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Sample records for carassius

  1. Glycogen dynamics of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in prolonged anoxia.

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    Vornanen, Matti; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2016-12-01

    Mobilization of glycogen stores was examined in the anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linnaeus). Winter-acclimatized fish were exposed to anoxia for 1, 3, or 6 weeks at 2 °C, and changes in the size of glycogen deposits were followed. After 1 week of anoxia, a major part of the glycogen stores was mobilized in liver (79.5 %) and heart (75.6 %), and large decreases occurred in gill (46.7 %) and muscle (45.1 %). Brain was an exception in that its glycogen content remained unchanged. The amount of glycogen degraded during the first anoxic week was sufficient for the anaerobic ethanol production for more than 6 weeks of anoxia. After 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, there was little further degradation of glycogen in other tissues except the brain where the stores were reduced by 30.1 and 49.9 % after 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, respectively. One week of normoxic recovery following the 6-week anoxia was associated with a complete replenishment of the brain glycogen and partial recovery of liver, heart, and gill glycogen stores. Notably, the resynthesis of glycogen occurred at the expense of the existing energy reserves of the body in fasting fish. These findings indicate that in crucian carp, glycogen stores are quickly mobilized after the onset of anoxia, with the exception of the brain whose glycogen stores may be saved for putative emergency situations.

  2. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

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    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  3. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

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    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  4. The toxicity of copper to crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in soft water

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    Schjolden, Joachim [Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, Ullevalsveien 72, N-0033, Oslo (Norway); Sorensen, Jorgen [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway); Nilsson, Goeran E. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2007-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a Cu rich medium (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l, approximately 300 {mu}g Cu{sup 2+}/l). Untreated department water (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l) acted as control. Mortality in crucian carp was first observed after 13 days of exposure to the Cu rich medium. There were, however, significant changes in haematocrit, plasma chloride, plasma sodium and water content in muscle in fish exposed to the Cu rich medium after two days. After 14 days of exposure to copper, haematocrit increased to 52 {+-} 2% (control: between 37 and 40%), plasma chloride decreased to 45 {+-} 5 mmol/l (control: 99-106 mmol/l), plasma sodium decreased to 81 {+-} 6 mmol/l (control: 116-137 mmol/l), and water content in muscle increased to 83.0 {+-} 0.3% (control: 78.7-79.9%). No apparent changes in blood ethanol, and minor changes in plasma lactate were observed in copper exposed fish. Analyses of the gills revealed an increasing concentration of copper on the gills from fish exposed to Cu rich water. After 14 days, the concentration of copper accumulated in the gill was 12.8 {+-} 4.1 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight (control: 0.91-1.19 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight). A reduction of the respiratory area in fish exposed to copper was observed, in terms of both lamellar and filamental fusion. The normoxic O{sub 2} uptake did not change, but the critical oxygen tension was elevated to 6.12 {+-} 1.04 mg O{sub 2}/l after a 6 day exposure to copper (control: 1.03 {+-} 0.05 mg O{sub 2}/l). This study shows that crucian carp has a higher tolerance to copper compared to other freshwater fish species. Our results suggest that this tolerance is based on the ability of crucian carp to avoid becoming hypoxic as well as an extreme tolerance to severe loss of plasma ions.

  5. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

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    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  6. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G.

    2014-01-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels

  7. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

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    Fang, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G. [Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels.

  8. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

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    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp.

  9. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

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    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  10. The high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia.

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    Poléo, Antonio B S; Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5.8; 960 μg Al/l), acidic Al-poor water (pH 5.8; 50 μg Al/l) or untreated control water (pH 6.5; 50 μg Al/l). Blood, muscle and gill samples were collected from exposed fish, and closed respirometry was performed to measure critical O2-tension an normoxic O2-consumption. The results show an increased gill surface area in Al-exposed fish, while the critical O2-tension did not change. The normoxic O2-consumption was lower in Al-exposed fish and might be due to a reduced metabolic rate. The results suggest that crucian carp exposed to aluminium do not become hypoxic, since haematocrit, plasma lactate and blood ethanol did not differ from that of control fish after 14 days of exposure. We also observed an initial loss of plasma chloride and sodium, followed by a stabilisation of these ions at a lower level than in control fish. The decrease in plasma ions caused a transient increase in haematocrit and water content in muscle tissue, returning to control levels when the ion concentrations stabilised, suggesting that the water balance was restored. We conclude that the high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia as well as an ability to counteract a continuous loss of plasma ions.

  11. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  12. Carassius auratus gibelio—the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2010), s. 176-180 ISSN 2075-1117 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/55/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : invasive alien fish * Carassius auratus gibelio * sex ratio * ploidy status * impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Finding of triploid Carassius Gibelio (Bloch, 1780)(Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Memis, D.; Bohlen, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-79 ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : carassius gibelio * cyprinidae * Turkey Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  14. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

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    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  15. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L; Action des hormones neurohypophysaires sur les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus L.

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    Julien, Monique

    1960-06-25

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [French] Nous avons mesure les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus a l'aide de radiosodium 24. L'action d'extraits neuro-hypophysaires d'origine diverse a ete comparee a celle d'injection temoin de chlorure de sodium isotonique, aussi bien sur les flux d'entree et de sortie de sodium que sur l'excretion urinaire. De ces experiences faites in vivo, nous pouvons tirer les conclusions suivantes: 1 - L'extrait neurohypophysaire de Carassius auratus provoque une augmentation du flux d'entree de sodium au niveau de la branchie de cet animal alors que le flux de sortie reste inchange. Cet extrait semble plus actif qu'une dose d'ocytocine egale a son activite ocytocique propre. Parmi les hormones neurohypophysaires de mammiferes, seule l'ocytocine (a forte dose) produit une action analogue a celle decrite ci-dessus. L'extrait de Rana esculenta reste sans action. Nous en avons conclu a l'existence dans la neurohypophyse de Carassius auratus d'un facteur hormonal agissant au niveau de la branchie pour controler l'osmoregulation de ce poisson. 2 - Les extraits neurohypophysaires de Carassius auratus entrainent chez l'animal une augmentation de la diurese et de la concentration de sodium de l'urine. Cependant cette action reste discrete et fugace. Les hormones de mammiferes, et les extraits neurohypophysaires d'amphibiens restent sans action. 3 - D'autres auteurs ont montre que chez les amphibiens, l'action des hormones neurohypophysaires se traduit a la fois par une augmentation du transport actif de sodium a travers la peau et par un desequilibre de la balance hydrique (augmentation du

  16. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  17. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-01-01

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [fr

  18. Erythrocyte profile of diploid and triploid silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2006), s. 203-207 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carassius auratus * complete red blood count * erythrocyte nuclear dimensions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol75/75-203.pdf

  19. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

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    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  20. Many branches, one root: First evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2010), s. 36-41 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Goldfish * Carassius auratus * Phylogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.044, year: 2010

  1. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

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    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-04-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate.

  2. Enzymatic complex in diets for gold fish fingerlings (Carassius auratusComplexo enzimático na dieta de alevinos de kinguio (Carassius auratus

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    Arcângelo Augusto Signor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the enzymatic complex supplementation in diets for goldfish fingerlings (Carassius auratus, 240 fish weighing initially 1,36 ± 0,02g, randomly distributed in 20 tanks with 150L, in four treatments and five replications, with twelve fish in each experimental unit were used. The fish were fed at 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 and 5:00 p.m. with diets containing different inclusion levels (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% of enzymatic complex (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, ?-glucanase and phytase, and formulated with 32,36% of digestible protein and 3.023kcal of digestible energy kg-1. There were no differences observed (P>0,05 in the mean final weight, weight gain, total length, standard length, survival and carcass composition. However, the fish apparent feed conversion was impaired by the supplementation of enzymatic complex with 0,099% in diet. The use of enzymatic complex does not provides benefits in the productive performance for goldfish fingerlings. Objetivando avaliar a suplementação de complexo enzimático em dietas de alevinos de kinguios (Carassius auratus, foram utilizados 240 peixes com peso inicial de 1,36 ± 0,02g, distribuídos aleatoriamente, em 20 tanques de 150L, em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, com 12 peixes em cada unidade experimental. Os peixes foram arraçoados as 8h, 11h, 14h e 17h, com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% de complexo enzimático (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, b-glucanase e fitase, e formuladas para conter 32,36% de proteína digestível e 3.023kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, sobrevivência e composição de carcaça. No entanto, a conversão alimentar aparente dos peixes alimentados com rações contendo 0,099% do complexo enzimático foi inferior em relação aos alimentados com as demais dietas. Conclui-se que a utiliza

  3. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  4. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  5. Complete genome sequence and architecture of crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Tao; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-12-01

    Crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) was isolated from diseased crucian carp with acute gill hemorrhages and high mortality. The CaHV genome was sequenced and analyzed. The data showed that it consists of 275,348 bp and contains 150 predicted ORFs. The architecture of the CaHV genome differs from those of four cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV1, CyHV2, SY-C1, CyHV3), with insertions, deletions and the absence of a terminal direct repeat. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA polymerase sequences of 17 strains of Herpesvirales members, and the concatenated 12 core ORFs from 10 strains of alloherpesviruses showed that CaHV clustered together with members of the genus Cyprinivirus, family Alloherpesviridae.

  6. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  7. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

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    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  8. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  9. Variation in myelin lipid composition induced by change in environmental temperature of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivonchick, D.P.; Roots, B.I.

    1976-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 30/sup 0/C, and the lipid and protein composition of brain and spinal cord myelin was determined. Goldfish myelin contains less galactolipid, but more protein and phospholipid than mammalian and bird myelin. Phosphatidyl choline was the predominant phospholipid in both brain and spinal cord myelin. Fish myelin also showed a greater plasmalogen content with an average ethanolamine plasmalogen/total phosphatidyl ethanolamine ratio of 0.84. Total brain and myelin lipids, with the exception of plasmalogens, showed a resistance to change with thermal acclimation. Differences between brain and spinal cord myelin protein and phospholipids were not observed. It is suggested that temperature acclimation in poikilotherms may be used as a tool in the study of membrane adaptability.

  10. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

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    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  11. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat? for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.; Lewbart, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production i...

  13. Changes of ploidy and sexuality status of "Carassius auratus" populations in the drainage area of the River Dyje (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Lusk, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 165-171 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Carassius auratus * goldfish * ploidy status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...... was registered, and virus could not be re-isolated from goldfish or carp bath-challenged with any of the isolates in the panel....

  15. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

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    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  16. Efeito da densidade de estocagem do quinguio, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae, em suas fases iniciais de desenvolvimento Stocking density effect on goldfish, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae fry, during its initial development phases

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    Christiano Rodrigues Schamber

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem sobre o desenvolvimento do quinguio, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae em suas fases iniciais. Foram utilizados 300 larvas (Lt = 7,00 mm, distribuídas em 20 aquários (12-L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,50; 1,00; 1,50 e 2,00 larvas/L e cinco repetições. A alimentação utilizada foi à base de náuplios de Artemia sp. (fornecida de forma proporcional a densidade e ração com 40% de proteína bruta (fornecida à vontade. Observou-se aumento linear (p0,001 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora os valores de pH tenham apresentado redução linear (pThis experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the goldfish, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae development, during its initial phases. 300 fry (Lt.: 7.00 mm were distributed in 20 12-liter aquariums. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments (0.50; 1.00; 1.50 and 2.00 fry/liter and five replications. Food consisted of Artemia sp nauplii (supplied proportionally to density and rations with 40% raw protein, given ad libitum. While the biomass per aquarium linear increase (p0.001. On the other hand, quadract effect (p 0.001 by the different stocking densities. The physical-chemical parameters rates remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although pH values suffered linear decrease (pCarassius auratus fry culture can use such density during its initial development phases.

  17. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  2. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  3. Tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Yang, Fan; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Ruichen

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) can induce obesogen response. However, little is known about the adverse effects of TBT on food intake and energy metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/L (1 and 10 ng/L as Sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). After exposure for 54 d, TBT increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. The patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line with potential orexigenic effects, with increased expression of neuropeptide Y and apelin, and decreased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Interestingly, the energy metabolism indicators (oxygen consumption, ammonia exertion and swimming activity) and the serum thyroid hormones were all significantly increased at the 2.44 ng/L TBT group in fish. However, no changes of energy metabolism indicators or a decrease of thyroid hormones was found at the 24.4 ng/L TBT group, which indicated a complex disrupting effect on metabolism of TBT. In short, TBT can alter feeding and energy metabolism in fish, which might promote the obesogenic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  5. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  6. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding

    2013-09-27

    An epizootic with severe mortality has emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, in China since 2009, and caused huge economic loss. The signs and epidemiology background of the disease were investigated. Parasite examination, bacteria and virus isolation were carried out for pathogen isolation. The causative pathogen was obtained and identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) by experimental infection, electron microscopy, cell culture, PCR assay and sequence alignment, designated as CyHV-2-JSSY. Experimental infection proved the high virulence of CyHV-2-JSSY to healthy gibel carp. Electron microscopy revealed that the viral nucleocapsid was hexagonal in shape measuring 110-120 nm in diameter with a 170-200 nm envelope. The virus caused significant CPE in Koi-Fin cells at the early passages, but not beyond the fifth passages. Sequence alignment of the partial viral helicase gene (JX566884) showed that it shared 99-100% identity to the published sequences of other CyHV-2 isolates. This study represented the first isolation and identification of CyHV-2 in cultured gibel carp in China and laid a foundation for the further studies of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Repair of UVC induced DNA lesions in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdonas, E.; Zukas, K.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of UVC (254 nm) irradiation induced DNA single-strand breaks generated during the excision repair of UV induced DNA damage in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio were studied using alkaline comet assay. Nucleotide excision repair recognised DNA lesions such as UVC induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and produced DNA single-stranded breaks that were easily detected by comet assay. After irradiation of erythrocytes with 58 j/m 2 UVC dose, there was an increase in comet tail moment (CTM) at 2 hours post-radiation, whereas at 4 hours post-radiation CTM decreased and did not differ significantly from the control level (P=0,127). When erythrocytes were exposed to 173 J/m 2 UVC dose, the excision repair delayed in the beginning (0 hours), reached maximum level at 2 hours post-radiation (CTM-54,8) and showed slightly decreased level at 4 hours post-radiation (CTM=18,5). (author)

  9. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  10. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  11. Fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy

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    Lorenzoni M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus was studied in Lake Trasimeno by analysing the selectivity of the equipment that can be used to control this invasive species. Sampling was conducted monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 by means of electrofishing, fyke-nets and gill-nets of different-sized mesh (22, 25, 28, 35, 40, 50, 70 and 80 mm. The average value of the CPUEs of goldfish caught was 10175.48 g·10−2·m−2 for gill-nets, 246.97 g·h−1 for fyke-nets and 606.50 g·min−1 for electrofishing. The efficiency of electrofishing was not uniform in all periods of the year, the mean CPUEs being highest in spring, when specimens of reproductive age were preferentially caught. Gill-nets yielded abundant catches of goldfish in all seasons, and displayed good sampling efficiency even in winter. With regard to the selectivity of gill-nets, estimated optimum selection lengths for each mesh size were: 11.92 cm, 13.55 cm, 15.18 cm, 18.97 cm, 21.68 cm, 27.10 cm, 37.94 cm and 43.36 cm. The results of this research demonstrate that the various fishing techniques can be effectively combined with the aim of controlling the goldfish population in Lake Trasimeno.

  12. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  13. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo (Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries)

    1983-07-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 ..mu..g/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of /sup 45/Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in /sup 45/Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled /sup 45/Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer.

  14. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  15. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) as standard fish in bioassays and their reaction to potential reference toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were compared for their suitability as standard bioassay fish. Both species showed the same variability of bioassay results when tested with four toxicants. Fathead minnows are recommended on the basis of their small size and on their capability for use in complete life cycle tests. On the basis of minimum variability of bioassay results, sodium chloride was superior for use as a reference toxicant. Both sodium chloride and pentachlorophenol seemed capable of detecting abnormal fish. On the basis of seven listed criteria either sodium chloride or pentachlorophenol would be acceptable as a reference toxicant.

  16. Physiological and condition-related traits in the gynogenetic-sexual Carassius auratus complex: different investments promoting the coexistence of two reproductive forms?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Hyršl, P.; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 154 (2015), s. 154 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carassius auratus * gene expression * growth Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  17. Phylogeny and biogeographic history of the cyprinid fish genus Carassius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with focus on natural and anthropogenic arrivals in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.K.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 383 (2013), s. 13-20 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Carassius auratus complex * Cytochrome b * Distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2013

  18. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68±5.73 μg/g) followed by the liver (0.80±0.16 μg/g) and muscle (0.47±0.16 μg/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28±0.19 μg/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues

  20. Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

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    Sait BULUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.

  1. Effects of neutral phytase on growth performance and phosphorus utilization in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Dai, Bin-Yang; Qian, Li-Chun

    A feeding trial was conducted for nine weeks to investigate the effects of partially replacing Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 with neutral phytase on the growth performance, phosphorus utilization, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, bone and carcass mineral composition, and digestive-enzyme-specific activity in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The diets prepared with 0.8%, 0%, and 1.8% Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (1%=1 g/100 g) supplements were regarded as the P 1 E 0 , negative control (NC), and positive control (PC) groups, respectively; the other three experimental diets were prepared with the addition of 200, 300, and 500 U/kg of neutral phytase, respectively, based on the P 1 E 0 group. Three hundred and eighty-four fish ((1.50±0.01) g) were randomly distributed in the six treatments with four replicates each. The fish were initially fed with 2%-3% diets of their body weight per day, with feeding twice daily (08:00 and 16:00), under a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle at the temperature of (27.56±0.89) °C. The results showed that supplemental phytase at different levels in the diet improved the final body weight, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, phosphorus utilization, and protein efficiency ratio of crucian carp (PPhytase supplementation increased the mineral content in serum (P), bone (P, Ca), and carcass (P, Ca, Zn, Na, and Mg) (Pphytase-supplemented diets (Pphytase improved the growth performance, phosphorus utilization as well as nutrient utilization in crucian carp, and it can be considered an important nutritional replacement for Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .

  2. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  3. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  4. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  5. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus.

  6. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  7. Continuous flow bioassay method to evaluate the effects of outboard motor exhausts and selected aromatic toxicants on fish. [Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenniman, G. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Hartung, R.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous flow bioassay system was designed to measure the effects of outboard motor exhaust (OME) emissions and selected volatile and evaporative aromatic toxicants on goldfish (Carassius auratus). Continuous flow bioassays were run for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 720 h to determine lethal concentrations for 50 percent of individuals (LC 50's) for leaded OME, non-leaded OME, toluene, xylene, and 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene, the three individual compounds having been identified as significant aromatic components of OME. The 96 h LC-50's for these substances were found to be 171, 168, 23, 17, and 13 ppm, respectively. The values of 171 and 168 ppm for the two OME's are given in terms of gallons of fuel burned per million gallons of water. The continuous flow bioassay method was demonstrated to be a more reliable indicator of the effects of OME pollutants on aquatic organisms than is the static bioassay method.

  8. Lethal and mutagenic effects of radiation and chemicals on cultured fish cells derived the erythrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Zoology)

    1983-01-01

    GEM 199 cells derived from an eryhtrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which had a high plating efficiency, were used to investigate the lethal and mutational effects of radiations (UV and ..gamma..-rays) and chemicals (4NQO and MNNG). The cells were more resistant to rays than mammalian cells and CAF-MM1 cells derived from the normal fin tissue of goldfish. They were also more resistant to UV-irradiation than CAF-MM1 cells. Photoreactivation after UV-irradiation was present in GEM 199 cells for both survival and mutation. The initial shoulder of the survival curve of UV-irradiated cells was reduced greatly by caffeine, suggesting a high activity of the post-replication repair. The spontaneous mutation frequency to ouabain resistance was 1-5x10/sup -6/ clones per viable cell. MNNG was effective in inducing ouabain-resistant mutation, while 4NQO and ..gamma..-rays did not induce mutation.

  9. Uptake and release kinetics of 134Cs by goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137Cs by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in controlled aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Reddy, S.J.; Kelber, O.; Urich, K.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and release kinetics of 134 Cs by Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137 Cs by Zebra Fish (Brachydanio rerio) from aquatic media of different ionic compositions and temperature was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of radiocesium in the case of Brachydanio rerio is observed to be strongly dependent on the potassium ion concentration of the aquatic medium, but in the case of Carassius auratus this dependence is quite weak. The biological half-lives of the cesium isotopes incorporated into the fish investigated in the present work vary from 19 to 80 days and are influenced by the temperature and the ionic composition of the aquatic medium. (author) 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  10. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

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    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  11. Probiotic potential of Bacillus velezensis JW: Antimicrobial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria and immune enhancement effects on Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanglei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Fan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Lijun; Zha, Jiwei; Wang, Gaoxue

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the probiotic potential of B. velezensis JW through experimental and genomic analysis approaches. Strain JW showed antimicrobial activity against a broad range of fish pathogenic bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Vibrio Parahemolyticus. Fish (Carassius auratus) were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 10 7 , and 10 9  cfu/g of B. velezensis JW for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that JW supplemented diets significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. The mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of C. auratus was measured. Among them, the interferon gamma gene (IFN- γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed higher expression after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding (P velezensis JW has the potential to be developed as a probiotic agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

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    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  14. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

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    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  15. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meixia; Luo, Weiwei; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou

    2018-01-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b), signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2) and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7) were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp. PMID:29538345

  16. Morphological, histological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus kingchowensis and Thelohanellus cf. sinensis infecting gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Yang

    2018-06-26

    A Myxobolus species and a Thelohanellus species infecting Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) were redescribed by their morphological, histological and molecular characterization. In the present study, the Myxobolus species infecting the muscle was identified as Myxobolus kingchowensis Chen et Ma, 1998 by the morphological and molecular data. Histologically, mature spores of M. kingchowensis were observed in the intercellular and connective tissue of muscle, though the plasmodia were not found. In addition, scattered spores also occurred in the intercellular of haematopoietic cells, intraepithelial of the renal tubules and interior of the melano-macrophage centres. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. kingchowensis clustered in the clade of muscle-infecting Myxobolus species, further supporting muscle as the infection site of M. kingchowensis. The present Thelohanellus species infecting the gills was identified conspecific as Thelohanellus sinensis reported in Sun (2006) (mark it as T. sinensis-Sun)based on spore morphology, biological traits (host specificity and organ specificity), and molecular data. However, compared with the original description of T. sinensis Chen et Hsieh, 1960, the present Thelohanellus species and T. sinensis-Sun both infecting the gills of gibel carp are distinguishable from the original description in the host and infection site, which made the validity of T. sinensis-Sun dubious. Due to the absence of molecular data in the original description of T. sinensis, we suggest marking the present species and T. sinensis-Sun as T. cf. sinensis to avoid the confusion until T. sinensis is obtained from the type host and type infection site.

