. PMID:23386362

  11. Rational Molecular Engineering of Indoline-Based D-A-π-A Organic Sensitizers for Long-Wavelength-Responsive Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wu, Yongzhen; Zhu, Haibo; Chai, Qipeng; Liu, Jingchuan; Li, Hui; Song, Xiongrong; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2015-12-01

    Indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers are promising candidates for highly efficient and long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to further broaden the spectral response of the known indoline dye WS-2, we rationally engineer the molecular structure through enhancing the electron donor and extending the π-bridge, resulting in two novel indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers WS-92 and WS-95. By replacing the 4-methylphenyl group on the indoline donor of WS-2 with a more electron-rich carbazole unit, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band of dye WS-92 is slightly red-shifted from 550 nm (WS-2) to 554 nm (WS-92). In comparison, the incorporation of a larger π-bridge of cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) unit in dye WS-95 not only greatly bathochromatically tunes the absorption band to 574 nm but also largely enhances the molar extinction coefficients (ε), thus dramatically improving the light-harvesting capability. Under the standard global AM 1.5 solar light condition, the photovoltaic performances of both organic dyes have been evaluated in DSSCs on the basis of the iodide/triiodide electrolyte without any coadsorbent or cosensitizer. The DSSCs based on WS-95 display better device performance with power conversion efficiency (η) of 7.69%. The additional coadsorbent in the dye bath of WS-95 does not improve the photovoltaic performance, indicative of its negligible dye aggregation, which can be rationalized by the grafted dioctyl chains on the CPDT unit. The cosensitization of WS-95 with a short absorption wavelength dye S2 enhances the IPCE and improves the η to 9.18%. Our results indicate that extending the π-spacer is more rational than enhancing the electron donor in terms of broadening the spectral response of indoline-based D-A-π-A organic sensitizers. PMID:26552499

  12. Recombination region improvement for reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs with dual emissive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) by using dual-emissive-layer (DEL) structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The DEL was comprised of a hole-transport-type host of N, N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and a bipolar host of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), which were both doped with an orange phosphorescent dopant of bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-benzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt)2Ir(acac)]. After the optimization of doping concentration of the first emissive layer (FEL), the device with DEL exhibited 11% lower roll-off power efficiency than single emissive layer devices (SED) when the luminance increased from 1000 cd/m2 to 10,000 cd/m2. The hole–electron recombination zone in DEL was illuminated by inserting an ultrathin fluorescent probe of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) in different emissive regions. The performance improvement was attributed to the optimization of energy barrier and the expansion of exciton formation zone within the DEL. - Highlights: • PhOLEDs by using a dual-emissive-layer structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. • The DED exhibited 11% lower efficiency roll-off, 57% lower turn-on voltage, and 174% higher brightness than SED. • A DCJTB fluorescent probe was inserted at different positions of DED to investigate the expansion of exciton formation zone

  13. Structural, electronic, and optical properties of phenol-pyridyl boron complexes for light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lu-Yi; Ren, Ai-Min; Feng, Ji-Kang; Ran, Xue-Qin; Liu, Yan-Ling; Sun, Chia-Chung

    The coordination chemistry of polydentate chelating ligands that contain mixed pyridinephenol donor sets has been a sought-after target of study and is a possible extension to the chemistry of polypyridines. In this article, seven compounds, which are the four-coordinate boron complexes containing the mixed phenol-pyridyl group, have been studied by theoretical calculation. They can function as charge transport materials and emitters, with high efficiency and stability. To reveal the relationship between the structures and properties of these bifunctional or multifunctional electroluminescent materials, the ground and excited state geometries were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d), HF/6-31G(d), and CIS/6-31G(d) levels, respectively. The ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) were computed. The mobilities of hole and electron in these compounds were studied computationally based on the Marcus electron transfer theory. The lowest excitation energies, and the maximum absorption and emission wavelengths of these compounds were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory method. As a result of these calculations, the values of HOMO, LUMO, energy gaps, IPs, EAs, and the balance between the hole- and electron-transfer are greatly improved with the substitution of carbazole in compound 6. The calculated emission spectra of the seven studied molecules can almost cover the full UV-vis range (from 447.4 to 649.3 nm). Also, the Stokes shifts are unexpectedly large, ranging from 139.4 to 335.1 nm. This will result in the relatively long fluorescence lifetimes.

  14. Towards highly efficient red thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials by the control of intra-molecular π-π stacking interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunge; Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Li, Yilang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong; Duan, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have attracted much attention as they can achieve 100% theoretical internal quantum efficiency without using expensive noble metals. However, efficient red TADF emitters are hard to realize according to the energy gap law. Here, three donor-acceptor-donor type TADF emitters with the same acceptor of o-phthalodinitrile (PN) but different donors (9, 9-dimethyl-9, 10-dihydroacridine (DMAC), phenoxazine (PXZ), and phenothiazine (PTZ) for DMAC-PN, PXZ-PN, and PTZ-PN, respectively) have been synthesized, and it is observed that the performance of the emitters can be improved by reducing the intra-molecular π-π stacking. DMAC-PN with reduced intra-molecular π-π stacking shows a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 20.2% in degassed toluene solution, much higher than those of PXZ-PN, and PTZ-PN (0.8%, 0.2%, respectively). An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) employing DMAC-PN doped into 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) as the emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 10.2% with the emission peak at 564 nm. Moreover, when DMAC-PN is doped into a polar host, bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether oxide (DPEPO), the OLED shows a large redshift of the emission maximum to 594 nm, while maintaining a peak EQE as high as 7.2%, indicating that efficient red TADF OLEDs can be fabricated by doping orange TADF emitters into hosts with proper polarity. PMID:26821694

  15. The role of spin exchange in charge transfer in low-bandgap polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation, relaxation and dynamics of polarons and methanofullerene anion radicals photoinitiated in poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]:-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC61BM) bulk heterojunctions were studied mainly by light-induced EPR (LEPR) spectroscopy in wide photon energy and temperature ranges. Some polarons are pinned by spin traps whose number and depth are governed by the composite morphology and photon energy. The proximity of the photon energy and the polymer bandgap reduces the number of such traps, inhibits recombination of mobile charge carriers, and facilitates their mobility in polymer network. Spin relaxation and charge carrier dynamics were studied by the steady-state saturation method at wide range of temperature and photon energy. These processes were shown to be governed by spin exchange as well as by the photon energy. Charge transfer in the composite is governed by the polaron scattering on the lattice phonons of crystalline domains embedded into amorphous polymer matrix and its activation hopping between polymer layers. The energy barrier required for polaron interchain hopping exceeds that of its intrachain diffusion. Anisotropy of polaron dynamics in the PCDTBT:PC61BM composite is less than that of poly(3-alkylthiophenes)-based systems that evidences for better ordering of the former. Lorentzian shape of LEPR lines of both charge carriers, lower concentration of spin traps as well as behaviours of the main magnetic resonance parameters were explained by layer ordered morphology of polymer matrix

  16. Synthesis and characterization of hyaluronic acid/human-like collagen hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Ma, Xiaoxuan, E-mail: xiaoxuanma@163.com; Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn; Zhu, Chenhui; Deng, Jianjun; Hui, Junfeng; Ma, Pei

    2014-10-01

    Injectable hydrogel plays an important role in soft tissue filling and repair. We report an injectable hydrogel based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and human-like collagen (HLC), both with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability. These two types of biomacromolecules were crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to form a three-dimensional network. The redundant crosslinker was removed by dialysis and distillation. An HA-based hydrogel prepared by the same method was used as a control. The cytocompatibility was studied with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) test. Carbazole colorimetry was used to analyze the in vitro degradation rate. The histocompatibility was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that the HA/HLC hydrogel was less cytotoxic than the HA-based hydrogel and could promote baby hamster kidney cell (BHK) proliferation. The cell adhesion indicated that BHK could grow well on the surface of the materials and maintain good cell viability. The in vitro degradation test showed that the HA/HLC hydrogel had a longer degradation time and an excellent antienzyme ability. In vivo injection showed that there was little inflammatory response to HA/HLC after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Therefore, the HA/HLC hydrogel is a promising biomaterial for soft tissue filling and repair. - Highlights: • Human-like collagen was used with hyaluronic acid to prepare soft tissue filling meterials. • 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) was introduced to treat the hydrogels. • The addition of human-like collagen could improve the biological properties of hydrogels.

  17. Microlens array induced light absorption enhancement in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuqing [Ames Laboratory; Elshobaki, Moneim [Iowa State University; Ye, Zhuo [Ames Laboratory; Park, Joong-Mok [Ames Laboratory; Noack, Max A. [Iowa State University; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-24

    Over the last decade, polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a lot of attention and highest power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are now close to 10%. Here we employ an optical structure – the microlens array (MLA) – to increase light absorption inside the active layer, and PCE of PSCs increased even for optimized devices. Normal incident light rays are refracted at the MLA and travel longer optical paths inside the active layers. Two PSC systems – poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:(6,6)-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC70BM) – were investigated. In the P3HT:PCBM system, MLA increased the absorption, absolute external quantum efficiency, and the PCE of an optimized device by [similar]4.3%. In the PCDTBT:PC70BM system, MLA increased the absorption, absolute external quantum efficiency, and PCE by more than 10%. In addition, simulations incorporating optical parameters of all structural layers were performed and they support the enhancement of absorption in the active layer with the assistance of MLA. Our results show that utilizing MLA is an effective strategy to further increase light absorption in PSCs, in which optical losses account for [similar]40% of total losses. MLA also does not pose materials processing challenges to the active layers since it is on the other side of the transparent substrate.

