WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbanions

  1. Hydrogen/Chlorine exchange reactions of gaseous carbanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Cooks, R Graham; Meurer, Eduardo C; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2005-12-01

    Gas-phase reactions of three typical carbanions CH(2)NO(2)(-), CH(2)CN(-), and CH(2)S(O)CH(3)(-) with the chloromethanes CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3), and CCl(4), examined by tandem mass spectrometry, show a novel hydrogen/chlorine exchange reaction. For example, reaction between the nitromethyl anion CH(2)NO(2)(-) and carbon tetrachloride CCl(4) forms the ion CHClNO(2)(-). The suggested reaction mechanism involves nucleophilic attack by CH(2)NO(2)(-) at the chlorine of CCl(4) followed by proton transfer within the resulting complex [CH(2)ClNO(2) + CCl(3)(-)] to form CHClNO(2)(-) and CHCl(3). Two other carbanions CH(2)CN(-) and CH(2)S(O)CH(3)(-) also undergo the novel hydrogen/chlorine exchange reactions with CCl(4) but to a much smaller extent, their higher nucleophilicities favoring competitive nucleophilic attack reactions. Proton abstraction is the exclusive pathway in the reactions of these carbanions with CHCl(3). While CH(2)CN(-) and CH(2)S(O)CH(3)(-) promote mainly proton abstraction and nucleophilic displacement in reactions with CH(2)Cl(2), CH(2)NO(2)(-) does not react.

  2. Beyond benzyl grignards: facile generation of benzyl carbanions from styrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, R David; Rigoli, Jared W; Van Hoveln, Ryan; Neale, Samuel; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-23

    Benzylic functionalization is a convenient approach towards the conversion of readily available aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks into more useful molecules. However, the formation of carbanionic benzyl species from benzyl halides or similar precursors is far from trivial. An alternative approach is the direct reaction of a styrene with a suitable coupling partner, but these reactions often involve the use of precious-metal transition-metal catalysts. Herein, we report the facile and convenient generation of reactive benzyl anionic species from styrenes. A Cu(I)-catalyzed Markovnikov hydroboration of the styrenic double bond by using a bulky pinacol borane source is followed by treatment with KOtBu to facilitate a sterically induced cleavage of the C-B bond to produce a benzylic carbanion. Quenching this intermediate with a variety of electrophiles, including CO(2), CS(2), isocyanates, and isothiocyanates, promotes C-C bond formation at the benzylic carbon atom. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in a three-step, two-pot synthesis of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (±)-flurbiprofen. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis of tetrahydrokhusitone. Annulation of the cyclohexane ring by free radical and carbanionic sequence of reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIVORAD CEKOVIC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of norcadinane sesquiterpene tetrahydrokhusitone 1 has been achieved by a new method for annulation of cyclohexane ring involving a sequence of free radical d-alkylation of the non-activated carbon atom and intramolecular carbanionic alkylation. (–-Menthol was used as the starting compound.

  4. Beta,beta-Disilylated Sulfones as Versatile Building Blocks in Organic Chemistry – A New Sulfonyl Carbanion Transmetalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puget, Bertrand; Jahn, Ullrich

    -, č. 17 (2010), s. 2579-2582 ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carbanions * transmetalation * silanes * sulfones * Julia olefination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2010

  5. Gas-Phase Reactions of Dimethyl Disulfide with Aliphatic Carbanions - A Mass Spectrometry and Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczuk, Barbara; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2018-03-01

    Ion-molecule reactions of Me2S2 with a wide range of aliphatic carbanions differing by structure and proton affinity values have been studied in the gas phase using mass spectrometry techniques and DFT calculations. The analysis of the spectra shows a variety of product ions formed via different reaction mechanisms, depending on the structure and proton affinity of the carbanion. Product ions of thiophilic reaction ( m/z 47), SN2 ( m/z 79), and E2 elimination - addition sequence of reactions ( m/z 93) can be observed. Primary products of thiophilic reaction can undergo subsequent SN2 and proton transfer reactions. Gibbs free energy profiles calculated for experimentally observed reactions using PBE0/6-311+G(2d,p) method show good agreement with experimental results. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. One-Pot Synthesis of Cyclopropane-Fused Cyclic Amidines: An Oxidative Carbanion Cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranna, Kirana Devarahosahalli; Das, Kanak Kanti; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2017-12-18

    A novel and efficient one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of cyclopropane-fused bicyclic amidines on the basis of a CuBr 2 -mediated oxidative cyclization of carbanions. The usefulness of this unique multicomponent strategy has been demonstrated by the use of a wide variety of substrates to furnish novel cyclopropane-containing amidines with a quaternary center in very good yields. This ketenimine-based approach provides straightforward access to biologically active and pharmaceutically important 3-azabicyclo[n.1.0]alkane frameworks under mild conditions. The synthetic power of this methodology is exemplified in the concise synthesis of the pharmaceutically important antidepressant drug candidate GSK1360707 and key intermediates for the synthesis of amitifadine, bicifadine, and narlaprevir. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. One-pot regioselective synthesis of nitrophenyloxazolinyl styrene oxides by the Darzens reaction of vicarious nucleophilic substitution-formed carbanions of 2-dichloromethyl-4,4-dimethyloxazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Saverio; Lorusso, Patrizia; Granito, Catia; Luisi, Renzo; Troisi, Luigino

    2004-07-23

    The vicarious nucleophilic substitution reaction of dichloromethyloxazoline 2 with nitrobenzene has been investigated. Treatment of 2 with t-BuOK followed by the addition of nitrobenzene leads to benzylic carbanions 4 or 9 depending upon the solvent used (DMSO, DMF, or THF). Subsequent treatment of 4 or 9 with aldehydes, in a Darzens-like reaction, furnishes very good yields of nitrophenyl oxazolinyloxiranes 8 and 11. 1,2-Dioxazolinyl-1,2-dinitrophenylethene 7 forms quantitatively when carbanion 4 is allowed to warm to room temperature in the absence of external electrophiles.

  8. Sulfone-stabilized carbanions for the reversible covalent capture of a posttranslationally-generated cysteine oxoform found in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zachary D; Ruddraraju, Kasi Viswanatharaju; Santo, Nicholas; Gates, Kent S

    2016-06-15

    Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) involves oxidative conversion of the active site cysteine thiolate into an electrophilic sulfenyl amide residue. Reduction of the sulfenyl amide by biological thiols regenerates the native cysteine residue. Here we explored fundamental chemical reactions that may enable covalent capture of the sulfenyl amide residue in oxidized PTP1B. Various sulfone-containing carbon acids were found to react readily with a model peptide sulfenyl amide via attack of the sulfonyl carbanion on the electrophilic sulfur center in the sulfenyl amide. Both the products and the rates of these reactions were characterized. The results suggest that capture of a peptide sulfenyl amide residue by sulfone-stabilized carbanions can slow, but not completely prevent, thiol-mediated generation of the corresponding cysteine-containing peptide. Sulfone-containing carbon acids may be useful components in the construction of agents that knock down PTP1B activity in cells via transient covalent capture of the sulfenyl amide oxoform generated during insulin signaling processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of mono- and geminal dimetalated carbanions of bis(phenylsulfonyl)methane using alkali metal bases and structural comparisons with lithiated bis(phenylsulfonyl)imides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dugald J; Kennedy, Alan R; Noll, Bruce C; Henderson, Kenneth W

    2005-06-21

    The alpha,alpha'-stabilized carbanion complexes [(PhSO2)2CHLi.THF]1, [(PhSO2)2CHNa.THF]2 and [(PhSO2)2CHK]3 were prepared by the direct deprotonation of bis(phenylsulfonyl)methane I in THF with one molar equivalent of MeLi, BuNa and BnK respectively. The geminal dianionic complexes [(PhSO2)2CLi2.THF]4, [(PhSO2)2CNa2.0.55THF]5 and [(PhSO2)2CK2]6 were similarly prepared by the reaction of I with two molar equivalents of MeLi, BuNa and BnK respectively in THF. NMR and MS solution studies of 1-3 are consistent with the formation of charge-separated species in DMSO media. Solutions studies of 4-6, in conjunction with trapping experiments, indicate that the dianions deprotonate DMSO and regenerate the monoanions 1-3. Crystallographic analysis of 1 revealed a 1D chain polymer in which the metal centers are chelated by the bis(sulfonyl) ligands and connect to neighboring units through Li-O(S) interactions. An unexpected feature of 1 is that the polymeric chains are homochiral, since the chelating ligands of the backbone adopt the same relative configuration. Also, the phenyl substituents of each chelate in 1 are oriented in a cisoid manner. The sodium derivative 2 adopts a related solid-state structure, where enantiomeric pairs of chains combine to give a 1D ribbon motif. The lithium bis(phenylsulfonyl)imides [(PhSO2)2NLi.THF]9 and [(PhSO2)2NLi.Pyr2]10 were also prepared and structurally characterized. In the solid state 9 has a similar connectivity to that found for 1 but with heterochiral chains. In comparison, the more highly solvated complex 10 forms a 1D polymeric arrangement without chelation of the ligands and with the phenyl substituents oriented in a transoid fashion.

  10. Divergent Reactivity of Alkyl Aryl Sulfones with Bases: Selective Functionalization of ortho-Aryl and alpha-Alkyl Units Enabled by a Unique Carbanion Transmetalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehová, Lucie; Císařová, I.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 7 (2014), s. 1461-1476 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/1598 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : sulfones * transmetalation * lithiation * deprotonation * alkylation * acidity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2014

  11. Gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is gas phase ion/molecule reactions as studied by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (chapter 2 contains a short description of this method). Three chapters are mainly concerned with mechanistic aspects of gas phase ion/molecule reactions. An equally important aspect of the thesis is the stability and reactivity of α-thio carbanions, dipole stabilized carbanions and homoenolate anions, dealt with in the other four chapters. (Auth.)