  17. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis.

  18. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus. Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b, signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2 and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7 were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp.

  19. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Fan

    Full Text Available Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut of goldfish (Carassius auratus after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+. And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L, bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+, the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut, rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle. The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG increased significantly, and after Zn(2+ exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP were the main target for Zn(2+, while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+ were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  20. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Responses of Medullary Lateral Line Units of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, to Amplitude-Modulated Sinusoidal Wave Stimuli

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    Ramadan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the responses of brainstem lateral line units in goldfish, Carassius auratus, to constant-amplitude and to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal water motions. If stimulated with constant-amplitude sinusoidal water motions, units responded with phasic (50% or with sustained (50% increases in dicharge rate. Based on isodisplacement curves, units preferred low (33 Hz, 12.5%, mid (50 Hz, 10% and 100 Hz, 30% or high (200 Hz, 47.5% frequencies. In most units, responses were weakly phase locked to the carrier frequency. However, at a carrier frequency of 50 Hz or 100 Hz, a substantial proportion of the units exhibited strong phase locking. If stimulated with amplitude-modulated water motions, units responded with a burst of discharge to each modulation cycle, that is, units phase locked to the amplitude modulation frequency. Response properties of brainstem units were in many respects comparable to those of midbrain units, suggesting that they emerge first in the lateral line brainstem.

  2. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

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    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  3. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  4. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and its interaction with antioxidant system in Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yi [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Nankai University), Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Xiaorong, E-mail: yiyluo@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ji Liangliang; Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, direct evidence of hydroxyl radical production in livers of Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was provided using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with spin-trapping. A dose-effect relationship was obtained between hydroxyl radical intensities and PCP exposure. It was observed that hydroxyl radical was significantly induced by 0.001 mg l{sup -1} (below the criteria for Chinese fishery water quality) of PCP exposure. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.9581, p < 0.001) was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities within 7 d of PCP exposure, which suggests that hydroxyl radical are mainly produced from PCP itself. However, no correlation was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities after 7 d, and a higher intensity of hydroxyl radical could still be observed when the PCP liver concentrations decreased to a lower level, which suggests that other mechanisms may possibly contribute to hydroxyl radical production after 7 d. The glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased below that of the control level during the entire period of PCP exposure (0.05 mg l{sup -1}), which suggested oxidative stress occurred.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  6. DNA methylation analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

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    Jun Xiao

    Full Text Available Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids.

  7. In vivo and in vitro activities of the seed extract of Piper guineense Schum. and Thonn. against skin and gill monogenean parasites of gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Wang, M; Simon, J E; Obiekezie, A I; Morah, F

    2004-10-01

    Methanol extracts of the seeds of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) were active against gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus L. Pisces Cyprinidae) monogenean parasites. The seed extract of P. guineense was administered at different concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg/L) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. There was a higher efficacy of the effects of the extracts against fish parasites under in vitro situations than under in vivo. Three major compounds (piperanine, N-isobutyl (E,E)-2,4 decadienamide and Deltaalpha,beta-dihydrowasanine) were identified from the seed extract of Piper guineense by LC-MS analysis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  9. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment

  10. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  12. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  13. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  14. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat ® on slime production in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) and koi ( Cyprinus carpio ). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat ® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat ® , when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat ® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  16. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  17. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  18. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  19. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  20. Chemometric approach to evaluate element distribution in muscle, liver and fish bone of roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) from Swarzędzkie Lake (Poland) using ICP-MS and FIAS-CVAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Maria; Komorowicz, Izabela; Hanć, Anetta; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied. The study indicated a large variation in the occurrence of the investigated elements in different parts of the fish body. The highest content of Al and Zn was stated in all fish organs for each fish species. The majority of the applied statistical and chemometric methods (e.g., PCA, CA) refer to roach since we had a large number of data for this species. The obtained results were assessed in terms of their accuracy and precision using certified reference material of Fish Muscle ERM BB422.

  1. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  2. Native freshwater species get out of the way: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) impacts both fish and benthic invertebrate communities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Docherty, Cassandra; Neufeld, Kenton; Hamilton, Kyle; MacPherson, Laura; Poesch, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    Prussian carp ( Carassius gibelio ) are one of the most noxious non-native species in Eurasia. Recently, Prussian carp, a non-native freshwater fish species, were genetically confirmed in Alberta, Canada and have been rapidly expanding their range in North America since establishment. Given their rapid range expansion, there is an increasing need to determine how Prussian carp may impact native species. We assessed the severity of the Prussian carp invasion by (i) determining their impact on fish communities, (ii) assessing their impact on benthic invertebrate communities, (iii) evaluating if Prussian carp alter abiotic conditions, and (iv) identifying where we find higher abundances of Prussian carp. When Prussian carp were established, we found significant changes to the fish community. Correspondingly, the degree of impact to benthic invertebrate communities was related to the stage of invasion (none, early or recent), where changes in fish communities were significantly concordant with changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Finally, we found that higher abundances of Prussian carp were significantly associated with lower abundances of a majority of native fish species. Altogether, using three lines of evidence, we determine that Prussian carp can have wide-ranging impacts on freshwater ecosystems in North America, pressing the need for management intervention.

  3. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus.

  4. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  5. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in gynogenetic offspring of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, QinBo; Wang, Juan; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-03-13

    The offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as GRCC) have been obtained in the first generation of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. Chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in GRCC which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific centromere probes directly proves that GRCC possess two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes. Sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (abbreviated as NTS) reveals that three types of 5S rDNA class (class I; class II and class III) in GRCC are completely inherited from their female parent (RCC), and show obvious base variations and insertions-deletions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the entire 5S rDNA probe reveals obvious chromosomal loci (class I and class II) variation in GRCC. This paper provides directly genetic evidence that GRCC is gynogenesis origin. In addition, our result is also reveals that distant hybridization inducing gynogenesis can lead to sequence and partial chromosomal loci of 5S rDNA gene obvious variation.

  7. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  8. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection.

  10. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  13. BAFRA BALIK GÖLÜ'NDE YAŞAYAN HAVUZ BALIĞI,Carassius gibelio (BLOCH, 1782'NUN KONDİSYON FAKTÖRÜ VE BOY-AĞIRLIK İLİŞKİSİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya BOSTANCI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Bu çalışmada, Bafra Balık Gölü'ndeki Havuz balığının (Carassius gibelio kondisyon faktörü ve boy-ağırlık ilişkisini belirlemek amacıyla, Ocak 2000-Eylül 2002 tarihleri arasında aylık olarak örneklenen 173 birey incelenmiştir. Populasyonda 168 ♀ (% 97.11, 5 ♂ (% 2.89 birey bulunmaktadır. Populasyonun çatal boy dağılımı 16.9-30 cm arasında, ağırlık dağılımı ise 125-730 g arasında değişmiş, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi W = 0.0265 L2,978 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Kondisyon faktörü ise 1.976–3.776 arasında değişmiş ve ortalama kondisyon faktörü 2.494±0.018 olarak belirlenmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Carassius gibelio, Kondisyon faktörü, Boy-ağırlık ilişkisi, Bafra Balık Gölü DETERMINATION OF CONDITION FACTOR AND LENGTH-WEİGHT RELATIONSHIP OF THE CRUCIAN CARP, Carassıus gıbelıo (BLOCH, 1782 INHABITING BAFRA FISH LAKE Abstract: In this study, it is examined the crucian carp (Carassius gibelio which is captured by montly sampling during the period of January 2000 to September 2002 in the Bafra Fish Lake to investigate for the condition factor and length-weight relationship. There are 168 ♀ (% 97.11, 5 ♂ (% 2.89 specimens in the population. The fork length distribution from 16.9 to 30 cm and weight varied between of 125 to 730 g; length-weight relationship was calculated as W = 0.0265 L2.978. Condition factors varied from 1.976 to 3.776 and the mean condition factors were determined as 2.494±0.018. Key words: Carassius gibelio, Condition factor, Length-weight relationship, Bafra Fish Lake

  14. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Body Weight in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus Using 2b-RAD Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution genetic linkage map is essential for a wide range of genetics and genomics studies such as comparative genomics analysis and QTL fine mapping. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus is widely distributed in Eurasia, and is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. In this study, a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed for crucian carp using 2b-RAD technology. The consensus map contains 8487 SNP markers, assigning to 50 linkage groups (LGs and spanning 3762.88 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.44 cM and genome coverage of 98.8%. The female map had 4410 SNPs, and spanned 3500.42 cM (0.79 cM/marker, while the male map had 4625 SNPs and spanned 3346.33 cM (0.72 cM/marker. The average recombination ratio of female to male was 2.13:1, and significant male-biased recombination suppressions were observed in LG47 and LG49. Comparative genomics analysis revealed a clear 2:1 syntenic relationship between crucian carp LGs and chromosomes of zebrafish and grass carp, and a 1:1 correspondence, but extensive chromosomal rearrangement, between crucian carp and common carp, providing evidence that crucian carp has experienced a fourth round of whole genome duplication (4R-WGD. Eight chromosome-wide QTL for body weight at 2 months after hatch were detected on five LGs, explaining 10.1–13.2% of the phenotypic variations. Potential candidate growth-related genes, such as an EGF-like domain and TGF-β, were identified within the QTL intervals. This high-density genetic map and QTL analysis supplies a basis for genome evolutionary studies in cyprinid fishes, genome assembly, and QTL fine mapping for complex traits in crucian carp.

  15. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  16. Alternations in neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) following an acute and chronic exposure to vinclozolin, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Hatef, Azadeh; Zare, Ava; Socha, Magdalena; Milla, Sylvain; Gosiewski, Grzegorz; Fontaine, Pascal; Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk, Mirosława; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2014-10-01

    The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) is in use globally and known to disrupt reproductive function in male. The present study tested the hypothesis that VZ disrupts testicular function in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by affecting brain-pituitary-testis axis. Goldfish were exposed to 100, 400 and 800 μg/L VZ and 5 μg/L 17β-estradiol (E2) for comparison. In VZ treated goldfish, 11-ketotesteosterone (11-KT) secretion was changed depending on dose and duration period of treatment. Following 7 days of exposure, 11-KT was decreased in goldfish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ, while it was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ after 30 days of exposure. Circulating E2 level was unchanged in VZ treated goldfish, however the E2/11-KT ratio was increased in a concentration-related manner. In E2 treated goldfish, circulatory 11-KT and E2 levels were decreased and increased, respectively, which resulted in an increase in the E2/11-KT ratio. Exposure to VZ at 100 μg/L caused a significant increase in the circulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) after 30 days. In E2 treated fish circulatory LH was decreased, significantly. Transcripts of genes encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone and androgen receptor in the brain, and those of genes encoding LH and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors, StAR, CYP17, and 3β-HSD in the testis changed in VZ-treated goldfish depending on concentration and period of treatment. mRNA of genes encoding vitellogenin and estrogen receptor in the liver and cytochrome P450 aromatase in the brain were increased in E2-treated goldfish. The results suggest that VZ-induced changes in 11-KT were due to disruption in brain-pituitary-testis axis and provide integrated characterization of VZ-related reproductive disorders in male fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  18. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  19. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-06-01

    Accumulation and excretion Of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from radioactive diets (killifish, Oryzias latipes, meats accumulated {sup 137}Cs in the radioactive freshwater) or control diets (killifish meats mixed {sup 137}CsCl) were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in concentration ratio, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency in proportion to the rearing time. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing by administration of non-radioactive commercial diets after the accumulation above for 7 days, demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and followed a gradual decreasing tendency (the biological half lives were about 1.5 days and 52 days, respectively). As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera is more rapid than that for the muscle. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the relative contribution by ingestion of the radioactive diets in the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in natural environmental fish was comparatively higher in comparison with uptake of the radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater. With regard to the difference between the radioactive diets and the control diets, the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in whole body of the fish from the radioactive diets was less than that from the control diets to rearing 5 days, but afterward was not different. The difference of the accumulation between these diets will be attributable to that of the metabolic turnover between these diets. (author)

  20. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  1. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  2. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  3. The effects of dissolved organic matter and feeding on bioconcentration and oxidative stress of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) to crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Nkoom, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Bioconcentration of UV filters in organisms is an important indicator for the assessment of environmental hazards. However, bioconcentration testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural aquatic environmental factors. In order to better assess the ecological risk of organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) in an actual water environment, this study determined the influences of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg/L) and feeding (0, 0.5, 1, and 2% body weight/d) on bioconcentration of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) in various tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Moreover, oxidative stress in the fish liver caused by the OD-PABA was also investigated by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The bioconcentration of OD-PABA in the fish tissues was significantly decreased with the presence of DOM indicating a reduction of OD-PABA bioavailability caused by DOM. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased by 28.00~50.93% in the muscle, 72.67~96.74% in the gill, 37.84~87.72% in the liver, and 10.32~79.38% in the kidney at different DOM concentrations compared to those of the non-DOM treatments. Significant changes in SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, and MDA levels were found in the DOM- and OD-PABA-alone treatments. However, there were no significant differences in the SOD, CAT, GST, and MDA levels found when co-exposure to OD-PABA and DOM. Feeding led to lower OD-PABA concentrations in the fish tissues, and the concentrations were decreased with increasing feeding ratios. BCFs in various tissues reduced by 39.75~72.52% in the muscle, 56.86~79.73% in the gill, 66.41~87.50% in the liver, and 75.88~89.10% in the kidney, respectively. In the unfed treatments, the levels of SOD and MDA were significantly higher than those of the fed ones while GST and GSH levels were remarkably inhibited indicating the enhanced effect of starvation

  4. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  5. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  6. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  7. Method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing: acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. [Pimephales promelas; Carassius auratus; Ictalurus punctatus; Lepomis macrochirus; Salmo gairdneri; Orconectes immunis; Aplexa hypnorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.L.; Holcombe, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed to simultaneously ascertain 96 h LC/sub 50/ values for seven freshwater species in a single flow through test with measured concentrations. It allows interspecific comparisons, easy determination of the most sensitive species, and cuts cost of labor, materials and chemical analysis for measured concentration tests. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, goldfish Carassius auratus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, crayfish Orconectes immunis and snails Aplexa hypnorum. Compounds tested were pentachlorophenol, 2-chloroethanol, 2,4-pentanedione, hexachloroethane, ..cap alpha..-bromo-2',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone, benzaldehyde, 1,3-dichloro-4,6-dinitro-benzene, dursban, sevin and cadmium chloride. The LC/sub 50/ values from these multiple species tests compared favourably with those determined using single species tests at this laboratory, usually within 20%.

  8. Influence of ammonia on forming the toxicity of waters from the surface sources of water supply determined on Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Arystarkhova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the influence of ammonia in waters from surface sources of water supply of Zhytomyr city on forming the toxicity of these waters determined by test-reactions of atypical motor activity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 with the use of the «time sampling» method during 2012–2014. Methodology. Biotesting was performed at the Municipal Enterprise "Zhytomyrvodokanal". Water samples were taken once a month time from the Teteriv river reservoirs and tap water network and then placed into aquaria (8 dm3 on a group. Control and experimental groups of fish were formed according to the following scheme: control group — samples of settled (24 hours tap water; experimental group D-1 — water samples from the Denyshivske reservoir; experimental group D-2 — water samples from the Vidsichne water intake. Test specimens were females of C. auratus gibelio. Biotesting was conducted using the «time sampling» method by keeping fish (n=30 in water for 12 hours. The toxicity indexes of waters were calculated on the basis of the following test-reactions: spiral-like and vector movements, jumping out from water, immobilization and death of fish. Statistical processing of study results were performed using cross-correlation and regression analysis in MS Excel 2007 and Statistica-6. Findings. The study showed an effect of ammonia on the toxicity of waters from reservoirs of the Teteriv river that was determined by atypical motor activity with the use of the «time sampling» method, which consisted in the instantaneous fixation of the number of individuals that favored one or another act of behavior. It was shown that females not adapted to the action of ammonia reacted to its concentration in water of more than 0.55 mg/dm3 by disorders in movements. Unlike fish of experience groups, only single pathological acts were observed in the control group. A positive moderate relationship, which had a tendency to an increase, was

  9. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  10. Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802 Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shimoda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.

  11. Japon Balığı (Carassius Auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet Anıl; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem Yeşim; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  12. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  13. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  15. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus; however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr, deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3, tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh, were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3 and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4, and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  16. Eğirdir Gölü'nde Gümüşi Havuz Balığı, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 Avcılığında Kullanılan Monofilament Fanyalı Ağların Seçiciliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram KORKMAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been investigated that the characteristics of the selectivity of monofilament trammel nets having 50, 55, 60 mm bar length. This study was carried out on prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782 caught in Lake Eğirdir. An indirect method developed by Holt (1963 was used for determining the selectivity parameters. Common selection factor as SF=4.753 and common standard deviation as SD=2.347 were calculated for monofilament trammel nets. Common selection factor used of the optimum catch lengths of prussian carp in 50, 55 and 60 mm bar length were 23.77; 26.14 and 28.52 cm respectively. The optimum catch lengths were compared with lenghts at first maturity of prussian carp in Lake Eğirdir. Trammel nets of this study do not cause the overfishing on the prussian carp stock

  17. Effects of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on DNA Damage and p53 Protein Expression in Carassius auratus Linn.%多溴联苯醚对鲫鱼组织DNA损伤及p53蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 瞿建宏; 陈家长; 聂凤琴

    2011-01-01

    以鲫鱼(Carawsius auratus)为试验材料,研究了经不同浓度的2,2’,4,4’-四溴联苯醚(PBDE-47)和十溴联苯醚(PBDE-209)暴露后,鲫鱼体内DNA损伤产物8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)的含量及p53蛋白的水平.结果表明,采用浓度为0.10~5.00 mg·L-1的PBDE-47和10.0~50.0mg·L-1的PBDE-209处理鲫鱼20d,除了0.10 mg·L-1 PBDE-47和10.0 mg·L-1 PBDE-209浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05),其余各浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量均随PBDE-47和PBDE-209浓度增加而逐渐上升,呈显著的相关关系(P<0.01),且8-OHdG和p53蛋白之间也呈显著的正相关.说明PBDE-47和PBDE-209对鲫鱼组织的DNA产生了损伤,具有遗传毒性影响.%Persistent organic pollutants(POPs) has a long-term threat to different biota, including aquatic animals, mammals, especially humans, due to their biomagnified effect in food chain, the study on the toxic effect of POPs to aquatic animals was evidently important and concerned. This paper discussed the variation of DNA-damage product 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) and p53 protein to Carassius awatus in exposed to poly -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE-47 and PBDE-209), where the exposed dose of PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 ranged from 0.10 to 5.00 mg·L-1 and 10.0 to 50.0 mg·L-1, respectively. The results showed that, DNA-damage product 8-OHdC and p53 protein were generated extraordinary in all treatment lasted for 20 days, expectihe 0.1 mg·L-1 in PBDE-47 and 10.0 mg·L-1 in PBDE-209. The variation of 8-OHdC and p53 protein to Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were significantly dose-depend (P<0.01), respectively, and the variation of 8-OHdC was significantly correlated with the variation of p53 protein as well. The results indicated that, the genotoxic effect, characterized by DNA-damage product, such as 8-OHdC and p53 protein in Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were produced. The paper provided more

  18. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, S.; Höglund, Erik; Mayer, I.

    2008-01-01

    -dependent; for instance, many animals show increased risk-taking during courtship behavior by paying less attention to potential predators. We investigated whether the fright reaction, a stereotypical avoidance response to olfactory cues from injured conspecifics, may be affected by reproductive status in a teleost fish...... maturation, were lower in the individuals not responding with a fright reaction compared to those responding. In males, there were no differences between responsive and non-responsive individuals in mean plasma levels of androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) involved in spermatogenesis and male...

  19. Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), s. 205-215 ISSN 1993-0771 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytogenetics * paleotetraploid * heterochromatin * metaphase chromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2013

  20. 额尔齐斯河2种类型雌性银鲫的形态特征及D-loop基因序列比较%Comparative analysis between two types of female silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Irtysh River using morphology and mitochondrial control regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马波; 霍堂斌; 李喆; 蔡林钢; 阿达可白克可尔江; 姜作发

    2013-01-01

    Two types of female silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio were discovered in the main stem of the Irtysh Rive (the Crop 185) in May 2008. We defined them as high-dorsal silver crucian carp (1.78−2.14) and low-dorsal silver crucian carp (2.18−2.39) based on differences in their morphology (body length/body depth). The number of lateral line scales in the high and low-dorsal silver crucian carp is 31 and 30, respectively. The number of scales above (or below) the lateral line is 7 (6), the number of scales above (or below) the lateral line in the caudal peduncle is 3 (2). High-dorsal silver crucian carp exhibit a size advantage based on the significant differ-ence in body depth and width, head depth and width, and caudal peduncle depth (P<0.01) between high and low-dorsal silver crucian carp. The mean weight of high-dorsal silver crucian carp is 1.3−1.9 times that of low-dorsal silver crucian carp. A comparison of the mitochondrial control region sequences of the two types re-vealed that each has one haplotype, thus representing intraspecific variation with a low genetic diversity value (0.004). The two types and Fangzheng silver crucian carp in the Heilongjiang River are monophylic, and share the same haplotype with Fangzheng silver crucian carp. Accordingly, we speculate that the Irtysh silver crucian carps are derived from the Heilongjiang River basin. Our observations suggest the two types of C. a. gibelio, particularly the high-dorsal silver crucian carp, have a growth advantage over other crucian carps. Given this, they offer greater potential as breeding stock. Our results provide a theoretical basis for better conservation and utilization of the unique varieties of Irtysh River silver crucian carp.%  2008年5月调查发现,在额尔齐斯河主河道(185团)的雌性银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)群体中存在2种形态类型,按照体长比体高的形态学性状区分,分别为高背型(1.78~2.14)和低背型(2.18~2.39).形态学分

  1. Morphology of the intestine of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the structures of the intestine of the Goldfish is given. Several morphological techniques have been used. Special attention has been paid to those characteristics of this organ that may be of importance to physiologists working with the same material, with emphasis on cell-to-cell

  2. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    herpesvirus‐like particles, subsequently identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus‐2 (CyHV‐2) with a nested PCR protocol. Although it was not possible to attribute a pathogenic role to CyHV‐2 in this mortality event, the identification of this herpesvirus in crucian carp increases the concern about its potential...