  18. Claulansine F promoted the neuronal differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells through Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju-Yang; Ma, Yin-Zhong; Yuan, Yu-He; Zuo, Wei; Chu, Shi-Feng; Liu, Hang; Du, Guan-Hua; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-09-01

    The persistence of neurogenesis raises the idea that neurons produced by the resident or transplanted neural stem cells could replace the neurons lost from brain injury or neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, compounds or methods for promoting neuronal differentiation become the focus of neurodegenerative disease therapy research. Claulansine F (Clau F), a newly discovered carbazole alkaloid, has been showed to induce neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. Herein, we studied the effect of Clau F on neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs). The current study demonstrated that Clau F initiated neuronal differentiation with a significant increase of TuJ1-positive cells and TuJ1 protein levels. We also found that Clau F promoted the maturity and sustainability of neurons by increasing MAP2-positive cells and MAP2 protein levels. At the same time, Clau F significantly inhibited the proliferation of NS/PCs. The underlying mechanism of Clau F was preliminary explored. Clau F treatment resulted in a profound increase of phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β, which led to GSK-3β inhibition and subsequently the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Further, the interaction between β-catenin and p300 in the nucleus was enhanced and the transcription of p300/β-catenin responsive genes were increased significantly (c-jun, fra-1) by Clau F. Importantly, the positive effect of Clau F on neuronal differentiation was abolished by Akti-1/2, a specific inhibitor of Akt-1/2 kinase, which indicated the involvement of Akt/GSK-3β in Clau F-mediated neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, these data suggested that Clau F promoted neuronal differentiation through Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in NS/PCs. PMID:27179990

  19. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes

  20. Chromatin remodeling by curcumin alters endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Delju, Fatemeh; Rannug, Agneta

    2016-05-25

    The aim of this study was to gain more information about the mechanisms that regulate expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) target gene CYP1A1. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2 and Huh7) and human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) were treated with different concentrations of the dietary polyphenolic compound curcumin (CUR) alone or in combination with the natural AHR agonist 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). In an earlier study, we described that CUR can activate the AHR indirectly by inhibiting metabolic clearance of FICZ. Here, we measured cell viability, activation of AHR signaling, oxidative stress and histone modifying activities in response to CUR at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. We observed apparent non-linear responses on cell viability and activation of AHR signaling. The CYP1A1 expression and the CYP1A1 enzyme activity in the presence of CUR reflected the histone acetylation efficiency observed in nuclear extracts. At the lowest concentration, CUR significantly decreased histone deacetylase activity and increased the FICZ-induced CYP1A1 activity. In contrast, at the highest concentration, CUR increased the formation of reactive oxygen species, significantly inhibited histone acetylation, and temporally decreased FICZ-induced CYP1A1 activity. The results suggest that CUR can both increase and decrease the accessibility of DNA and thereby influence transcriptional responses to the ligand-activated AHR. This suggestion was supported by the fact that chromatin remodeling treatments with trichostatin A, p300, or 5-aza-dC increased CYP1A1 transcription. We conclude that the AHR-dependent transcriptional efficiency is modified by factors that influence the cellular redox status and the chromatin structure. PMID:27041069

  1. Genotoxicity of heterocyclic PAHs in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Brinkmann

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are, together with their un-substituted analogues, widely distributed throughout all environmental compartments. While fate and effects of homocyclic PAHs are well-understood, there are still data gaps concerning the ecotoxicology of heterocyclic PAHs: Only few publications are available investigating these substances using in vitro bioassays. Here, we present a study focusing on the identification and quantification of clastogenic and aneugenic effects in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1 that was originally derived from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Real concentrations of the test items after incubation without cells were determined to assess chemical losses due to, e.g., sorption or volatilization, by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to show genotoxic effects for six compounds that have not been reported in vertebrate systems before. Out of the tested substances, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline and 6-methylquinoline did not cause substantial induction of micronuclei in the cell line. Acridine caused the highest absolute induction. Carbazole, acridine and dibenzothiophene were the most potent substances compared with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, a well characterized genotoxicant with high potency used as standard. Dibenzofuran was positive in our investigation and tested negative before in a mammalian system. Chemical losses during incubation ranged from 29.3% (acridine to 91.7% (benzofuran and may be a confounding factor in studies without chemical analyses, leading to an underestimation of the real potency. The relative potency of the investigated substances was high compared with their un-substituted PAH analogues, only the latter being typically monitored as priority or indicator pollutants. Hetero-PAHs are widely distributed in the environment and even more mobile, e.g. in ground water, than homocyclic PAHs due to the higher water

  2. Eco-friendly spray coating of organic solar cells through water-based nanoparticles ink (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckers, Jeroen; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Manca, Jean; Ethirajan, Anitha; Deferme, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating is currently proven to be a reliable, flexible and cost efficient fabrication method for printed electronics [1-2]. Ultrasonic nozzles are by design especially well-suited to deposit nano-suspension dispersions. Due to the ultrasonic vibration of the nozzle, droplets having a median diameter of 20 μm are created in a homogeneous droplet cloud and directed towards the substrate. When one prepares an ink having the right wetting properties, thin and homogeneous layers, fully covering the surface, can be achieved. Together with conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs), emerging as a new class of nanomaterials, [3] it opens possibilities towards eco-friendly roll-to-roll processing of state-of-the-art organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. A ultrasonic spray coater was used to print the conjugated polymer NP layers under different conditions. A first optimization of the spray coater settings (flow rate, spray speed and temperature) and the ink formulation (water and co-solvent mixture and NP content) was performed for polystyrene particles dissolved in a water-ethanol mixture. As a next step, the low bandgap donor polymer poly[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophene-diyl] (PCDTBT) [4] and the fullerene acceptor phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) were combined in a water-based blend NP dispersion which was prepared using the mini-emulsion technique. [5,6] Optical Microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are performed to study the roughness, surface structure, thickness and coverage of the spray coated layers. Finally the printed NP layers are integrated in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells and compared to spin coated reference devices.

  3. Molecular characterisation of the dissolved organic matter of wastewater effluents by MSSV pyrolysis GC-MS and search for source markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P F; Berwick, L J; Croué, J-P

    2012-04-01

    Microscale sealed vessel pyrolysis (MSSVpy) was used to characterise the hydrophobic (HPO) and colloid (COL) fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the effluents (EFFs) of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and several primary source waters (SWs). The EFFs showed a large range of anthropogenically sourced organics - including the metabolites of industrial chemicals (e.g., dioxanes, n- and sec-alkyl substituted benzenes and long chain alkyl phenols), pharmaceuticals (e.g., N- and S-heterocycles) and human waste (e.g., S- and N-organics, steranes/sterenes) - as well as high concentrations of alkyl aromatic and N-organic products (e.g., alkyl indoles, carbazoles and β-carbolines) attributed to the treatment biota. Some anthropogenic chemicals are potentially toxic at even trace levels, whilst the N-organics may be precursors for toxic N-disinfection by-products. Much lower concentrations of just a few of the anthropogenic and N-organic products were detected by more traditional flash pyrolysis (Flash-py) of the EFF samples, reflecting the higher sensitivity of MSSVpy to many chemical functionalities. Few of these products were detected in the corresponding MSSVpy analysis of the SWs, but these samples did show relatively high abundances of lignin (e.g., alkylphenols) and carbohydrate (e.g., furans) derived products. Their lower EFF abundances are consistent with efficient removal by the water treatment procedures applied. Conversely, the detection of the anthropogenics in the treated EFFs reflects their general resistance to treatment. Their occurrence in the HPO fractions isolated by XAD resin separation suggests a potential relationship with the structurally stable macromolecular fraction of the DOM. PMID:22261369

  4. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shete Amol S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1, and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5 Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol. Methods The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Results The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve. Conclusion This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble

  5. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: differential contribution to T helper 17 and T cytotoxic 17 cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Hayes

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR has been shown to be required for optimal Thelper (Th 17 cell activation. Th17 cells provide immunity against extracellular pathogens and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. Herein, the role of the AhR in cytokine production by Th17, and by the analogous population of T cytotoxic (Tc17 cells, has been examined. Lymph node Tc (CD8(+ and Th (CD4(+ cells were isolated by negative selection from naive AhR(+/- and AhR(-/- mice and polarised to Tc1/Th1 or Tc17/Th17 phenotypes with appropriate cytokines. Cell differentiation was assessed as a function of mRNA and protein (ELISA and flow cytometry expression for interferon (IFN-γ and for key Th17 cytokines. In AhR(+/- mice, Th17 cells displayed an exclusive IL-17 profile, which was markedly inhibited by a selective AhR antagonist to levels observed in AhR knockout mice. Addition of the natural AhR agonist 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ markedly enhanced Th17 cell activity in the heterozygotes. In contrast, Tc17 cells polarised into 3 distinct subsets: producing either IL-17 or IFN-γ alone, or both cytokines. Blocking AhR was also detrimental to Tc17 development, with reduced responses recorded in AhR(-/- mice and antagonist-mediated reduction of IL-17 expression in the heterozygotes. However, Tc17 cells were largely refractory to exogenous FICZ, presumably because Tc17 cells express baseline AhR mRNA, but unlike Th17 cells, there is no marked up-regulation during polarisation. Thus, Th17 cell development is more dependent upon AhR activation than is Tc17 cell development, suggesting that endogenous AhR ligands play a much greater role in driving Th17 cell responses.