  12. Synthesis of Terpyridine-Terminated Polymers by Anionic Polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Sanchez, C.A.; Lohmeijer, B.G.G.; Meier, M.A.R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of terpyridine-functionalized polystyrene was achieved by reacting 4‘-chloro-2,2‘:6‘,2‘ ‘-terpyridine (terminating agent) with "living" polymeric carbanions synthesized by anionic polymerization. The obtained polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear

  13. Carbolanthanation of substituted alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, V.N.; Kazimirchuk, E.I.; Vitt, S.V.; Khandozhko, V.N.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    Using the reaction between CH 3 YbI and substituted alkynes as an example, agents can enter into carbolanthanation reaction via transfer of a methyl group to carbon atom of acetylene bond with the production of a new olefin carbanion. 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  14. General synthesis of 2,1-benzisoxazoles (anthranils) from nitroarenes and benzylic C-H acids in aprotic media promoted by combination of strong bases and silylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiȩcław, Michał; Bobin, Mariusz; Kwast, Andrzej; Bujok, Robert; Wróbel, Zbigniew; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Carbanions of phenylacetonitriles, benzyl sulfones, and dialkyl benzylphosphonates add nitroarenes at the ortho-position to the nitro group to form [Formula: see text]-adducts that, upon treatment with trialkylchlorosilane and additional base (t-BuOK or DBU), transform into 3-aryl-2,1-benzisoxazoles in moderate-to-good yields.

  15. Coenzyme metabolism in rat liver transketolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbach, Z.V.; Kubyshin, V.L.; Maglysh, S.S.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the results of kinetic investigations, two binding sites for hydroxythiamine diphosphate were determined in apotransketolase, with sharply differing values of K/sub i/: (7-22) x 10 -9 and (13.0-19.7) x 10 -8 M. A study was made of the turnover rate of thiamine diphosphate in holotransketolase in rat liver tissue by a radioisotope method, using [ 14 C] thiamine as the labeled precursor. The half-substitution time and rate constant of degradation of the coenzyme in transketolase are close in absolute values to the analogous indices for the protein portion of the enzyme and constitute 153 h and 0.108 day -1 , respectively. Rat liver transketolase exists in vivo in the form of a substituted α-carbanion. Replacement of thiamine diphosphate by hydroxythiamine diphosphate in the holoenzyme has no effect on the formation of the intermediate α-carbanion form of the enzyme

  16. Nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst GaSbNiPOx (1:3:1.5:1 atomic ratios of the elements) was studied by comparing the rate of this reaction at 550/sup 0/C and 5Vertical Bar3< by vol propane/6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/18.6Vertical Bar3< oxygen/70.4Vertical Bar3< helium reactant mixture with that of isobutane ammoxidation to methacrylonitrile under the same conditions, at low (Vertical Bar3; 20Vertical Bar3<) conversions that prevent secondary oxidation of the products. Both the over-all hydrocarbon conversion rate and that of nitrile formation were higher for propane, suggesting that the reactions proceed via the respective carbanions (probably primary carbanions), rather than carbocations or uncharged radicals.

  17. New Nitration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    exclusive fluoride ion carbanion (Schemes I and 11, respectively). The driving force for either mechanism is the formation of the strong (1) Petrov, A. A...CIECLASSiPCAflON DOWNGRAAING SCHEDULE d is trib ut ion unlimited N/A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 PERFORM!NG ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) s. moio OGNZTON...substitute nitroso for silicon by reaction of the silylated compound with nitrosonium fluoroborate but time and funding did not permit completion of

  18. Theoretical study on the nucleophilic fluoroalkylation of propylene oxide with fluorinated sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ling-Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The path of nucleophilic fluoroalkylation reaction of propylene oxide with PhSO2CYF- (Y=F,H, and PhSO2, respectively in gas phase and in Et2O solvent were studied theoretically. The nucleophilic fluoroalkylation of propylene oxide with fluorinated carbanions was probed by the reactivity comparison between (benzenesulfonylmonofluoromethyl anion (PhSO2CHF-, (benzenesulfonyl difluoromethyl anion (PhSO2CF2-, and bis(benzenesul-fonyl monofluoromethyl anion ((PhSO22CF-. The nucleophilicity reactivity order of PhSO2CYF- (Y = F, H, and PhSO2 is [(PhSO22CF-] > PhSO2CHF- > PhSO2CF2-, which indicates that introducing another electron-withdrawing benzenesulfonyl group is an effective way to significantly increase the nucleophilicity of the fluorinate carbanions. For comparison, we also studied the nucleophilic addition reactions of propylene oxide with chlorine substituted carbanion PhSO2CHCl-. The calculated results show that the nucleophilicity of PhSO2CYF- is better than that of PhSO2CHCl- for the ring opening reaction with propylene oxide. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experiments.

  19. Reactions of carbonyl compounds with α,β-unsaturated nitriles as a convenient pathway to carbo- and heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharanin, Yu A; Goncharenko, M P; Litvinov, Victor P

    1998-01-01

    Published data on the methods for synthesis of carbo- and heterocyclic compounds based on reactions of α,β-unsaturated nitriles with carbonyl compounds and activated phenols are surveyed. It is demonstrated that all these reactions occur via nucleophilic addition of the carbanion generated from a carbonyl compound to the double bond of an unsaturated nitrile (the Michael reaction). The main routes of transformation of the adducts into carbo- and heterocyclic compounds are considered. The methods for regioselective preparation of fused 4H-pyrans or 1,4-dihydropyridines by varying conditions of cyclisation of Michael adducts are discussed. The bibliography includes 249 references.

  20. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillous, A.

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the ν (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm -1 . The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [fr

  1. New aromatic activated dihalides and bisphenol monomers for the preparation of novel poly(arylene ethers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to synthesize a series of unique monomers of type I to be utilized at NASA-Langley in the preparation of new poly(arylene ether ketones), poly(arylene ether ketosulfones), and poly(arylene ether ketophosphine oxides). These A-A and A-B monomer systems, which possess activated aryl halide and/or phenolic end groups, are accessible via condensation reactions of appropriately substituted aryl acetonitrile carbanions with activated aryl dihalides followed by oxidative decyanation.

  2. Metallation of N-allenylpyrroles by superbase reagents. Synthesis of new N-substituted pyrroles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasova, O.A.; Brandsma, L.; Verkrajsse, Kh.D.; Mal'kina, A.G.; Trofimov, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallation of N-allenylpyrrole by BuLi-Et 2 O (THP), BuLi-t-BuOK-THP superbases and reactions of carbanions formed with different electrophilic agents have been studied. Fundamental data on mutual influence of allene group and pyrrole ring have been obtained. Alpha-proton features the highest acidity and it is the first one to be replaced by metal. In BuLi excess (more than 3-fold) in ether or in BuLi-t-BuOK-THP system a through metallation of allene group occurs. New pyrroles functionally substituted in allene chain have been prepared. 19 refs.; 3 tabs

  3. Substitution of Tyr254 with Phe at the active site of flavocytochrome b2: consequences on catalysis of lactate dehydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Chapman, S.K.; Mathews, F.S.; Reid, G.A.; Lederer, F.

    1990-01-01

    A role for Tyr254 in L-lactate dehydrogenation catalyzed by flavocytochrome b2 has recently been proposed on the basis of the known active-site structure and of studies that had suggested a mechanism involving the initial formation of a lactate carbanion. This role is now examined after replacement of Tyr254 with phenylalanine. The kcat is decreased about 40-fold, Km for lactate appears unchanged, and the mainly rate-limiting step is still alpha-hydrogen abstraction, as judged from the steady-state deuterium isotope effect. Modeling studies with lactate introduced into the active site indicate two possible substrate conformations with different hydrogen-bonding partners for the substrate hydroxyl. If the hydrogen bond is formed with Tyr254, as was initially postulated, the mechanism must involve removal by His373 of the C2 hydrogen, with carbanion formation. If, in the absence of the Tyr254 phenol group, the hydrogen bond is formed with His373 N3, the substrate is positioned in such a way that the reaction must proceed by hydride transfer. Therefore the mechanism of the Y254F enzyme was investigated so as to distinguish between the two mechanistic possibilities. 2-Hydroxy-3-butynoate behaves with the mutant as a suicide reagent, as with the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the mutant protein also catalyzes the reduction and the dehydrohalogenation of bromopyruvate under transhydrogenation conditions

  4. Structural basis for substrate activation and regulation by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains in cystathionine [beta]-synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Kabil, Omer; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med)

    2011-08-17

    The catalytic potential for H{sub 2}S biogenesis and homocysteine clearance converge at the active site of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme. CBS catalyzes {beta}-replacement reactions of either serine or cysteine by homocysteine to give cystathionine and water or H{sub 2}S, respectively. In this study, high-resolution structures of the full-length enzyme from Drosophila in which a carbanion (1.70 {angstrom}) and an aminoacrylate intermediate (1.55 {angstrom}) have been captured are reported. Electrostatic stabilization of the zwitterionic carbanion intermediate is afforded by the close positioning of an active site lysine residue that is initially used for Schiff base formation in the internal aldimine and later as a general base. Additional stabilizing interactions between active site residues and the catalytic intermediates are observed. Furthermore, the structure of the regulatory 'energy-sensing' CBS domains, named after this protein, suggests a mechanism for allosteric activation by S-adenosylmethionine.