  3. Morphologically indistinguishable hybrid Carassius female with 156 chromosomes: A threat for the threatened crucian carp, C. carassius, L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Rylková, K.; Choleva, Lukáš; Merilä, J.; Ráb, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), č. článku e0190924. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Carrasius carrasius * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  4. Socializing makes thick-skinned individuals: on the density of epidermal alarm substance cells in cyprinid fish, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabell, Ole B; Vegusdal, Anne

    2010-09-01

    In cyprinid fish, density of epidermal club cells (i.e. alarm substance cells) has been found to vary between lakes with different predator fauna. Because predators can be labelled with chemical cues from prey, we questioned if club cell density could be controlled indirectly by predators releasing prey cues. In particular, we suspected a possible feedback mechanism between chemical alarm signals and their cellular source. We raised crucian carp singly and in groups of four. For both rearing types, fish were exposed to skin extracts of either conspecifics or brown trout (without club cells), and provided either low or high food rations. Independent of rearing type, condition factor and club cell density increased with food ration size, but no change was found in club cell density following exposure to conspecific alarm signals. However, the density of club cells was found significantly higher for fish raised in groups than for fish raised alone. We conclude that an increased condition factor results in more club cells, but crucian carp may also possess an awareness of conspecific presence, given by higher club cell densities when raised in groups. This increase in club cell density may be induced by unknown chemical factors released by conspecifics.

  5. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formicki, Grzegorz; Stawarz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m 2 for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m 2 for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation

  6. Study of goldfish (Carassius auratus) growth hormone structure-function relationship by domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y H; Cheng, C H K; Chan, K M

    2007-03-01

    Using goldfish as a model, the structure-function relationship of goldfish growth hormone was studied using the strategy of homologous domain swapping. Chimeric mutants were constructed by exchanging homologous regions between goldfish growth hormone (gfGH II) and goldfish prolactin (gfPRL) with their cloned complementary DNAs. Six mutants, with their domain-swapped, were generated to have different combinations of three target regions, including the helix a, helix d and the large section in between these helices (possess the helices b, c and other random coiled regions). After expression in E. coli and refolding, these mutants were characterized by using competitive receptor binding assay (RRA) and growth hormone responding promoter activation assay. The different activity profiles of mutants in Spi 2.1 gene promoter assays from that in RRA shows that, for gfGH, receptor binding dose not confer receptor signal activations. When either helices a or d of gfGH was maintained with other helices replaced by their gfPRL counterparts, both receptor binding and hence gene activation activities are reduced. In mutants with helices b and c in gfGH maintained, containing the gfGH middle section, and helices a and d swapped with gfPRL, the had reduced RRA activities but the promoter activation activities retained. In conclusion, as in the case of human GH, the gfGH molecule possesses two functional sites: one of them is composed of discontinuous epitopes located on the target regions of this study and is for receptor binding; another site is located on the middle section of the molecule that helices a and d are not involved, and it is for activation of GH receptor and intracellular signals.

  7. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both ... There are various studies on the effects of these factors ..... have high salt in the blood and do not spend more energy.

  8. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  9. Opportunity of integrated production of "Ceratophyllum demersum" in a nutrition trial with "Carassius auratus"

    OpenAIRE

    Santana García, Gustavo Julián

    2016-01-01

    [EN]The integrated culture of fish and plant in a recirculated system is called aquaponics, where a mutual benefit have been demonstrated for the cocultured species. Today this practice is still not well known for the most studied consumed freshwater species, and almost nothing has been done for aquarium species. The objective of present work was to study the opportunity of growing one of the most selled aquarium plant coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a coculture with the goldfish (Carass...

  10. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  11. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicki, Grzegorz [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: formicki@ap.krakow.pl; Stawarz, Robert [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)

    2006-10-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation.

  12. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  13. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  14. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  15. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  16. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  17. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  18. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  19. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  20. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  1. New mtDNA data reveal a wide distribution of the Japanese ginbuna Carassius langsdorfii in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Rylková, K.; Bohlen, Jörg; Šanda, R.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2013), s. 703-707 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : alien species * introduction * molecular genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2013

  2. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  3. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  4. Toxicological responses on cytochrome P450 and metabolic transferases in liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to lead and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Cui, Zhaojie; Wang, Xinlei; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Su

    2018-04-30

    As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0.05-10mg/L, respectively. Four hepatic enzyme activities, including 7-ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were determined after 1, 7, 14, 28 days exposure. The results showed that the activities of EROD and BFCOD in fish were significantly inhibited in response to paraquat at all exposure levels during the whole experiment. Similarly, the inhibitory effects of lead exposure on BFCOD activity were found in our study, while different responses of lead on EROD were observed. There were no significant differences on EROD activity under lower concentrations of lead (less than 0.1mg/L) before 14 days until an obvious increase was occurred for the 0.5mg/L lead treatment group at day 14. Furthermore, lead showed stronger inhibition on GST activity than paraquat when the concentrations of the two toxicants were more than 0.5mg/L. However, the similar dose and time-dependent manners of UGT activity were found under lead and paraquat exposure. Our results indicated that higher exposure levels and longer accumulations caused inhibitory effects on the four enzymes regardless of lead or paraquat stress. In addition, the responses of phase I enzymes were more sensitive than that of phase II enzymes and they may be served as the acceptable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity effects of both lead and paraquat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature selection of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitch. ) after heterogeneous temperature acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.

    1977-01-01

    Goldfish and brook trout were acclimated heterogeneously to temperature by exposing the head and tail simultaneously to different temperatures. The temperature selection of heterogeneously acclimated fish was tested in a vertical temperature gradient and compared to that of homogeneously acclimated fish. All fish selected temperatures essentially corresponding to the state of acclimation of their head. It is concluded that the brain acts as the main control of temperature selection in fish.

  6. Role of pH on the acute toxicity of sulfite in water. [Carassius auratus; Leistes reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of sulfite to fish decreases with increasing pH value, because the HSO/sub 3//sup -/ ion is more toxic than the SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion. An effective sulfite concentration S/sub eff/ which is proportional to the toxicity on fish is expressed by the following equation: S/sub eff/ = (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) + f(SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/), where f is a coefficient which expresses the change of toxicity of sulfite depending on the pH of the water, and varies for each species of fish. For goldfish, owing to the very small toxic contribution of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion (f = 0.07), the pH dependence of the toxicity of sulfite on pH was so strong that sulfite seemed almost non-toxic in basic solution. However, f for guppy is somewhat larger (f = 0.20) so that the toxicity of sulfite weakly depends on the pH value of water.

  7. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, Carassius auratus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, B.A. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC); Peter, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on prolactin release from the goldfish pituitary gland. Fish were acclimated to different photoperiods and temperatures, and also were subjected to a change in either of these two parameters after different acclimation conditions. Serum and pituitary samples were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. In other experiments samples for prolactin analysis were taken every 3 h intermittently over a period of 3 days from fish that were acclimated to different photoperiod and temperature conditions. Longer photoperiods and higher temperatures caused pituitary prolactin release. Serum prolactin changed on a circadian rhythm and the rhythm was modified depending on the length of the photoperiod.

  8. Filamoeba sinensis sp. n., a second species of the genus Filamoeba Page, 1967, isolated from gills of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan; Dvořáková, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2005), s. 75-80 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Filamoeba sinensis sp. n. * morphology * phylogeny Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2005

  9. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerbik, P.; Mikolajczyk, T.; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M.; Socha, M.; Chyb, J.; Epler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g -1 of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g -1 ) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g -1 ) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g -1 did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g -1 ) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes

  10. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  11. The effect of ploidy and temporal changes in the biochemical profile of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio): a cyprinid fish species with dual reproductive strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Šimková, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2013), s. 171-180 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/09/P620; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biochemical profile of blood * Gibel carp * Ploidy * Temporal variability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2013

  12. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  13. The application of hCG, CPH and Ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, K; Kucharczyk, D

    2011-08-01

    Artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. The aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (CPH), Ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. Goldfish spawners were stimulated with hCG, CPH and Ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish from the control group, comprised of unstimulated fish. In another experiment, spawn were induced twice within an interval of 21 days with the same group of fish. The best results in the first experiment in terms of the percentage of ovulating females and survival to the eyed-egg stage were achieved after administering hCG (100% and 88.7%, respectively). However, the highest fecundity was observed in fish stimulated with Ovopel (89,960 eggs/kg). It was shown in the second experiment that female goldfish produce higher weight of eggs during the first spawning, but the number of eggs/BW ratio was higher during the next reproduction process. Survival, both that of embryos to the eyed-egg stage and that of spawners, is higher during the first reproduction act. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  15. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effect of the addition of cow brain powder in commercial feed on the gonadal maturity of comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Subhan, U.; Rosidah; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Abdillah, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to analysis the effect of addition bovine’s brain meal in artificial feed on gonad maturity and to find out the best time of gonad maturity in comet fish.This research was conducted at Fourth Building Hatchery Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University on November 2014 until Januari 2015. Freeze drying of bovine brain was conducted at Research Center Inter University Bandung Institute of Technology. The research was using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications.The treatment were 20 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, 50mg/kg and control. The parameters of this research are Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and egg maturity level. Addition of bovine brain meal in feed with the dose of 50 mg/kg are giving the best result until 45 days of the care time against gonad maturity of comet fish with GSI result 12.93 %, egg maturity level ripe phase 21.115 and fecundity 1520 grain/g.

  17. Chromosome studies of european cyprinid fishes: Cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a carassius female with 206 chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Symonová, Radka; Rylková, K.; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 4 (2013), s. 276-283 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytogenetics * genome addition * GISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  18. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: A case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Vojtek, L.; Halačka, Karel; Hyršl, P.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Cyprinids * Blood biochemistry * Hematology * Immunity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.893, year: 2015

  19. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  20. Effect of adjusting kilovolt peak of the X-ray machine on radiographic-image quality in goldfish(Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nut Nuanmanee; Dilok Wongsathein; Rutch Khattiya; Atigan Thongtharb; Utumma Maghanemi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find optimal kilovolt peak (kVp) for radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish with body width and depth ranging between 3-5 centimeters. Materials and Methods: 18 Oranda fish were divided into 6 groups (3 for each group). Body widths of fish in group 1, 2, and 3 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. Body depths of fish in group 4, 5, and 6 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. After the fish were anesthetized, the radiographic images of group 1, 2, and 3 were taken in lateral position with milliamperes (mA) at 50 mA and duration (sec) for 0.02, 0.05, and 0.05 sec, respectively. Kilovolt peak (kVp) was used in range from 40 to 58. In addition, the radiographic images of group 4, 5, and 6 were taken in dorsoventral position at 50 mA for 0.1 sec with varying kVp from 40 to 62. The quality of radiographic images was evaluated by 5 veterinarians and 5 radiologists. Results: The most appropriate kVp in lateral position with 3, 4 and 5 centimeters in body width were 44, 44, and 48, respectively. In addition, the most appropriate kVp in dorsoventral position with 3, 4, and 5 centimeters in body depth were 46, 48, and 50, respectively. Conclusion: The radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish was depended on the appropriated kVp

  1. Effects of various feeding patterns of Bacillus coagulans on growth performance, antioxidant response and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway in juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yebing; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Aimin; Yang, Wenping; Lv, Fu; Liu, Fei; Liu, Bo; Sun, Cunxin

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various Bacillus coagulans feeding patterns on growth, antioxidant parameter and Nrf2 pathway in juvenile gibel carp. The similar size of gibel carp (initial weight: 14.33 ± 0.15 g) were subjected to three levels of B. coagulans supplementation (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) and two feeding modes (supplementing B. coagulans continuously or for two days of B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. The fish that were continuously fed 500 mg/kg B. coagulans (P2) and those fed the first basal diet for 5 days followed by 500 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg B.coagulans for 2 days (P4 or P5) showed higher weight gain rate and specific growth rate than the other groups. Blood respiratory burst (RB), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and anti-superoxide anion free radical (AFASER) activities in the P4 group were higher than those of the control. White blood cell count (WBC), RB activity, MPO activity, and glutathione (GSH) content in the P5 group were also higher than those of the control. A similar higher trend was observed in the gene expressions of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NFE2-related factor (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein(Keap1) in the P4 and NOX2, NRF2, CNC homolog 1 (Bach1), peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) in the P5 group compared with the control. Additionally, we observed a significantly lower level of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a higher level of MPO, higher GPX activity, and increased NRF2 and Prx2 expression were all observed in the P2 treatment group compared with the control. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the P2, P3, and P4 groups was lower than that of the control. These results indicate that a diet supplemented with appropriate levels of B.coagulans could improve the growth, immune response, and antioxidant capability of gibel carp. We concluded that the pattern of two days of 500 or 1000 mg/kg B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet was recommended for gibel carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Long temporal study of parasitism in asexual-sexual populations of Carassius gibelio: Does the parasite infection support coevolutionary Red Queen dynamics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakosta, T.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Šimková, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2018 (2018), č. článku 6983740. ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : River floodplain * Fish * Adaptation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Fishery Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  3. A Long temporal study of parasitism in asexual-sexual populations of Carassius gibelio: Does the parasite infection support coevolutionary Red Queen dynamics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakosta, T.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Šimková, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2018 (2018), č. článku 6983740. ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : River floodplain * Fish * Adaptation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  4. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  5. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline and nitr......The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline...... in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...... that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...

  6. Using accelerometry to quantify prey attack and handling behaviours in piscivorous pike Esox lucius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Andersson, A.; Vinterstare, J.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerometer technology was used to evaluate behaviours in the teleost ambush predator pike Esox lucius foraging on crucian carp Carassius carassius. Automated rule-based estimates of prey-size determined handling time were obtained and are compared with video-recorded behaviours. Solutions to t...... attachment and the limitations imposed by battery-time and data-logging capacities are evaluated......Accelerometer technology was used to evaluate behaviours in the teleost ambush predator pike Esox lucius foraging on crucian carp Carassius carassius. Automated rule-based estimates of prey-size determined handling time were obtained and are compared with video-recorded behaviours. Solutions to tag...

  7. Variation in fish community structure, richness and diversity of 56 Danish lakes with contrasting depth and trophic state: Does the method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the variables that determine the structure and composition of fish communities is crucial for developing fish monitoring programs for lakes. Although electrofishing has long been recognized as an efficient method for quantitative investigations of fish populations, it has typ...... are not well caught in the gill nets such as eel, common carp (Carassius carassius) and stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)....

  8. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  9. Contaminación aguda por vertidos textiles: Tratamiento de carpines dorados (Carassius auratus) con dicromato potásico; determinación de la toxicidad y niveles de cromo en branquias.

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Juan, María del Carmen; Flos Bassols, Rosa; Crespi Rosell, Martí; Balash, J.

    1980-01-01

    El cromo es el metal pesado cuantitativamente más importante en el vertido de la Industria Textil; procede esencialmente de los procesos de tintura con colorantes cromatables. Hemos sometido carpines dorados al tratamiento agudo con dicromato potásico disuelto en el agua de tanques experimentales. Se determina la toxicidad y los niveles de cromo en branquias. La concentración de cromo en el tejido branquia1 se halla mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, previa digestión c...

  10. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: Variation among species and impact of water chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, David L.; Meinelt, Thomas; Liu, Dibo

    2017-01-01

    , Ictalurus punctatus; golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas; goldfish, Carassius auratus; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; sunshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis; and walleye, Sander vitreus. Median lethal concentration...

  11. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  12. Subsequent experimental results of the research of the removal of the 134,137Cs from the meat of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'enko, A.I.; Krapivko, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Expriments on decontamination of meat of Susscrofa, Alces alces, Esox lucius, Tinca tinca, Rutilus rutilus, Carassius carassius were presented. The studies added the following positive results: increasing frequency of decontamination solution change reduced decontamination total duration concerning meat of animals and fishes two fold at least. KMnO 4 addition to the main solution accelerated washout of radioactive cesium. Preliminary fishes a meat freezing considerably increased decontamination efficiency. Decontamination process performed at 4-5 deg C induced no violation of the process and prevented the products from spoiling

  13. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, ...

  14. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-115 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Temporal changes * Carassius gibelio * Fish holding * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  15. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  16. Alien fish species in upper Sakarya River and their distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the fact that the flood plains have been reclaimed, excessive hunting, destruction of the ecologic balance and invasion of the area by the alien fish species threatens the fish stocks in Sakarya River. In this study, we aimed to determine the dispersion area of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), Oreochromis niloticus ...

  17. Expertomica Fishgui: comparison of fish skin colour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Štys, D.; Sergejevova, Magda; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 172-180 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CARASSIUS-AURATUS * IMAGE-ANALYSIS * DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  18. The influence of low-level radiation on nucleolus activity of cyprinidae embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The number and sizes of nucleoli in embryos of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to low-level radiation at a dose-rate of 10 μ Gy/h and down were larger than those on non-irradiated controls

  19. Author Details - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jun, JW. Vol 10, No 5 (2011) - Articles Molecular detection of Edwardsiella tarda with gyrB gene isolated from pirarucu, Arapaima gigas which is exhibited in an indoor private commercial aquarium. Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 24 (2012) - Articles Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the goldfish, Carassius ...

  20. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  1. Identification and characterisation of an androgen receptor from zebrafish Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Ole; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2007-01-01

    ) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Binding assays with zfAR demonstrated high affinity, saturable, single class binding site, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor. Saturation experiments along with subsequent Scatchard analysis determined that the Kd of the zfAR for 3H-testosterone was 2 n...

  2. The host preference and impact of Argulus japonicus ectoparasite on cyprinids in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismiyati; Wulansari, P. D.; Dewi, N. N.

    2018-04-01

    The most widely cultivated freshwater fish are from Familia Cyprinidae, among others goldfish (Carassius auratus), koi (Cyprinus carpio) and comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus). One of the constraints of freshwater fish cultivation is ectoparasite infestation Argulus japonicus. Financial losses have been experienced by some farmers, caused by these ectoparasitic infestaions. This study was aimed to determine the impact of ectoparasite Argulus japonicus infestation on host (freshwater ornamental fish from Familia Cyprinidae), in order to find a preventive solution to treatment on the host. The results showed that prevalence of infested fish by Argulus japonicus were 57 % goldfish, 31 % comet fish and 65 % koi. Changes of histopathology on host were congestion, baoning degeneration, epithelium erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration. The image of infected leukocytes infested by Argulus japonicus were 8.5 % of lymphocytes, 4.7 % neurophils, 3.9 % monocytes, 1.45 % eosinophils and 0,17% basophils.

  3. Molecular basis of pathogenesis of emerging viruses infecting aquatic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates are very abundant in the world, and they are of tremendous importance in providing global food security and nutrition. However, emergent and resurgent viruses, such as ranavirus (e.g., Rana grylio virus, RGV and Andriasd avidianus ranavirus, ADRV, herpesvirus (e.g., Carassius carassius herpesvirus, CaHV, reovirus (e.g., grass carp reovirus 109, GCRV-109, Scophthal musmaximus reovirus, SMReV and Micropterus salmoides reovirus, MsReV, and rhabdovirus (e.g., Siniper cachuatsi rhabdovirus, SCRV and Scophthal musmaximus rhabdovirus, SMRV can cause severe diseases in aquaculture animals and wild lower vertebrates, such as frogs, giant salamanders, fish, and so on. Here, we will briefly describe the symptoms produced by the aforementioned viruses and the molecular basis of the virus–host interactions. This manuscript aims to provide an overview of viral diseases in lower vertebrates with an emphasis on visible symptomatic manifestations and pathogenesis.

  4. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahi1

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05 was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes.

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from seven sampling locations. Only edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 49.0 +- 1.30 pCi/kg and 8.5 +- 0.64 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus collected from Kyoto and Fukui, respectively, in December 1983. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish (from Jul. 1984 to Dec. 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 96 +- 1.7 pCi/kg in Cyprinus carpio collected from Akita in July 1984; and that of Cs-137 was 11 +- 0.7 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus from Fukui in December 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Colour intensity in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) as influenced by dietary microalgae addition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Sales, J.; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozák, P.; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : GOLDFISH CARASSIUS-AURATUS * HAEMATOCOCCUS-PLUVIALIS * ASTAXANTHIN Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  8. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 7. Appendix S. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus C,U,F Brown towhee Pipilo fuscus C,U,F Rufous-crowned sparrow Aimophila ruficeps C,R Chipping sparrow Spizella passerina C,R...pipistrelle Pipistrellus hesperus Widespread in ma habitat Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Widespread in ma habitat Townsends big-caved bat Plecotus...occidentalis * Carp Qjprjnus ca rv i *Goldfish Carassius auratus Sacramento blackfish Orthodon microlepidotus Hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus

  9. Radiosensitivity of primary cultured fish cells with different ploidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Egami, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiromu.

    1986-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of primary cultured goldfish cells (Carassius auratus) was investigated by colony formation assay. The radiosensitivity of cells from two varieties of goldfish, which show different sensitivity to lethal effect of ionizing radiation in vivo, was almost identical. Primary cultured cells from diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish retained their DNA content as measured by microfluorometry, and the nuclear size increases as ploidy increases. However, radiosensitivity was not related to ploidy. (author)

  10. Change of nucleolus characteristic of fish embryo cells under the influence of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The nucleolus activity of fish embryo cells was stimulated by low-level radiation at a dose rate of 2-13 mGy/h. The size of nucleoli generally increased in embryos of Cyprinus carpio, whereas the number of nucleoli was greater in embryos of Carassius auratus gibelio. The higher the functional activity of nucleolus is, the more pronounced are changes in the characteristics. The size of single nucleolus at gastrulation is the most sensitive characteristic. 16 refs.; 1 tab

  11. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish (from Jul. 1981 to Dec. 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    90 Sr and 137 Cs in freshwater fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were determined. Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results from July to December 1981 are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.Haplotypes of goldfish rooted in two sublineages (C5 and C6, which contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of F(ST and N(m revealed a close relationship between goldfish and native C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River. An extraordinary, stepwise loss of genetic diversity was detected from native fish to goldfish and from Grass-goldfish relative to other breeds. Significantly negative results for the tests of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F* were identified in goldfish, including the Grass breed. The results identified eye-shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish with respect to their evolutionary history. Fisher's exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.Chinese goldfish have a matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus, especially the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Anthropogenic selection of the native Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing goldfish and this action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated goldfish, a process similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy--Grass-goldfish, Egg-goldfish, and Wen-goldfish--better reflected the history of domestication.

  14. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science.