  6. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: differential contribution to T helper 17 and T cytotoxic 17 cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark D; Ovcinnikovs, Vitalijs; Smith, Andrew G; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to be required for optimal Thelper (Th) 17 cell activation. Th17 cells provide immunity against extracellular pathogens and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. Herein, the role of the AhR in cytokine production by Th17, and by the analogous population of T cytotoxic (Tc)17 cells, has been examined. Lymph node Tc (CD8(+)) and Th (CD4(+)) cells were isolated by negative selection from naive AhR(+/-) and AhR(-/-) mice and polarised to Tc1/Th1 or Tc17/Th17 phenotypes with appropriate cytokines. Cell differentiation was assessed as a function of mRNA and protein (ELISA and flow cytometry) expression for interferon (IFN)-γ and for key Th17 cytokines. In AhR(+/-) mice, Th17 cells displayed an exclusive IL-17 profile, which was markedly inhibited by a selective AhR antagonist to levels observed in AhR knockout mice. Addition of the natural AhR agonist 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) markedly enhanced Th17 cell activity in the heterozygotes. In contrast, Tc17 cells polarised into 3 distinct subsets: producing either IL-17 or IFN-γ alone, or both cytokines. Blocking AhR was also detrimental to Tc17 development, with reduced responses recorded in AhR(-/-) mice and antagonist-mediated reduction of IL-17 expression in the heterozygotes. However, Tc17 cells were largely refractory to exogenous FICZ, presumably because Tc17 cells express baseline AhR mRNA, but unlike Th17 cells, there is no marked up-regulation during polarisation. Thus, Th17 cell development is more dependent upon AhR activation than is Tc17 cell development, suggesting that endogenous AhR ligands play a much greater role in driving Th17 cell responses. PMID:25203682

  7. Photo-oxidation products of skin surface squalene mediate metabolic and inflammatory responses to solar UV in human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kostyuk

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The study aimed to identify endogenous lipid mediators of metabolic and inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes to solar UV irradiation. Physiologically relevant doses of solar simulated UVA+UVB were applied to human skin surface lipids (SSL or to primary cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK. The decay of photo-sensitive lipid-soluble components, alpha-tocopherol, squalene (Sq, and cholesterol in SSL was analysed and products of squalene photo-oxidation (SqPx were quantitatively isolated from irradiated SSL. When administered directly to NHEK, low-dose solar UVA+UVB induced time-dependent inflammatory and metabolic responses. To mimic UVA+UVB action, NHEK were exposed to intact or photo-oxidised SSL, Sq or SqPx, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, and the product of tryptophan photo-oxidation 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ. FICZ activated exclusively metabolic responses characteristic for UV, i.e. the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR machinery and downstream CYP1A1/CYP1B1 gene expression, while 4-HNE slightly stimulated inflammatory UV markers IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS genes. On contrast, SqPx induced the majority of metabolic and inflammatory responses characteristic for UVA+UVB, acting via AhR, EGFR, and G-protein-coupled arachidonic acid receptor (G2A. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that Sq could be a primary sensor of solar UV irradiation in human SSL, and products of its photo-oxidation mediate/induce metabolic and inflammatory responses of keratinocytes to UVA+UVB, which could be relevant for skin inflammation in the sun-exposed oily skin.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in shale oils: influence of process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Nazzal, J.M. [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are a significant environmental chemical group, with an associated health hazard. They have been shown to be present in oils derived from the pyrolysis of oil shales; however, the influence of process conditions on their concentration is less well known. Oil shales were pyrolysed in a 200 cm{sup 3} stainless steel fixed bed reactor in relation to temperature from 400{sup o}C to 620{sup o}C in both a nitrogen and nitrogen/steam atmosphere. The condensed oils were analysed for their content of PAC, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), sulphur-PAH (PASH) and Nitrogen-PAH (PANH). The derived gases were analysed in terms of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and other hydrocarbons to C{sub 4} and the alkene/alkane ratio determined. The derived shale oils were found to contain significant concentrations of PAH, PASH and PANH some of which have been shown to be biologically active. The main PAH were napthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues; PASH identified included, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene and the PANH included indole, carbazole and quinoline and their alkylated derivatives. The concentration of PAC increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and their formation was linked to increased secondary reactions as indicated by the gas phase alkene/alkane ratio. The influence of steam was to increase the yield of oil significantly. The presence of steam also increased the concentration of PAC in the derived shale oil compared to using nitrogen as the sweep gas. (author)

  9. Fine tuning of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend nanoscale phase separation via selective solvent annealing toward high-performance polymer photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution-processable polymer solar cells show great promise for providing a cost-effective route to create lightweight and flexible solar energy conversion devices. The photoactive layer comprising the conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor must be optimized to form bicontinuous nanoscale phase separation in order for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection due to the short exciton diffusion length of organic semiconductors. The donor polymer poly[9-(heptadecan-9-yl)-9H-carbazole- 2,7-diyl-alt-(5,6-bis(hexyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2- yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)-5,5-diyl] (PCDTBT-OR) has a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital level compared to its counterpart PCDTBT, and shows promise in increasing the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells. The phase separation evolution of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend with various weight ratios under tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapor annealing and its influence on the photovoltaic performance is investigated in detail. It is found that THF vapor annealing can promote the acceptor PC71BM aggregation from the donor PCDTBT-OR matrix to form nanoscale donor/acceptor phase separation for efficient exciton dissociation and charge collection depending on the donor/acceptor weight ratio and the annealing time. The THF vapor-annealed PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM solar cells exhibit remarkable enhancement, with a PCE of 7.01% compared to 3.25% of the as-cast solar cells with the same active layer thickness. This work provides a general methodology to construct nano-interpenetrating networks for homogeneous polymer/fullerene blends and is potentially applicable to the roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer solar cells. (paper)

  10. Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole-Based Copolymers as Donor Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new accepter unit, pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole-2,5-dione, was prepared and utilized for the synthesis of the conjugated polymers containing electron donor-acceptor pair for OPVs. Pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole-2,5-dione unit, regioisomer of the known pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione, is originated from the structure of stable synthetic pigment. The new conjugated polymers with 1,4-diphenylpyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole-2,5-dione, thiophene and carbazole were synthesized using Suzuki polymerization to generate P1 and P2. The solid films of P1 and P2 show absorption bands with maximum peaks at about 377, 554 and 374, 542 nm and the absorption onsets at 670 and 674 nm, corresponding to band gaps of 1.85 and 1.84 eV, respectively. To improve the hole mobility of the polymer with 1,4-bis(4-butylphenyl)-pyrrolo[3,2-b]-pyrrole-2,5-dione unit, which was previously reported by us, the butyl group at the 4-positions of the N-substituted phenyl group was substituted with hydrogen and methyl group. The field-effect hole mobility of P2 is 9.6 Χ 10-5 cm2/Vs. The device with P2:PC71BM (1:2) showed VOC value of 0.84 V, JSC value of 5.10 mA/cm2, and FF of 0.33, giving PCE of 1.42%

  11. Total syntheses of the telomerase inhibitors dictyodendrin B, C, and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois; Domostoj, Mathias M; Scheiper, Bodo

    2006-06-21

    Concise and flexible total syntheses of the pyrrolo[2,3-c]carbazole alkaloids dictyodendrin B (2), C (3), and E (5) are described. These polycyclic telomerase inhibitors of marine origin derive from the common intermediate 18 which was prepared on a multigram scale by a sequence comprising a TosMIC cycloaddition with formation of the pyrrole A-ring, a titanium-induced reductive oxoamide coupling reaction to generate an adjacent indole nucleus, and a photochemical 6pi-electrocyclization/aromatization tandem to forge the pyrrolocarbazole core. Conversion of 18 into dictyodendrin C required selective manipulations of the lateral protecting groups and oxidation with peroxoimidic acid to form the vinylogous benzoquinone core of the target. Zinc-induced reductive cleavage of the trichloroethyl sulfate ester then completed the first total synthesis of 3. Its relatives 2 and 5 also originate from compound 18 by a selective bromination of the pyrrole entity followed by elaboration of the resulting bromide 27 via metal-halogen exchange or cross-coupling chemistry, respectively. Particularly noteworthy in this context is the generation of the very labile p-quinomethide motif of dictyodendrin E by a palladium-catalyzed benzyl cross-coupling reaction followed by vinylogous oxidation of the resulting product 41 with DDQ. The Suzuki step could only be achieved with the aid of the borate complex 40 formed in situ from p-methoxybenzylmagnesium chloride and 9-MeO-9-BBN, whereas alternative methods employing benzylic boronates, -trifluoroborates, or -stannanes met with failure. PMID:16771525