  5. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds; Correlations entre structure et absorption infrarouge de composes monodeuteries; contribution a l'etude des composes organomagnesiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillous, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the {nu} (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}. The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [French] La grande sensibilite de la vibration {nu} (C-D) aux variations apportees dans la substitution du carbone porteur du deuterium est mise en evidence pour des molecules organiques au organometalliques monodeuteriees. On a notamment realise la synthese de divers composes organomagnesiens monodeuteries; les observations auxquelles ils ont donne lieu en spectrometrie infrarouge, dons la zone 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}, sont rapportees; les resultats ne mettent en evidence qu'un seul type de carbone deuterie ce qui suggere I'intervention d'un meme carbanion dans des associations ioniques diverses pour les differents reactifs magnesiens. (auteur)

  6. On Selective Derivatization of meso-Tetraarylporphyrins (A Microreview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, S.

    2003-01-01

    The studies on selective derivatization in one or two aromatic rings of meso-tetraarylporphyrin systems (and their zinc and copper complexes) using (a) selective nitration, (b) Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution of Hydrogen(VNS), and (c) alkylation of the above intermediates with alkyl halides, are reported. The stepwise selective nitration of meso-aryl substituted porphyrins with fuming yellow nitric acid (d= 1.53) at the tempreture 0 deg to 20 deg results in the formation of 5-(4-nitroaryl)- 10, 15, 20-triarylporphyrins, 5,10-bis(4-nitroaryl)-15,20-diarylporphrins or trinitro- and tetranitro-derivatives, respectively, in good or reasonable yield. The above intermediates, after simple transformation to their copper or zinc complexes react with carbanions bearing leaving groups at the carbanionic center, according to VNS scheme. This reaction can be also realized at low temperature (-30 deg- 40 deg) without complexation of the parent nitroporphyrins. Alkylation of the products obtained with alkyl halides or alkyl halides bearing multiple bonds in the carbon chain led to useful compounds for further functionalization . (Author) 53 refs., 7sches., 4 figs

  7. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds; Correlations entre structure et absorption infrarouge de composes monodeuteries; contribution a l'etude des composes organomagnesiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillous, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the {nu} (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}. The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [French] La grande sensibilite de la vibration {nu} (C-D) aux variations apportees dans la substitution du carbone porteur du deuterium est mise en evidence pour des molecules organiques au organometalliques monodeuteriees. On a notamment realise la synthese de divers composes organomagnesiens monodeuteries; les observations auxquelles ils ont donne lieu en spectrometrie infrarouge, dons la zone 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}, sont rapportees; les resultats ne mettent en evidence qu'un seul type de carbone deuterie ce qui suggere I'intervention d'un meme carbanion dans des associations ioniques diverses pour les differents reactifs magnesiens. (auteur)

  8. Racemization of alanine by the alanine racemases from Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus stearothermophilus: energetic reaction profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, W.S.; Walsh, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Alanine racemases are bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes providing D-alanine as an essential building block for biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. Two isozymic alanine racemases, encoded by the dadB gene and the alr gene, from the Gram-negative mesophilic Salmonella typhimurium and one from the Gram-positive thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus have been examined for the racemization mechanism. Substrate deuterium isotope effects and solvent deuterium isotope effects have been measured in both L → D and D→ L directions for all three enzymes to assess the degree to which abstraction of the α-proton or protonation of substrate PLP carbanion is limiting in catalysis. Additionally, experiments measuring internal return of α- 3 H from substrate to product and solvent exchange/substrate conversion experiments in 3 H 2 O have been used with each enzyme to examine the partitioning of substrate PLP carbanion intermediates and to obtain the relative heights of kinetically significant energy barriers in alanine racemase catalysis

  9. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(3H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and 15 N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3( 3 H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and 3 H 2 O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of 3 H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3( 2 H)-aspartate prepared as above with 2 H 2 O replacing 3 H 2 O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3( 1 H)-aspartate via 1 H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the equilibration reaction between the sulfur and carbon bonded forms of a cobalt(III) complex with the ligands 1,4,7-triazycyclononane and 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Y.S.; Becker, J.; Kofod, Pauli

    1996-01-01

    The new cyclic thioether 1,4-diaza-7-thiacyclodecane, dathicd, has been synthesized and used for the prepn. of the sulfur- and carbon-bonded cobalt(III) complexes: [Co(tacn)(S-dathicd)]Cl3.5H2O and [Co(tacn)(C-dathicd)](ClO4)2 (tacn, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; C-dathicd, 1,4-diamino-7-thiacyclodecan......-sulfur complex to form the alkyl complex gave 100% loss of deuterium. It is concluded that the labile methylene proton is bound to the carbon atom which in the alkyl complex is bound to cobalt(III). From the kinetic data it is estd. that the carbanion reacts with water 270 times faster than it is captured...

  11. Ab initio and density functional force field studies on the IR spectra and structure of diazonium dicyanomethylide (diazodicyanomethane)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Miglena K.

    2004-03-01

    The structure of diazonium dicyanomethylide (diazodicyanomethane) +N 2-C(CN) 2-↔N 2C(CN) 2 has been studied on the basis of ab initio HF, MP2 and DFT BLYP force field calculations, as well as of literature IR spectra and X-ray diffraction structural data. The results have been compared with those obtained for a series of chemical relatives of the title compound, i.e. molecules, push-pull molecules, anions and zwitterions, containing α-dicyano or diazo fragments, and especially substituted ammonium dicyanomethylides and diazomethane +N 2-CH 2-↔N 2CH 2. It has been found on the basis of spectral, bond length, bond order and electric charge analyses that the diazonium (or carbanionic, left) canonical form is much more important for the title zwitterion, than the corresponding one for diazomethane. So, the title compound can be named (and considered as) both diazonium dicyanomethylide and dicyanodiazomethane.

  12. The Co-III-C bond in (1-thia-4,7-diazacyclodecyl-kappa N-3(4),N-7,C-10)(1,4,7-triazacyclononane-kappa N-3(1),N-4,N-7)-cobalt(III) dithionate hydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille; Kofod, P.; Song, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C6H15N3)(C7H15N2S)]S2O6.H2O, the Co-C bond distance is 1.9930 (13) Angstrom, which is shorter than for related compounds with the linear 1,6-diamino-3-thiahexan-4-ide anion in place of the macrocyclic 1-thia-4,7-diazacyclodecan-8-ide anion. The coordinated carbanion pro...... produces an elongation of 0.102 (7) Angstrom of the Co-N bond to the 1,4,7-triazacyclononane N atom in the trans position. This relatively small trans influence is presumably a result of the triamine ligand forming strong bonds to the Co-III atom....

  13. ICR studies of some anionic gas phase reactions and FTICR software design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noest, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. Part one (Chs. 1-5) reports experimental results from mostly drift-cell ICR studies of negative ion-molecule reactions; part two (Chs. 6-11) concerns the design of software for an FTICR instrument. The author discusses successively: 1. ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry; 2. the gas phase allyl anion; 3. the (M-H) and (M-H2) anions from acetone; 4. negative ion-molecule reactions of aliphatic nitrites studied by cyclotron resonance; 5. homoconjugation versus charge-dipole interaction effects in the stabilization of carbanions in the gas phase; 6. the Fourier Transform ICR method; 7. the FTICR-software; 8. an efficient adaptive matcher filter for fast transient signals; 9. reduction of spectral peak height errors by time-domain weighing; 10. Chirp excitation; 11. Compact data storage. The book concludes with a Dutch and English summary (G.J.P.)

  14. Synthesis and structure of aromatic and heterocyclic tellurium compounds 33. Synthesis of [2-(aryltelluro)vinyl]aldehydes and ketones and stereochemistry of nucleophilic substitution under vinyl atom of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadekov, I.D.; Rivkin, B.B.; Zakharov, A.V.; Minkin, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    By means of interaction of (2-vinylchlorida) carbonyl compounds and (2-acylvinyl) triethylammonium chlorides and arenetellurolate-anions certain, [2-(aryltelluro)vinyl]ketones and [2-(aryltelluro)vinyl]aldehydes have been synthesized, while by means of reaction between 2-aroylvinyl chlorides and Li 2 Te some di(2-aroylvinyl)tellurides have been prepared. Interaction of (2-vinylchloride)ketones with arenetellurolate-anions always gives rise to Z-isomers of [2-(aryltelluro)vinyl]ketones as a result of stabilization of intermediate carbanion by intramolecular coordination O→Te. Nucleophilic addition of arenetellurolate-anions to α-acetylene aldehydes and ketones occurs as trans-addition. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. The phosphorus and the transition metals chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, F.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, concerning the Polytechnic School unit (France), which studies the phosphorus and the transition metals chemistry, is presented. The laboratory activities are related to the following topics: the phosporus heterocyclic chemistry, the phosphorus-carbon double bonds chemistry, the new transition metals phosphorus compounds, the phosphonates and their uses. Some practical applications of homogeneous catalysis and new materials synthesis are investigated. The main results obtained are: the discovery of the tetra-phosphafulvalenes, the utilization of a new synthesis method of the phosphorus-carbon double bonds and the stabilization of the α-phosphonyled carbanions by the lithium diisopropylamidourea. The papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also shown [fr

  16. (1-Adamantyl)methyl glycidyl ether: a versatile building block for living polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Christian; Wrazidlo, Robert; Natalello, Adrian; Netz, Isabelle; Mondeshki, Mihail; Frey, Holger

    2014-06-01

    (1-Adamantyl)methyl glycidyl ether (AdaGE) is introduced as a versatile monomer for oxyanionic polymerization, enabling controlled incorporation of adamantyl moieties in aliphatic polyethers. Via copolymerization with ethoxyethyl glycidyl ether (EEGE) and subsequent cleavage of the acetal protection groups of EEGE, hydrophilic linear polyglycerols with an adjustable amount of pendant adamantyl moieties are obtained. The adamantyl unit permits control over thermal properties and solubility profile of these polymers (LCST). Additionally, AdaGE is utilized as a termination agent in carbanionic polymerization, affording adamantyl-terminated polymers. Using these structures as macroinitiators for the polymerization of ethylene oxide affords amphiphilic, in-chain adamantyl-functionalized block copolymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nitrile anion cyclization with epoxysilanes followed by Brook rearrangement/ring-opening of cyclopropane nitriles/alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugawa, Seigo; Masu, Hyuma; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Takeda, Kei

    2005-12-09

    [reactions: see text] The reaction of delta-silyl-gamma,delta-epoxypentanenitrile derivatives 9-12 with a base and an alkylating agent affords (Z)-delta-siloxy-gamma,delta-unsaturated pentanenitrile derivatives via a tandem process that involves the formation of a cyclopropane derivative by epoxy nitrile cyclization followed by Brook rearrangement and an anion-induced cleavage of the cyclopropane ring. Exclusive formation of a (Z)-derivative from trans-epoxides is explained by the reaction pathway that involves a backside displacement of the epoxide by the alpha-nitrile carbanion and the O-Si bond formation followed by concerted processes involving Brook rearrangement and the anti-mode of eliminative ring fission of the cyclopropane from the rotamer 19. The fact that (E)-isomers are exclusively obtained from cis-epoxides and alpha-cyclopropyl-alpha-silylcarbinol derivative 26 provides experimental support for the proposed pathway.