  15. Osmotic dehydration of fish: principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Biljana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic treatment of the fish Carassius gibelio was studied in two osmotic solutions: ternary aqueous solution - S1, and sugar beet molasses - S2, at three solution temperatures of 10, 20 and 30oC, at atmospheric pressure. The aim was to examine the influence of type and concentration of the used hypertonic agent, temperature and immersion time on the water loss, solid gain, dry mater content, aw and content of minerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg. S2 solution has proven to be the best option according to all output variables.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31055

  16. Species complexes and phylogenetic lineages of Hoferellus (Myxozoa, Cnidaria) including revision of the genus: A problematic case for taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Jirků, Miloslav; Kodádková, Alena; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, JAN 11 (2016), č. článku 13. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28784P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200961205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * fish * Carassius * Cyprinus carpio * ITS cloning * mode of attachment * Teleostei * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  17. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of three goldfish cell lines using short term endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-06-01

    The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks after ..gamma..-irradiation in three goldfish (Carassius auratus) cell lines with different sensitivities to the lethal effect of ..gamma..-rays has been studied by the DNA strand separation method using hydroxylapatite chromatography. The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was similar in all cell lines. There was also little difference in the degree of inhibition of DNA synthesis immediately after irradiation. However, the rank orders of the durations of division delay and the radiosensitivities of the three cell lines were the same.

  18. Effect of anoxia on the electroretinogram of three anoxia-tolerant vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Milton, Sarah L; Lutz, Peter L; Sundin, Lena; Renshaw, Gillian M C; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Nilsson, Göran E

    2008-08-01

    To survive anoxia, neural ATP levels have to be defended. Reducing electrical activity, which accounts for 50% or more of neural energy consumption, should be beneficial for anoxic survival. The retina is a hypoxia sensitive part of the central nervous system. Here, we quantify the in vivo retinal light response (electroretinogram; ERG) in three vertebrates that exhibit varying degrees of anoxia tolerance: freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta), epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens). A virtually total suppression of ERG in anoxia, probably resulting in functional blindness, has previously been seen in the extremely anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Surprisingly, the equally anoxia-tolerant turtle, which strongly depresses brain and whole-body metabolism during anoxia, exhibited a relatively modest anoxic reduction in ERG: the combined amplitude of turtle ERG waves was reduced by approximately 50% after 2 h. In contrast, the shark b-wave amplitude practically disappeared after 30 min of severe hypoxia, and the frog b-wave was decreased by approximately 75% after 40 min in anoxia. The specific A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist CPT significantly delayed the suppression of turtle ERG, while the hypoxic shark ERG was unaffected by the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline, suggesting adenosinergic involvement in turtle but not in shark.

  19. Pb and Cd bioaccumulations in the habitat and preys of red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong Wetland, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Yin, Xiongrui; Ya, Yajie; Wang, Yongjie; Zang, Shuying; Zhou, Xia

    2013-12-01

    Pb and Cd concentrations in the habitat and preys of the red-crowned crane (i.e., reed rhizomes and three typical aquatic animal families (Perccottus glehni Dybowski, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, and Viviparidae)) were analyzed to examine the impact of these hazards on red-crowned cranes in northeastern China. Results indicated that Pb and Cd concentrations in the preys of the red-crowned cranes were elevated via food chain. Most of the detected Pb and Cd contents in the sediments were above the natural background level, ranging from 9.85 to 129.72 ppm and 1.23 to 10.63 ppm (dry weight), respectively. Cd geo-accumulation index at all sites were larger than 3, even reached 5.22, suggesting serious pollution in this region. Three common water animal families were detected to contain heavy metals, following the order of increasing concentrations: primary consumers (i.e., Viviparidae and Carassius auratus Linnaeus) cranes showed the highest toxic metal concentrations of Pb (2.09 to 5.81 ppm) and Cd (1.42 to 3.06 ppm) compared with the feces produced by cranes and residual eggshell left by water fowls. Exceptionally high Pb and Cd concentrations in the cranes and their preys were thought to be associated with their habitat.

  20. A comparative biochemical profile of some cyprinids fish in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Darya Mohammed; Mohammed, Sarbaz Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate the baseline values for some serum biochemical parameters for 64 adult freshwater fish including seven species belong to family Cyprinidae, have been collected in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan region-Iraq. Fishes were weighed, measured, and collect blood for blood chemistry. Serum biochemical analyses were determined using (Cobas C 311) full automatic chemical analyzer. The result of comparative study of serum biochemical parameters of all Cyprinidae species showed that serum glucose was (459.10±106.99 mg/dl) and direct bilirubin was (0.056±0.021mg/dl) in Barbus grypus, serum total protein (3.511± 0.0484gm/dl) and HDL (133.11±0.4231mg/dl) in Cyprinus carpio, serum cholesterol (338.33±43.923 mg/dl) and LDL (86.11±11.871mg/dl) in Carassius carassius, serum triglyceride (420.0±28.8mg/dl) and ALK (113.93±20.65U/L) in Chondrostoma regium, serum AST and serum ALT in Capoeta trutta, were significantly higher when compared to other species. In a conclusion there is variation in biochemical values among species of same family.

  1. Molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Luo, Yangzhi; Gao, Zexia; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xianghai; Nie, Huihui; Zhang, Junmei; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch). In this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant CyHV-2 strain (SY-C1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland China and its comparative genomics analysis with the CyHV-2 reference strain ST-J1. Overall, the full-length genome of SY-C1 shares 98.8% homology with that of ST-J1. Sequence comparisons between SY-C1 and ST-J1 indicate that the variations include single-nucleotide mutations, insertions, deletions, and rearrangements, which suggested that SY-C1 is different from ST-J1 and represents a new genotype. Therefore, we propose that the identified CyHV-2 can be divided into 2 different genotypes and be named China genotype (C genotype) and Japan genotype (J genotype) according to their isolation loci. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys indicate that the dominant genotype of CyHV-2 circulating in mainland China is closer to the China genotype than the Japan genotype.

  2. Complete depletion of primordial germ cells in an All-female fish leads to Sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile All-male occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Shi-Zhu; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhong, Jian-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-11-18

    Gynogenesis is one of unisexual reproduction modes in vertebrates, and produces all-female individuals with identical genetic background. In sexual reproduction vertebrates, the roles of primordial germ cells on sexual dimorphism and gonadal differentiation have been largely studied, and two distinct functional models have been proposed. However, the role of primordial germ cells remains unknown in unisexual animals, and it is also unclear whether the functional models in sexual reproduction animals are common in unisexual animals. To solve these puzzles, we attempt to utilize the gynogenetic superiority of polyploid Carassius gibelio to create a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by a similar morpholino-mediated knockdown approach used in other examined sexual reproduction fishes. Through the germ cell-depleted gonad model, we have performed comprehensive and comparative transcriptome analysis, and revealed a complete alteration of sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the expression alteration leads to up-regulation of testis-biased genes and down-regulation of ovary-biased genes, and results in the occurrence of sterile all-males with testis-like gonads and secondary sex characteristics in the germ cell-depleted gynogenetic Carassius gibelio. Our current results have demonstrated that unisexual gynogenetic embryos remain keeping male sex determination information in the genome, and the complete depletion of primordial germ cells in the all-female fish leads to sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile all-male occurrence.

  3. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Lars B; Brönmark, Christer

    1999-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this effect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology. Our study confirms that drag is higher for deep-bodied crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied fish swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost of transport, U mc , did not experience higher costs of transport than shallow-bodied fish. Deep-bodied crucian carp had significantly lower standard metabolic rates, i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower U mc , and the resulting costs of transport were similar for the two morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals deviate from U mc , e.g. when increasing foraging effort under competition, their steeper power curves will cause substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied conspecifics. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history changes. Thus, this work provides links between hydrodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-dependent fitness cost associated with an inducible defence.

  4. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  5. COLOUR QUALITY ENHANCED ON GOLDFISH JUVENILES THROUGH SHRIMP HEAD MEAL ENRICHED IN FEED

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    I Wayan Subamia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldfish (Carassius sp. is the ornamental fish which has been managed its culture by fish farmers. The objective of the research is to improve the colour quality of goldfish juveniles through enrichment of feed using shrimp head meal as source of carotenoid. The research was conducted at The Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, using completely randomized design with four treatments of shrimp head meal ratio, 0% (control, 5%, 10%, and 15% in feed, the feed formulation contained isoprotein (30%, and isolipid (15% and three replications of each treatment. Ten juveniles of Carassius sp. with body weight of (1.08±0.02 g stocked in aquarium with water volumes of 20 L. The growth and colour quality in qualitative standard using TCF (Toca Colour Finder were examined, while total carotenoid content on feed were measured by spectrophotometry method. The colour quality of goldfish were also measured at three of fins those were dorsal, ventral, and caudal. The result showed that no significant different on growth and survival rates among the treatments. Based on the present research, the optimal colour improvement to goldfish was by addition of 10% shrimp head meal in feed.

  6. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  7. Comparative analysis of intermuscular bones in fish of different ploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhong, Zezhou; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Shaojun; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-01

    We documented the number, morphology, and distribution of intermuscular bones in five fishes of different ploidy: Carassius auratus (Abbr.WCC, 2n=100), Carassius auratus variety PengZe (Abbr.PZCC, 3n=150), improved triploid crucian carp (Abbr.ITCC, 3n=150), improved red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., Abbr.IRCC, ♀, 2n=100), and improved allotetraploids (Abbr.G×AT, ♂, 4n=200). The number of intermuscular bones in WCC, PZCC, and G×AT ranged from 78 to 83 ([Formula: see text]=81), 80 to 86 ([Formula: see text]=84), and 77 to 84 ([Formula: see text]=82), respectively. The numbers in ITCC and IRCC were significantly lower, ranging from 77 to 82 ([Formula: see text]=79) and 58 to 77 ([Formula: see text]=71), respectively. The average number of intermuscular bones in each sarcomere, ranked in order from highest to lowest, was 0.721 (WCC), 0.673 (PZCC), 0.653 (G×AT), 0.633 (ITCC), and 0.608 (IRCC). There was no difference between ITCC and G×AT or between G×AT and PZCC. However, the average number of intermuscular bones in the sarcomeres of ITCC, WCC, and PZCC differed significantly, as did that of IRCC and the four other kinds of fish. The intermuscular bone of these five fishes was divided into seven shape categories, non-forked (), one-end-unequal-bi-fork (), one-end-equal-bi-fork (Y), one-end-multi-fork, two-end-bi-fork, two-end-multi-fork, and tree-branch types. Generally, the morphological complexity was higher in the anterior intermuscular bones than in the posterior body. The number of intermuscular bones was similar but not equal between the left and right sides of the body. ITCC had significantly fewer intermuscular bones than either WCC or PZCC, making it of greater commercial value. Additionally, IRCC and ITCC had fewer intermuscular bones than WCC. Our observations are significant in both fish bone developmental biology and genetic breeding.

  8. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137Cs concentrations in water, sediment and biota at the lower region of the famous river in Saitama Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio.

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs in water, sediment and biota at the lower region of the famous river in Saitama prefecture were determined in order to elucidate the radioecology of 137 Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137 Cs concentration in water was 0.10 mBq/l. 137 Cs concentrations in sediment, shellfish, Sinotaia quadratus historica (mean for 2 detectable samples), and fish, Carassius auratus cuvieri (mean for 2 detectable samples), were about 6200, 840 and 320 times higher than the concentration of the water, respectively. But 137 Cs radioactivity in the crustacea, Procambarus clarki, was significantly not detected. So, 137 Cs transfer mechanism in the limnological ecosystems was indicated in part. (author)

  9. TRAMA TRÓFICA DE LOS PECES DEL EMBALSE LA GOLETA (PRIMAVERA 2007 EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    N. A. Navarrete-Salgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la posición trófica de la ictiofauna del embalse La Goleta, Estado de México. Se realizó un muestreo en la primavera de 2007, donde se registraron los siguientes parámetros del agua, temperatura, profundidad, transparencia, turbidez, oxígeno disuelto, conductividad, pH, dureza, y alcalinidad, también se realizó la captura de peces utilizando un chinchorro charalero. El análisis del contenido estomacal se determinó con el método numérico y volumétrico. Los peces capturados pertenecen a tres especies: Menidia jordani, la cual se considera una especie zooplanctófaga generalista; Cyprinus carpio, es omnívoro muy generalista y Carassius auratus que es un pez herbívoro generalista.

  10. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu.

  11. SILVER CRUCIAN OR CHITON AND DAMAGES IT SAUSSES BY ITS PRESENCE ON FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Kajgana

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available By its presence, silver crucian carp or chiton (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. makes lot of damage on fish-farms. By its nutrition way, the chiton competes with carp, thus reducing its growths and increasing the nutritive coefficient what is unjustified both economically and technologically. The diclinous and hermaphroditic way of procreation influences the spread of this species. After the dissection of an chiton exemplar of 10-12 dag in October 1995 in Našice “Ribnjak 1905” it was stated that it had 23% of male fish. Spawn was in the IV. stage of sex maturity according to Kiseljević. The ways of chiton coming and going to particular pounds as well as measures to control it are analyzed in the text. It is recommended to turn full attention to the filling and re-filling of pounds, prevent the coming of wild fish and fill canals and pounds thoroughly.

  12. Trematodiasis en algunos peces del lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México

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    Ma. del Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In September, 1995 and January, 1996, six species of fishes from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacan, Mexico, were collected (Alloophorus robustus n=30, Goodea atripinnis n=30, Xenotoca variata n=41, Chirostoma jordani n=30, Carassius auratus n=30 and Oreochromis aureus n=30, to establish the infection levels reached by Posthodiplostomum minimum, Clinostomum complanatum and Diplostomum (Tylodelphys sp., in their hosts. Infection caused by P. minimum metacercariae was the most important helminthiasis considering the number of hosts they parasite (five of six, and the high levels of abundance of the infection; we suggest that fish preferences and the generalist character of the trematode are the causes that determine this infection. Finally, the role of goodeids and atherinids in transmission of infections in the lake is confirmed; the former being the main group mantaining such infections.

  13. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  14. Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of hydrobionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, A; Keslev, D; Kerteva, A; Novakova, E

    1975-01-01

    Accumulation factors for Sr-90 and Cs-137 are given for a number of plants and fish taken from fresh-water bodies and from the Black Sea. The best indicators for following radioactive, Sr-90 contamination in fresh-water bodies are: Lemna minor and Subularia aquatica among the plants, while Tinca tinca L, Cyprinus carpio L and Cavassius carassius L are the most suitable among the fish for Sr-90. With respect to cesium-137 the most suitable as indicators are Sparganum affine and Subularia aquatica from the plants and Salmo trutta morpha fario L and Cyprinus carpio L. from the fishes. Among the saltwater hydrobionts as indicators of Sr-90 and Cs-137 water contamination the fish Sarda sarda L takes first place, and the plants Cystoseira barbata and Zostera marina take second place. 1 table, 6 refs. (SJR)

  15. Estado de las poblaciones de anfibios en un parque urbano de Pamplona

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    Gosá, A., Arias, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones aisladas de tres anfibios (Triturus marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelophylax perezi han sido muestreadas entre 2005 y 2007, en primavera y finales de verano, en un canal y tres estanques de un parque urbano céntrico de la ciudad de Pamplona. Los 8 adultos censados en 2005 de T. marmoratus han podido desaparecer en los años siguientes, a causa de unas obras urbanas realizadas junto al parque. La estima de la población de A. obstetricans se acerca al millar de adultos. Su periodo reproductor se extiende hasta septiembre, y una parte de la población larvaria inverna sin metamorfosear. El ajardinamiento de la zona, la contaminación del agua y la presencia de depredadores y competidores introducidos, como Procambarus clarkii y Carassius auratus, ponen en peligro la supervivencia de los anfibios.

  16. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess...... the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  17. Uptake of γ-emitting radionuclides by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water before and after passage through the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three experimental systems were designed to investigate the differential accumulation of radionuclides by biota from low-level aqueous effluents after passage through the ground. One system received river water (control), one received dilute low-level radioactive effluents (trench), and the third received the low-level effluents after it had percolated through about 260 m or porous gravel (springs). Biota studied included filamentous green algae, clams (Corbicula), goldfish (Carassius auratus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Veronica. Trophic level differences in accumulation of the various radionuclides from the diluted trench water were not consistent but generally followed the pattern algae > goldfish > molluscs > carp. Cobalt-60 was accumulated to the highest level of any radionuclide, and accumulation levels at the three sites were directly related to the concentration of 60 Co in the water. Manganese-54, 59 Fe, and 106 Ru were also accumulated to measurable levels in biota at the springs site indicating their bioavailability after passage through the ground

  18. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, and 100μg/L DEHP. To examine DEHP estrogenic activity, one group of goldfish was exposed to 17β-estradiol (5μg/L E2) for comparison. Following 30d of exposure, sperm production was decreased and suppressed in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish, respectively. Sperm motility and velocity were decreased...... in goldfish exposed to 100 and 10μg/L DEHP at 15s post-sperm activation, respectively. Compared to control, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were decreased at 10 and 1μg/L DEHP at day 15 and 30, respectively. In E2 treated goldfish, 11-KT levels were decreased compared to control during the period...

  20. Scale brightness of common goldfish on diet supplemented with seaweed Sargassum sp. and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfina Manda Astari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The common goldfish Carassius auratus auratus is an ornamental freshwater fish species with  high market value. The market value of ornamental fish can be determined through some parameters, one of them is brightness of the fish scales. Brightness level may be enhanced by supplementing plant powder containing carotenoid into fish diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the scale brightness level of common goldfish fed diet supplemented with Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder, and to determine the dose of those powders that allows higher brightness level of scale.  The feed of common goldfish was supplemented with either Sargassum sp. or pumpkin powder at the doses of 10, 20 and 30%, and without supplementation as control. Fishes were reared for 75 days and fed diet at feeding rate of 5% biomass daily. The results of ANOVA test showed that the Sargassum sp. and pumpkin mill addition on food significantly improved of scales brightness of  common goldfish. Increasing supplementation levels of Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder increased brightness level of scale. The highest improvement in brightness was the fish that fed by 30% concentration of Sargassum sp. flour with the value scale of brightness was 2.67 and the total number of 2,890.67 chromatophore cells. The results suggest that Sargassum sp. powder is better to improve the brightness level of common goldfish scale. Keywords: Carassius auratus auratus, Sargassum sp., Cucurbita moschata, carotenoid, brightness  ABSTRAK Ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan hias air tawar yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Nilai jual ikan hias dapat ditentukan melalui beberapa parameter, salah satunya yaitu kecerahan sisik ikan. Kecerahan sisik ikan dapat ditingkatkan melalui pemberian pakan yang diperkaya karotenoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji tingkat kecerahan warna sisik ikan komet setelah diberi pakan dengan tambahan tepung Sargassum sp. dan

  1. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  2. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order....... These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  3. Data on the density of xanthophores in a whole scale of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Mizusawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Expression of genes for melanotropic peptides and their receptors for morphological color change in goldfish Carassius auratus” (Mizusawa et al., In press [1]. This article describes data on the density of xanthophores in the scales of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color. To determine the effects of acclimation history during long-term background color adaptation, fish were transferred from a white tank to a white or black tank and vice versa halfway through the acclimation process. To observe xanthophores, the iridophore layer was scraped from the scale and the pteridine/carotenoid pigments were aggregated. The number of xanthophores was calculated after image processing.

  4. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. {sup 137}Cs concentrations in water, sediment and biota at the lower region of the famous river in Saitama Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-02-01

    The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in water, sediment and biota at the lower region of the famous river in Saitama prefecture were determined in order to elucidate the radioecology of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. {sup 137}Cs concentration in water was 0.10 mBq/l. {sup 137}Cs concentrations in sediment, shellfish, Sinotaia quadratus historica (mean for 2 detectable samples), and fish, Carassius auratus cuvieri (mean for 2 detectable samples), were about 6200, 840 and 320 times higher than the concentration of the water, respectively. But {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the crustacea, Procambarus clarki, was significantly not detected. So, {sup 137}Cs transfer mechanism in the limnological ecosystems was indicated in part. (author).

  5. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  6. Hypoxic survival strategies in two fishes: extreme anoxia tolerance in the North European crucian carp and natural hypoxic preconditioning in a coral-reef shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Göran E; Renshaw, Gillian M C

    2004-08-01

    Especially in aquatic habitats, hypoxia can be an important evolutionary driving force resulting in both convergent and divergent physiological strategies for hypoxic survival. Examining adaptations to anoxic/hypoxic survival in hypoxia-tolerant animals may offer fresh ideas for the treatment of hypoxia-related diseases. Here, we summarise our present knowledge of two fishes that have evolved to survive hypoxia under very different circumstances. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is of particular interest because of its extreme anoxia tolerance. During the long North European winter, it survives for months in completely oxygen-deprived freshwater habitats. The crucian carp also tolerates a few days of anoxia at room temperature and, unlike anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtles, it is still physically active in anoxia. Moreover, the crucian carp does not appear to reduce neuronal ion permeability during anoxia and may primarily rely on more subtle neuromodulatory mechanisms for anoxic metabolic depression. The epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) is a tropical marine vertebrate. It lives on shallow reef platforms that repeatedly become cut off from the ocean during periods of low tides. During nocturnal low tides, the water [O(2)] can fall by 80% due to respiration of the coral and associated organisms. Since the tides become lower and lower over a period of a few days, the hypoxic exposure during subsequent low tides will become progressively longer and more severe. Thus, this shark is under a natural hypoxic preconditioning regimen. Interestingly, hypoxic preconditioning lowers its metabolic rate and its critical P(O(2)). Moreover, repeated anoxia appears to stimulate metabolic depression in an adenosine-dependent way.

  7. Studies of ribonucleotide reductase in crucian carp-an oxygen dependent enzyme in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro K Sandvik

    Full Text Available The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR, this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O(2 and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia, a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii, obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.

  8. Isolation of Marine Bacillus sp. with Antagonistic and Organic-Substances-Degrading Activities and Its Potential Application as a Fish Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the isolation and characterization of an acid- and bile-tolerant bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. YB1701 with antibacterial and quorum-quenching activity. Strain YB1701 was isolated from coastal sediment samples and characterized by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. In vitro study indicated that strain YB1701 can survive at pH 2.0 for up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Strain YB1701 showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahemolyticus using an agar well diffusion assay. The trial test showed dietary supplementation of YB1701 significantly improved the resistance of Carassius auratus gibelio against A. hydrophila challenge. The safety assessment revealed that the isolate Bacillus sp. YB1701 was not cytotoxic to Carassius auratus gibelio or mice and did not exhibit hemolytic activity on rabbit blood agar plate. Disc-diffusion assays using a panel of antibiotics listed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA showed that YB1701 was susceptible to selected antibiotics. Under laboratory conditions, the degradation rate of organic waste (predominately fish excrement for 14 days by YB1701 was 79.69%. Results from the present study suggest that strain YB1701 is a potential probiotic strain and can be used in aquaculture for degrading organic waste and improving disease resistance of fish against bacterial infection. Further study is needed to assess the utility of strain YB1701 on a commercial scale.