  12. Environmental fate and effect assessment of thioridazine and its transformation products formed by photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Marcelo L; Menz, Jakob; Trautwein, Christoph; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    An experimental and in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach was applied to assess the environmental fate and effects of the antipsychotic drug Thioridazine (THI). The sunlight-driven attenuation of THI was simulated using a Xenon arc lamp. The photodegradation reached the complete primary elimination, whereas 97% of primary elimination and 11% of mineralization was achieved after 256 min of irradiation for the initial concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1), respectively. A non-target approach for the identification and monitoring of transformation products (TPs) was adopted. The structure of the TPs was further elucidated using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The proposed photodegradation pathway included sulfoxidation, hydroxylation, dehydroxylation, and S- and N-dealkylation, taking into account direct and indirect photolysis through a self-sensitizing process in the higher concentration studied. The biodegradability of THI and photolytic samples of THI was tested according to OECD 301D and 301F, showing that THI and the mixture of TPs were not readily biodegradable. Furthermore, THI was shown to be highly toxic to environmental bacteria using a modified luminescent bacteria test with Vibrio fischeri. This bacteriotoxic activity of THI was significantly reduced by phototransformation and individual concentration-response analysis confirmed a lowered bacterial toxicity for the sulfoxidation products Thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and Thioridazine-5-sulfoxide. Additionally, the applied QSAR models predicted statistical and rule-based positive alerts of mutagenic activities for carbazole derivative TPs (TP 355 and TP 339) formed through sulfoxide elimination, which would require further confirmatory in vitro validation tests. PMID:27020046

  13. Functional and phenotypic effects of AhR activation in inflammatory dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen presenting cells governing T cell activation and differentiation. However, the consequences of AhR activation in DCs are not fully defined. We hypothesized that AhR activation alters DC differentiation and generates dysfunctional DCs. To test this hypothesis, inflammatory bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from C57Bl/6 mice were generated in the presence of vehicle or TCDD. TCDD decreased CD11c expression but increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD25 expression on the BMDCs. The effects of TCDD were strictly AhR-dependent but not exclusively DRE-mediated. Similar effects were observed with two natural AhR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid (ITE). TCDD increased LPS- and CpG-induced IL-6 and TNF-α production by BMDCs but decreased their NO production. TCDD decreased CpG-induced IL-12p70 production by BMDCs but did not affect their secretion of IL-10. TCDD downregulated LPS- and CpG-induced NF-kB p65 levels and induced a trend towards upregulation of RelB levels in the BMDCs. AhR activation by TCDD modulated BMDC uptake of both soluble and particulate antigens. Induction of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and TGF-β3 has been implicated in the generation of regulatory T cells following AhR activation. TCDD increased IDO1, IDO2 and TGF-β3 mRNA levels in BMDCs as compared to vehicle. Despite the induction of regulatory mediators, TCDD-treated BMDCs failed to suppress antigen-specific T cell activation. Thus, AhR activation can directly alter the differentiation and innate functions of inflammatory DCs without affecting their ability to successfully interact with T cells.

  14. ENA of heterocyclic hydrocarbons by adding hydrogen peroxide in groundwater circulation wells - a field-based study on a large physical model scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterocyclic Hydrocarbons (NSO-HET) are ingredients of tar oil, commonly found down-gradient of former gasworks sites. Typical NSO-HET are benzofurans, methyl-benzofurans, methylquinoline, acridine or carbazole. During investigations of MNA (monitored natural attenuation) remediation strategies, it was found that most NSO-HET are highly mobile due to their high water solubility and low biodegradation rates. In addition, some were found to be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In particular under anaerobic conditions, NSO-HET biodegradation rates are low. However, aerobic biological degradation was found to be effective. Based on the extension and contaminant distribution of the plume (∼ 800 m long) down-gradient of a former gasworks 'Testfeld Sued' (TFS) in Southern Germany, the most applicable technology for enhancing the natural degradation of PAH, BTEX and NSO-HET was selected and tested under controlled conditions in a large physical model (Large Flume of VEGAS). The investigations focused on a technology for a homogeneous infiltration of electron acceptor solutions such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to provide the bacteria with molecular oxygen. An initial infiltration of oxygen (air-saturated water) during the adaptation of microorganism to aerobic biodegradation was followed by a time-limited addition of hydrogen peroxide to achieve an oxygen concentration up to 23 mg/L in the model aquifer. An almost complete degradation of NSO-HET was found. On the basis of numerical simulations and lab experiments, it was found that natural dispersion will not lead to a wide-ranging homogeneous distribution and mixing of the oxygen in the aquifer. The Groundwater Circulation Wells technology (GCW) can be applied to achieve a maximum mixing of the electron acceptor solution with the groundwater. A spherical groundwater circulation is induced by means of ex- and infiltration ports in vertical wells. Infiltration and ex-filtration ports are located in hydraulically separated

  15. Enhancing the Efficiency and Contrast Ratio of White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using Energy-Recyclable Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Meiso; Wu, Chung-Ming; Su, Shui-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate that power recycling is feasible by using a semitransparent strip of Al electrode as an interconnecting layer to merge a white organic light-emitting device (WOLED) and an organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell. The device is called a photovoltaic organic light-emitting device (PVOLED). It has a glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/4,4,4-tris(3-methyl-phenylphenylamino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA):V2O5/2-N',N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB)/4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP):bis[3,5-difluoro-2-(2-pyridyl) phenyl-(2-carboxypyridyl)] iridium(II) (FIrpic):4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)/LiF/Al/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/V2O5/Al structure. A power recycling efficiency of 10.133% is achieved using the WOLED of the PVOLED operated at 9 V and a brightness of 2110 cd/m2 when the conversion efficiency of the OPV cell is 2.3%. We found that the power recycling efficiency decreases at a high brightness and a high applied voltage owing to an increase in the input power of the WOLED. A high efficiency (18.3 cd/A) and a high contrast ratio (9.3) are obtained in the device operated at 2500 cd/m2 under an ambient illumination of 24000 lx. Reasonable white light emission with Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of (0.32, 0.44) at 20 mA/cm2 and a slight color shift occur in spite of the high current density of 50 mA/cm2.

  16. Transport of creosote compounds in a large, intact, macroporous clayey till column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Kim; Jørgensen, Peter R.; Hansen, Asger B.; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Martin

    1999-10-01

    The transport in macroporous clayey till of bromide and 25 organic compounds typical of creosote was studied using a large intact soil column. The organic compounds represented the following groups: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds, monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs), and heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur in the aromatic ring structure (NSO-compounds). The clayey till column (0.5 m in height and 0.5 m in diameter) was obtained from a depth of 1-1.5 m at an experimental site located on the island of Funen, Denmark. Sodium azide was added to the influent water of the column to prevent biodegradation of the studied organic compounds. For the first 24 days of the experiment, the flow rate was 219 ml day -1 corresponding to an infiltration rate of 0.0011 m day -1. At this flow rate, the effluent concentrations of bromide and the organic compounds increased very slowly. The transport of bromide and the organic compounds were successfully increased by increasing the flow rate to 1353 ml day -1 corresponding to 0.0069 m day -1. The experiment showed that the transport of low-molecular-weight organic compounds was not retarded relative to bromide. The high-molecular-weight organic compounds were retarded significantly. The influence of sorption on the transport of the organic compounds through the column was evaluated based on the observed breakthrough curves. The observed order in the column experiment was, with increasing retardation, the following: benzene=pyrrole=toluene= o-xylene= p-xylene=ethylbenzene=phenol=benzothiophene=benzofurancarbazole<2-methylquinoline

  17. Does glucose enhance the formation of nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis of proline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip F. Britt; A.C. Buchanan; Clyde V. Owens, Jr.; J. Todd Skeen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division