  18. Melamine Trisulfonic Acid as a New, Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Chemoselective Oxathioacetalyzation of Aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirini, F.; Albadi, J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient and high yielding method for the chemoselective oxathioacetalyzation of aldehydes. Relatively short reaction times, high efficiency, heterogeneous reaction conditions, availability and recyclability of the reagent and easy work-up are among the other advantages of this method, which make this procedure a useful and attractive addition to the available methods. We are exploring further applications of MTSA for the other types of functional group transformations in our laboratory. 1,3-Oxathiolanes are synthetically important protecting groups for aldehydes due to their considerable stability under a variety of reaction conditions, ease of formation and removal, equality to acyl carbanions in C-C bond forming reactions, and use in enantioselective synthesis of tertiary α-hydroxy acids and glycols

  19. Olefination reactions of phosphorus-stabilized carbon nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yonghong; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2012-01-01

    A range of phosphorus-stabilized carbon nucleophiles have been employed for alkene synthesis with high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Horner-Wittig, and Evans-Akiba reactions utilize phosphonium-, phosphonate-, phosphine oxide-, and pentacoordinated phosphorane-stabilized carbanions as nucleophiles, respectively, to undergo olefination with aldehydes or ketones, and each of these transformations has its own advantages and limitations. Modifying the structures of these nucleophiles along with optimizing reaction conditions results in the formation of a wide variety of polysubstituted alkenes in a highly stereoselective manner. The olefination of imines with phosphonium ylides has recently emerged as a useful approach to tune the stereoselectivity for alkene synthesis. This review focuses on recent advances in the stereoselective olefination of phosphorus-stabilized carbon nucleophiles.

  20. Structure of a Class I Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase - Investigation into an Apparent Loss of Stereospecificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LowKam, C.; Liotard, B; Sygusch, J

    2010-01-01

    Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Streptococcus pyogenes is a class I aldolase that exhibits a remarkable lack of chiral discrimination with respect to the configuration of hydroxyl groups at both C3 and C4 positions. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible cleavage of four diastereoisomers (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), psicose 1,6-bisphosphate, sorbose 1,6-bisphosphate, and tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate with high catalytic efficiency. To investigate its enzymatic mechanism, high resolution crystal structures were determined of both native enzyme and native enzyme in complex with dihydroxyacetone-P. The electron density map revealed a ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} fold in each dimeric subunit. Flash-cooled crystals of native enzyme soaked with dihydroxyacetone phosphate trapped a covalent intermediate with carbanionic character at Lys{sup 205}, different from the enamine mesomer bound in stereospecific class I FBP aldolase. Structural analysis indicates extensive active site conservation with respect to class I FBP aldolases, including conserved conformational responses to DHAP binding and conserved stereospecific proton transfer at the DHAP C3 carbon mediated by a proximal water molecule. Exchange reactions with tritiated water and tritium-labeled DHAP at C3 hydrogen were carried out in both solution and crystalline state to assess stereochemical control at C3. The kinetic studies show labeling at both pro-R and pro-S C3 positions of DHAP yet detritiation only at the C3 pro-S-labeled position. Detritiation of the C3 pro-R label was not detected and is consistent with preferential cis-trans isomerism about the C2-C3 bond in the carbanion as the mechanism responsible for C3 epimerization in tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase.

  1. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  2. Nucleophilic addition to olefins. 5. Reaction of 1,1-dinitro-2,2-diphenylethylene with water and hydroxide ion in 50% Me2SO-50% water. Complete kinetic analysis of hydrolytic cleavage of the C=C double bond in acidic and basic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, C.F.; Carre, D.J.; Kanavarioti, A.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrolysis of 1,1-dinitro-2,2-diphenylethylene (2) to form benzophenone and dinitromethane (or its anion) was studied in 50% Me 2 SO-50% H 2 O and also in 50% Me 2 SO-50% D 2 O at pHs of 1 to 16. Solvent isotope effects general acid and general base catalysis, and structure-reactivity relationships were used to study the kinetics. The conclusions are the following: (1) the equilibrium constants for OH - and water addition to 2 to form T/sub OH/ - are comparable to those for the corresponding reactions of benzylidene Meldrum's acid (1), but the rate constants are much lower for 2 than for 1; (2) carbon protonation of T/sub OH/ - follows an Eigen curve similar to that for 1,1-dinitroethane anion but which is displaced upward by nearly 1 log unit. This indicates a higher intrinsic protonation rate because of a smaller charge delocalization in T/sub OH/ - owing to an enhanced steric hindrance to coplanarity of the nitro groups in T/sub OH/ - ; (3) intramolecular proton transfer from the OH group to the carbanionic site in T/sub OH/ - is insignificant, which is in contrast to the behavior of the addition complex between 2 and morpholine; (4) the base-catalyzed breakdown of T/sub OH/ 0 into benzophenone and dinitromethane anion occurs by rate-limiting oxygen deprotonation, which implies that k 4 for CH(NO 2 ) 2 - departure from T/sub OH/ 0- is much greater than 2 x 10 9 s -1 , a remarkably high rate for a carbanionic leaving group. The water-catalyzed breakdown of T/sub OH/ 0 proceeds by a different mechanism, which is most likely concerted, with a transition state; (5) the acid-catalyzed breakdown of T/sub OH/ 2- occurs by rate-limiting carbon protonation (k 6 /sup BH/), but the water-catalyzed breakdown follows a different mechanism. Various possibilities are discussed, and a slight preference is given to a preassociation mechanism

  3. Polystyrene star-shaped polymers made by the new In-Inmethod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazeli, N.; Afshar Toromi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Three main methods are usually used for the synthesis of star-shaped polymers, where each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among these techniques, i n-out m ethod is the best one to produce hetero arm star polymers with narrow molecular weight distribution and long arms with active sites at the end of the second-generation arms. This method, however, has some difficulties during the synthesis of hetero-arm star polymers with styrene or dienes as the second monomers. The reason is that in the o ut s tep, the carbanions of the growing chain attack the existing double bonds of the other cores and produce an irreversible gel. The new i n-in m ethod mentioned in this paper, is used to synthesize double-star polystyrene polymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distribution and without occurrence of any gelation during the process. With the monomers, which are able to attack the existing double bonds of the cores of the star polymers, it is also possible to produce-hetero-arm star polymers using this new method

  4. Atomic resolution structures of discrete stages on the reaction coordinate of the [Fe4S4] enzyme IspG (GcpE)

    KAUST Repository

    Quitterer, Felix; Frank, Annika; Wang, Ke; Rao, Guodong; O'Dowd, Bing; Li, Jikun; Guerra, Francisco; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Bacher, Adelbert; Eppinger, Jö rg; Oldfield, Eric; Groll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    IspG is the penultimate enzyme in non-mevalonate biosynthesis of the universal terpene building blocks isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Its mechanism of action has been the subject of numerous studies but remained unresolved due to difficulties in identifying distinct reaction intermediates. Using a moderate reducing agent as well as an epoxide substrate analogue, we were now able to trap and crystallographically characterize various stages in the IspG catalyzed conversion of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MEcPP) to (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methylbut-2-enyl-4-diphosphate (HMBPP). In addition, the enzyme’s structure was determined in complex with several inhibitors. These results, combined with recent electron paramagnetic resonance data, allowed us to deduce a detailed and complete IspG catalytic mechanism which describes all stages from initial ring opening to formation of HMBPP via discrete radical and carbanion intermediates. The data presented in this article provide a guide for the design of selective drugs against many pro- and eukaryotic pathogens to which the non-mevalonate pathway is essential for survival and virulence.

  5. Enzymatic function of loop movement in enolase: preparation and some properties of H159N, H159A, H159F, and N207A enolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, John M; Glover, Claiborne V C; Holland, Michael J; Lebioda, Lukasz

    2003-05-01

    The hypothesis that His159 in yeast enolase moves on a polypeptide loop to protonate the phosphoryl of 2-phosphoglycerate to initiate its conversion to phosphoenolpyruvate was tested by preparing H159N, H159A, and H159F enolases. These have 0.07%-0.25% of the native activity under standard assay conditions and the pH dependence of maximum velocities of H159A and H159N mutants is markedly altered. Activation by Mg2+ is biphasic, with the smaller Mg2+ activation constant closer to that of the "catalytic" Mg2+ binding site of native enolase and the larger in the mM range in which native enolase is inhibited. A third Mg2+ may bind to the phosphoryl, functionally replacing proton donation by His159. N207A enolase lacks an intersubunit interaction that stabilizes the closed loop(s) conformation when 2-phosphoglycerate binds. It has 21% of the native activity, also exhibits biphasic Mg2+ activation, and its reaction with the aldehyde analogue of the substrate is more strongly inhibited than is its normal enzymatic reaction. Polypeptide loop(s) closure may keep a proton from His159 interacting with the substrate phosphoryl oxygen long enough to stabilize a carbanion intermediate.