  9. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-08-11

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  10. Epidemiology of fishborne trematodiasis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, A; Abdybekova, A; Abdibaeva, A; Shapiyeva, Z; Yeshmuratov, T; Torgerson, P R

    2014-10-01

    Fish borne trematodes are an important cause of morbidity in Kazakhstan. The number of human cases of opisthorchiidosis (infection with parasites of the family opisthorchiidae) reached a peak of 2521 recorded cases (17 cases per 100,000) in 2002 with a gradual decline to 1225 cases (7.4 cases per 100,000) in 2011. Most human cases are found in the north and north east part of Kazakhstan in areas drained by the Irtysh River and it tributaries. A further focus is found in the north west in the Ural river basin in the European part of Kazakhstan. The most common occupations of patients with opisthorchiidosis included the manual laborers, those employed in the home or unemployed. Necropsy investigations of village dogs in an endemic region revealed 37 of 51 (72%) village dogs infected with either Opisthorchis felineus or Methorchis bilis. Likewise an investigation of 242 cats consisting of strays, village, suburban and city cats revealed 79 (33%) animals infected with O. felineus. Higher prevalences were seen in strays and village cats compared to suburban cats. No urban cats, which lived in apartments, were found to be infected. Other important zoonoses included Echinococcus granulosus, detected in 2 of the 51 necropsied village dogs and E. multilocularis was found in 2 out of 124 necropsied stray cats. Investigations of locally caught fish revealed 10 of 107 (9%) roach (Rutilus rutilus), 49 of 68(72%) ide (Leuciscus idus) and 2 of 79 (2.5%) bream (Abramis brama) infested with trematode metacercariae. No metacercariae were found in 609 crucian carp (Carassius carassius), 35 tench (Tinca tinca), 79 carp (Cyprinus carpio), 46 perch (Perca fluviatilis) or 20 zander (Sander lucioperca). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular basis and drug sensitivity of the delayed rectifier (IKr) in the fish heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Minna; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Fishes are increasingly used as models for human cardiac diseases, creating a need for a better understanding of the molecular basis of fish cardiac ion currents. To this end we cloned KCNH6 channel of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) that produces the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr), the main repolarising current of the fish heart. KCNH6 (ccErg2) was the main isoform of the Kv11 potassium channel family with relative transcript levels of 98.9% and 99.6% in crucian carp atrium and ventricle, respectively. KCNH2 (ccErg1), an orthologue to human cardiac Erg (Herg) channel, was only slightly expressed in the crucian carp heart. The native atrial IKr and the cloned ccErg2 were inhibited by similar concentrations of verapamil, terfenadine and KB-R7943 (P>0.05), while the atrial IKr was about an order of magnitude more sensitive to E-4031 than ccErg2 (P<0.05) suggesting that some accessory β-subunits may be involved. Sensitivity of the crucian carp atrial IKr to E-4031, terfenadine and KB-R7943 was similar to what has been reported for the Herg channel. In contrast, the sensitivity of the crucian carp IKr to verapamil was approximately 30 times higher than the previously reported values for the Herg current. In conclusion, the cardiac IKr is produced by non-orthologous gene products in fish (Erg2) and mammalian hearts (Erg1) and some marked differences exist in drug sensitivity between fish and mammalian Erg1/2 which need to be taken into account when using fish heart as a model for human heart. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of the cardiac inward rectifier potassium currents by KB-R7943.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Alekseeva, Eugenia I; Vornanen, Matti

    2013-09-01

    KB-R7943 (2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea) was developed as a specific inhibitor of the sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) with potential experimental and therapeutic use. However, KB-R7943 is shown to be a potent blocker of several ion currents including inward and delayed rectifier K(+) currents of cardiomyocytes. To further characterize KB-R7943 as a blocker of the cardiac inward rectifiers we compared KB-R7943 sensitivity of the background inward rectifier (IK1) and the carbacholine-induced inward rectifier (IKACh) currents in mammalian (Rattus norvegicus; rat) and fish (Carassius carassius; crucian carp) cardiac myocytes. The basal IK1 of ventricular myocytes was blocked with apparent IC50-values of 4.6×10(-6) M and 3.5×10(-6) M for rat and fish, respectively. IKACh was almost an order of magnitude more sensitive to KB-R7943 than IK1 with IC50-values of 6.2×10(-7) M for rat and 2.5×10(-7) M for fish. The fish cardiac NCX current was half-maximally blocked at the concentration of 1.9-3×10(-6) M in both forward and reversed mode of operation. Thus, the sensitivity of three cardiac currents to KB-R7943 block increases in the order IK1~INCXrectifier potassium currents, in particular IKACh, should be taken into account when interpreting the data with this inhibitor from in vivo and in vitro experiments in both mammalian and fish models. © 2013.

  13. Studies on seasonal pollution of heavy metals in water, sediment, fish and oyster from the Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, Sivakumar; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ravikumar, Boopalan; Bai, Ge; Li, Xiaoyu

    2018-01-01

    The present study, seasonal pollution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) in water, sediment, tissues of fish Carassius carassius and oyster Crassostrea gigas were determined at seven sampling sites from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake during one year calendar, 2016. The total heavy metal concentrations in water samples were higher in winter and summer than in spring and autumn season, whereas in sediment they were higher in winter and summer seasons, respectively. The trend of metal mean contents found in the fish and oyster were in decreasing order of Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd and Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd, respectively. The tissues of fish and oyster captured during winter and summer accumulated a higher significant different amount of metals relative to other season, which was attributed to a higher influx of agricultural waste, sewage and sludge by heavy rainfall and floods. In addition, the pollution load index (PLI) values were above one (>1), indicating an advanced decline of the sediment quality, and contamination factor (CF) confirmed that the sediment samples were moderate to high contamination by Pb and Cr. Thus, comparative studies with seasonal pollution of heavy metals in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu regions indicate considerable heavy metal enrichment in water, sediments as well as in various organs of fish and oyster. Finally, our results indicated that the metal concentration values increased statistically significant different related to season (p heavy metal stress biomarkers in fish along with seasonal variations may serve as a convenient approach during pollution bio-monitoring programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental studies on correlation between accumulation of radionuclides by fish, availability of bottom sediments, and concentration of microelements in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katkov, A E

    1979-07-01

    There are revealed peculiarities of accumulation of radionuclides desorbed from the ground by hydrobionts as compared with the accumulation of radionuclides appearing in the basin for the first time. The results of the experimental investigations on the dependence of nuclide accumulation coefficients (AC) on their concentration in water are summarized. The experiments have been performed on adult (6-8 years) golden crucian carp Carassius carassius in a basin with fresh water with /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po. The radionuclide group (/sup 54/Mn, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 210/Po) has been found out. The ground has contributed to its accumulation. For another group (/sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 51/Cr) it has been found an indistinctly expressed influence only of silt containing ground on AC. The third group comprises the radionuclides (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 131/I) accumulation of which in fish has been prevented by the ground. An inverse correlation between the nuclide AC changes in fishes (..delta..K) and changes in the concentration of their isotope carried (..delta..C) in water has been observed. The results of the mathematical processing of the summarized experimental data according to the ..delta..Kx ..delta..C=1 criterion are described by the dependence close to ACxC..-->.. const., cor. responding to the law of tendency to constancy preservation in the microelement concentration tissues. In the course of investigation of the relationship between the AC and the change of the radionuclide aggregate state in water no common dependence has been established.

  15. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  16. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    authorities should focus attention on their protection and restoration of abundance. Keywords: Sulinsky Reserve, Sula Bay, conservation lists, sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L., Crucian carp (Carassius carassius L., Common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus L., Wels catfish (Silurus glanis L., Asp (Aspius aspius L., Bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus Pall., Spined loach (Cobitis taenia L..

  17. Herbivory of Omnivorous Fish Shapes the Food Web Structure of a Chinese Tropical Eutrophic Lake: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Fish Gut Content Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore remains high. Whether this reflects a higher degree of herbivory in warm lakes than in temperate lakes is debatable. We combined food web studies using stable isotopes with gut content analyses of the most dominant fish species to elucidate similarities and differences in food web structure between a clear water macrophyte-dominated basin (MDB and a turbid phytoplankton-dominated basin (PDB of Huizhou West Lake, a shallow tropical Chinese lake. The δ13C–δ15N biplot of fish and invertebrates revealed community-wide differences in isotope-based metrics of the food webs between MDB and PDB. The range of consumer δ15N (NR was lower in MDB than in PDB, indicating shorter food web length in MDB. The mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND and standard deviation around MNND (SDNND were higher in MDB than in PDB, showing a markedly low fish trophic overlap and a more uneven packing of species in niches in MDB than in PDB. The range of fish δ13C (CR of consumers was more extensive in MDB than in PDB, indicating a wider feeding range for fish in MDB. Mixing model results showed that macrophytes and associated periphyton constituted a large fraction of basal production sources for the fish in MDB, while particulate organic matter (POM contributed a large fraction in PDB. In MDB, the diet of the dominant fish species, crucian carp (Carassius carassius, consisted mainly of vegetal matter (macrophytes and periphyton and zooplankton, while detritus was the most important food item in PDB. Our results suggest that carbon from macrophytes with associated periphyton may constitute an important food resource for omnivorous fish, and this may strongly

  18. Sodium exchange process in lower vertebrates studies by means of {sup 24}Na. Their interpretation as a 'purification' of radioactive water; Les echanges de sodium des vertebres inferieurs etudies a l'aide du {sup 24}Na. Leur interpretation comme une 'epuration' d'eau radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Fresh-water fish and amphibians live in an aquatic medium which is very hypotonic with respect to their internal medium. By osmosis the water passes through their permeable teguments (gills, mucous membranes, skin). It is known from the work of Krogh (1937-1939) that this water is eliminated by the kidney, which emits a copious diluted urine. Yet however great the dilution, the urinary excretion results in a loss of salts for the organism. This loss is compensated, even in the absence of any nourishment, by active absorption of ions. Some recent workers have attempted, by using radioactive isotopes, to establish the balance between the input and output flows of ions through the permeable membranes in vivo, whereas chemical analytical methods only allow the net result of these exchanges to be obtained. We have attempted to present here a new method for the simultaneous measurement of the sodium flow takes over the whole animal. This method has been applied to the fresh-water fish Carassius auratus and to the frog Rana esculenta. In the course of this investigation we have considered interpreting it as a 'purification of radioactive water'. (author) [French] Les poissons d'eau douce et les amphibiens vivent dans un milieu aquatique tres hypotonique par rapport a leur milieu interieur. Par osmose, l'eau penetre a travers leurs teguments permeables (branchies, muqueuses, peau). On sait depuis les travaux de Krogh (1937-1939) que cette eau est eliminee par le rein qui emet une urine abondante et diluee. Mais si diluee soit-elle, l'excretion uranaire entraine une perte de sels pour l'organisme. Cette perte est compensee, meme en l'absence de toute alimentation, par une absorption active d'ions. Quelques travaux recents ont tente, grace a l'utilisation des isotopes radioactifs, de dresser le bilan des flux d'entree et de sortie des ions a travers les membranes permeables in vivo, alors que les methodes d'analyse chimique permettent seulement de dresser le bilan net de ces

  19. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  20. Biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in high-back crucian carp exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Zhou Jiali; Pan Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents have been shown to cause adverse effects, but the uptake of EDCs from effluents (measured in fish muscle) are not known. In this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic EDCs were assessed in high-back crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to WWTP effluents for 141 days. Compared with fish controls caged in Dianchi Lake, a significant reduction in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed in effluent-exposed fish. The concentrations of steroids and phenols in effluent-exposed fish showed time-dependent increase during the exposure. In addition, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for steroids and phenols were between 17 and 59 on day 141. The results confirm that steroids and phenols bioconcentrate in fish muscle and this accumulation may account for the biological effects associated with exposures to WWTP effluents. - Highlights: ► We assess the potential risk of WWTP effluents to fish. ► We investigate the biological responses of EDCs in fish exposed to effluents. ► We estimate the uptake of EDCs originating from WWTP effluents in fish. ► The bioaccumulation of EDCs may account for the biological effects of effluents. - Bioaccumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in WWTP effluent-exposed fish.

  1. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  2. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-05-03

    We tested the ability of parasite species to respond quickly to artificial conditions (e.g. by changing abundance or even decreasing to extinction) while host fish species were being held alive prior to dissection. Prussian carp Carassius gibelio were sampled by electrofishing from 2 ponds alongside the River Dyje (Czech Republic) during 'cold' and 'warm' seasons. All fish were transported to the laboratory in aerated pond water and kept in a 1 m3 outdoor basin with aged tap water for 6 d. Twenty fish were dissected on consecutive days (total 120 fish for each site). Our results indicated that there was little change in parasite loading over the first 3 d of holding, suggesting no impact on parasitological studies undertaken over this period. From the fourth day, however, overall parasite abundance increased due to rapid reproduction of some parasite species, especially gyrodactylids in the cold season and dactylogyrids in the warm season. Parasite diversity appeared less stable in the warm season, with significant differences being registered as early as the second day. In addition to holding period, environmental conditions during fish holding will also play an important role in parasite community shifts.

  3. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments, seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB, beta-2 microglobulin (B2M, embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, alpha tubulin (TUBA, ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species.

  4. An experimental study of zinc 65 transfer to a fresh water fish, with special consideration of the two routes of absorption and the stable element metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, A.; Brazzelli, A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of 65 Zn as a tracer allows the determination of important parameters of zinc metabolism (rates of direct and intestinal retention, turnover coefficient). Because of the very low value of the latter parameter (around 0.3% day), the equilibrium state cannot be estimated from a short term experiment. In the fish species studied (Carassius auratus L.) direct absorption contributes more than intestinal absorption in the total retention rate and can probably alone fulfill the total zinc requirements of the fish. The total retention rate, together with the total Zn content are subject to homeostatic regulation, thus indicating the metabolic role of the element zinc. It follows that direct accumulation of radiozinc is inversely proportional to zinc concentration in water (as the ion Zn ++ ). Similarly the intestinal accumulation of radiozinc inversely proportional to the dose of ingested zinc. The low turnover coefficient is responsible for the very slow rate of excretion of previously absorbed radiozinc. The radioecological implications of this study of zinc metabolism are underlined. The danger of cumulative concentration of radioactivity through ingestion of highly radioactive food is neutralized by the processes of metabolic regulation. One must be particularly careful in drawing conclusions about the equilibrium level of radioaccumulation because of the low turnover of the element [fr

  5. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levles in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined.There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  6. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levels in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined. There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  7. Estado De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Á. Yubi Armendáriz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones de los organismos en la naturaleza se basan en dos ciclos, uno de materia y el otro de energía, dichos ciclos dan origen a las cadenas tróficas las cuales dan origen a los tres niveles tróficos; autótrofos, herbívoros y carnívoros. Para el caso de los peces de agua dulce, los organismos jóvenes viven y se alimentan en la orilla y superficie del agua, para conocer lo que comen se analiza el tracto digestivo. Por lo cual el presente trabajo pretende determinar la trama trófica de los peces del embalse San Miguel Arco. Se capturaron los peces del embalse con un chinchorro de 30 metros de largo y 1/3 de pulgada, los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %, los peces se identificaron al igual que el alimento que consumieron, con claves especializadas, a la abundancia de los grupos alimenticios se les aplicó el índice de Simpson. Se encontró que Chirostoma humboldtianum, es zooplanctófago especialista, Cyprinus carpio, y Carassius auratus son planctófagos generalistas y Poeciliopsis infans es planctófago especialista. La trama trófica se basa en zooplancton (Bosmina y Mastigodiaptomus además de zoobentos (Corixidae.

  8. Effect of acetazolamide on the otolith growth of goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiya, Yasuo

    1977-01-01

    In order to clarify the involvement of a functional carbonic anhydrase (CA) system in the otolith formation of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, acetazolamide, a specific CA inhibitor, was injected intraperitoneally every 3 or 4 days, and its inhibitory effect on the otolith growth was examined by means of a tetracycline labelling technique. Calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was also examined after a single injection of the drug. Given in multiple doses of 50 mg per Kg of body weight, acetazolamide did not reduce the growth rate of the otolith on either dorsal or ventral side. With multiple doses of 100 mg, however, the dorsal growth was significantly depressed by 17%. The ventral growth was not affected. Similarly, calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was effectively reduced (39%) only when a dose of 100 mg was given. These results suggest that, if involved, the enzyme-catalyzed hydration or hydroxylation of CO 2 is not indispensable to the carbonate formation of the otolith. (auth.)

  9. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM IN THE BARDAČA AREA (BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

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    Dragojla Vuković

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna composition of the wetland ecosystem in the Bardača area (Bosnia and Herzegovina was described with the aim of indication on the richness and necessary protection of the biodiversity of this sensitive swamp region. During 2004, qualitative and quantitative fish samplings were carried out, according to seasons, in Matura and Brzaja rivers, the main tributaries of the drainage area around the Sava River. Fish samplings were carried out using an electro–generator pulse and removal method. Analysis of the sampled fishes consisted of species determination and estimation of yield for average density and biomass (N/m2 or m3 and g/m2 or m3. It could be said that during one year examinations, the presence of 24 fish species from 7 families has been determinate. In addition, the analysis of fish diversity was carried out by means of species richness, Shannon–Weaver index, evenness and Simpson index. According to analyzed data, it could be observed that 2 allochtonous pest species, Carassius auratus gibelio and Ictalurus nebulosus presents the most dominant fish species in these waters in almost all sampling seasons.

  10. Study of the influence of stable cadmium on the transfer of zinc-65 in an ecosystem irrigated by submersion (irrigated rice field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.; Merlini, M.; Dabin, P.; Mousny, J.M.; Pozzi, G.; Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Irrigation water contains varying amounts of stable cadmium from industrial disposal. The presence of this element is capable of modifying the transfer of and affecting the mechanisms of absorption of zinc-65, a radionuclide which is discharged into water by nuclear power stations. This type of interaction between a nuclear contaminant and a conventional contaminant was studied in a rice-field irrigated by submersion. This ecosystem was reproduced under controlled 'mini-rice-field' conditions: the water was enriched in stable zinc (1 ppm) and in stable cadmium (2,5x10 -3 ; 50x10 -3 ppm) so as to reproduce the actual conditions; the stable zinc was traced by means of zinc-65. Fish (20 Carassius auratus L.) were introduced into each compartment of the ecosystem. Samples of irrigation water and surface water were taken during cultivation, and at the end of cultivation the content of stable zinc, radioactive zinc and stable cadmium was determined in each component of the ecosystem. The results show the important influence of a conventional contaminant on the transfer of a radionuclide and justify the use of the term 'associate contaminant' to describe it. (author)

  11. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC 50 and 96-h LC 50 values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China

  12. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  13. Optimal foraging of little egrets and their prey in a foraging game in a patchy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M W; Abramsky, Z; Kotler, B P; Rosenzweig, M L; Alteshtein, O; Vasserman, G

    2013-03-01

    We explored the behavioral game between a predator, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), and a prey, the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), in a laboratory theater containing three fish pools. We tested the hypotheses that the egrets maximize their total capture success by responding to the fish's antipredatory behavior and that the behaviors of both players respond adaptively to the density distribution of fish among the pools. One experiment presented egrets with 15 fish per pool. The second experiment used a heterogeneous environment: pools 1, 2, and 3 had 10, 15, and 20 fish, respectively. Within each pool, fish could move between a safe, covered microhabitat and a risky, open microhabitat. Only the risky habitat had food, so fish were trading off food and safety by allocating the time spent in the two habitats. Egrets spent more total time in pools with more fish and returned to them sooner. Egrets maximized the number of fish they captured by following the matching rule of the ideal free distribution. The fish used the risky but productive habitat 65% of the time during experiments without egrets, but only 9% during experiments with 15 fish and egrets present somewhere in the theater. In addition, with egrets present, fish fine-tuned their behavior by reducing their use of the risky habitat as the egrets increased the frequency of their visits.

  14. Dynamic distribution of spindlin in nucleoli, nucleoplasm and spindle from primary oocytes to mature eggs and its critical function for oocyte-to-embryo transition in gibel carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Li, Zhi; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2010-10-01

    Spindlin (Spin) was thought as a maternal-effect factor associated with meiotic spindle. Its role for the oocyte-to-embryo transition was suggested in mouse, but its direct evidence for the function had been not obtained in other vertebrates. In this study, we used the CagSpin-specific antibody to investigate CagSpin expression pattern and distribution during oogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). First, the oocyte-specific expression pattern and dynamic distribution was revealed in nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and spindle from primary oocytes to mature eggs by immunofluorescence localization. In primary oocytes and growth stage oocytes, CagSpin accumulates in nucleoli in increasing numbers along with the oocyte growth, and its disassembly occurs in vitellogenic oocytes, which implicates that CagSpin may be a major component of a large number of nucleoli in fish growth oocytes. Then, co-localization of CagSpin and β-tubulin was revealed in meiotic spindle of mature egg, indicating that CagSpin is one spindle-associated factor. Moreover, microinjection of CagSpin-specific antibody into the fertilized eggs blocked the first cleavage, and found that the CagSpin depletion resulted in spindle assembly disturbance. Thereby, our study provided the first direct evidence for the critical oocyte-to-embryo transition function of Spin in vertebrates, and confirmed that Spin is one important maternal-effect factor that participates in oocyte growth, oocyte maturation, and oocyte-to-embryo transition.

  15. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of 137Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio.

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical states of 137 Cs accumulated in killifish's (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of 137 Cs radioactivity in the killifish's raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish's control raw meat mixed with 137 Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to 137 CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD 280nm in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that 137 Cs accumulated in the killifish's meat was shown not to be binding to protein's composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with 137 Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, 137 Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish's meat was not almost different from those of each control and 137 CsCl solution. (author)

  16. FUNCIÓN REGULADORA DEL SISTEMA NERVIOSO EN LA PIGMENTACIÓN DE LA CARPA DORADA: UN EXPERIMENTO DE INGENIERÍA GENÉTICA

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    JAVIER CIFUENTES PORTOCARRERO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La acción que el sistema nervioso ejerce sobre el conjunto de células cromatóforos de los peces, la establecieron numerosos investigadores apoyándose en experiencias de excitación y de seccionamiento de nervios, así como en ensayos de estimulación eléctrica y de mutilación de determinados centros y tractos nerviosos. Con todo, y no obstante la armonía que existe en el estudio de la fisiología cromática de los teleósteos, en lo que atañe al control que ejerce el sistema nervioso a las células pigmentarias, los resultados diametralmente opuestos, apuntados sobre la materia por diversos investigadores, ponen de manifiesto la conveniencia de realizar otros estudios al respecto. En  este artículo se hace la descripción de un trabajo que forma parte de las experiencias que se realizan en nuestro laboratorio, con el objeto de determinar el papel que desempeñan diferentes factores en el sistema de pigmentación de la carpa dorada - Carassius auratus.