    2004-08-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of proline, glucose, 1-((2{prime}-carboxy)pyrrolidinyl)-1-deoxy-D-fructose (the proline Amadori compound), and a 1:1 mixture by weight of proline and glucose was investigated at high temperatures (600-840{sup o}C) and short residence time (i.e. 1.0 s) in an inert atmosphere to determine if glucose or Maillard reaction products enhance the formation of nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the pyrolysis of proline. To study the gas-phase formation of N-PACs and PAHs, the substrates were sublimed into the pyrolysis furnace at 460{sup o}C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that glucose, the proline/glucose mixture, and the proline Amadori compound undergo solid-state decomposition reactions before subliming. Thus, the substrates were pyrolyzed in two stages: at 460{sup o}C during the sublimation and at 600-840{sup o}C. At 800{sup o}C with a residence time of 1.0 s, proline produced low yields of N-PACs, such as quinoline, isoquinoline, indole, acridine, and carbazole, and PAHs, such as phenanthrene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, and benzo(a)pyrene. Increasing the temperature and residence time increased the yield of these products. Under similar pyrolysis conditions, the proline Amadori compound produced 2-8 fold more N-PACs and PAHs than proline. A 1:1 mixture of proline and glucose produced a similar slate of pyrolysis products as the proline Amadori compound, but it is unclear whether the proline Amadori compound was an intermediate in the reaction. In general, the proline Amadori compound produced a higher yield of N-PACs and PAHs than the proline/glucose mixture, but glucose clearly enhances the low temperature gas-phase formation of N-PACs and PAHs from the pyrolysis of proline. 56 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Photo-Crosslinking of Pendent Uracil Units Provides Supramolecular Hole Injection/Transport Conducting Polymers for Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Kang Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new process for modifying a polymeric material for use as a hole injection transport layer in organic light-emitting diodes has been studied, which is through 2π + 2π photodimerization of a DNA-mimetic π-conjugated poly(triphenylamine-carbazole presenting pendent uracil groups (PTC-U under 1 h of UV irradiation. Multilayer florescence OLED (Organic light-emitting diodes device with the PTC-U-1hr as a hole injection/transport layer (ITO (Indium tin oxide/HITL (hole-injection/transport layer (15 nm/N,N'-di(1-naphthyl- N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB (15 nm/Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3 (60 nm/LiF (1 nm/Al (100 nm is fabricated, a remarkable improvement in performance (Qmax (external quantum efficiency = 2.65%, Bmax (maximum brightness = 56,704 cd/m2, and LE (luminance efficiencymax = 8.9 cd/A relative to the control PTC-U (Qmax = 2.40%, Bmax = 40,490 cd/m2, and LEmax = 8.0 cd/A. Multilayer phosphorescence OLED device with the PTC-U-1hr as a hole injection/transport layer (ITO/HITL (15 nm/Ir(ppy3:PVK (40 nm/BCP (10nm/Alq3 (40 nm/LiF (1 nm/Al (100 nm is fabricated by successive spin-coating processes, a remarkable improvement in performance (Qmax = 9.68%, Bmax = 41,466 cd/m2, and LEmax = 36.6 cd/A relative to the control PTC-U (Qmax = 8.35%, Bmax = 34,978 cd/m2, and LEmax = 30.8 cd/A and the commercial product (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate PEDOT:PSS (Qmax = 4.29%, Bmax = 15,678 cd/m2, and LEmax = 16.2 cd/A has been achieved.

  19. Improved hole mobility and suppressed trap density in polymer-polymer dual donor based highly efficient organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vishal; Sharma, Abhishek; Gupta, Vinay; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Here we report, the charge transport properties of polymer-polymer dual donor blended film, viz., polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) and poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) in the optimized concentration. Trap density and hole mobility in polymer-polymer (PTB7-PCDTBT) dual donor system have been studied by means of current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics at various temperatures, i.e., 280 K-120 K in hole only device configuration, i.e., indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Polymer film/gold (Au). The J-V curves exhibit the space charge limited conduction behavior. The corresponding hole mobility for PTB7 and PCDTBT are 3.9 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.1 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, whereas it is 9.1 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the polymer-polymer blend of PTB7:PCDTBT (0.7:0.3). This enhancement in mobility can be attributed to the suppressed trap density in PTB7:PCDTBT (0.7:0.3) of 7.4 × 1016 cm-3, as compared to the trap density of 1.1 × 1017 cm-3 for PTB7 and 1.6 × 1017 cm-3 for PCDTBT. Atomic force microscopy shows an improvement in the morphology of the blend. The J-V characteristic at various light intensities in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell reveals that the blending of PCDTBT in PTB7 suppressed the trap-assisted recombination. The corresponding power conversion efficiencies for PTB7:PC71BM, PCDTBT:PC71BM and PTB7:PCDTBT:PC71BM BHJ solar cells are 6.9%, 6.1% and 9.0%, respectively. This work unravels that the enhanced mobility and suppressed trap density play a significant role in the improvement of efficiency in dual donor based organic solar cells.

  20. Development of a colony lift immunoassay to facilitate rapid detection and quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from agar plates and filter monitor membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D T; Lamichhane, C M; Rollins, D M; Carr, L E; Mallinson, E T; Joseph, S W

    1998-07-01

    E. coli O157:H7 is a food-borne adulterant that can cause hemorrhagic ulcerative colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Faced with an increasing risk of foods contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, food safety officials are seeking improved methods to detect and isolate E. coli O157:H7 in hazard analysis and critical control point systems in meat- and poultry-processing plants. A colony lift immunoassay was developed to facilitate the positive identification and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 by incorporating a simple colony lift enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with filter monitors and traditional culture methods. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes (Millipore, Bedford, Mass.) were prewet with methanol and were used to make replicates of every bacterial colony on agar plates or filter monitor membranes that were then reincubated for 15 to 18 h at 36 +/- 1 degree C, during which the colonies not only remained viable but were reestablished. The membranes were dried, blocked with blocking buffer (Kirkegaard and Perry Laboratories [KPL], Gaithersburg, Md.), and exposed for 7 min to an affinity-purified horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-E. coli O157 antibody (KPL). The membranes were washed, exposed to a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine membrane substrate (TMB; KPL) or aminoethyl carbazole (AEC; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.), rinsed in deionized water, and air dried. Colonies of E. coli O157:H7 were identified by either a blue (via TMB) or a red (via AEC) color reaction. The colored spots on the PVDF lift membrane were then matched to their respective parent colonies on the agar plates or filter monitor membranes. The colony lift immunoassay was tested with a wide range of genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae as well as different serotypes within the E. coli genus. The colony lift immunoassay provided a simple, rapid, and accurate method for confirming the presence of E. coli O157:H7 colonies isolated on filter monitors or spread plates by

  1. Ultrafast carrier photogeneration dynamics in polymer: fullerene solar cells probed by photocurrent-detected two-dimensional coherence spectroscopy (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    delay between the pulses 1 and 2, as well as that between pulses 3 and 4 (coherence times), at a fixed delay between pulses 2 and 3 (population waiting time), one measures a two-dimensional coherence decay function that is Fourier transformed to produce a 2D photocurrent correlation excitation spectrum. Measurement of such spectra at different population waiting times provides insight into the role of spectral correlations and state coherence in photocurrent generation in such complex functional materials. We focus on solar cells produced by blends of a common carbazole-thiophene-benzothiadiazole polymer, PCDTBT (the donor polymer), and PCBM (the fullerene acceptor), in which we analyse the dynamics of total photocurrent generation via the time evolution of diagonal and off-diagonal spectral correlations. We address the role of vibronic coherence as well as resonant tunneling in charge separation pathways on ultrashort timescales.

  2. Utilizing copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition for the surface modification of colloidal particles with electroactive and emissive moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Parul

    The development of charge-transporting and fluorescing colloidal particles that can be directly printed into electroluminescent devices may result in a broad impact on the use of electrical energy for illumination. The objective of this work was to design and synthesize electroactive & fluorescing colloidal particles; establish their optical, electronic, and thermodynamic properties; and transition them into a device format for potential applications. The original intended application of this work was to build "better" colloidally-based organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) by creating functional particles with superior electrical and optical performance relative to commercially available technologies, but through the course of the research, the particles that were developed were found to be better suited for medical applications. Nonetheless, the global objective envisioned at the onset of this research was consistent with its final outcomes. The research tasks pursued to accomplish this global objective included: (1) The design and synthesis of electroactive moieties and their conversion into organic light emitting devices; An electron-transporting monomer was synthesized that was structurally & energetically similar to the small molecule 2-biphenyl-4-yl-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (tBu-PBD). The monomer was copolymerized with 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl 2-methylacrylate (CE) and the resulting copolymer was utilized in OLEDs which employed fluorescent coumarin 6 (C6) or phosphorescent tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)3] emitters. The copolymer devices exhibited a mean luminance of ca. 400 and 3,552 cd/m2 with the C6 and Ir(ppy)3 emitters, that were stable with thermal aging at temperatures ranging from 23°C to 130°C. Comparable poly(9-vinyl-9H-carbazole)/tBu-PBD blend devices exhibited more pronounced variations in performance with thermal aging. (2) The surface-modification of colloids with electroactive & fluorescing moieties via "click

  3. Two-photon absorption prop erties of novel charge transfer molecules with divinyl sulfide/sulfone center%以二乙烯硫/砜基为中心的新型电荷转移分子双光子吸收特性∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武香莲; 赵珂; 贾海洪; 王富青

    2015-01-01

    triphenylamine group has the largest cross-section due to its strong donor groups. The divinyl sulfones-based dyes have larger cross-sections than the corresponding sulfides-based ones, because divinyl sulfones have stronger capability to accept electrons and at the same time the torsional angles between benzene rings in sulfones-based molecules are smaller than in the sulfides-based molecules. In the applicable wavelength range, these new dyes exhibit large two-photon absorption cross-sections which have the same order of magnitude as the strong two-photon absorption molecules with similar conjugation length. The largest cross section comes to 1613.3 GM calculated by using 6-31g(d) basis set. Molecular orbitals involved in the strongest two-photon absorption excitations are plotted and the charge transfer process is analyzed at length. The divinyl sulfide and sulfone centers behave as electron withdrawing groups and can form effective charge transfer molecules. On the basis of these new molecules, the structure inducing two-photon absorption enhancement is designed by employing isomerism effect. When the benzene rings of carbazole groups are connected with the molecular center, the planarity and charge transfer intensity are increased, and then the two-photon absorption cross-section can be improved dramatically. This study provides theoretical guidelines for the synthesis of new type of active two-photon absorption materials.