  6. Insights into the Thiamine Diphosphate Enzyme Activation Mechanism: Computational Model for Transketolase Using a Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauton, Lionel; Hélaine, Virgil; Théry, Vincent; Hecquet, Laurence

    2016-04-12

    We propose the first computational model for transketolase (TK), a thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme, using a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method on the basis of crystallographic TK structures from yeast and Escherichia coli, together with experimental kinetic data reported in the literature with wild-type and mutant TK. This model allowed us to define a new route for ThDP activation in the enzyme environment. We evidenced a strong interaction between ThDP and Glu418B of the TK active site, itself stabilized by Glu162A. The crucial point highlighted here is that deprotonation of ThDP C2 is not performed by ThDP N4' as reported in the literature, but by His481B, involving a HOH688A molecule bridge. Thus, ThDP N4' is converted from an amino form to an iminium form, ensuring the stabilization of the C2 carbanion or carbene. Finally, ThDP activation proceeds via an intermolecular process and not by an intramolecular one as reported in the literature. More generally, this proposed ThDP activation mechanism can be applied to some other ThDP-dependent enzymes and used to define the entire TK mechanism with donor and acceptor substrates more accurately.

  7. Electronegativity of aromatic amines as a basis for the development of ground state inhibitors of lysyl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, P.R.; Kagan, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Benzylamine derivatives containing para substituents of differing electronegativity as well as isomers of aminomethylpyridine have been assessed for their substrate and inhibitor potentials toward lysyl oxidase. Substituted benzylamines with increasingly electronegative para substituents had the lowest KI values and thus were the most effective inhibitors of the oxidation of elastin by lysyl oxidase. The kcat values for these compounds as substrates of lysyl oxidase were also reduced with increasingly electronegative para substituents. Both the Dkcat and D(kcat/Km) kinetic isotope effects decreased with increasingly electronegative p-substituents in [alpha, alpha'- 2 H]benzylamines. In contrast, there was no Dkcat solvent isotope effect with [ 2 H] H 2 O while the D(kcat/Km) solvent isotope effect tended to increase with increasingly electronegative p-substituents. These results are consistent with the stabilization of an enzyme-generated substrate carbanion and the retardation of substrate oxidation by electronegative substituents. Such ground state stabilization can result in compounds with increased potential for the inhibition of the oxidation of protein substrates of lysyl oxidase

  8. The potential of P1 site alterations in peptidomimetic protease inhibitors as suggested by virtual screening and explored by the use of C-C-coupling reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Steffen; Luksch, Torsten; Evers, Andreas; Böttcher, Jark; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Hasilik, Andrej; Löffler, Hans-Gerhard; Klebe, Gerhard; Rademann, Jörg

    2006-04-01

    A synthetic concept is presented that allows the construction of peptide isostere libraries through polymer-supported C-acylation reactions. A phosphorane linker reagent is used as a carbanion equivalent; by employing MSNT as a coupling reagent, the C-acylation can be conducted without racemization. Diastereoselective reduction was effected with L-selectride. The reagent linker allows the preparation of a norstatine library with full variation of the isosteric positions including the P1 side chain that addresses the protease S1 pocket. Therefore, the concept was employed to investigate the P1 site specificity of peptide isostere inhibitors systematically. The S1 pocket of several aspartic proteases including plasmepsin II and cathepsin D was modeled and docked with approximately 500 amino acid side chains. Inspired by this virtual screen, a P1 site mutation library was designed, synthesized, and screened against three aspartic proteases (plasmepsin II, HIV protease, and cathepsin D). The potency of norstatine inhibitors was found to depend strongly on the P1 substituent. Large, hydrophobic residues such as biphenyl, 4-bromophenyl, and 4-nitrophenyl enhanced the inhibitory activity (IC50) by up to 70-fold against plasmepsin II. In addition, P1 variation introduced significant selectivity, as up to 9-fold greater activity was found against plasmepsin II relative to human cathepsin D. The active P1 site residues did not fit into the crystal structure; however, molecular dynamics simulation suggested a possible alternative binding mode.

  9. Atomic resolution structures of discrete stages on the reaction coordinate of the [Fe4S4] enzyme IspG (GcpE)

    KAUST Repository

    Quitterer, Felix

    2015-04-11

    IspG is the penultimate enzyme in non-mevalonate biosynthesis of the universal terpene building blocks isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Its mechanism of action has been the subject of numerous studies but remained unresolved due to difficulties in identifying distinct reaction intermediates. Using a moderate reducing agent as well as an epoxide substrate analogue, we were now able to trap and crystallographically characterize various stages in the IspG catalyzed conversion of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo-diphosphate (MEcPP) to (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methylbut-2-enyl-4-diphosphate (HMBPP). In addition, the enzyme’s structure was determined in complex with several inhibitors. These results, combined with recent electron paramagnetic resonance data, allowed us to deduce a detailed and complete IspG catalytic mechanism which describes all stages from initial ring opening to formation of HMBPP via discrete radical and carbanion intermediates. The data presented in this article provide a guide for the design of selective drugs against many pro- and eukaryotic pathogens to which the non-mevalonate pathway is essential for survival and virulence.

  10. Enzyme That Makes You Cry-Crystal Structure of Lachrymatory Factor Synthase from Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvaroli, Josie A; Pleshinger, Matthew J; Banerjee, Surajit; Kiser, Philip D; Golczak, Marcin

    2017-09-15

    The biochemical pathway that gives onions their savor is part of the chemical warfare against microbes and animals. This defense mechanism involves formation of a volatile lachrymatory factor (LF) ((Z)-propanethial S-oxide) that causes familiar eye irritation associated with onion chopping. LF is produced in a reaction catalyzed by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS). The principles by which LFS facilitates conversion of a sulfenic acid substrate into LF have been difficult to experimentally examine owing to the inherent substrate reactivity and lability of LF. To shed light on the mechanism of LF production in the onion, we solved crystal structures of LFS in an apo-form and in complex with a substrate analogue, crotyl alcohol. The enzyme closely resembles the helix-grip fold characteristic for plant representatives of the START (star-related lipid transfer) domain-containing protein superfamily. By comparing the structures of LFS to that of the abscisic acid receptor, PYL10, a representative of the START protein superfamily, we elucidated structural adaptations underlying the catalytic activity of LFS. We also delineated the architecture of the active site, and based on the orientation of the ligand, we propose a mechanism of catalysis that involves sequential proton transfer accompanied by formation of a carbanion intermediate. These findings reconcile chemical and biochemical information regarding thioaldehyde S-oxide formation and close a long-lasting gap in understanding of the mechanism responsible for LF production in the onion.

  11. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetone over CeOX(111) Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, David R.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Overbury, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of acetone (CH3COCH3), the simplest ketone, with well ordered CeO2(111) thin film surfaces. The fully oxidized CeO2(111) surface shows a weak interaction with acetone with the sole desorption product (TPD) being acetone at 210 K. The chemisorbed molecule binds to the surface as the ?1-acetone species rather than through a bridge-bonded dioxy-configuration. Exposure of a CeO2(111) surface to acetone at 600K removes oxygen as CO and results in the conversion of Ce4+ to Ce3+. Acetone chemisorbs strongly on reduced CeO2-x(111) with molecular acetone desorbing near 500 K. Decomposition also occurs with H2 desorbing between 450 and 600 K and C reacting with O in the ceria to desorb above 650 K. A stable species exists from 200 to 500 K on the reduced surface that has three unique types of C. High resolution C 1s XPS spectra indicate these are Ce-CH2, C-CH3 and C-O species. C k-edge NEXAFS indicates the presence of C(double b ond)C and C(double b ond)O bonds. It is postulated that the intermediate is a carbanion bonded through both O and C atoms to Ce cations.

  12. Benzoylformate analogues exhibit differential rate-determining steps in the benzoylformate decarboxylase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.A.; Weiss, P.M.; Cook, P.F.; Kenyon, G.L.; Cleland, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    Benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-dependent enzyme which converts benzoylformate to benzaldehyde and CO 2 . The rate-determining step(s) in the benzoylformate decarboxylase reaction for a series of substituted benzoylformates (p-CH 3 O, p-CH 3 , p-Cl, and m-F) were studied using solvent deuterium and 13 C kinetic isotope effects. The normal substrate was found to have two partially rate-determining steps; initial tetrahedral adduct formation (D 2 O-sensitive) and decarboxylation ( 13 C-sensitive). D 2 O and 13 C isotope effects indicate that electron-withdrawing substituents (p-Cl and m-F) remove the rate dependence upon decarboxylation such that only a D 2 O effect on (V/K) is observed. Conversely, electron-donating substituents increase the rate-dependence upon decarboxylation such that a larger 13 (V/K) is seen while the D 2 O effects on (V) and (V/K) are not dramatically different from those for benzoylformate. All of the data are consistent with substituent stabilization or destabilization of the carbanionic intermediate formed upon decarboxylation

  13. Synthesis of 14C-labelled α-methyl tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venkatachalam, T.K.; Conway, T.; Diksic, M.