  17. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  18. Study of fisheries from riverine Danube Delta: Gorgova – Uzlina and Sontea – Furtuna lake-complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAVODARU Ion

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The fish catch from riverine Danube delta has changed in both structure and size. The average of catches decreased from 1747 t (1963 - 1974 to 252 t (1992 - 2003 in Gorgova–Uzlina lake-complex and from 1,634 t to 211 t in Sontea–Furtuna lake-complex. The catch decline is effect of loosing of habitats and community structure change due to degradation of habitats. The dominant species – Carassius gibelio and Abramis brama has been yearly sampled since 1990 from the commercial catches for stock assessment. The growth, and exploitation parameters as well as the average biomass and the Maximum Sustainable Yields (MSY based on length frequency structure of landing catch have been estimated. Based on the average catch in the last 13 years (1992-2004 and of the fish stock assessment it resulted that in Gorgova – Uzlina lakes a quantity of 250 tons can be sustainable fished while in Sontea – Furtuna lakes - 210 tones. Lack of fishing effort monitoring and poor quality of catch data has induced uncertainty in stock assessment as well as MSY estimation.

  19. Novel pentapeptide, PALAL, derived from a bony fish elicits contraction of the muscle in starfish Patiria pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hye Young; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-10-01

    A bioactive peptide mimicking peptide-signaling molecules has been isolated from the skin extract of fish Channa argus which caused contraction of the apical muscle of a starfish Patiria pectinifera, a deuterostomian invertebrate. The primary structure of the isolated pentapeptide comprises amino acid sequence of H-Pro-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-OH (PALAL) with a molecular mass of 483.7 Da. Pharmacological activity of PALAL, dosage ranging from 10 -9 to 10 -5 M, revealed concentration-dependent contraction of the apical muscles of P. pectinifera and Asterias amurensis. However, PALAL was not active on the intestinal smooth muscle of the goldfish Carassius auratus and has presumably other physiological roles in fish skin. Investigation of structure-activity relationship using truncated and substituted analogs of PALAL demonstrated that H-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-OH was necessary and should be sufficient to constrict apical muscle of P. pectinifera. Furthermore, the second alanine residue was required to display the activity, and the fifth leucine residue was responsible for its potency. Comparison with PALAL's primary structure with those of other known bioactive peptides from fish and starfish revealed that PALAL does not have any significant homology. Consequently, PALAL is a bioactive peptide that elicits a muscle contraction in starfish, and the isolation of PALAL may lead to develop other bioactive peptides sharing its similar sequence and/or activity. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fish fauna from Gârla Pasărea, a heavy modified former floodplain watercourse

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    NĂVODARU Ion

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Gârla Pasarea” was a former flood plane watercourse in connection with Vedea River discharged in Danube River. The floodplane was embanked for agriculture polder, Vedea River was redirected to discharge direct into Danube River and Gârla Pasarea was cut in several sectors, connected through underground tubes. Fish fauna inventory of Gârla Pasarea was performed in august 2007, using for shallow water backpack electrofisher and deep large water by Nordic gillnets. The species richness includes 15 fish species with a gradient of increasing from upstream to downstream. The most frequent species (very abundant are two exotic respectively, Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius gibelio that survive in extreme condition. Four species are included in Annexes of Emergency Order of Romanian Govern No.57/2007, concerning regime of natural protected area,conservation of natural habitats and wild flora and fauna, respectively Aspius aspius, Cobitis danubialis (elangoides and Misgurnus fossilis are included in Annex 3 that need designate of Special Protected Area for conservation (SPA, andProterorhinus marmoratus (semilunaris is included in Annex 4B, for species of national interest that need strict protection. Recovering and conservation of fish fauna need ecological restoration based on rebuilding of longitudinal connectivity of Gârla Pasarea sectors, reconnect with Vedea River and lateral connectivity of Danube River with it former floodplane.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha of teleosts: in silico characterization and homology modeling

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    Tran Ngoc Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- is known to be crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of TNF- protein of fish was analyzed using in silico approach. TNF- proteins selected from fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, zebra fish (Danio rerio, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, goldfish (Carassius auratus, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics with molecular weight, theoretical isoelectric point, extinction coefficient, aliphatic index, instability index, total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues, and grand average of hydropathicity were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. The “transmembrane region” and “TNF” domain were identified from protein sequences. The function prediction of proteins was also performed. Alpha helices and random coils were dominating in the secondary structure of the proteins. Three-dimensional structures were predicted and verified as good structures for the investigation of TNF- of fish by online server validation.

  2. Molecular Phylogenetics of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) Originated from Freshwater Fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Maneepitaksanti, Worawit; Nantarat, Nattawadee

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis , and Carassius auratus , in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.

  3. Prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus Metacercariae in Ornamental Fish from Chiang Mai, Thailand, with Molecular Approach Using ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlop, Atcharaphan; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Prattapong, Pongphol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Chontananarth, Thapana; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32-34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.

  4. Trace elements concentrations in aquatic biota from the Iron Gates wetlands in Romania

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    Matache M. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of four heavy metals was studied in living organisms from the wetlands ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park in Romania. Samples included aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum ssp., Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton natans, molluscs (Sinanodonta woodiana, Unio tumidus, Unio pictorum and fish (Silurus glanis, Sander lucioperca, Aspius aspius, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio. Metals organotropism in fish samples (gills, liver, muscle, eggs has been studied (Kojadinovici et al., 2007; Foata et. Al, 2009; Dutton and Fisher, 2011; David et al., 2012. Metal contamination of the wetlandecosystems in the Iron Gates Natural Park has been documented in the past for sediments (Matache et. al, 2002 and soils (Matache et al., 2003. This is a consequence of the mining and quarrying activities performed in the Moldova Noua region between 1960’s and 2000’s. Zinc is the main metal contaminant in all categories of collected samples. For fish muscle tissue (part of the fish mainly consumed by the local inhabitants, comparison with EU standards has been performed. Issues related to human health appear especially for cadmium (EC, 2006. Potamogeton pectinatus is the least accumulating plant species, whilst Potamogeton natans and Ceratophyllum ssp. had shown similar accumulation capacities of the trace elements.

  5. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  6. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  7. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  8. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan), with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage), Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal. PMID:25425932

  9. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137Cs concentrations in water, sediment and fishes at the pond in Saitama prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs in water, sediment and fishes at the pond in Saitama prefecture were determined in order to elucidate the radioecology of 137 Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137 Cs concentration in water was 0.31±0.002 mBq/l (mean±standard error), and so indicated about 3 times higher than that (0.10 mBq/l) for the river in our previous report. 137 Cs concentrations in sediment, carp, Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp, Carassius auratus cuvieri, and Hakuren, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, were about 20000, 1200, 2400 and 3100 times higher than that of the water, respectively. These concentrations were higher than those of each sample for the river in our previous report. It was so suggested that 137 Cs tended to be accumulated in these samples at the pond more than the nuclide in the river. Moreover, concentration ratios, concentration of 137 Cs in sediment, crucian carp and Hakuren to that of the water, were about 30, 2 and 3 times higher than these of 40 K, respectively, except for carp of which 137 Cs and 40 K concentration ratios were almost same. These results showed difference in accumulation mechanism between 137 Cs and 40 K in these samples, as well as 137 Cs transfer mechanism in the limnological ecosystems in part. (author)

  10. SITUACIÓN DE Menidia jordani (Pisces: Atherinopsidae EN EL EMBALSE LA GOLETA, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    N. A. Navarrete-Salgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza la situación del charal Menidia jordani (Pisces, Atherinopsidae en el embalse La Goleta, Estado de México y las variaciones poblacionales desde 1998, cuando se registró por primera vez en el embalse. Para ello se realizaron visitas en 1998, 2007 y 2008 durante las épocas secas y de lluvias. Los peces fueron capturados con un chinchorro charalero de 30.0 m de largo, 1.5 m de caída y 8.0 mm de abertura de malla, fijados con formalina al 10 %, llevados al laboratorio e identificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayor abundancia de M. jordani se registró en 1998 (3,000 peces·1000 m-2, mientras que la menor abundancia se presentó en 2008 (5 orgs.·1000 m-2. Se concluye que estas variaciones están en función de la presencia de especies exóticas como la carpa común (Cyprinus carpio y la carpa dorada (Carassius auratus, con las cuales compite, asimismo, la presencia de una especie carnívora (Micropterus salmoides afecta la población del charal en el embalse. El céstodo (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, influyó en la disminución de este pez y el vertido de aguas negras hacia este sistema afectaron también su abundancia.

  11. Fluorescence- and NOR-studies at chromosomes of several vertebrate-species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, F.

    1984-05-01

    In the investigated species of fishes clear-cut Chromomycin-positive blocks were visualised. This holds true as well for Lecaspius delineatus, Gobio gobio, Perca fluciatilis, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius and auratus gibelio. In contrast, DA-DAPI-Fluorescence was homogenous along the entire chromosome. The silver-impregnation-technique proved useful in all investigated species of fisches. In the chicken certain chromosome-districts the Chromomycin-fluorescence was more pronounced than in others; Distamycin-DAPI led to a homogeneous staining along hole the arms. The investigations in mouse-chromosomes revealed an R-banding-pattern. The Distamycin-DAPI-pattern of mouse-chromosomes were complementary to the Chromomycin-pattern and strongly pronounced centromeres. Again Distmycin-DAPI-staining did not allow an unquastinable bandling resolution; simularities to Actimomycin-DAPI-fluorochrome-included patterns were observed. By means of silver-impragnation-techniques the presence of double-point-formed NOR's on more chromosomes were highlighted. However an exact destination of the number was not possible and remains reserved to further investigations. (Author)

  12. The influence of environmental abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of ichthyofauna from predeltaic Danube area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Georgiana Calin Sandu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper  is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the capture and fish communities structure from Danube, between Siret River and Prut River mouth. Fish were collected from April to December 2012 in four fishing areas. During the year, 4910 kg, respectively 7121 fish of 31 species were collected. Cyprinidae, the dominant family, 54.84% in term of number of species, was represented by 17 species (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama, Abramis sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Leuciscus idus, Vimba vimba, Aspius aspius, Pelecus cultratus, Chondrostoma nasus, Ctenopharingodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus. Other families had the following structure: Percidae (16.13% with 5 species (Sander lucioperca, Zingel zingel, Zingel streber, Perca fluviatilis, Gymnocephalus schraetzer, Acipenseridae (12.90% with 4 species (Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Clupeidae (6.45% with two species (Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Siluridae (3.23% with one species (Silurus glanis, Esocidae (3.23% with one species (Esox lucius  and Salmonidae (3.23% with one species also (Salmo labrax. The highest capture was 2977.93 kg (60.65%, during the spring season (April-May, followed by autumn season (September–November, with 992.39 kg (20.21%. The water level and water flow showed high correlation with both number and total catch, respectively.

  13. Relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the French National Nature Reserve of Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Hélène; Buet, Astrid; Ramade, François

    2002-11-01

    The Reserve of Biosphere of Camargue [French National Nature Reserve of Camargue (NNRC)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. To evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. Metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. In addition, the incorporation of xenobiotic molecules in the lipid compartments was investigated. The contents of glycogen, total lipids, proteins and lipidic phosphorus were analyzed in liver and skeletal muscles of three teleostean: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla); the crucian carp (Carassius auratus); and the catfish (Ictalurus melas). The atmospheric origin of the PAH detected in any season in the biomass and the OCs compounds contamination by derive from agricultural treatments are established. In contradiction with some laboratory acute intoxication studies, we observe a positive correlation between tissue concentrations of contaminants and the muscular glycogen amount, a sensitive energy reserve marker. Moreover, it seems likely that the incorporation of these xenobiotics is located preferentially in the membrane structures.

  14. Radioecological studies of [sup 137]Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassium auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki (Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan)); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1994-11-01

    Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in concentration ratio (CR), in whole body of the fish showed a rapid increasing tendency during the rearing, and the CR value reached nearly 1 at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above for 7 days demonstrated a gradual decreasing tendency, and the retention rate resulted in nearly 71% at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera and the gill than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera and the gill is more rapid than that for the muscle. (author).

  15. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

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    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  16. Occurrence of parasites of the genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae in fish caught in Trasimeno lake, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers.

  17. Evaluation of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase activity as a short-term indicator in fish of a harmful exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Blunt, B.R.; Spry, D.J.; Austen, K.

    1977-04-01

    The activity of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) of fish is easily measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus) to lead consistently inhibited ALA-D within 2 wks at concentrations as low as 10, 90, 470, and 90 ..mu..g/l, respectively. In rainbow and brook trout these concentrations were closely related to the published minimum effective concentrations causing sublethal harm. There was a significant linear relationship between ALA-D activity and log of blood lead concentration, between ALA-D activity and log of lead in water, and between blood lead and lead in water. Near lethal exposures to cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury did not significantly inhibit ALA-D activity. Recovery of ALA-D activity of rainbow trout after transfer from 120 ..mu..g/l lead to clean water occurred in 8 wk. This enzyme provides fast, consistent, specific, and sensitive estimates of lead concentrations causing sublethal harm to fish and may help to relate sources of lead to degree of exposure of fish populations in the field.

  18. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and organohalogen pollutants in liver of three freshwater fish species in Flanders (Belgium): relationships with biochemical and organismal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Philippe Tony [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: philippe.hoff@ua.ac.be; Van Campenhout, Karen [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van de Vijver, Kristin [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Antwerp University, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Moens, Lotte [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Huyskens, Geert [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Goemans, Geert [Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Duboislaan 14, B-1560 Groenendaal (Belgium); Belpaire, Claude [Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Duboislaan 14, B-1560 Groenendaal (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2005-09-15

    A perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) assessment was conducted on gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders (Belgium). The liver PFOS concentrations in fish from the Ieperlee canal (Boezinge, 250-9031 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the Blokkersdijk pond (Antwerp, 633-1822 ng/g wet weight) were higher than at the Zuun basin (Sint-Pieters-Leeuw, 11.2-162 ng/g wet weight) and among the highest in feral fish worldwide. Eel from the Oude Maas pond (Dilsen-Stokkem) and Watersportbaan basin (Ghent) had PFOS concentrations ranging between 212 and 857 ng/g wet weight. The hepatic PFOS concentration was significantly and positively related with the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and negatively with the serum protein content in eel and carp. The hepatic PFOS concentration in carp correlated significantly and negatively with the serum electrolyte concentrations whereas a significant positive relation was found with the hematocrit in eel. Although 13 organochlorine pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the liver tissue, only PCB 28, PCB 74, {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were suggested to contribute to the observed serological alterations in eel. - Hepatic perfluorooctane sulfonic acid contamination in Flanders (Belgium) might affect serological endpoints in feral carp and eel.

  19. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1997-07-01

    Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish`s (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the killifish`s raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish`s control raw meat mixed with {sup 137}Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to {sup 137}CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD{sub 280nm} in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that {sup 137}Cs accumulated in the killifish`s meat was shown not to be binding to protein`s composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with {sup 137}Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, {sup 137}Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish`s meat was not almost different from those of each control and {sup 137}CsCl solution. (author)

  20. An annotated distributional checklist of exotic freshwater fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico Lista comentada sobre la distribución de peces dulceacuícolas exóticos de la península de Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We documented the distributional status of 27 exotic fish species in the inland waters of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico, based on voucher specimens collected from 122 sites between 1977 and 2010, and on published records. The species reported here are representatives of genera from the Atlantic drainages of North America (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella, and Micropterus, Middle America (Poecilia, Gambusia, and Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus and Carassius, and Africa (Tilapia and Oreochromis. The family containing the highest number of species is Centrarchidae (7 species followed by Ictaluridae and Poeciliidae (6 species each. Four species were determined to be invasive due to their wide distribution and fast dispersal through the Peninsula (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, Lepomis cyanellus, and Tilapia sp. cf. zillii. We analyze the impacts of exotic species on the native populations of 3 species with problems of conservation: Cyprinodon macularius (endangered, Fundulus lima (endangered, and Gasterosteus aculeatus (vulnerable. Alien fishes have been introduced for a variety of reasons in Mexico: ornament, sport, aquaculture, biological control, and by accident. In some cases fish introductions were carried out for more than one reason.El estatus de la distribución de peces exóticos es documentado para 27 especies en las aguas continentales de la península de Baja California, México, basado en registros de ejemplares recolectados en 122 localidades durante el período de 1977 a 2010, así como registros referidos en la literatura. Las especies aquí reportadas son representativas de géneros que proceden de la vertiente Atlántica de Norteamérica (Ictalurus, Ameiurus, Pylodictis, Morone, Lepomis, Pomoxis, Dorosoma, Cyprinella y Micropterus, Mesoamérica (Poecilia, Gambusia y Xiphophorus, Eurasia (Cyprinus y Carassius y África (Tilapia y Oreochromis. La familia con mayor n

  1. Metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A by fish liver subcellular fractions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mengnan; Cheng, Jie; Wu, Ruohan; Zhang, Shenghu; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2012-06-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two major flame retardants that accumulate in fish tissues and are potentially toxic. Their debrominated and oxidated derivatives were also reported in fish tissues although the sources of theses derivatives were unidentified. Our study was to determine whether PBDEs and TBBPA could be metabolized by fish liver subcellular fractions in vitro and to identify what types of metabolites were formed. Liver microsomes and S9 fractions of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE 15), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) or TBBPA solutions for 4h. Exposure of liver subcellular fractions to BDE 15 resulted in the formation of bromophenol and two monohydroxylated dibromodiphenyl ether metabolites. Neither in microsomes nor in S9 studies has revealed the presence of hydroxylated metabolites with BDE 47 exposure which indicated that the oxidation reactions in vitro were hindered by the increased number of bromine substituents on the PBDEs. TBBPA underwent an oxidative cleavage near the central carbon of the molecule, which led to the production of 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropyl-phenol and three unidentified metabolites. Another metabolite of TBBPA characterized as a hexa-brominated compound with three aromatic rings was also found in the liver subcellular fractions. These results suggest that the biotransformation of BDE 15 and TBBPA in fish liver is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, as revealed by the formation of hydroxylated metabolites and oxidative bond cleavage products. Moreover, further studies on the identification of specific CYP450 isozymes involved in the biotransformation revealed that CYP1A was the major enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of BDE 15 and TBBPA in fish liver subcellular fractions and CYP3A4 also played a major role in metabolism of TBBPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29 ± 0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune

  3. The Mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo belongs to the group of carbamate fungicides and contains Mancozeb (ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate) as its main constituent. The toxicity of Mancozeb to living organisms, particularly fish, is not resolved. This work investigated the effects of 96 h of exposure to 3, 5, or 10 mg L(-1) of Tattoo (corresponding to 0.9, 1.5, or 3 mg L(-1) of Mancozeb) on the levels of oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzyme system of brain, liver, and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus). In liver, Tattoo exposure resulted in increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70%-79%, catalase by 23%-52% and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 49%. The content of protein carbonyls (CP) in liver was also enhanced by 92%-125% indicating extensive damage to proteins. Similar increases in CP levels (by 98%-111%) accompanied by reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (by 13%-15%) was observed in kidney of fish exposed to Tattoo; however, SOD activity increased by 37% in this tissue after treatment with 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo. In brain, a rise in lipid peroxide level (by 29%) took place after exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo and was accompanied by elevation of high-molecular mass thiols (by 14%). Tattoo exposure also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in glutathione reductase activity (by 26%-37%) in brain. The data collectively show that exposure of goldfish to 3-10 mg L(-1) of the carbamate fungicide Tattoo resulted in the development of mild oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant defense systems in goldfish tissues. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  4. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topić Popović, Natalija; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita; Kepec, Slavko; Kazazić, Snježana P.; Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Car, Ivan; Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka

    2015-01-01

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  5. The use of environmental DNA in invasive species surveillance of the Great Lakes commercial bait trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Shaojun; Li, Tangluo; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Xie, Lihua; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp) in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC) and only class IV from their male parent (TC). Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC) and class IV from their male parent (TC). Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC), and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N). The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  7. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  8. Current state of knowledge of the concentration of mercury and other heavy metals in fresh water fish in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancera Rodriguez, Nestor Javier; Alvarez Leon, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water), therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents) in eight species of fresh waters fish: carassius auratus, oreochromis spp., piractus brachypomus, prochilodus magdalenae, astyanax fasciatus, colossoma bidens, gambusia affinis and grundulus bogotensis

  9. Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Javier Mancera-Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  10. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  11. Research on the changes of some physiological parameters in several fish species under the action of the talstar insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PONEPAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Talstar insecticide is labeled for numerous bugs and many other household pests and lawn pests. Bifenthrin is highly toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods. Bifenhrin LC50 values range from 0.0038 to17.8 μg/L and is only slightly toxic to both waterfowl and upland game birds (LD50 values range from 1.800 mg/kg to > 2.150 mg/kg. Bifenthrin had no effect on mollusks at its limit of water solubility. This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations – from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml Talstar/l water on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, number of erythrocytes on fish belonging to three species: prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The acute and subacute toxicity of Talstar insecticide was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. The Tlastar product, under the concentrations from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml/l water, produces, after one week of immersion, a significant decrease of the fish oxygen consumption. The insecticide has changed the fish respiratory rhythm in all investigated concentrations after seven days of exposure. The number of erythrocytes has significantly decrease after seven days of immersion at insecticide concentrations of 0.000625 ml Talstar/l water (bleak and perch and 0.00125 (prussian carp ml Talstar/l water. From the three investigated fish species, the perch proved to be the most sensitive to the action of the toxic substance, followed by the bleak and the prussian carp.