  4. Simultaneous determination of neutral sugars and uronic acid constituents in a novel bacterial polysaccharide using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气相色谱-质谱联用同时分析新型细菌多糖中的单糖和糖醛酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤芹; 杨航仙; 汪以真

    2013-01-01

    对纯化的新型细菌多糖进行酸水解,用乙硫醇-三氟乙酸和醋酐-吡啶体系先后对酸水解物进行衍生,与之前报道不同的是糖醛酸得到有效衍生化.以木糖为内标,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)定量分析该多糖酸水解物中单糖和糖醛酸衍生物发现,该多糖的糖链由岩藻糖、葡萄糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖组成,其相对物质的量比为1.50∶1.0∶0.79∶2.06;中性糖比例与糖醇乙酸酯化分析岩藻糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖的相对物质的量比(1.76∶1.0∶1.98)接近;糖醛酸咔唑法与该方法分析葡萄糖醛酸的含量分别为16.19%和14.85%.以上结果表明所建立的衍生化方法及GC-MS同时定量分析多糖酸水解物中单糖和糖醛酸的方法可行.此外还对葡萄糖醛酸的质谱裂解机理进行了阐述.%The purified novel bacterial polysaccharide was acid-hydrolyzed, followed by the subsequent derivatization using ethanethiol-trifluoroacetic acid and acetic anhydride-pyridine systems sequentially. Our findings differ from the previous reports in that the glucuronic acid was obtained through effective derivatization. The neutral sugars and glucuronic acid were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with xylose as an internal standard. The polysaccharide was found to be composed of fucose, glucose, glucuronic acid and galactose, with the relative molar ratio of 1. 50: 1. 0: 0. 79= 2. 06. The neutral sugars ratio was similar to the relative molar ratio for fucose, glucose and galactose of 1. 76: l. 0: 1. 98 through alditol acetates determined by GC. The percentages of glucuronic acid analyzed using either the carbazole and sulfuric acid method or the above method were 16. 19% and 14. 85%, respectively. These results indicate that it is practicable to use the derivatization method and GC-MS to quantitatively analyze neutral sugars and glucuronic acid simultaneously in polysaccharide. For GC-MS analysis, the

  5. High efficiency semitransparent polymer solar cells based on PCDTBT:PC71BM%基于PCDTBT:PC71BM的半透明高效聚合物太阳能电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少鹏; 韩凌洁; 赵艳新; 江涛; 杨启满; 李晓苇; 傅广生

    2012-01-01

    通过在聚合物电池内部加入Ag半透明增反膜,构建光学谐振腔,实现了光线在Ag薄层和金属电极之间的多次反射.这样可增加活性层对光的吸收,提高量子效率,进而大幅度提高短路电流,优化电池性能.实验中使用具有较低能带结构和宽吸收光谱的新型聚合物PCDTBT作为电子给体材料和PC71BM作为电子受体材料,通过控制薄膜生长过程和优化膜层厚度使转化效率达到5.08%.在此基础上,加入Ag作为半透明增反层,促使光线在Ag薄层和金属电极之间往复反射传输,大幅提高量子效率和短路电流.通过改变Ag薄层的厚度获得最大的短路电流密度和光电转换效率,实验得出当Ag厚度为8 nm时,短路电流达到最大15.0 mA/cm2,光电转换效率达到6.03%,从而达到了半透明增反层大幅提高电池性能的目的.%We achieved good performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs) with the construction of an optical resonant cavity through inserting a silver (Ag) semitransparent enhancement reflection layer. Compared to P3HT, a electron donor material with lower band-gap and wider absorption spectra, poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2'1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT), was used in bulk heterojunction combined with the electron acceptor material [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The performance of PCDTBT:PC71 BM PSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.08% by controlling the growth rate and optimizing the thickness of active layers. On this basis, we inserted a Ag layer between 1TO and PEDOT:PSS. Thus lights make round trips between the thin film of Ag and the metal electrode which leads to higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) together with a remarkable increase of short circuit current (Jsc). Then we optimized the thickness of Ag layer, and PCE was improved to 6.03% when Jsx. Was 15.0 mA/cm2. This demonstrates that by building an optical resonant cavity

  6. Novel composites for nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed-Muhammed, Muhammed Subhi

    A fully computerised Temperature-Gradient Zone-Melting (TGZM) apparatus was designed and built in order to produce novel and highly aligned composite films for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). The TGZM apparatus consists of hot and cold aluminium blocks with glass- ceramic thermal insulator sandwiched between the two blocks. The composite films contain SHG-active guest crystals incorporated within a polymer matrix (host) forming a guest/host structure. These composites exhibit good optical performance in terms of SHG output (guest crystal), high mechanical strength, thermal and chemical stability (host polymer). These particular properties are of great importance especially for fibre-optical applications. 3-methyl-4-methoxy-4'-nitrostilbene (MMONS) is SHG-active guest material which was investigated by incorporating it in poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA(host polymer). Two PMMA molecular weight distributions (MWD) were used once at a time, in which the effect of that on the overall SHG intensity was clearly observed. It was found that a change of a polymer MWD does alter the output of the SHG signal. MMONS crystals were also embedded in another polymer host called Polystyrene (PS) in order to demonstrate the effect of using two different polymers on the SHG intensity of MMONS aligned films. The samples were cast on a glass slides and placed on the hot side of the TGZM apparatus (crystal growth from melt). Later they were drawn towards the cold side with a drawing rate closely matching the MMONS crystal growth rate and producing highly aligned composite films. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1064 nm) with 10 mJ fundamental energy was incident on the above samples (45° from the optic axis z) using type II phase matching, resulting in a green second harmonic signal of 532 nm. The refractive index mismatch between MMONS and a polymer host such as poly(9-vinyle carbazole) or PVK (used in this project) could cause a major light scattering (i.e light loss) during SHG intensity

  7. High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells without Optical Spacer%免光学间隔层的高效聚合物太阳能电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少鹏; 赵艳新; 韩凌洁; 杨启满; 韩理; 傅广生

    2012-01-01

    使用相对聚(3乙基噻吩)(P3HT)具有更低能带结构的聚{[9-(1-辛基壬基)-9H-咔唑-2,7-2基]-2,5-噻吩二基-2,1,3-苯并噻二唑-4,7-二基-2,5噻吩二基} (PCDTBT)作为电子给体材料和较C60衍生物(PC60BM)具有更广光谱吸收能力的C70衍生物(PC70 BM)作为电子受体材料构建共混体系活性层,制备有机聚合物太阳能电池.通过控制活性层薄膜生长速度、环境得出在N2环境中静置10 min时聚合物电池达到了5.65%的高光电转换效率(PCE).然后,通过进一步优化活性层薄膜厚度短路电流密度大幅提升至14.2 mA/cm2,PCE达到5.84%.结果表明,在不使用TiOx等光学间隔层的情况下,通过控制活性层薄膜生长过程和优化活性层薄膜厚度也可以大幅增加短路电流密度,获得高的PCE.%Orgnic polymer solar cells are fabricated with the poly [N-9'-heptadecany l-2,7-carbazole-alt-5, 5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',l' ,3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) with lower bandgap than poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) parforming as electron donor material and ([6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester) (PC70BM) instead of [6,6]-phcnyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). which has wider spectra absoption capability as electron accepter. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) has enhanced to 5. 65% by controlling the growth rate and the environment of active layer. Then the thickness of active layer film is optimized, the PCE is improved to 5. 84% with the short-circuit current density of 14. 2 mA/cm2. The results demonstrate that even without optical spacer the active layer can also have a higher absoption rate and PCE with the control of growth rate and the thickness of active layer.

  8. MCM-41-supported cobalt-molybdenum catalysts for deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel and jet fuel feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday Tsrpr

    Regulatory issues require new catalysts for the deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of refractory polyaromatic sulfur compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) present in diesel and jet fuel. Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2 ) supported on mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and promoted by cobalt was hypothesized to have superior activity for deep HDS because of MCM-41's (1) high surface area and uniform mesopores and (2) superior acidity as compared to conventional supports such as gamma-alumina (gamma-Al 2O3). This study examines the role of MCM-41 as a support for new cobalt (Co)-molybdenum (Mo) HDS catalysts. At CoO-MoO3 loadings typical of commercially available HDS catalysts, MCM-41-supported catalysts were only slightly better. At higher loadings---27.0% (by weight) MoO3 and 5.8% CoO---MCM-41-supported catalysts were twice more active than the commercial catalyst. This difference in activities is related to the degree of MoS2 stacking. Remarkable increase in the conversion of 4,6-DMDBT was observed over MCM-41-supported catalysts with decreasing SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio. More significantly, the SiO2/Al2O 3 ratio of MCM-41 has a profound effect on product distribution and catalyst selectivity. Irrespective of CoO-MoO3 loading, catalysts using MCM-41 with a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 50 convert more of 4,6-DMDBT through the highly desirable hydrogenolysis pathway. The acidity of these catalysts was measured and correlated to their selectivities for hydrogenolysis and hydrocracking. Co-Mo/MCM-41 continued to demonstrate activities twice that of the commercial catalyst for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT in petroleum-derived feedstocks such as light cycle oil. However, for a blend of coal- and petroleum-derived feedstocks, nitrogen from the coal-derived liquid inhibited both catalysts for the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT. Basic nitrogen, e.g., quinoline, significantly retards the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT over both catalysts. Non-basic carbazole, on the other hand, inhibited the MCM-41-supported