    1992-01-01

    A new route for the preparation of radioactively labelled α-methyl L-tyrosine is described. The labelling at the α position has been successfully achieved with 14 C-, 11 C- (very preliminary, unpublished), and 3 H-labelled methyl iodide. A detailed report on 14 C-labelling at the α position and the hydrolysis of 4-methoxy α-methyl phenylalanine is presented. The alkylation proceeds via the methylation of the carbanion of N-benzylidene 4-methoxy phenylalanine methyl ester 2. Hydrolysis of 4-O methyl tyrosine to tyrosine by HBr and HI were analysed and used in the optimization of the hydrolysis conditions of 4. Enantiomeric purity of the isolated L-isomer has been found to be 99% as judged by HPLC. Pseudo first-order rate constant for the hydrolysis of 14 C-labelled α-methyl 4-methoxy phenyl alanine methyl ester was determined. Preliminary findings of the 3 H- and 11 C-radiolabelled α-methyl tyrosine (methyl labelled) are also mentioned. For the first time it was shown that α-methyl D,L-tyrosine can be separated into enantiomerically pure α-methyl D- and L-tyrosine using a CHIRALPAK WH column. (author)

  14. A novel application of 2-silylated 1,3-dithiolanes for the synthesis of aryl/hetaryl-substituted ethenes and dibenzofulvenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mlostoń

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMS-CHN2 reacts readily with hetaryl thioketones to give sterically crowded 2-trimethylsilyl-4,4,5,5-tetrahetaryl-1,3-dithiolanes with complete regioselectivity at −75 °C as well as at rt. Thiofluorenone, a relatively stable and highly reactive aryl thioketone, yields upon treatment with TMS-CHN2 at −60 °C the corresponding 1,3,4-thiadiazoline. This unstable cycloadduct undergoes decomposition at ca. −45 °C and the silylated thiocarbonyl S-methanide generated thereby is trapped with complete regioselectivity by aryl or hetaryl thioketones forming also sterically crowded 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiolanes. The obtained 1,3-dithiolanes, by treatment with an equimolar amount of TBAF in a one-pot procedure, are converted in high yields into hetaryl/aryl-substituted ethenes or dibenzofulvenes, respectively, via a cycloreversion reaction of the intermediate 1,3-dithiolane carbanion. The presented protocol offers a new, highly efficient approach to tetrasubstituted ethenes and dibenzofulvenes bearing aryl and/or hetaryl substituents.

  15. Role of the acid-base properties of gallium-antimony oxide catalyst in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile (AN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-07-01

    The role of the acid-base properties of gallium-antimony oxide catalyst in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile (AN) was studied in a differential flow reactor at 550/sup 0/C, with the reaction mixture containing 5 3< by vol propane, 6 3< ammonia, and 18.6Vertical Bar3< oxygen diluted in helium, over ebulliated beds of a 5Vertical Bar3< Ga/Sb or a 1:3:1.5:1 Ga/Sb/Ni/P catalysts, the basicity of which was varied by adding 5 mole Vertical Bar3< of an alkaline earth metal (added as the nitrate and calcined). Both the rate of propane conversion and that of AN formation increased with increasing concentration of the basic sites (determined by back titration with benzoic acid) on both types of the catalysts and linearly correlated with the amount of nitrous oxide desorbed from the catalysts after the reaction. The presence of ammonia in the reaction mixture increased the activity and selectivity of the catalysts and the concentration of the active basic sites. Apparently, the reaction rate is limited by proton abstraction from a propane molecule with the formation of a carbanion stabilized on alkaline-earth metal cations. The rate-determining proton abstraction occurs on nucleophile basic sites, formed by dissociative adsorption of ammonia to form species such as NH, NH/sub 2/, and HNO, which are then oxidized to N/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O.

  16. Enzyme That Makes You Cry–Crystal Structure of Lachrymatory Factor Synthase from Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvaroli, Josie A. [Department; Pleshinger, Matthew J. [Department; College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio, United States; Banerjee, Surajit [Department; Northeastern; Kiser, Philip D. [Department; Research; Cleveland; Golczak, Marcin [Department; Cleveland

    2017-07-26

    The biochemical pathway that gives onions their savor is part of the chemical warfare against microbes and animals. This defense mechanism involves formation of a volatile lachrymatory factor (LF) ((Z)-propanethial S-oxide) that causes familiar eye irritation associated with onion chopping. LF is produced in a reaction catalyzed by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS). The principles by which LFS facilitates conversion of a sulfenic acid substrate into LF have been difficult to experimentally examine owing to the inherent substrate reactivity and lability of LF. To shed light on the mechanism of LF production in the onion, we solved crystal structures of LFS in an apo-form and in complex with a substrate analogue, crotyl alcohol. The enzyme closely resembles the helix-grip fold characteristic for plant representatives of the START (star-related lipid transfer) domain-containing protein superfamily. By comparing the structures of LFS to that of the abscisic acid receptor, PYL10, a representative of the START protein superfamily, we elucidated structural adaptations underlying the catalytic activity of LFS. We also delineated the architecture of the active site, and based on the orientation of the ligand, we propose a mechanism of catalysis that involves sequential proton transfer accompanied by formation of a carbanion intermediate. These findings reconcile chemical and biochemical information regarding thioaldehyde S-oxide formation and close a long-lasting gap in understanding of the mechanism responsible for LF production in the onion.

  17. Chemical bonding and the equilibrium composition of Grignard reagents in ethereal solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, André M; Barbosa, André G H

    2011-11-10

    A thorough analysis of the electronic structure and thermodynamic aspects of Grignard reagents and its associated equilibrium composition in ethereal solutions is performed. Considering methylmagnesium halides containing fluorine, chlorine, and bromine, we studied the neutral, charged, and radical species associated with their chemical equilibrium in solution. The ethereal solvents considered, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and ethyl ether (Et(2)O), were modeled using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) and also by explicit coordination to the Mg atoms in a cluster. The chemical bonding of the species that constitute the Grignard reagent is analyzed in detail with generalized valence bond (GVB) wave functions. Equilibrium constants were calculated with the DFT/M06 functional and GVB wave functions, yielding similar results. According to our calculations and existing kinetic and electrochemical evidence, the species R(•), R(-), (•)MgX, and RMgX(2)(-) must be present in low concentration in the equilibrium. We conclude that depending on the halogen, a different route must be followed to produce the relevant equilibrium species in each case. Chloride and bromide must preferably follow a "radical-based" pathway, and fluoride must follow a "carbanionic-based" pathway. These different mechanisms are contrasted against the available experimental results and are proven to be consistent with the existing thermodynamic data on the Grignard reagent equilibria.

  18. Intermolecular hydrogen transfer catalyzed by a flavodehydrogenase, bakers' yeast flavocytochrome b2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, P.; Lederer, F.

    1985-01-01

    Bakers yeast flavocytochrome b2 is a flavin-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase which also exhibits transhydrogenase activity. When a reaction takes place between [2- 3 H]lactate and a halogenopyruvate, tritium is found in water and at the halogenolactate C2 position. When the halogenopyruvate undergoes halide ion elimination, tritium is also found at the C3 position of the resulting pyruvate. The amount tau of this intermolecular tritium transfer depends on the initial keto acid-acceptor concentration. At infinite acceptor concentration, extrapolation yields a maximal transfer of 97 +/- 11%. This indicates that the hydroxy acid-derived hydrogen resides transiently on enzyme monoprotic heteroatoms and that exchange with bulk solvent occurs only at the level of free reduced enzyme. Using a minimal kinetic scheme, the rate constant for hydrogen exchange between Ered and solvent is calculated to be on the order of 10(2) M-1 S-1, which leads to an estimated pK approximately equal to 15 for the ionization of the substrate-derived proton while on the enzyme. It is suggested that this hydrogen could be shared between the active site base and Flred N5 anion. It is furthermore shown that some tritium is incorporated into the products when the transhydrogenation is carried out in tritiated water. Finally, with [2-2H]lactate-reduced enzyme, a deuterium isotope effect is observed on the rate of bromopyruvate disappearance. Extrapolation to infinite bromopyruvate concentration yields DV = 4.4. An apparent inverse isotope effect is determined for bromide ion elimination. These results strengthen the idea that oxidoreduction and elimination pathways involve a common carbanionic intermediate

  19. Yeast enolase: mechanism of activation by metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M

    1981-01-01

    Yeast enolase as prepared by current procedures is inherently chemically homogeneous, though deamidation and partial denaturation can produce electrophoretically distinct forms. A true isozyme of the enzyme exists but does not survive the purification procedure. The chemical sequence for both has been established. The enzyme behaves in solution like a compact, nearly spherical molecule of moderate hydration. Strong intramolecular forces maintain the structure of the individual subunits. The enzyme as isolated is dimeric. If dissociated in the presence of magnesium ions and substrate, then the subunits are active, but if the dissociation occurs in the absence of metal ions, they are inactive until they have reassociated and undergone a first order "annealing" process. Magnesium (II) enhances association. The interaction between the subunits is hydrophobic in character. The enzyme can bind up to 2 mol of most metal ions in "conformational" sites which then allows up to 2 mol of substrate or some substrate analogue to bind. This is not sufficient for catalysis, but conformational metal ions do more than just allow substrate binding. A change in the environment of the metal ions occurs on substrate or substrate analogue binding. There is an absolute correlation between the occurrence of a structural change undergone by the 3-amino analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate and whether the metal ions produce any level of enzymatic activity. For catalysis, two more moles of metal ions, called "catalytic", must bind. There is evidence that the enzymatic reaction involves a carbanion mechanism. It is likely that two more moles of metal ion can bind which inhibit the reaction. The requirement for 2 mol of metal ion per subunit which contribute in different ways to catalysis is exhibited by a number of other enzymes.