  12. High abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasmanik, M.; Callard, G.V.

    1988-01-01

    Testosterone (T) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. Brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. Experiments were carried out on the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties reflect elevated aromatase. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were assayed with the use of [ 3 H]T and charcoal, Sephadex LH-20, or DNA-cellulose chromatography to separate bound and free steroids. Binding activity was saturable and had an equally high affinity for T and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Although mibolerone was a relatively weak competitor, the putative teleost androgen 11-ketotestosterone, methyltrienolone (R1881), estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were poor ligands. Characteristics that distinguish this receptor from a steroid-binding protein in goldfish serum are the presence of binding activity in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts, a low rate of ligand-receptor dissociation, electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation properties in low vs. high salt, and tissue distribution. DNA cellulose-adhering and nonadhering forms were detected, but these did not differ in other variables measured. Although goldfish androgen receptors resembled those of mammals in all important physicochemical characteristics, they were unusually abundant compared to levels in rat brain, but comparable to levels in prostate and other male sex hormone target organs. Moreover, there were seasonal variations in total receptors, with a peak at spawning (April) 4- to 5-fold higher than values in reproductively inactive fish

  13. Effectiveness of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David; Ribeiro, Filipe; Leunda, Pedro M; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessments are crucial for identifying and mitigating impacts from biological invasions. The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is a risk identification (screening) tool for freshwater fishes consisting of two subject areas: biogeography/history and biology/ecology. According to the outcomes, species can be classified under particular risk categories. The aim of this study was to apply FISK to the Iberian Peninsula, a Mediterranean climate region highly important for freshwater fish conservation due to a high level of endemism. In total, 89 fish species were assessed by three independent assessors. Results from receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that FISK can discriminate reliably between noninvasive and invasive fishes for Iberia, with a threshold of 20.25, similar to those obtained in several regions around the world. Based on mean scores, no species was categorized as "low risk," 50 species as "medium risk," 17 as "moderately high risk," 11 as "high risk," and 11 as "very high risk." The highest scoring species was goldfish Carassius auratus. Mean certainty in response was above the category "mostly certain," ranging from tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwanenfeldii with the lowest certainty to eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki with the highest level. Pair-wise comparison showed significant differences between one assessor and the other two on mean certainty, with these two assessors showing a high coincidence rate for the species categorization. Overall, the results suggest that FISK is a useful and viable tool for assessing risks posed by non-native fish in the Iberian Peninsula and contributes to a "watch list" in this region. © 2013 Crown copyright This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  14. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2014-08-29

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Deriving freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium for the protection of aquatic life in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium(NaSCN) were studied on the basis of the features of the aquaticbiota in China, and with Reference to U.S.EPA's guidelines. Acutetests were performed on twelve different domestic species todetermine 48h-EC50/96h-EC50 (or 96h-LC50) values for NaSCN. 21dsurvival-reproduction test with Daphnia magna, 60d fry-juvenilepart life stage test with Carassius auratus gibelio and 96h growthinhibition test with Lemna minor were also conducted to estimatelower chronic limit/upper chronic limit values. In the acute tests,D.magna was the most sensitive species to NaSCN followed by Tilapiamossambia, Cyprinus carpio and C.auratus gibelio in turn. The finalacute value of NaSCN was 2.699 mg/L. In the chronic tests,reproduction of daphnids were significantly reduced by NaSCN at 1.0mg/L. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 5.96 to 19.1. A finalchronic value of 0.2530 mg/L was obtained and a final plant valuewas 1346 mg/L. A criterion maximum concentration (1.349 mg/L) anda criterion continuous concentration (0.2530 mg/L) were derivedrespectively. The results of this study may provide useful data toderive national WQC for NaSCN as well as the procedures of derivingWQC of other chemicals for the protection of aquatic biota in China.

  16. Expression pattern and developmental behaviour of cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) during folliculogenesis and oogenesis in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Xia; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2005-08-15

    In vertebrates, folliculogeneis establishes an intricate system for somatic cell-oocyte interaction, and ultimately leads to the acquisition of their respective competences. Although the formation process and corresponding interactions are strikingly similar in diverse organisms, knowledge of genes and signaling pathways involved in follicle formation is very incomplete and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain enigmatic. CNBP has been identified for more than ten years, and the highest level of CNBP transcripts has been observed in adult zebrafish ovary, but little is known about its functional significance during folliculogeneis and oogenesis. In this study, we clone CNBP cDNA from gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and demonstrate its predominant expression in gibel carp ovary and testis not only by RT-PCR but also by Western blot. Its full-length cDNA is 1402 bp, and has an ORF of 489 nt for encoding a peptide of 163 aa. And its complete amino acid sequence shared 68.5%-96.8% identity with CNBPs from other vertebrates. Based on the expression characterization, we further analyze its expression pattern and developmental behaviour during folliculogeneis and oogenesis. Following these studies, we reveal an unexpected discovery that the CagCNBP is associated with follicular cells and oocytes, and significant distribution changes have occurred in degenerating and regenerating follicles. More interestingly, the CagCNBP is more highly expressed in some clusters of interconnected cells within ovarian cysts, no matter whether the cell clusters are formed from the original primordial germ cells or from the newly formed cells from follicular cells that invaded into the atretic oocytes. It is the first time to reveal CNBP relevance to folliculogeneis and oogenesis. Moreover, a similar stage-specific and cell-specific expression pattern has also been observed in the gibel carp testis. Therefore, further studies on CNBP expression pattern and developmental

  17. Functions of two distinct prolactin-releasing peptides evolved from a common ancestral gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya eTachibana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP is one of the RF-amide peptides and was originally identified in the bovine hypothalamus as a stimulator of prolactin (PRL release. Independently, another RF-amide peptide was found in Japanese crucian carp and named Carassius RFa (C-RFa, which shows high homology to PrRP and stimulates PRL secretion in teleost fish. Therefore, C-RFa has been recognized as fish PrRP. However, recent work has revealed that PrRP and C-RFa in non-mammalian vertebrates are encoded by separate genes originated through duplication of an ancestral gene. Indeed, both PrRP and C-RFa are suggested to exist in teleost, amphibian, reptile, and avian species. Therefore, we propose that non-mammalian PrRP (C-RFa be renamed PrRP2. Despite a common evolutionary origin, PrRP2 appears to be a physiological regulator of PRL, whereas this is not a consistent role for PrRP itself. Further work revealed that the biological functions of PrRP and PrRP2 are not limited solely to PRL release, because they are also neuromodulators of several hypothalamus-pituitary axes and are involved in some brain circuits related to the regulation of food intake, stress, and cardiovascular functions. However, these actions appear to be different among vertebrates. For example, central injection of PrRP inhibits feeding behavior in rodents and teleosts while it stimulates it in chicks. Therefore, both PrRP and PrRP2 have acquired diverse actions through evolution. In this review, we integrate the burgeoning information of structures, expression profiles, and multiple biological actions of PrRP in higher vertebrates, as well as those of PrRP2 in non-mammals.

  18. Quantifying effects of hydrological and water quality disturbances on fish with food-web modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Shengtian; Xiang, Hua; Sun, Ying; Yang, Zengyuan; Yu, Qiang; Lim, Richard P.

    2018-05-01

    Accurately delineating the effects of hydrological and water quality habitat factors on the aquatic biota will significantly assist the management of water resources and restoration of river ecosystems. However, current models fail to comprehensively consider the effects of multiple habitat factors on the development of fish species. In this study, a dynamic framework for river ecosystems was set up to explore the effects of multiple habitat factors in terms of hydrology and water quality on the fish community in rivers. To achieve this the biomechanical forms of the relationships between hydrology, water quality, and aquatic organisms were determined. The developing processes of the food web without external disturbance were simulated by 208 models, constructed using Ecopath With Ecosim (EWE). These models were then used to analyze changes in biomass (ΔB) of two representative fish species, Opsariichthys bidens and Carassius auratus, which are widely distributed in Asia, and thus have attracted the attention of scholars and stakeholders, due to the consequence of habitat alteration. Results showed that the relationship between the changes in fish biomass and key habitat factors can be expressed in a unified form. T-tests for the unified form revealed that the means of the two data sets of simulated and observed ΔB for these two fish species (O. bidens and C. auratus) were equal at the significance level of 5%. Compared with other ecological dynamic models, our framework includes theories that are easy to understand and has modest requirements for assembly and scientific expertise. Moreover, this framework can objectively assess the influence of hydrological and water quality variance on aquatic biota with simpler theory and little expertise. Therefore, it is easy to be put into practice and can provide a scientific support for decisions in ecological restoration made by river administrators and stakeholders across the world.

  19. [Seasonal changes of fish species composition and diversity in mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xing-huan; Zhang, Heng; Jiang, Ke-yi; Wu, Ming

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the Bay in. March (early spring), May (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2009. A total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, Cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), followed by Gobiidae (8 species, 19.1%). According to the lifestyle of fish, these 41 species could be divided into five ecological types, i.e., freshwater type (21 species), brackish-water type (16 species), inshore type (2 species), anadromous type (Coilia ectenes), and catadromios type (Anguilla japonica). The fish abundance was the highest (54. 5 fish per net) in summer, followed by in spring and autumn, and the lowest (17.7 fish per net) in early spring. In the three habitats, mudflat area and inning area had the similar seasonal change of fish abundance, i.e., the lowest in early spring, the highest in summer, and then decreased in autumn. Only two or three species were the dominant species in different seasons. In mudflat area, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus and Liza carinatus; while in inning and aquaculture areas, the dominant species were Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Pseudorasbora parva. The values of Margalef's richness index (D), Pielou's evenness index (J), and Shannon index (H) were lower in March than in other months, but had no significant differences among May, July, and October (P > 0.05). The H value ranged in 0. 27-2. 13, being the lowest in March and higher in May and October (1.66 and 1.63, respectively). Overall, the fish abundance and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay had apparent seasonal changes.

  20. The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David; Farag, Aida

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km downstream of the source. A total of 7 nonnative species were collected: Convict/Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculata), and American bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Nonnative fish (Zebra Cichlids and Green Swordtails), red-rimmed melania snails, and bullfrog tadpoles dominated the upper 2 km of the system. Abundance estimates of the Zebra Cichlid exceeded 12,000 fish/km immediately downstream of the spring source. Relative abundance of native species increased movingdownstream as water temperatures attenuated with distance from the thermally warmed spring source; however, nonnative species were captured 4 km downstream from the spring. Fish diseases were prevalent in both native and nonnative fish from the Kelly Warm Spring pond. Clinostomum marginatum, a trematode parasite, was found in native species samples, and the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum was present in samples from nonnative species. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is rare in Wyoming. Salmonella spp. were also found in some samples of nonnative species. These bacteria are associated with aquarium fish and aquaculture and are generally not found in the wild.

  1. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Butler

    Full Text Available Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of

  2. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  3. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  4. Distinct sperm nucleus behaviors between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination males are associated with replication and expression-related pathways in a gynogenetic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Jun; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhi; Ding, Miao; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Coexistence and transition of diverse sex determination strategies have been revealed in some ectothermic species, but the variation between males caused by different sex determination strategies and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we used the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with both genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) strategies to illustrate this issue. We found out that males of GSD and TSD in gibel carp had similar morphology, testicular histology, sperm structure and sperm vitality. However, when maternal individuals were mated with males of GSD, sperm nucleus swelling and fusing with the female pronucleus were observed in the fertilized eggs. On the contrary, when maternal individuals were mated with males of TSD, sperm nucleus remained in the condensed status throughout the whole process. Subsequently, semen proteomics analysis unveiled that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways were inhibited in the sperm from males of TSD compared to males of GSD, and most differentially expressed proteins associated with DNA replication, transcription and translation were down-regulated. Moreover, via BrdU incorporation and immunofluorescence detection, male nucleus replication was revealed to be present in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of GSD, but absent in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of TSD. These findings indicate that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways are associated with the distinct sperm nucleus development behaviors in fertilized eggs in response to the sperm from males of GSD and TSD. And this study is the first attempt to screen the differences between males determined via GSD and TSD in gynogenetic species, which might give a hint for understanding evolutionary adaption of diverse sex determination mechanisms in unisexual vertebrates.

  5. Establishment of a novel and highly permissive cell line for the efficient replication of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Jiang, Nan; LaPatra, Scott E; Jin, Ling; Xu, Jin; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Zeng, Lingbing

    2015-06-12

    Haematopoietic necrosis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Currently the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2 in vitro is very difficult due to the lack of permissive cell lines. Studies on the pathogenesis of CyHV-2 have been hampered because the virus has not been extensively characterized. In this study, a novel cell line from the brain of gibel carp, denoted GiCB, has been established and characterized. Sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in the GiCB cell line has been confirmed by virus infection and titration, PCR, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The GiCB cells showed typical cytopathic effect by day 6 post-infection with CyHV-2 including cell shrinkage, rounding, and cell fusion with cytoplasmic vacuolization. The virus titer reached 10(7.5 ± 0.37)TCID₅₀/ml and has been successfully passaged over 50 times in the GiCB cell line. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the complete replication of CyHV-2 in GiCB cells. CyHV-2-infected GiCB cells reacted strongly with polyclonal antibodies against CyHV-2 and CyHV-2 RNA in cells hybridized specifically with the virus RNA probes. Additionally, an experimental infection demonstrated that CyHV-2 produced in GiCB cells caused 100% mortality in gibel carp. All the results provide solid evidence that the GiCB cell line is highly permissive for the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2. This is a significant advancement that will promote additional research on CyHV-2 infection in fish in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Milla, Sylvain; Křišťan, Jiří; Golshan, Mahdi; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, vinclozolin (VZ) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. In aquatic animals, the VZ effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. To understand VZ adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal VZ concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/L) and alternations in gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sperm quality were investigated compared to the solvent control. One group was exposed to E(2) (nominal concentration of 5 μg/L), an estrogenic compound, as a negative control. Following one month exposure, GSI and HSI were unchanged in all VZ treated groups compared to solvent control. Sperm volume, motility and velocity were reduced in fish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ. This was associated with the decrease in 11-KT level, suggesting direct VZ effects on testicular androgenesis and sperm functions. In goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ, 11-KT was increased but E(2) remained unchanged. This is, probably, the main reason for unchanged sperm quality at 100 μg/L VZ. In goldfish exposed to E(2), GSI and 11-KT were decreased, E(2) was increased and no sperm was produced. The present study shows different dose-dependent VZ effects, which lead to impairment in sperm quality via disruption in steroidogenesis. In addition to VZ effects through competitive binding to AR, our data suggests potential effects of VZ by direct inhibition of 11-KT biosynthesis in fish as well as abnormalities in sperm morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topić Popović, Natalija, E-mail: ntopic@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Kepec, Slavko [Virkom d.o.o, Public Water Supply and Wastewater Services, Kralja Petra Krešimira IV 30, Virovitica. Croatia (Croatia); Kazazić, Snježana P. [Laboratory for Chemical Kinetics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, Zagreb (Croatia); Car, Ivan [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka [Croatian Waters, Main Water Management Laboratory, Ul. grada Vukovara 220, Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2015-12-15

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  8. Cyanobacterial effects in Lake Ludoš, Serbia - Is preservation of a degraded aquatic ecosystem justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokodi, Nada; Drobac, Damjana; Meriluoto, Jussi; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Simeunović, Jelica; Dulić, Tamara; Lazić, Gospava; Petrović, Tamaš; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Subakov-Simić, Gordana; Miljanović, Branko; Codd, Geoffrey A; Svirčev, Zorica

    2018-04-20

    Cyanobacteria are present in many aquatic ecosystems in Serbia. Lake Ludoš, a wetland area of international significance and an important habitat for waterbirds, has become the subject of intense research interest because of practically continuous blooming of cyanobacteria. Analyses of water samples indicated a deterioration of ecological condition and water quality, and the presence of toxin-producing cyanobacteria (the most abundant Limnothrix redekei, Pseudanabaena limnetica, Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis spp.). Furthermore, microcystins were detected in plants and animals from the lake: in macrophyte rhizomes (Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia and Nymphaea elegans), and in the muscle, intestines, kidneys, gonads and gills of fish (Carassius gibelio). Moreover, histopathological deleterious effects (liver, kidney, gills and intestines) and DNA damage (liver and gills) were observed in fish. A potential treatment for the reduction of cyanobacterial populations employing hydrogen peroxide was tested during this study. The treatment was not effective in laboratory tests although further in-lake trials are needed to make final conclusions about the applicability of the method. Based on our observations of the cyanobacterial populations and cyanotoxins in the water, as well as other aquatic organisms and, a survey of historical data on Lake Ludoš, it can be concluded that the lake is continuously in a poor ecological state. Conservation of the lake in order to protect the waterbirds (without urgent control of eutrophication) actually endangers them and the rest of the biota in this wetland habitat, and possibly other ecosystems. Thus, urgent measures for restoration are required, so that the preservation of this Ramsar site would be meaningful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence of a predator image in potential breeding sites and oviposition responses of a dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Suradi, Nur Farrahana Binti; Hakim, Hafijah; Abang, Fatimah; Aliasan, Nur Ezzati; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Fadzly, Nik; Vargas, Ronald E Morales; Morales, Noppawan P; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-12-01

    In dengue vector control, attempts to minimize or replace the use of pesticides have mostly involved use of predators, but success has been severely impeded by difficulties associated with financial and environmental costs, predator mass production, and persistence in target habitats. Visual deterrents have been used successfully to control animal pests, in some cases in an effort to replace pesticide use. Despite evidence that visual signals are crucial in site choice for egg deposition by dengue vectors, and that female mosquitoes respond to artificial predation, the role of predator intimidation as it affects the oviposition behavior of dengue vectors remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti exposed to various mosquito predator pictures. Gravid females were presented with equal opportunities to oviposit in two cups with predator images [Toxorhynchites splendens-TXI, Goldfish (Carassius auratus)-small (SFI) and large (LFI) and Tx. splendens+Goldfish-TXFI] and two others without pictures. Differences in egg deposition were examined between sites with and without these images. When given a chance to oviposit in cups with and without TXI, Ae. aegypti females were similarly attracted to both sites. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups displaying pictures of fish (SFI or LFI) and blank cups, egg deposition rates were much lower in the fish picture sites. Females showed a preference for blank cups over TXFI for egg deposition. They also equally avoided cups with pictures of fish, regardless of the size of the picture. Our results indicate that the presence of images of goldfish and their association with Tx. larvae significantly reduced egg deposition by Ae. aegypti, and this was not the case with the predatory larvae alone. The observations that the images of natural predators can repel gravid females of a dengue vector provide novel possibilities to develop effective and inexpensive alternative tools to

  10. Modulation of rhodopsin gene expression and signaling mechanisms evoked by endothelins in goldfish and murine pigment cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.D. Lopes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Endothelins (ETs and sarafotoxins (SRTXs belong to a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, which regulate pigment migration and/or production in vertebrate pigment cells. The teleost Carassius auratus erythrophoroma cell line, GEM-81, and Mus musculus B16 melanocytes express rhodopsin, as well as the ET receptors, ETB and ETA, respectively. Both cell lines are photoresponsive, and respond to light with a decreased proliferation rate. For B16, the doubling time of cells kept in 14-h light (14L:10-h darkness (10D was higher compared to 10L:14D, or to DD. The doubling time of cells kept in 10L:14D was also higher compared to DD. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that SRTX S6c (12-h treatment, 100 pM and 1 nM; 24-h treatment, 1 nM and ET-1 (12-h treatment, 10 and 100 pM; 24- and 48-h treatments, 100 pM increased rhodopsin mRNA levels in GEM-81 and B16 cells, respectively. This modulation involves protein kinase C (PKC and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in GEM-81 cells, and phospholipase C, Ca2+, calmodulin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, and PKC in B16 cells. Cells were kept under constant darkness throughout the gene expression experiments. These results show that rhodopsin mRNA levels can be modulated by SRTXs/ETs in vertebrate pigment cells. It is possible that SRTX S6c binding to the ETB receptors in GEM-81 cells, and ET-1 binding to ETA receptors in B16 melanocytes, although activating diverse intracellular signaling mechanisms, mobilize transcription factors such as c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, and neural retina leucine zipper protein. These activated transcription factors may be involved in the positive regulation of rhodopsin mRNA levels in these cell lines.

  11. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-04-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC{sub 50} and 96-h LC{sub 50} values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China.

  12. An integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Qingdao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Gong

    Full Text Available Various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. In this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index to evaluate the estrogenic activities in outlets from different stages of the leachate treatment process. The results indicated that 5 environmental estrogens (4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentrations in leachate samples were 6153 ng/L, 3642 ng/L, 2139 ng/L, 5900 ng/L, and 9422 ng/L, respectively. Leachate (1∶200 diluted induced the synthesis of plasma vitellogenin and led to decreased enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and gonadosomatic index in male goldfish (Carassius auratus after a 28-day exposure, while increased circulating 17β-estradiol level was also observed in males exposed to treated effluent. Although the target EEs were partially removed with removal rates varying from 87.2% to 99.77% by the "membrane bioreactor+reverse osmosis+aeration zeolite biofilter" treatment process, the treated effluent is still estrogenic to fish. The method combined chemical techniques with the responses of test organisms allowing us to identify the group of estrogen-like chemicals so that we were able to evaluate the overall estrogenic effects of a complex mixture, avoiding false negative assessments.

  13. Cytotoxicity of cuprous oxide nanoparticles to fish blood cells: hemolysis and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liqiang, E-mail: chenlq@ynu.edu.cn; Kang Bin [Yunnan University, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-security (China); Ling Jian [Yunnan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-03-15

    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties which are employed in a broad variety of applications. However, little is known about the adverse effects of Cu{sub 2}O NPs on organisms. In the current study, in vitro cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs (ca. 60 nm in diameter) to the blood cells of freshwater fish Carassius auratus was evaluated. A concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs to red blood cells (RBCs) and the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes were revealed. The results showed that dosages of Cu{sub 2}O NPs greater than 40 {mu}g/mL were toxic to blood cells, and could cause serious membrane damage to RBCs. The EC{sub 50} value of Cu{sub 2}O NPs as obtained from RBCs and whole blood exposure was 26 and 63 {mu}g/mL, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the direct interaction between Cu{sub 2}O NPs and the cell membrane were suggested as the possible mechanism for cytotoxicity, and the intrinsic hemolytic active of Cu{sub 2}O NPs was the main contributor to the toxicity rather than solubilized copper ions. The adsorption of plasma proteins on the surfaces of Cu{sub 2}O NPs led to their aggregation in whole blood, and aggregate formation can significantly alleviate the hemolytic effect and subsequently mediate the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes.

  14. Diplomonad flagellates of some ornamental fish cultured in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonkob Viriyapongsutee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on diplomonad flagellates infection in some ornamental fishes in the family cichlidae i.e., angelfish(Pterophyllum scalare, oscar (Astronotus ocellatus, blue mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and the family osphronemidaei.e., Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens revealed that this parasite infected three out of four ornamental fish species,angelfish, oscar and blue mbuna. The highest infection was recorded in angelfish (90% followed by oscar (75.4% and bluembuna (61%, respectively. Identification of diplomonad flagellates from angelfish by means of morphological studies underlight and electron microscopes indicated that the parasite was Spironucleus vortens. The 14–days LD50 of S. vortens inangelfish was 2.99x103 cells. Histopathological changes of infected angelfish revealed granulomatous liver, numerousnumbers of melanomacrophage in the spleen and inflammation of the intestine. Susceptibility study of S. vortens to goldfish(Carassius auratus, guppy (Poecilia reticulata and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus indicated that they were resistant toartificial infection. In vitro examination of the growth inhibition assay of S. vortens indicated that dimetridazole and metronidazolewere effective in inhibiting parasite growth after 48 hrs exposure at concentrations of >4.0 μg/ml and >6.0 μg/ml,respectively. Magnesium sulfate at a concentration of >60 mg/ml inhibited the parasite growth after 72 hrs exposure. In vivoexamination of the dimetridazole efficiency on S. vortens infection indicated that dimetridazole at 4.0 μg/ml provided thehighest efficiency which could be used for treatment of spironucleosis in angelfish.