  9. 杜仲叶多糖的提取分离、抗补体活性及结构研究%Isolation, Anti-complement Activities, and Chemical Structures of Polysaccharide from Eucommia ulmoides Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学俊; 伊廷金; 孙黔云; 张文坤; 闫银萍; 龚桂珍; 宫本红

    2011-01-01

    After removal of resin and gutta percha under petroleum ether reflux,Eucommia ulmoides Leaves were decocted with distilled water and the extract was concentrated and fractionally precipitated by adding the one-fold,two-fold and three-fold volumes of alcohol to obtain three groups of crude polysaccharides,PsEULl ,PsEUL2,and PsEUL3. Of them, the group of polysaccharides,PsEULl ,was decolourized on a macro-porous resin (S-8) column and deproteinized using Sevag reagent. After dialysis,the refined PsEUL3 was applied to a diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion exchange column and isolated into three monomeric polysaccharides, PsEULl1, PsEULl 2, and PsEULl 3, The assays of anti-complement activities indicated many fractions of polysaccharides have different extent of inhibitory activities with dose-effect relationships. PsEULl3 was demonstrated to be an acidic polysaccharide by reacting with sulfuric acid and carbazole, containing 21.2% of uronic acid. The gas chromatography revealed that it was composed of L-rhamnose, D-fucose, D-ar-abinose, D-xylose, D-glucose and D-galactose besides uronic acid, their percentage composition being 11. 8,1.6,37. 7, 4.2,10.7 and 12.8,respectively.%经石油醚脱脂、除胶后,采用热水提取、分步醇沉工艺获得杜仲叶水溶性多糖PsEUL1、PsEUL2、PsEUL3,分别经S-8大孔树脂脱色,Sevag法脱蛋白及透析,其中PsEUL1经DEAE-52纤维素柱层析分离得多糖组分PsEUL1、PsEUL12 、PsEUL13,抗补体活性实验表明,其中有多个组分有不同程度的抗补体活性,并呈一定的剂量效应关系.活性多糖PsEUL13经硫酸-咔唑反应及气相色谱法测定,单糖组成为:L-鼠李糖、D-岩藻糖、D-阿拉伯糖、D-木糖、D-葡糖糖、D-半乳糖、糖醛酸,含量比为11.8∶1.6∶37.7∶4.2∶10.7∶12.8∶21.2.

  10. 一种新型粘多糖结构与性能的检测%The structure and performance testing of a new kind of mucopolysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛涛; 徐永斌; 赵晨希; 张淑荣; 刘春巧; 张鹏

    2011-01-01

    粘多糖是由糖醛酸和氨基己糖交替连接成的高分子物质,理化性质独特,应用范围广泛.通过对突变株兽疫链球菌Streptococcus zooepidemicus BU 100进行发酵,可产一种新型粘多糖(下文用粘多糖A代替).利用咔唑法、Elson-Morgan法、考马斯亮蓝法、红外光谱以及13C核磁共振谱测定粘多糖A的结构,结果显示粘多糖A中糖醛酸和氨基糖的摩尔比例接近1∶1,蛋白含量符合标准(<0.1%);粘多糖A图谱中出现的结构特征峰大部分与透明质酸相同.对粘多糖A的实用性能进行检测,并用透明质酸做对比,结果表明透明质酸在两种湿度下的吸湿性均要好于粘多糖A,但粘多糖A的保湿性要好于透明质酸.粘多糖A总体的抗氧化性好于透明质酸,并且粘多糖A耐透明质酸酶.粘多糖A可作为保湿剂、润滑剂、抗氧化剂等被更加有效地应用在医疗和化妆品等领域.%Mucopolysaccharide was made of uronic acid and hexosamine. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, mucopolysaccharides have been used in various fields. After collecting and enrichment culture of active nasal mucosa scraped from newly slaughtered cattle, we got a kind of streptococcus zooepidemicus which was named BU100. With its culture it can secrete a high yield new Mucopolysaccharide A. As there were uronic acid and hexosamine in mucopolysaccharide, the methods of carbazole and Elson-Morgan were used to detect mucopolysaccharide A. In addition, the major impurity (protein) in mucopolysaccharide was detected by the method of Coomassie brilliant blue. According to these methods, it was found that the ratio of uronic acid and hexosamine in mucopolysaccharide A was nearly 1:1 which was the same as that in Hyaluronic Acid (HA), and the quantity of pro-tein meets the standards (<0.1%) requirements. Furthermore with the IR, NMR, the functional group of mucopolysaccharide A was determined and compared to HA. It therefore indicates that

  11. White organic light-emitting devices based on a novel CzHQZn%基于CznQZn发光的白光有机电致发光器件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁桂英; 姜文龙; 汪津; 王广德; 丛林; 欧阳新华; 曾和平

    2009-01-01

    The white organic light-emitting devices(WOLEDs) are fabricated by using a novel yellow CzHQZn as hole-transporting/emitting layer. The device structure is indium-tin.oxide(ITO)/4,4' ,4"-{N,-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino}-triphenylarnine (2T-NATA)(22 nm)/CzHQZn(x nm)/N,N '-bis-(1-naphthyl)- N, N '-diphenyl- 1,1 '-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPBX) (y nm)/2,9-dimethyl,-4,7-diaphe-nyl, 1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (10 nm)/tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum(Alq3) (68 - x- y nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/A1. It is found that the thicknesses of CzHQZn and NPBX have great influence on the per-forrnance of the WOLED. When y=22 ,x= 8, a WOLED is achieved with a maximum luminous efficien-(0. 357 9,0. 318 2). Thus,the close point remains in the white-light-region and is close to the equal-ener-gy white point (0.33,0. 33). The turn-on voltage of the device is lower than 5 V.%利用一种新材料(E)-2-(2-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-y1)vinyl)quinolato-Zinc(CzHQZn)作空穴传输层和发光层制备了白光有机电致发光器件(WOLED),器件的结构为indium-tin oxide(ITO/4,4',4"-{N,-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino}-triphenylamine(2T-NATA)(22 nm)/CzHQZn(x nm)/N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)一N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine(NPBX)(y nm)/2,9-dimethyl,-4,7-diaphenyl,1,10-phermnthroline(BCP)(10nm)/tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(Alq3)(68-x-y nm)/LiF(0.5 um)/Al.研究发现发光层CzHQZn和NPBX的厚度对器件的发光性能有较大的影响.当CzHQZn厚度x为22 nm、NPBX厚度Y为8 nm时,得到了色度最好和效率最大的WOLED,最大电流效率为0.9 cd/A(at 10 V),最大亮度为3514 cd/m2(at 10 v),此时色坐标为(0.3579,0.3182),接近白光的等能点(0.33,0.33).器件的另一个重要特点是开启电压比较低为4 V.

  12. 肝素化单壁碳纳米管的制备、表征及生物相容性%Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility of heparinized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭一清; 陈荆晓; 滕丽萍; 赵善成; 程咏梅; 邓超; 陈敬华

    2014-01-01

    effects of heparin-immobilization on the water solubility, stability as wel as biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes. METHODS:By the method of covalent grafting, heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes was fabricated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and carbazole assay. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the dispersing performance and suspension stability of heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes in aqueous solution. Anti-Xa activity and activated partial thromboplastin time assays were used to measure the anticoagulation activity of heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes. MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytocompatibility of heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Heparin was covalently linked to the surface of single-wal ed carbon nanotubes successful y. The amount of heparin on single-wal ed carbon nanotubes was measured to be 257.53 mg/g. Heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes were wel dispersed and stable in an aqueous solution without aggregation. The anti-Xa activity of heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes was measured to be 36.53 U/mg, suggesting a significant anticoagulant activity. Further study of activated partial thromboplastin time assay found that the anticoagulant effect of heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes could be prolonged. MTT assay revealed that heparinized single-wal ed carbon nanotubes had no cytotoxicity and showed good cytocompatibility. Taken together, the immobilization of heparin on single-wal ed carbon nanotubes wil not only improve its solubility and stability in water, but also endow it with excellent biocompatibility.