  20. Reaction monitoring using hyperpolarized NMR with scaling of heteronuclear couplings by optimal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.; Hilty, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of 13C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as 1H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). We demonstrate the calculation of [13C, 1H] chemical shift correlations of the carbanionic active sites from hyperpolarized styrene polymerized using sodium naphthalene as an initiator. While off resonance decoupling by SHOT pulses does not enhance the resolution in the same way as a 2D NMR spectrum would, the ability to obtain the correlations in single scans makes this method ideal for determination of chemical shifts in on-going reactions on the second time scale. In addition, we present a novel SHOT pulse that allows to scale J-splittings 50% larger than the respective J-coupling constant. This feature can be used to enhance the resolution of the indirectly detected chemical shift and reduce peak overlap, as demonstrated in a model reaction between p-anisaldehyde and isobutylamine. For both pulses, the accuracy is evaluated under changing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the peaks from reactants and reaction products, with an overall standard deviation of chemical shift differences compared to reference spectra of 0.02 ppm when measured on a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Notably, the appearance of decoupling side-bands, which scale with peak intensity, appears to be of secondary importance.

  1. Elimination Reactions of (E)-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzaldehyde O-benzoyloximes Promoted by R2NH in MeCN. Change of Reaction Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Rae; Pyun, Sang Yong

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the nitrile-forming elimination reactions from 1 promoted by R 2 NH in MeCN. The reaction proceeded by (E1cb) irr mechanism. Change of the β-aryl group from 2,4-dinitrophenyl to a more strongly electron-withdrawing 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl increased the reaction rate by 470-fold, shifted the transition state toward more reactant-like, and changed the reaction mechanism from E2 to (E1cb) irr . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of nitrile-forming elimination reaction that proceeds by the (E1cb) irr mechanism in MeCN. Noteworthy is the carbanion stabilizing ability of the 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl group in aprotic solvent. Nitrile-forming elimination reactions of (E)-benzaldoxime derivatives have been extensively investigated under various conditions. The reactions proceeded by the E2 mechanism in MeCN despite the fact that the reactants have syn stereochemistry, poor leaving, and sp 2 hybridized β-carbon atom, all of which favor E1cb- or E1cb-like transition state. Moreover, the transition state structures were relatively insensitive to the variation of the reactant structures. The results have been attributed to the poor anion solvating ability of MeCN, which favors E2 transition state with maximum charge dispersal. For eliminations from strongly activated (E)-2,4-(NO 2 ) 2 C 6 H 3 CH=NOC(O)C 6 H 4 X, a change in the reaction mechanism from E2 to (E1cb) irr was observed as the base-solvent was changed from R 2 NH in MeCN to R 2 NH/R 2 NH 2 + in 70 mol % MeCN(aq). A combination of a strong electron-withdrawing β-aryl group and anion-solvating protic solvent was required for the mechanistic change

  2. Anionic Polymerization of Styrene and 1,3-Butadiene in the Presence of Phosphazene Superbases

    KAUST Repository

    Ntetsikas, Konstantinos

    2017-10-23

    The anionic polymerization of styrene and 1,3-butadiene in the presence of phosphazene bases (t-BuP4, t-BuP2 and t-BuP1), in benzene at room temperature, was studied. When t-BuP1 was used, the polymerization proceeded in a controlled manner, whereas the obtained homopolymers exhibited the desired molecular weights and narrow polydispersity (Ð < 1.05). In the case of t-BuP2, homopolymers with higher than the theoretical molecular weights and relatively low polydispersity were obtained. On the other hand, in the presence of t-BuP4, the polymerization of styrene was uncontrolled due to the high reactivity of the formed carbanion. The kinetic studies from the polymerization of both monomers showed that the reaction rate follows the order of [t-BuP4]/[sec-BuLi] >>> [t-BuP2]/[sec-BuLi] >> [t-BuP1]/[sec-BuLi] > sec-BuLi. Furthermore, the addition of t-BuP2 and t-BuP1 prior the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene allowed the synthesis of polybutadiene with a high 1,2-microstructure (~45 wt %), due to the delocalization of the negative charge. Finally, the one pot synthesis of well-defined polyester-based copolymers [PS-b-PCL and PS-b-PLLA, PS: Polystyrene, PCL: Poly(ε-caprolactone) and PLLA: Poly(L-lactide)], with predictable molecular weights and a narrow molecular weight distribution (Ð < 1.2), was achieved by sequential copolymerization in the presence of t-BuP2 and t-BuP1.

  3. Substrate dependent reaction channels of the Wolff–Kishner reduction reaction: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yamabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff–Kishner reduction reactions were investigated by DFT calculations for the first time. B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p SCRF=(PCM, solvent = 1,2-ethanediol optimizations were carried out. To investigate the role of the base catalyst, the base-free reaction was examined by the use of acetone, hydrazine (H2N–NH2 and (H2O8. A ready reaction channel of acetone → acetone hydrazine (Me2C=N–NH2 was obtained. The channel involves two likely proton-transfer routes. However, it was found that the base-free reaction was unlikely at the N2 extrusion step from the isopropyl diimine intermediate (Me2C(H–N=N–H. Two base-catalyzed reactions were investigated by models of the ketone, H2N–NH2 and OH−(H2O7. Here, ketones are acetone and acetophenone. While routes of the ketone → hydrazone → diimine are similar, those from the diimines are different. From the isopropyl diimine, the N2 extrusion and the C–H bond formation takes place concomitantly. The concomitance leads to the propane product concertedly. From the (1-phenylethyl substituted diimine, a carbanion intermediate is formed. The para carbon of the phenyl ring of the anion is subject to the protonation, which leads to a 3-ethylidene-1,4-cyclohexadiene intermediate. Its [1,5]-hydrogen migration gives the ethylbenzene product. For both ketone substrates, the diimines undergoing E2 reactions were found to be key intermediates.

  4. Diastereoselective synthesis of ethyl ( Z)-3-(8-methylimidazo-[1,2- a]pyrid-2-yl)-2-phenylthioacrylate. X-ray crystal structure and conformational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, A.; Roche, D.; Métin, J.; Carpy, A.; Madesclaire, M.

    1995-09-01

    The title compound 2, a gem vinyl sulfide ester, has been obtained diastereoselectively (de > 98%) by action of the ethyl thiophenoxyacetate carbanion on the imidazo[1,2- a]pyridinecarbaldehyde 1 in a basic medium, at low temperature. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 (C 19H 19N 2O 2S: Mr = 338.43, triclinic, P 1¯, a = 8.193(3) Å, b = 10.090(2) Å, c = 10.981(4) Å, α = 88.12(2)°, β = 78.66(4)°, γ = 78.53(2)°, V = 872.3(6) Å3, Z = 2, Dcalc = 1.29 g cm -3, λ( Mo Kα) = 0.71069 Å, μ = 0.189 mm -1, F(000) = 356, T = 293 K, R = 0.043 for 3610 observed reflections) has been determined and confirmed the Z configuration. The molecule is almost planar except for the phenyl ring situated in an approximate perpendicular plane. Despite the presence of the conjugate double bonds of the vinyl ester group (acrylate), coplanar with the imidazopyridine heterocycle, there is no evidence of π-electron delocalization over the whole structure. The crystal cohesion is ensured by a dense network of van der Waals contacts. A conformational analysis of the Z and E isomers by means of a Monte Carlo search and a stochastic dynamics simulation in CHCl 3 has shown that according to the method the Z isomer is more stable than the E isomer by about 7 to 10 kJ mol -1.

  5. Crystal and Molecular Structure Studies of Ethyl 4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate and Ethyl 4-(3-Bromophenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiadka Narayana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of the title compounds, ethyl 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate (I and ethyl 4-(3-bromophenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate (II, are reported and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound (I, C26H24O5, crystallizes from a methanol solution in the monoclinic C2/c space group with eight molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are: a = 25.4114(5 Å, b = 8.47440(10 Å, c = 20.6921(4 Å, β = 108.328(2° and V = 4229.92(13 Å3. Disorder is observed throughout the entire molecule with an occupancy ratio 0.690(2:0.310(2. Compound (II, C26H23O4Br, crystallizes from an ethyl acetate solution in the monoclinic P21/c spacegroup with four molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are a = 17.8991(9 Å, b = 11.4369(6 Å, c = 10.8507(5 Å, β = 92.428(4° and V = 2219.25(19 Å3. Disorder is observed in the cyclohexenone ring and the carboxylate group with an occupancy ratio 0.830(6:0.170(6. Weak O–H...O (I or C–H...O (II intermolecular interactions are observed which influence crystal packing stability. These chalcone derivative types of molecules are important in their ability to act as activated unsaturated systems in conjugated addition reactions of carbanions in the presence of basic catalysts which exhibit a multitude of biological activities.

  6. Generating carbyne equivalents with photoredox catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Herraiz, Ana G.; Del Hoyo, Ana M.; Suero, Marcos G.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon has the unique ability to bind four atoms and form stable tetravalent structures that are prevalent in nature. The lack of one or two valences leads to a set of species—carbocations, carbanions, radicals and carbenes—that is fundamental to our understanding of chemical reactivity. In contrast, the carbyne—a monovalent carbon with three non-bonded electrons—is a relatively unexplored reactive intermediate; the design of reactions involving a carbyne is limited by challenges associated with controlling its extreme reactivity and the lack of efficient sources. Given the innate ability of carbynes to form three new covalent bonds sequentially, we anticipated that a catalytic method of generating carbynes or related stabilized species would allow what we term an ‘assembly point’ disconnection approach for the construction of chiral centres. Here we describe a catalytic strategy that generates diazomethyl radicals as direct equivalents of carbyne species using visible-light photoredox catalysis. The ability of these carbyne equivalents to induce site-selective carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage in aromatic rings enables a useful diazomethylation reaction, which underpins sequencing control for the late-stage assembly-point functionalization of medically relevant agents. Our strategy provides an efficient route to libraries of potentially bioactive molecules through the installation of tailored chiral centres at carbon-hydrogen bonds, while complementing current translational late-stage functionalization processes. Furthermore, we exploit the dual radical and carbene character of the generated carbyne equivalent in the direct transformation of abundant chemical feedstocks into valuable chiral molecules.