  15. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  16. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN A SMALL RIVER FLOWING WITHIN A BAR PLAIN OF THE DNIPRO RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abramiuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using as an example of a small river, which flows through a bar plain of the Dnipro, to study species composition of the littoral ichthyoplankton, dynamics of its structure during the season and its diversity in different parts of the river. Methodology. The littoral ichthyoplankton was investigated during four seasons of 2011-2014 on the Vita river, a right tributary of the Dnipro affected by the operation of Kaniv HPP. The research covered the main channel, a permanent backwater connected with the channel, as well as temporarily flooded areas of the floodplain and separated from the channel oxbow lakes. Samples were collected with standard sweep nets and Bagenal buoyant nets. Identification of young fish was carried out under binocular microscope MBS-9. Early life stages of larvae were determined according to the system of V. Vasnetsov. Species diversity of ichthyoplankton was assessed by the Shannon index. Findings. The littoral ichthyoplankton during May-July mostly consisted of limnophilic fish larvae belonging to a family Cyprinidae. In the river channel and the backwater at the beginning of the period the larvae of roach (Rutilus rutilus prevailed, later they were substituted by larvae of more thermophilic species, among which the rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus was the most abundant. In the oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded areas in spring the coastal ichthyoplankton was mainly structured by larvae of Carassius sp. and the rudd, in summer the larvae assemblages of oxbow lakes were quantitatively dominated by the sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus. In areas covered with vegetation the larvae of invasive Chinese sleeper (Perccottus glenii were firstly found. Rheophilic species among young fish were absent, which indicates unfavorable conditions for their spawning at present hydrologic regime of the river. Originality. For the first time the coastal communities of early young fish in a small tributary of the Dnipro were

  17. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Jørgensen, A.G.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 in water and 210 Pb and 210 Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210 Pb and 210 Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210 Po was higher than for 210 Pb, and the accumulation of 210 Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg −1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210 Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg −1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210 Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210 Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210 Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10 5 , >2.5 × 10 4 and >1.4 × 10 4 , respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210 Po in liver and δ 15 N could indicate biomagnification of 210 Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210 Po, the concentration of 210 Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  18. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide, blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers. Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC, as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP. The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide. There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing. The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes. Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors. Practical value. The modifications of composite

  19. Art, fisheries and ethnobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Caires, Rodrigo

    2015-02-23

    Nature is perceived in a variety of forms, and the perception of nature can also be expressed in different ways. Local art may represent the perception of nature by humans. It can embody perception, imagination and wisdom. Local art, in particular, reflects how people interact with nature. For example, when studying the representation of fish by different cultures, it is possible to access information on the fish species found in the environment, on its relative importance, and on historical events, among others. In this context, art can be used to obtain information on historical events, species abundance, ecology, and behaviour, for example. It can also serve to compare baselines by examining temporal and spatial scales. This study aims to analyse art and nature from a human ecological perspective: art can understood as an indicator of fish abundance or salience. Art has a variety of dimensions and perspectives. Art can also be associated with conservation ecology, being useful to reinterpret ecological baselines. A variety of paintings on fish, as well as paintings from local art, are explored in this study. They are analyzed as representing important fish, spatially and historically. A survey regarding the fish found in different paintings was conducted using art books and museum books. Pictures were taken by visiting museums, particularly for local or traditional art (Australia and Cape Town). The fish illustrated here seem to be commonly important in terms of salience. For example, Coryphaena spp. is abundant in Greece, Nile tilapia in Egypt, Gadus morhua in the Netherlands, as well as barracuda in Australia; salience is also applied to useful, noticeable or beautiful organisms, such as Carassius auratus (China). Another aspect of salience, the diversity of a group, is also represented by the panel where Uraspis uraspis appears to be depicted. Regarding the evaluation of baselines, we should consider that art may represent abundant fish in certain historic

  20. Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihai; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yiyi; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-08-08

    The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution. The diploid hybrid 2nF 1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF 1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF 1 . We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of

  1. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jessica S.; Schlenoff, Joseph B.; Keller, Thomas C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  2. Subcellular differences in handling Cu excess in three freshwater fish species contributes greatly to their differences in sensitivity to Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, Marleen; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Since changes in metal distribution among tissues and subcellular fractions can provide insights in metal toxicity and tolerance, we investigated this partitioning of Cu in gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). These fish species are known to differ in their sensitivity to Cu exposure with gibel carp being the most tolerant and rainbow trout the most sensitive. After an exposure to 50 μg/l (0.79 μM) Cu for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month, gills and liver of control and exposed fish were submitted to a differential centrifugation procedure. Interestingly, there was a difference in accumulated Cu in the three fish species, even in control fishes. Where the liver of rainbow trout showed extremely high Cu concentrations under control conditions, the amount of Cu accumulated in their gills was much less than in common and gibel carp. At the subcellular level, the gills of rainbow trout appeared to distribute the additional Cu exclusively in the biologically active metal pool (BAM; contains heat-denaturable fraction and organelle fraction). A similar response could be seen in gill tissue of common carp, although the percentage of Cu in the BAM of common carp was lower compared to rainbow trout. Gill tissue of gibel carp accumulated more Cu in the biologically inactive metal pool (BIM compared to BAM; contains heat-stable fraction and metal-rich granule fraction). The liver of rainbow trout seemed much more adequate in handling the excess Cu (compared to its gills), since the storage of Cu in the BIM increased. Furthermore, the high % of Cu in the metal-rich granule fraction and heat-stable fraction in the liver of common carp and especially gibel carp together with the better Cu handling in gill tissue, pointed out the ability of the carp species to minimize the disadvantages related to Cu stress. The differences in Cu distribution at the subcellular level of gills and

  3. Subcellular differences in handling Cu excess in three freshwater fish species contributes greatly to their differences in sensitivity to Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Marleen, E-mail: marleen.eyckmans@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Since changes in metal distribution among tissues and subcellular fractions can provide insights in metal toxicity and tolerance, we investigated this partitioning of Cu in gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). These fish species are known to differ in their sensitivity to Cu exposure with gibel carp being the most tolerant and rainbow trout the most sensitive. After an exposure to 50 {mu}g/l (0.79 {mu}M) Cu for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month, gills and liver of control and exposed fish were submitted to a differential centrifugation procedure. Interestingly, there was a difference in accumulated Cu in the three fish species, even in control fishes. Where the liver of rainbow trout showed extremely high Cu concentrations under control conditions, the amount of Cu accumulated in their gills was much less than in common and gibel carp. At the subcellular level, the gills of rainbow trout appeared to distribute the additional Cu exclusively in the biologically active metal pool (BAM; contains heat-denaturable fraction and organelle fraction). A similar response could be seen in gill tissue of common carp, although the percentage of Cu in the BAM of common carp was lower compared to rainbow trout. Gill tissue of gibel carp accumulated more Cu in the biologically inactive metal pool (BIM compared to BAM; contains heat-stable fraction and metal-rich granule fraction). The liver of rainbow trout seemed much more adequate in handling the excess Cu (compared to its gills), since the storage of Cu in the BIM increased. Furthermore, the high % of Cu in the metal-rich granule fraction and heat-stable fraction in the liver of common carp and especially gibel carp together with the better Cu handling in gill tissue, pointed out the ability of the carp species to minimize the disadvantages related to Cu stress. The differences in Cu distribution at the subcellular level of gills

  4. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jessica S. [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Schlenoff, Joseph B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Keller, Thomas C.S., E-mail: tkeller@bio.fsu.edu [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  5. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  6. Isolation and characterisation of mRNA encoding the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, M C; Williams, M A; Sumpter, J P; Rand-Weaver, M; Hoole, D; Arme, C

    1997-12-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7,Leu8]-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (salmon-type GnRH; sGnRH:GeneBank accession no. u60667) and the [His5,Trp7,Tyr8]-GnRH (chicken-II-type GnRH; cGnRH-II: GeneBank accession no. u60668) precursor in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) were isolated and sequenced following reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs consisted of 439 and 628 bp, and included open reading frames of 282 and 255 bp respectively. The structures of the encoded peptides were the same as GnRHs previously identified in other vertebrates. The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs, including the non-coding regions, had 88.6 and 79.9% identity respectively, to those identified in goldfish (Carassius auratus). However, significant similarity was not observed between the non-coding regions of the GnRH cDNAs of Cyprinidae and other fish. The presumed third exon, encoding partial sGnRH associated peptide (GAP) of roach, demonstrated significant nucleotide and amino acid similarity with the appropriate regions in the goldfish, but not with other species, and this may indicate functional differences of GAP between different families of fish. cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs from roach had relatively high nucleotide similarity across this GnRH variant. Cladistic analysis classified the sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs into three and two groups respectively. However, the divergence between nucleotide sequences within the sGnRH variant was greater than those encoding the cGnRH-II precursors. Consistent with the consensus developed from previous studies, Northern blot analysis demonstrated that expression of sGnRH and cGnRH-II was restricted to the olfactory bulbs and midbrain of roach respectively. This work forms the basis for further study on the mechanisms by which the tapeworm, Ligula intestinalis, interacts with the pituitary-gonadal axis of its fish host.

  7. THE STATE OF ICHTHYOFAUNA IN THE BAY OF THE KIEV RESERVOIR EXPLOITED UNDER THE REGIME OF THE COMMODITY FISH FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Buzevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Assessment of the number, stock, and major biological indices of the representatives of commercial ichthyofauna in the liman commodity fish farm created on the Kуiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based on the ichthyologic material obtained from gill net catches with mesh size of 30-120 mm during the summer period of 2013. Data collection and processing were performed according to generally accepted methods. In total, catches of 169 net-days of control nets were analyzed, of which 3426 fish were collected. Quantitative parameters were assessed based on empirical relationships «number – catch-per-unit-effort of gill nets». Findings. Fifteen representatives of commercial ichthyofauna were observed in the bay, which is a cut-off part of the Kуiv reservoir. The majority in small mesh size nets were silver bream Blicca bjoerkna (45.5% in number and Prussian carp Carassius gibelio (24.6%. In large mesh size nets, 65.8% of catches in number and 86.1% by weight composed the introduced species – silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead (Aristichthys nobilis, and common carps (Cyprinus carpio. The native fish fauna of the bay was characterized by sufficiently high portion of commercially valuable fish species that indicates on a possibility for organizing an intensive harvest of the formed stock of the introduced species with high degree of selectivity. Length-weight indices of major commercial species are on the level, which is sufficient for normal fish productivity. Total commercial stocks of native ichthyofauna in the liman is 146 kg/ha that is three times higher than this value for the Kiev reservoir. Originality. For the first time, we performed a complex assessment of the ichthyofauna in the bay of a large reservoir, which for a long time has been used for stocking and intensive fish harvest. Practical value. Sound fish ranching has been shown to provide the stability of structural functional indices of the native

  8. Distinct herpesvirus resistances and immune responses of three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp revealed by comprehensive transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan-Xiang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Mou, Cheng-Yan; Li, Zhi; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-07-24

    Gibel carp is an important aquaculture species in China, and a herpesvirus, called as Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV), has hampered the aquaculture development. Diverse gynogenetic clones of gibel carp have been identified or created, and some of them have been used as aquaculture varieties, but their resistances to herpesvirus and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. To reveal their susceptibility differences, we firstly performed herpesvirus challenge experiments in three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp, including the leading variety clone A + , candidate variety clone F and wild clone H. Three clones showed distinct resistances to CaHV. Moreover, 8772, 8679 and 10,982 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) were identified from comparative transcriptomes between diseased individuals and control individuals of clone A + , F and H, respectively. Comprehensive analysis of the shared DEUs in all three clones displayed common defense pathways to the herpesvirus infection, activating IFN system and suppressing complements. KEGG pathway analysis of specifically changed DEUs in respective clones revealed distinct immune responses to the herpesvirus infection. The DEU numbers identified from clone H in KEGG immune-related pathways, such as "chemokine signaling pathway", "Toll-like receptor signaling pathway" and others, were remarkably much more than those from clone A + and F. Several IFN-related genes, including Mx1, viperin, PKR and others, showed higher increases in the resistant clone H than that in the others. IFNphi3, IFI44-like and Gig2 displayed the highest expression in clone F and IRF1 uniquely increased in susceptible clone A + . In contrast to strong immune defense in resistant clone H, susceptible clone A + showed remarkable up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis or death, indicating that clone A + failed to resist virus offensive and evidently induced apoptosis or death. Our study is the first attempt to screen distinct resistances and

  9. Differential tissue distribution, developmental programming, estrogen regulation and promoter characteristics of cyp19 genes in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, G V; Tchoudakova, A V; Kishida, M; Wood, E

    2001-12-01

    Teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of brain estrogen biosynthesis when compared to the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) have utility as complementary models for understanding the molecular basis and functional significance of exaggerated neural estrogen biosynthesis. Multiple cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) cDNAs that derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (P450aromB>A) and ovary (P450aromA>B) and have a different developmental program (B>A) and response to estrogen upregulation (B only). As measured by increased P450aromB mRNA, a functional estrogen response system is first detected 24-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), consistent with the onset of estrogen receptor (ER) expression (alpha, beta, and gamma). The 5'-flanking region of the cyp19b gene has a TATA box, two estrogen response elements (EREs), an ERE half-site (ERE1/2), a nerve growth factor inducible-B protein (NGFI-B)/Nur77 responsive element (NBRE) binding site, and a sequence identical to the zebrafish GATA-2 gene neural specific enhancer. The cyp19a promoter region has TATA and CAAT boxes, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site, and two aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator factor (ARNT) binding motifs. Both genes have multiple potential SRY/SOX binding sites (16 and 8 in cyp19b and cyp19a, respectively). Luciferase reporters have basal promoter activity in GH3 cells, but differences (a>b) are opposite to fish pituitary (b>a). When microinjected into fertilized zebrafish eggs, a cyp19b promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter (but not cyp19a) is expressed in neurons of 30-48 hpf embryos, most prominently in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their projections to optic tectum. Further studies are required to identify functionally relevant cis-elements and cellular factors, and to determine the

  10. Promoter characteristics of two cyp19 genes differentially expressed in the brain and ovary of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudakova, A; Kishida, M; Wood, E; Callard, G V

    2001-11-01

    Teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of neural estrogen biosynthesis when compared with the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. Two P450arom mRNAs which derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (b>a) and ovary (a>b) and have a different developmental program (b>a) and estrogen upregulation (b only). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genomic walking strategy was used to isolate the 5'-flanking regions of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) cyp19 genes. Sequence analysis of the cyp19b gene approximately 1.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site revealed a TATA box at nucleotide (nt) -30, two estrogen responsive elements (EREs; nt -351 and -211) and a consensus binding site (NBRE) for nerve growth factor inducible-B protein (NGFI-B/Nur77) at -286, which includes another ERE half-site. Also present were a sequence at nt -399 (CCCTCCT) required for neural specificity of the zebrafish GATA-2 gene, and 16 copies of an SRY/SOX binding motif. The 5'-flanking region ( approximately 1.0 kb) of the cyp19a gene had TATA (nt -48) and CAAT (nt -71) boxes, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site (nt -265), eight copies of the SRY/SOX motif, and two copies of a recognition site for binding the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator factor (ARNT) heterodimer. Both genes had elements previously identified in the brain specific exon I promoter of the mouse aromatase gene. Cyp19a- and -b/luciferase constructs showed basal promoter activity in aromatase-expressing rodent pituitary (GH3) cells, but differences (a>b) did not reflect expression in fish pituitary in vivo (b>a), implying a lack of appropriate cell factors. Consistent with the onset of cyp19b expression in zebrafish embryos, microinjection of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmid into fertilized eggs revealed labeling in neural tissues at 30-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), most

  11. Influence of submarine groundwater discharge on "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb bioaccumulation in fish tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Orellana, J.; López-Castillo, E.; Casacuberta, N.; Rodellas, V.; Masqué, P.; Carmona-Catot, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of the accumulation of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in fish tissues and organs in a brackish-water marshland that is characterized by high concentrations of "2"2"2Rn and "2"2"6Ra supplied by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Tissues and organs from Cyprinus carpio, Chelon labrosus and Carassius auratus in the wetland were significantly enriched by both "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po (up to 55 and 66 times, respectively) compared to blanks. The major input route of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po into the fish body seems to be through ingestion, due to the high levels of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po found in the gut content as well as in organs involved in digestion and metabolism (i.e. gut, kidney and hepatopancreas). Results showed that "2"1"0Po was more accumulated in all fish tissues and organs except for the spine, which showed a higher affinity for "2"1"0Pb, due to its capacity to replace Ca from apatite in bones. Over all the variables analyzed, fish tissues/organs and, secondarily, fish species were the most important factors explaining the concentration of radionuclides, whereas fish length and the sampling location played a minor role. The relationship of the two radionuclides varied markedly among tissues and their concentration levels were only correlated in gills, gut and, marginally, in spines. In general, the highest values of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po concentrations in tissues were found on C. labrosus tissues rather C. auratus and C. carpio. This study demonstrates that inputs of natural radionuclides supplied by SGD to coastal semi-enclosed areas (such as marshlands, lagoons or ponds) may significantly increase the contents of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po in fish tissues/organs. Thus, this study represents one of the first evidences of direct ecological effects derived from SGD. - Highlights: • Fish tissues showed high concentrations of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po. • Ingestion pointed to be the major input route of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po into the fish.

  12. THE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS SECRETIONS OF CYPRINIDAE FISH ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gulay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of cutaneous secretions of Cyprinidae fish on the populations of pathogenic bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Methodology. Pieces of filter paper were placed on the skin of live fish. After a 1 min. exposure, they were removed and placed in glass tubes for the extraction of water-soluble components. Tap water was used as a solvent (previously settled for 48 hours; 0,1 cm3 of water were needed for 1 cm2 area of the filter paper. After extraction, the aqueous solution of fish cutaneous secretions was sterilized by filtering it through filters with pore diameter <0,2 µm. The test was carried out with cultures of E. rhusiopathiae bacteria, which were incubated on heart-brain broth at a temperature of +36,7 ± 0,3 °С for 48-hours. After adding the sterilized tap water and cultures of E. rhusiopathiae bacteria, test samples contained fish cutaneous secretions at following ratios: 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000, 1:10000. As a control, sterilized tap water and E. rhusiopathiae bacteria at ratios similar to test samples were used. In 48 hours, samples were taken from the specimens cultured at a temperature of +18...+20 °С for determination of cell density in E. rhusiopathiae populations. Findings. Aquatic environment, which contains the secretions of skin glands of certain Cyprinidae species, creates favorable conditions for the reproduction and increase in the density of pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae populations. In the conditions of freshwater ecosystems, direct topical biocenotical and trophic relations may be created between pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae bacteria and the studied fish species (рrussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio and wild carp Cyprinus. Originality. For the first time we obtained the quantitative data that demonstrate a stimulating effect of cutaneous secretions of certain fish species on pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae populations. Practical value. The stimulating effect of cutaneous secretions of some

  13. Structural and functional effects of acoustic exposure in goldfish: evidence for tonotopy in the teleost saccule

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    Gilley Ronald R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian and avian auditory hair cells display tonotopic mapping of frequency along the length of the cochlea and basilar papilla. It is not known whether the auditory hair cells of fishes possess a similar tonotopic organization in the saccule, which is thought to be the primary auditory receptor in teleosts. To investigate this question, we determined the location of hair cell damage in the saccules of goldfish (Carassius auratus following exposure to specific frequencies. Subjects were divided into six groups of six fish each (five treatment groups plus control. The treatment groups were each exposed to one of five tones: 100, 400, 800, 2000, and 4000 Hz at 176 dB re 1 μPa root mean squared (RMS for 48 hours. The saccules of each fish were dissected and labeled with phalloidin in order to visualize hair cell bundles. The hair cell bundles were counted at 19 specific locations in each saccule to determine the extent and location of hair cell damage. In addition to quantification of anatomical injury, hearing tests (using auditory evoked potentials were performed on each fish immediately following sound exposure. Threshold shifts were calculated by subtracting control thresholds from post-sound exposure thresholds. Results All sound-exposed fish exhibited significant hair cell and hearing loss following sound exposure. The location of hair cell loss varied along the length of the saccule in a graded manner with the frequency of sound exposure, with lower and higher frequencies damaging the more caudal and rostral regions of the saccule, respectively. Similarly, fish exposed to lower frequency tones exhibited greater threshold shifts at lower frequencies, while high-frequency tone exposure led to hearing loss at higher frequencies. In general, both hair cell and hearing loss declined as a function of increasing frequency of exposure tone, and there was a significant linear relationship between hair cell loss and hearing

  14. Marmara gölü balık faunası ve balıkçılık faaliyetleri.

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    Ali İlhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Mart 2012-Şubat 2013 tarihleri arasında Marmara Gölü balık faunasının ve göldeki balıkçılık faaliyetlerinin günümüzdeki durumunu ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Balık örneklemeleri, gölün doğu, orta ve batı kesiminde belirlenen 3 farklı istasyonda gerçekleştirilmiştir. Balık avcılığında, fanyalı ve fanyasız ağlar ile kerevit pinterleri kullanılmıştır. Söz konusu ağ ve pinterlerin suda kalma süreleri mevsimsel şartlara göre küçük değişiklikler gösterse de yaklaşık olarak 12 saattir. İstasyonlar arası homojeniteyi sağlamak amacıyla her istasyonda aynı özellikteki ağlar ve pinterler kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca, kıyısal bölgede küçük boylu türlerin ve diğer türlerin juvenillerinin yakalanması için tül ığrıp kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda gölde Atherinidae, Cyprinidae, Cobitidae, Percidae, Poecilidae ve Gobiidae familyalarına ait 15 takson tespit edilmiştir. Gölün son on yıllık balıkçılık verileri incelendiğinde en önemli ticari türün Sazan (Cyprinus carpio olduğu, bunu sudak (Sander lucioperca, yayın (Silurus glanis ve tatlısu kolyozu (Alburnus battalgilae’nun izlediği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, her ne kadar ticari değeri diğerleri kadar yüksek olmasa da üretim miktarı açısından gümüşi havuz balığı (Carassius gibelio’nın da gölde önemli derecede yer aldığı saptanmıştır