  13. 水/醇溶聚合物界面材料在聚合物光电器件中的应用及性能研究%Performance Study of Water/Alcohol Soluble Polymer Interface Materials in Polymer Optoelectronic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 管星; 黄飞; 曹镛

    2012-01-01

    Four different water/alcohol soluble polymers, poly[9,9-bis(6-(N,N-diethylamino)-hexyl N-oxide)fluorene] (PF6NO), poly[9,9-bis(6-(N,N-diethylamino)-hexyl)fluorene] (PF6N), polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyethylene imine (PEI) were used as interlayer materials in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs) with device structures of indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(styrenesulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/Active Layer/Interlayer/A1 (or Au), where the green light-emitting polymer poly-[2-(4-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenyl)-p-phenylene vinylene] (P-PPV) and photovoltaic material poly-[N-9'-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',l',3- benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT):[6,6]-phenyl C 71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) were used as the light emitting layer and light absorption layers for PLEDs and PSCs, respectively. The relationships between chemical structure and optoelectronic properties of the polymer interlayer materials were systematically investigated. Photovoltaic measurement were used to determine the built-in potential across the devices and consequently to understand the interface modification abilities of these materials. It was found that the devices based on conjugated interlayer materials exhibited larger open circuit voltages than those of devices based on non-conjugated interlayer materials, which indicates that the conjugated interlayer materials lead to lower energetic barriers for electron. Device studies showed that the conjugated interlayer materials PF6NO and PF6N exhib- ited much better device performance both in PLEDs and PSCs compared to the non-conjugated interlayer materials PEO and PEI, which was consistent with the photovoltaic measurement results. PLEDs studies indicated that the devices based on non-conjugated interlayer materials PEO and PEI exhibited dramatically decreased efficiencies when the interlayers' thick- nesses are more than 20 nm, while the devices based on

  14. Calculation of the Standard Molal Thermodynamic Properties of Crystalline, Liquid, and Gas Organic Molecules at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Owens, Christine E.; Knox, Annette M.; Richard, Laurent

    1998-03-01

    2), alanine (C 3H 7NO 2), valine (C 5H 11NO 2), leucine (C 6H 13NO 2), isoleucine (C 6H 13NO 2), aspartic acid (C 4H 7NO 4), glutamic acid (C 5H 9NO 4), asparagine (C 4H 8N 2O 3), glutamine (C 5H 10N 2O 3), proline (C 5H 9NO 2), phenylalanine (C 9H 11NO 2), tryptophan (C 11H 12N 2O 2), methionine (C 5H 11SNO 2), serine (C 3H 7NO 3), threonine (C 4H 9NO 3), cysteine (C 3H 7SNO 2), tyrosine (C 9H 11NO 3), lysine (C 6H 14N 2O 2), lysine:HCl (C 6H 15N 2O 2Cl), arginine (C 6H 14N 4O 2), arginine:HCl (C 6H 15N 4O 2Cl), histidine (C 6H 9N 3O 2), and histidine:HCl (C 6H 10N 3O 2Cl). The data for the latter compounds permit calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of protein unfolding in biogeochemical processes (Helgeson et al 1998). The liquids and gases considered in the present study include normal alkanes (C nH 2( n+1) ) for carbon numbers ranging from 1 to 100, 2- and 3-methylalkanes (C nH 2( n+1) ) for 4 ≤ n ≤ 20 and 6 ≤ n ≤ 20, respectively, 2,3-dimethylpentane (C 7H 16), 4-methylheptane (C 8H 18), cycloalkanes (C nH 2 n) for 3 ≤ n ≤ 8, methylated benzenes (C nH 2( n-3) ) for 7 ≤ n ≤ 12, normal alkylbenzenes (C nH 2( n-3) ) for 6 ≤ n ≤ 20, normal 1-alcohols (C nH 2( n+1) O) for 1 ≤ n ≤ 20, ethylene glycol (C 2H 6O 2), glycerol (C 3H 8O 3), normal 1-alkanethiols (C nH 2( n+1) S) for 1 ≤ n ≤ 20, normal carboxylic acids (C nH 2 nO 2) for 2 ≤ n ≤ 20, and the following miscellaneous species: 2-thiabutane (C 3H 8S), thiophene (C 4H 4S), thiophenol (C 6H 6S), acetone (C 3H 6O), 2-butanone (C 4H 8O), ethyl acetate (C 4H 8O 2), pyridine (C 5H 5N), 3-methylpyridine (C 6H 7N), and quinoline (C 9H 7N). One additional liquid (2-methylthiacyclopentane (C 5H 10S)) was also considered along with crystalline and gaseous carbazole (C 12H 9N). The thermodynamic data and equations summarized below can be used together with the standard molal thermodynamic properties of high molecular weight organic compounds ( Richard and Helgeson 1995

  15. 茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味成分的影响%The Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Pickled Cabbage during Shelf Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 董欢欢; 俞兴伟

    2016-01-01

    Tea polyphenols is an excellent preservative for pickles.To find out the effects of tea polyphenols on the smell of pickle during shelf life,tea polyphenols (0.18%,W/V)is added into pickled cabbage.The change of volatile components of pickled cabbage is analyzed with solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).The results show that tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria,the main flavor compounds of pickled cabbage are ketones,acids,esters,aldehydes,alkenes and alcohols.The main odors components are 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acids,allyl isothiocyanate,nonanal,caryophyllene and 1-octene-3-alcohol.The proportion of aldehydes and esters is increased significantly during pickles late shelf life.The benzene derivatives,alkene,alkyl,naphthalene are also increased considerably.The significant increasing of nonanal,decanal,allyl isothiocyanate,3-methyl-butyl butyrate might be the main reason for the late peculiar odors of pickled cabbage.Benzene derivatives,alkenes,naphthalene increasing might be the secondary reason for late odors.Acids and ketones in pickles are significantly reduced by tea polyphenol treatment and its ester and aldehydes reduce,but alcohols and alkenes increase at late shelf life ,and cause carbazole to disappear ,anthraquinone to increase,hydrazine to disappear,phenols to appear.Tea polyphenol treatment significantly reduces the 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acid,isothiocyanates,nonanal,and significantly increases D-limo-nene at late shelf life.The main odor substances of tea polyphenol treatment pickle cabbage at late shelf life are D-limonene,3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,1-octene-3-alcohol ketone.%茶多酚在腌菜中防腐效果好,为了解茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味的影响,在泡菜液中添加0.18%茶多酚,采用固相微萃取与气相质谱色谱联用法(SPME-MS/GC),分析泡菜

  16. 煤的基本化工过程与污染特征分析%Basic coal chemical processes and their pollution characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦朝海; 廖建波; 胡芸

    2016-01-01

    main pollutants produced by coal chemical process were introduced from the coal properties,the process requirements,and the technology features. The source and composition of the “three wastes” were selectively analyzed from the processes of coal-to-coke and coal-to-gas. Among them,the waste gas came from the incompletely carbonized pulverized coal in the chemical conversion process,the precipitated matters including volatile matter,tar fog and fly ash,the leaked raw gas,as well as CO,CO2 and NO2 generated by burning coke on contact with air. The wastewater included dedusting wastewater,surplus aqueous ammonia,phenol and cyanogens wastewater,desulfurization liquid and the water sealing gas. The waste residue included dust,coal dust,acid tar,tar slag and sludge. The gas phase pollutants from coal chemical process mainly included oxycarbide,oxysulphide,ammonia gas,volatile phenol,benzene,benzopyrene,CO,CH4 and small molecule hydrocarbons. The liquid phase pollutants contained not only ammonia,cyanide,sulphide, benzene,phenol and oil,but also a lot of benzopyrene,naphthalene and other PAHs,and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including pyridine,carbazole,biphenyl,terphenyl,etc. The pollution characteristics showed wide distribution,complex components,high concentration,coexistence of multiphase mediums with high environment risk. The typical characteristics of the coal chemical wastewater were high concentration/salinity,high pollution (multicomponent),toxic and refractory. The clarification of the relationship between the coal chemical process and pollution characteristics needed researchers to deepen the comprehensive understanding for the basic coal properties,the principles of conversion,purification and application. Therefore,the control technology and strategy should be based on the deep understanding for the chain of resource- product-economy-environment- society and the effective integration system,and the strategic design and logic innovation should be

  17. 超声波萃取-同步荧光法测定土壤中的多环芳烃研究%Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soft by way of supersonic extraction and synchronous fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立芳; 项小燕; 章汝平

    2011-01-01

    -breeding garden soil were mainly dominated by benzo [a] pyrene and fluoranthene, whereas in the Long-zhou Industrial Park in soil were mainly dominated by benzo [a] pyrene, fluoranthene, but benzo [k] fluoranthene, carbazole and chrysene, are used in the soil of Longyan Sande Cement Plant,where the soils were mainly dominated by benzo [a] pyrene, fluoranthene, the Philippines and Anthracene. Since the method is simple and convenient in use, as well as easily be identified and quantitatively determined, it is favorable for the simultaneous, multi-component applications with no need of pre-separation. What is more, real samples will so be made respondent and available upon the direct call.%采用超声波萃取-恒波长同步荧光法测定了土壤中的多环芳烃(PAHs).对超声波萃取和同步荧光法的测定条件进行优化,考察方法的线性相关性、准确性和加标回收率,确定优化条件为:二氯甲烷/正已烷(1∶1),体积每次30 mL分两次提取,提取时间为60 min,样品不需纯化,直接可用于同步荧光分析.超声波萃取效率高,萃取时间短.采用恒波长同步荧光法对多环芳烃进行定性定量,相关系数r>0.9981,检测限0.052~12.37 ng,标准偏差0.017% ~ 4.12%,回收率68.2%~109.9%.采用超声萃取-同步荧光法测定了龙岩市区不同功能区土壤中的多环芳烃.结果表明,闽西监狱良种繁殖园土样中含有苯并[a]芘和荧蒽,龙洲工业园土样中含有苯并[a]芘、荧蒽、苯并[k]荧葸、咔唑和,龙岩三德水泥厂土样中含有苯并[a]芘、荧葸、菲和蒽.该法简便快速,无需对混合物进行分离就可实现多组分的同时鉴别和定量测定.