  7. Direct Reduction of 1,2- and 1,6-Dibromohexane at Silver Cathodes in Dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Erin T.; Strawsine, Lauren M.; Mubarak, Mohammad S.; Peters, Dennis G.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of 1,2-dibromohexane (1) and 1,6-dibromohexane (2) at silver cathodes in dimethylformamide (DMF) containing tetramethylammonium perchlorate (TMAP) has been investigated with the aid of cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential electrolysis. Cyclic voltammograms for reduction of 1 and 2 both exhibit a single irreversible cathodic peak associated with reduction of carbon–bromine bonds; however, the cathodic peak potential (−0.33 V) for 1 is significantly less negative than that (−1.00 V) for 2, and the peak current for 1 is approximately half of that for 2. Cyclic voltammograms for 0.5–20.0 mM solutions of 1 and 2, separately, show that the parameter I pc /C* increases as the concentration (C*) decreases; this trend is likely due to a combination of adsorption phenomena and a potential-dependent transfer coefficient (α). Coulometric n values and product distributions arising from bulk electrolyses of 5.0 mM solutions of 1 and 2 depend on the positions of the bromine atoms: (a) for 1, n was 2.13 and 1-hexene was the only product; (b) for 2, n was 2.12 and a mixture of products was obtained [1-hexene (21%), n-hexane (37%), 1,5-hexadiene (22%), 5-hexen-1-ol (9%), and a trace of n-dodecane]. When 2 was electrolyzed in the presence of a proton or deuteron donor (2,2,2-trifluoroethanol or D 2 O), the n value and the amount of n-hexane increased, whereas 1-hexene and 1,5-hexadiene decreased in yield. We conclude that reduction of 1 follows a concerted mechanism, but that reduction of 2 proceeds via carbanionic intermediates.

  8. Catalytic Hydration of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jim, D.

    2003-03-18

    The fifteen years of DOE support have encompassed two different projects, electron-transfer reactions of metal carbonyl anions and water-soluble organometallic complexes. Each of these is related to homogeneous catalysis and will be described in separate sections. Electron Transfer--Twenty-one manuscripts resulted from our studies of electron-transfer reactions of metal carbonyl anions and acknowledge DOE support. Construction of an infrared stopped-flow system allowed us to measure rates of reactions for the extremely air-sensitive metal carbonyl anions. As for carbanions, both one-electron and two-electron processes occur for metal carbonyl anions. The most unexpected feature was examples of a very rapid two-electron process, followed by a much slower one-electron back transfer. The two-electron processes were accompanied by transfer of a ligand between two metals, M-X + M{prime}{sup -} {yields} M{sup -} + M{prime}-X with X groups of CO{sup 2}, H{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +} and Br{sup +}. These transfers, which can be considered nucleophilic displacements, occurred when M{prime}{sup -} was more nucleophilic than M{sup -}. The 21 published manuscripts explore one- and two-electron processes for many such organometallic complexes. Water-Soluble Organometallic Complexes--The potential of water-soluble organometallic complexes in ''green chemistry'' intrigued us. Sixteen manuscripts acknowledging DOE support have appeared thus far in this field. Our research centered on sulfonated phosphine ligands, PPh{sub 2}(m-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}Na) and P(m-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}Na){sub 3}, to solubilize organometallic complexes in water. These analogues of PPH{sub 3} allowed us to synthesize complexes of Ir, Rh, Ru, Ni, Pd, Pt and Ag that are water-soluble and contain such common organometallic ligands as CO, H and CH{sub 3} in addition to halides and the phosphine ligands. These metal complexes show the ability to activate H{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4

  9. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ka King [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A series of organometallic compounds containing the tris(dimethylsilyl)methyl ligand are described. The potassium carbanions KC(SiHMe2)3 and KC(SiHMe2})3TMEDA are synthesized by deprotonation of the hydrocarbon HC(SiHMe2)3 with potassium benzyl. KC(SiHMe2)3TMEDA crystallizes as a dimer with two types of three-center-two-electron KH- Si interactions. Homoleptic Ln(III) tris(silylalkyl) complexes containing β-SiH groups M{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = Y, Lu, La) are synthesized from salt elimination of the corresponding lanthanide halide and 3 equiv. of KC(SiHMe2)3. The related reactions with Sc yield bis(silylalkyl) ate-complexes containing either LiCl or KCl. The divalent calcium and ytterbium compounds M{C(SiHMe2)3}2L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF2 or TMEDA) are prepared from MI2 and 2 equiv of KC(SiHMe2)3. The compounds M{C(SiHMe2)3}2L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF2 or TMEDA) and La{C(SiHMe2)3}3 react with 1 equiv of B(C6F5)3 to give 1,3- disilacyclobutane {Me2Si-C(SiHMe2)2}2 and MC(SiHMe2)3HB(C6F5)3L, and La{C(SiHMe2)3}2HB(C6F5)3, respectively. The corresponding reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = Y, Lu) give the β-SiH abstraction product [{(Me2HSi)3C}2LnC(SiHMe2)2SiMe2][HB(C6F5)3] (Ln = Y, Lu), but the silene remains associated with the Y or Lu center. The abstraction reactions of M{C(SiHMe2)3}2L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF2or TMEDA) and Ln{C(SiHMe2)3}3 (Ln = Y, Lu, La) and 2 equiv of B(C6

  10. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    'une cetone par les metaux en dissolution fait intervenir deux electrons: on peut considerer comme intermediaire un radical-anion, puis un dianion ou un carbanion. Le radical-anion pouvant aussi se dimeriser pour donner des pinacols. Pour interpreter les resultats des reductions, il nous fallait connaitre les stabilites relatives des alcools ce qui nous a conduit a faire des equilibrations. Dans un premier chapitre, nous etudions les methodes de preparation de l'androstanone-ll et des androstanols-ll{alpha} et ll{beta}. Nous verifions ensuite qu'il n'est pas possible selon nos methodes de conclure sur la stabilite relative des deux alcools par equilibrations experimentales. Nous decrivons enfin les methodes de reduction de la cetone par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide, suivant deux procedes: soit en presence de donneur de protons, soit avec addition posterieure de donneur de protons. Ces reductions conduisent a un melange des deux alcools ou l'isomere {alpha} equatorial stable predomine. Dans un deuxieme chapitre, nous etudions l'action de l'acide selenique et de l'eau oxygenee sur la cholestanone-3, reaction qui nous a permis d'etudier la preparation et la stereochimie des derives du A-nor cholestane. Nous decrivons ensuite la preparation des A-nor cholestanols 2{alpha} et 2{beta} et des acetates correspondants. L'equilibration par des methodes chimiques de ces alcools montre que l'alcool 2 {alpha} est plus stable que l'alcool 2{beta}, ce qui est confirme par le calcul. Enfin, la reduction de la A-nor cholestanone-2 par les metaux en dissolution conduit toujours de facon preponderante a l'epimere 2 {beta} le moins stable avec en outre formation de pinacols. Nous consacrons enfin le troisieme chapitre a l'etude des reductions de l'androstanone-17 et des stabilites relatives des deux alcools 17{alpha} et 17{beta}. Quel que soit le mode operatoire utilise, nous obtenons toujours presque exclusivement l'acool 17{beta} le plus stable. D

  11. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols; Reduction par les metaux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide de cetones en serie steroide. Equilibration des alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, A.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    'une cetone par les metaux en dissolution fait intervenir deux electrons: on peut considerer comme intermediaire un radical-anion, puis un dianion ou un carbanion. Le radical-anion pouvant aussi se dimeriser pour donner des pinacols. Pour interpreter les resultats des reductions, il nous fallait connaitre les stabilites relatives des alcools ce qui nous a conduit a faire des equilibrations. Dans un premier chapitre, nous etudions les methodes de preparation de l'androstanone-ll et des androstanols-ll{alpha} et ll{beta}. Nous verifions ensuite qu'il n'est pas possible selon nos methodes de conclure sur la stabilite relative des deux alcools par equilibrations experimentales. Nous decrivons enfin les methodes de reduction de la cetone par les metaux alcalins et alcalino-terreux dissous dans l'ammoniac liquide, suivant deux procedes: soit en presence de donneur de protons, soit avec addition posterieure de donneur de protons. Ces reductions conduisent a un melange des deux alcools ou l'isomere {alpha} equatorial stable predomine. Dans un deuxieme chapitre, nous etudions l'action de l'acide selenique et de l'eau oxygenee sur la cholestanone-3, reaction qui nous a permis d'etudier la preparation et la stereochimie des derives du A-nor cholestane. Nous decrivons ensuite la preparation des A-nor cholestanols 2{alpha} et 2{beta} et des acetates correspondants. L'equilibration par des methodes chimiques de ces alcools montre que l'alcool 2 {alpha} est plus stable que l'alcool 2{beta}, ce qui est confirme par le calcul. Enfin, la reduction de la A-nor cholestanone-2 par les metaux en dissolution conduit toujours de facon preponderante a l'epimere 2 {beta} le moins stable avec en outre formation de pinacols. Nous consacrons enfin le troisieme chapitre a l'etude des reductions de l'androstanone-17 et des stabilites relatives des deux alcools 17{alpha} et 17{beta}. Quel que soit le mode operatoire utilise, nous